Sample records for net generation converted

  1. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James M. (Livermore, CA); Leighton, James F. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  2. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  3. Catalytic converter with thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique design of an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) and the inclusion of an ECO valve in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine will meet the strict new emission requirements, especially at vehicle cold start, adopted by several states in this country as well as in Europe and Japan. The catalytic converter (CC) has been a most useful tool in pollution abatement for the automobile. But the emission requirements are becoming more stringent and, along with other improvements, the CC must be improved to meet these new standards. Coupled with the ECO valve, the EHC can meet these new emission limits. In an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV), approximately 80% of the energy consumed leaves the vehicle as waste heat: out the tail pipe, through the radiator, or convected/radiated off the engine. Included with the waste heat out the tail pipe are the products of combustion which must meet strict emission requirements. The design of a new CC is presented here. This is an automobile CC that has the capability of producing electrical power and reducing the quantity of emissions at vehicle cold start, the Thermoelectric Catalytic Power Generator. The CC utilizes the energy of the exothermic reactions that take place in the catalysis substrate to produce electrical energy with a thermoelectric generator. On vehicle cold start, the thermoelectric generator is used as a heat pump to heat the catalyst substrate to reduce the time to catalyst light-off. Thus an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) will be used to augment the abatement of tail pipe emissions. Included with the EHC in the exhaust stream of the automobile is the ECO valve. This valve restricts the flow of pollutants out the tail pipe of the vehicle for a specified amount of time until the EHC comes up to operating temperature. Then the ECO valve opens and allows the full exhaust, now treated by the EHC, to leave the vehicle.

  4. World Net Nuclear Electric Power Generation, 1980-2007 - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    U.S. Energy Information ... World Net Nuclear Electric ... Dataset Activity Stream World Net Nuclear Electric Power Generation, 1980-2007 International data showing world net...

  5. Generating Code Structures for Petri NetBased Agent Interaction Protocols Using Net Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburg.Universit�¤t

    Generating Code Structures for Petri Net­Based Agent Interaction Protocols Using Net Components@informatik.uni­hamburg.de July 31, 2003 Abstract In this paper we introduce a straight forward approach for generating Petri Net of net components which provide basic tasks and the structure for Petri Nets. Agent interaction protocol

  6. Generating Code Structures for Petri Net-Based Agent Interaction Protocols Using Net Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburg.Universit�¤t

    Generating Code Structures for Petri Net-Based Agent Interaction Protocols Using Net Components@informatik.uni-hamburg.de March 31, 2004 Abstract In this paper we introduce a straight forward approach for generating Petri Net of net components which provide basic tasks and the structure for Petri Nets. Agent interaction protocol

  7. Harmonic measurements from a group connected generator HVdc converter scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macdonald, S.J.; Enright, W.; Arrillaga, J. [Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)] [Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand); O`Brien, M.T.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent CIGRE document published in ELECTRA has described the potential benefits of a direct connection of generators to HVdc converters. While many theoretical contributions have been made, no practical test data has become available so far. This paper reports on harmonic tests carried out at the Benmore end of the New Zealand HVdc link operating as a group connected scheme. It was found that the measured harmonic current levels were well below specified generator ratings. Dynamic simulation accurately predicted the harmonic currents whereas the results of a steady state formulation were less reliable.

  8. Net energy ratio of photobiohydrogen generation G. Burgessa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Net energy ratio of photobiohydrogen generation G. Burgessa and J.G. Fernández the energy content, the operational energy inputs, and the net energy ratio (NER) of an industrial tubular photobioreactor used for the photosynthetic production of H2 by microalgae. The calculated H2 output

  9. TEC as electric generator in an automobile catalytic converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svensson, R. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Holmlid, L. [Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern cars use more and more electric power due to more on-board electric systems, e.g., ABS brakes, active suspension systems, electric windows, chair adjustment systems and electronic engine control systems. One possible energy source for electricity generation is to use the waste heat from the car`s engine, which generally is as much as 80% of the total energy from the combustion of the gasoline. Maybe the best location to tap the excess heat is the Catalytic Converter (Cat) in the exhaust system or perhaps at the exhaust pipes close to the engine. The Cat must be kept within a certain temperature interval. Large amounts of heat are dissipated through the wall of the Cat. A Thermionic Energy Converter (TEC) in coaxial form could conveniently be located around the ceramic cartridge of the Cat. Since the TEC is a rather good heat insulator before it reaches its working temperature the Cat will reach working temperature faster, and the final temperature of it can be controlled better when encapsulated in a concentric TEC arrangement. It is also possible to regulate the temperature of the Cat and the TEC by controlling the electrical load of the TEC. The possible working temperatures of present and future Cats appear very suitable for the new low work function collector TEC, which has been demonstrated to work down to 470 K.

  10. Predictive Power Control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator for Wave Energy Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Predictive Power Control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator for Wave Energy Converters M.S. Lagoun1. There are several wave energy converters to harness this energy. Some of them, as in tidal applications, use of a DFIG-based Wave Energy Converter (WEC). In the proposed control approach, the predicted output power

  11. A Predictive power control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator for Wave Energy Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    A Predictive power control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator for Wave Energy Converter in Irregular there are several wave energy converters to harness this energy. Some of them, as in tidal applications, use based Wave Energy Converter under irregular wave climate which is modeled as time series elevation from

  12. Solar energy power generators with advanced thermionic converters for spacecraft applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahin, S.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents (1) a 50 kW/sub e/ solar energy generator in a geostationary orbit for direct tv-broadcasting and (2) a 10 GW/sub e/ space power plant, with the basic engineering outlines using an advanced thermionic converter proposal given for each. Further, a comparison of the main technical data for the generators with corresponding energy output using (1) advanced thermionic converter and (2) ordinary thermionic converter without auxiliary emitter is shown. 25 refs.

  13. Direct connection of series self-excited generators and HVDC converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arrillaga, J.; Macdonald, S.J.; Watson, N.R.; Watson, S. (Univ. Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand))

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative and simpler solution is proposed for the direct connection of generators to HVdc converters. The generator exciter windings are connected in series with the output of the HVdc converter and take the place of the conventional smoothing reactor. Existing steady state and time domain simulation programs are modified to represent the behavior of the series direct connection scheme. It is shown that series excitation extends naturally the power transmission capability and permits fast fault clearances.

  14. Maximal energy that can be converted by a dielectric elastomer generator Soo Jin Adrian Koh,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    generators have been designed to harvest energy from walking,5,6 ocean waves,7 wind, and combustion.8Maximal energy that can be converted by a dielectric elastomer generator Soo Jin Adrian Koh,1 2009 Mechanical energy can be converted to electrical energy by using a dielectric elastomer generator

  15. Application of wave generator theory to the development of a Wave Energy Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    of the second buoy's curved face. Upon deployment, the WEC successfully logged the power output of the system a wave energy converter (WEC) capable of providing at least a quarter-Watt of power to a small aquatic and basic wave generation technology to improving the power capture design of a basic direct drive WEC

  16. Control influence on the electromagnetic generator pre-design for a wave energy converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) concept studied within the context of the SEAREV project [1]. Power takeoff (PTO: the generator) behavior on a pendulum set in a closed buoy actuated by the swell through excitation forces [2] (see Fig. 1 coupled to a load via an electronic power converter), which recovers a portion of its kinetic energy

  17. Converter fed synchronous generator system for medium and large power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammann, C.; Reichert, K.; Joho, R.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Converter fed synchronous generators have the following advantages: The turbine can operate at any speed, independent of the frequency of the power system, the part load efficiency may be improved if the speed can be adjusted. The generator is protected and isolated. The stability is improved. This scheme is applicable to hydro, steam and wind generation. The paper gives details on a converter fed 650 MW unit with steam turbine having a synchronous generator with two 3-phase windings at 30/sup 0/ to each other which directly feeds a 12-pulse HVDC link. The usual converter transformer, var-compensators and current harmonics filters on the generator side are eliminated. The study shows the advantages and disadvantages of the system. The system stability is considerably improved compared to the conventional design. As the steam turbine can be operated only with constant speed, the improvements in the efficiency of the thermal system are limited. A cost reduction can be achieved only with a higher turbine speed. Details are given on the total system losses and the total system costs in comparison to the conventional design.

  18. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer���¢��������s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  19. New approaches for the reduction of plasma arc drop in second-generation thermionic converters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatziprokopiou, M.E.; Shaw, D.T.

    1981-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of ion generation and recombination mechanisms in the cesium plasma as they pertain to the advanced mode thermionic energy converter are described. The changes in plasma density and temperature within the converter have been studied under the influence of several promising auxiliary ionization candidate sources. Three novel approaches of external cesium ion generation have been investigated in some detail, namely vibrationally excited N/sub 2/ as an energy source of ionization of Cs ions in a DC discharge, microwave power as a means of resonant sustenance of the cesium plasma, and ion generation in a pulse N/sub 2/-Cs mixture. The experimental data obtained and discussed show that all three techniques - i.e. the non-LTE high-voltage pulsing, the energy transfer from vibrationally excited diatomic gases, and the external pumping with a microwave power - have considerable promise as schemes in auxiliary ion generation applicable to the advanced thermionic energy converter.

  20. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In April 2008, Kentucky enacted legislation that expanded its net metering law by requiring utilities to offer net metering to customers that generate electricity with photovoltaic (PV), wind,...

  1. Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard, E-mail: richard.taylor@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  2. New generation polyphase resonant converter-modulators for the Korean atomic energy research institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reass, William A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gribble, Robert F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will present operational data and performance parameters of the newest generation polyphase resonant high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) as developed and delivered to the KAERI 100 MeV ''PEFP'' accelerator [1]. The KAERI design realizes improvements from the SNS and SLAC designs [2]. To improve the IGBT switching performance at 20 kHz for the KAERI system, the HVCM utilizes the typical zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) at turn on and as well as artificial zero-current-switching (ZCS) at turn-off. The new technique of artificial ZCS technique should result in a 6 fold reduction of IGBT switching losses (3). This improves the HCVM conversion efficiency to better than 95% at full average power, which is 500 kW for the KAERI two klystron 105 kV, 50 A application. The artificial ZCS is accomplished by placing a resonant RLC circuit across the input busswork to the resonant boost transformer. This secondary resonant circuit provides a damped ''kick-back'' to assist in IGBT commutation. As the transformer input busswork is extremely low inductance (< 10 nH), the single RLC network acts like it is across each of the four IGBT collector-emitter terminals of the H-bridge switching network. We will review these topological improvements and the overall system as delivered to the KAERI accelerator and provide details of the operational results.

  3. Resistive wall tearing mode generated finite net electromagnetic torque in a static plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, G. Z., E-mail: haogz@swip.ac.cn; Wang, A. K.; Xu, M.; Qu, H. P.; Peng, X. D.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, J. Q.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Post Office Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Post Office Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The MARS-F code [Y. Q. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] is applied to numerically investigate the effect of the plasma pressure on the tearing mode stability as well as the tearing mode-induced electromagnetic torque, in the presence of a resistive wall. The tearing mode with a complex eigenvalue, resulted from the favorable averaged curvature effect [A. H. Glasser et al., Phys. Fluids 18, 875 (1975)], leads to a re-distribution of the electromagnetic torque with multiple peaking in the immediate vicinity of the resistive layer. The multiple peaking is often caused by the sound wave resonances. In the presence of a resistive wall surrounding the plasma, a rotating tearing mode can generate a finite net electromagnetic torque acting on the static plasma column. Meanwhile, an equal but opposite torque is generated in the resistive wall, thus conserving the total momentum of the whole plasma-wall system. The direction of the net torque on the plasma is always opposite to the real frequency of the mode, agreeing with the analytic result by Pustovitov [Nucl. Fusion 47, 1583 (2007)]. When the wall time is close to the oscillating time of the tearing mode, the finite net torque reaches its maximum. Without wall or with an ideal wall, no net torque on the static plasma is generated by the tearing mode. However, re-distribution of the torque density in the resistive layer still occurs.

  4. Recommended practice for fire protection for electric generating plants and high voltage direct current converter stations. 2005 ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard outlines fire safety recommendations for gas, oil, coal, and alternative fuel electric generating plants including high voltage direct current converter stations and combustion turbine units greater than 7500 hp used for electric generation. Provisions apply to both new and existing plants. The document provides fire prevention and fire protection recommendations for the: safety of construction and operating personnel; physical integrity of plant components; and continuity of plant operations. The 2005 edition includes revisions and new art that clarify existing provisions. 5 annexes.

  5. Moving Towards Net-Zero Energy of Existing Building in Hot Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of an extensive program of energy conservation and energy generation using integrated photovoltaic (PV) modules. The program conducted on an existing institutional building intending to convert it into a Net...

  6. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  7. Bearing options, including design and testing, for direct drive linear generators in wave energy converters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraher, Sarah

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The key focus of this research was to investigate the bearing options most suited to operation in a novel direct drive linear generator. This was done through bearing comparisons, modelling and testing. It is fundamental ...

  8. Generating Isolated Outputs in a Multilevel Modular Capacitor Clamped DC-DC Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    balance between the fuel cell and any energy storage inside the vehicle, and provides continuous power) for Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles Faisal H. Khan1 , Leon M. Tolbert2 1 Electric Power Research transformers to generate isolated ac outputs. These isolated outputs can be rectified and filtered to obtain

  9. Stressing of turbine-generator-exciter shafts by variable-frequency currents superimposed on DC currents in asynchronous HVDC links and following disturbances at converter stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, T.J.; Bremner, J.J. (Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ripple currents on the DC side of both HVDC synchronous and asynchronous. Links together with cleared HVDC and AC system disturbances can excite in some circumstances onerous torsional vibrations in large steam generator shafts. The problem has assumed importance in recent months on account of the HVDC Link between Scotland and Northern Ireland going ahead, on account of the proposed Eire/Wales Link, and because AC/DC/AC couplers are to be installed extensively to interconnect the East and West European Grid Systems. This paper discusses and analyses excitation of shaft torsional vibrations in steam turbine-generator-exciter shafts in close proximity to HVDC converter stations by (1) variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC currents in asynchronous Links, and (2) disturbances at bi-polar converter stations. The time response and tables show that for the systems studied variable-frequency ripple currents superimposed on the DC current in asynchronous Links can excite shaft torsional vibrations, the very small noncharacteristic currents could result in onerous shaft torques which might damage the machine, and that DC line faults at converter stations in close proximity of steam turbine-generator units can excite onerous turbine-generator shaft torsional response. Detailed simulation of the HVDC converter and generator is necessary for precise assessments of shaft torsional response following HVDC converter station faults. 500MW, 660MW, 1000MW and 1300MW machines are considered in the analyses that are made.

  10. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  11. Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells to provide power in remote environments or to convert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Bacteria that generate significant amounts of electricity could be used in microbial fuel cells to provide power in remote environments or to convert waste to electricity. Professor Derek Lovley from at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh. The researchers isolated a strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens which

  12. High-efficiency grid-connected photovoltaic module integrated converter system with high-speed communication interfaces for small-scale distribution power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Woo-Young; Lai, Jih-Sheng (Jason) [Future Energy Electronics Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a high-efficiency grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) module integrated converter (MIC) system with reduced PV current variation. The proposed PV MIC system consists of a high-efficiency step-up DC-DC converter and a single-phase full-bridge DC-AC inverter. An active-clamping flyback converter with a voltage-doubler rectifier is proposed for the step-up DC-DC converter. The proposed step-up DC-DC converter reduces the switching losses by eliminating the reverse-recovery current of the output rectifying diodes. To reduce the PV current variation introduced by the grid-connected inverter, a PV current variation reduction method is also suggested. The suggested PV current variation reduction method reduces the PV current variation without any additional components. Moreover, for centralized power control of distributed PV MIC systems, a PV power control scheme with both a central control level and a local control level is presented. The central PV power control level controls the whole power production by sending out reference power signals to each individual PV MIC system. The proposed step-up DC-DC converter achieves a high-efficiency of 97.5% at 260 W output power to generate the DC-link voltage of 350 V from the PV voltage of 36.1 V. The PV MIC system including the DC-DC converter and the DC-AC inverter achieves a high-efficiency of 95% with the PV current ripple less than 3% variation of the rated PV current. (author)

  13. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Net excess generation (NEG) is treated as a kilowatt-hour (kWh) credit or other compensation on the customer's following bill.* When an annual period ends, a utility will purchase unused credits...

  14. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Montana's net-metering law, enacted in July 1999, applies to all customers of investor-owned utilities. Systems up to 50 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind or...

  15. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSC) issued an order on January 26, 1982 requiring all regulated utilities to file tariffs allowing net metering to customers that generate electricity...

  16. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rhode Island allows net metering for systems up to five megawatts (MW) in capacity that are designed to generate up to 100% of the electricity that a home or other facility uses. Systems that...

  17. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utah law requires their only investor-owned utility, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), and most electric cooperatives* to offer net metering to customers who generate electricity using solar energy, wind...

  18. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington's net-metering law applies to systems up to 100 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydro, biogas from animal waste, or combined heat and power...

  19. 2007 NET SYSTEM POWER REPORT STAFFREPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2007 NET SYSTEM POWER REPORT STAFFREPORT April 2008 CEC-200 .................................................................................................................. 1 Net System Power Findings.............................................................................................. 4 Net System Power and Sources of California Electric Generation

  20. Beam converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter

    2003-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A converter and method for converting electron energy to irradiative energy comprising foam and/or foil. Foam and foil optionally comprise a high-Z material, such as, but not limited to, tantalum.

  1. DA/MA: Multi-objective optimization of LCC resonant converter applied in high-voltage generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    , transformer, and a cascaded rectifier, is shown below. Particular task of this project is to reduce power losses, volume, and stress of the components with the designated input and output specifications and the analytical converter large-signal model. Expected study and research work includes: · Extend the power loss

  2. Washington City Power- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Washington City adopted a net-metering program, including interconnection procedures, in January 2008.* Net metering is available to residential and commercial customers that generate electricity...

  3. Particle Tracking and Simulation on the .NET Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Scarvie, Tom

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can use IronPython[10] to access .NET assemblies directly atTRACKING AND SIMULATION ON THE .NET FRAMEWORK * H. Nishimurathe effectiveness of the .NET framework by converting a C++

  4. FARM NET INCOME IMPACT OF SWITCHGRASS PRODUCTION AND CORN STOVER COLLECTION FOR HEAT AND POWER GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    GENERATION by Mitchell A. Myhre A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree and Corn Stover Collection for Heat and Power Generation Mitchell A. Myhre Advisor: Associate Professor. Last but not least I would like to thank my wife Lisa for her love and support. #12;iv Table

  5. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near-shore Wave Fields: Model Generation Validation and Evaluation - Kaneohe Bay HI.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The numerical model, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) , was used to simulate wave conditions in Kaneohe Bay, HI in order to determine the effects of wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices on the propagation of waves into shore. A nested SWAN model was validated then used to evaluate a range of initial wave conditions: significant wave heights (H s ) , peak periods (T p ) , and mean wave directions ( MWD) . Differences between wave height s in the presence and absence of WEC device s were assessed at locations in shore of the WEC array. The maximum decrease in wave height due to the WEC s was predicted to be approximately 6% at 5 m and 10 m water depths. Th is occurred for model initiation parameters of H s = 3 m (for 5 m water depth) or 4 m (10 m water depth) , T p = 10 s, and MWD = 330deg . Subsequently, bottom orbital velocities were found to decrease by about 6%.

  6. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  7. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  8. Thermionic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, G.O.

    1987-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic converter is set forth which includes an envelope having an electron collector structure attached adjacent to a wall. An electron emitter structure is positioned adjacent the collector structure and spaced apart from opposite wall. The emitter and collector structures are in a common chamber. The emitter structure is heated substantially only by thermal radiation. Very small interelectrode gaps can be maintained utilizing the thermionic converter whereby increased efficiency results. 10 figs.

  9. Clock Generation Design for Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Analog-To-Digital Converter in Communication Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Yung-Chung

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    standards motivates the development of a broadband CT bandpass ?? which can cover the most commercial spectrum of 1GHz to 4GHz in a modern communication system. Clock generation, a major building block in radio frequency (RF) integrated circuits (ICs...

  10. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyneis, C., E-mail: CMLyneis@lbl.gov; Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Strohmeier, M.; Todd, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Plaum, B. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Stuttgart (Germany); Thuillier, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des martyrs 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des martyrs 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE{sub 10} mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE{sub 01}-HE{sub 11} mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE{sub 11} microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE{sub 11} mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long “snake” converts the TE{sub 01} mode to the TE{sub 11} mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE{sub 11} mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  11. Thermionic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fitzpatrick, Gary O. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic converter (10) is set forth which includes an envelope (12) having an electron collector structure (22) attached adjacent to a wall (16). An electron emitter structure (24) is positioned adjacent the collector structure (22) and spaced apart from opposite wall (14). The emitter (24) and collector (22) structures are in a common chamber (20). The emitter structure (24) is heated substantially only by thermal radiation. Very small interelectrode gaps (28) can be maintained utilizing the thermionic converter (10) whereby increased efficiency results.

  12. Proposal for a second-generation, lattice matched, multiple junction Ga{sub 2}AsSb TPV converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, G.S. [Keithley Instruments, Solon Ohio (United States); Coutts, T.J.; Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado (United States)

    1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    First order device modeling is used to show that spontaneously ordered Ga{sub 2}AsSb may prove useful in the newly-active field of thermophotovoltaic power generation. Optimal band gaps for single-, double- and triple-junction III-V devices are presented for a range of blackbody emitter temperatures (1000--2000 K), and it is shown that monolithic, current-matched devices may be constructed that are lattice-matched throughout the stack to an underlying InP substrate. Device efficiency, short-circuit current, fill factor, and open-circuit voltage calculations are presented. The power generation capabilities are expected to be substantial due to the proximity of the devices to the thermal radiators. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Thermionic converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, G.O.

    1987-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic converter is described comprising: an envelope having first and second walls spaced apart from one another. The envelope defines an enclosed chamber; an electron collector structure attached adjacent to the second wall; an electron emitter structure, located adjacent the collector structure and between the collector structure and the first wall. At least a respective one of the collector structure and the emitter structure comprise elements, each of the elements along with a respective other of the collector structure and the emitter structure defining interelectrode gaps at least when the emitter structure is above a selected temperature. The emitter structure is spaced a distance away from the first wall and is positioned to receive substantially only thermal radiation.

  14. Generation of 2D and 3D (PtS, Adamantanoid) Nets with a Flexible Tetrahedral Building Block

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Jian; Motkuri, Radha K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The self-assembly of a flexible tetrahedral linker tetrakis[4-(carboxyphenyl)oxamethyl]methane acid with various transition metals (Cu, Co and Mg) results in a 2D layered structure and 3D frameworks with PtS and adamantanoid topology. The PtS net exhibits permanent porosity as confirmed by BET and gas adsorption experiments.

  15. Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Minnesota net metering policy is to give the maximum possible encouragement to distributed generation assets, especially solar electric systems (MN 2008). However, according to a published set of best practices (NNEC 2008) that prioritize the maximum development of solar markets within states, the Minnesota policy does not incorporate many of the important best practices that may help other states transform their solar energy markets and increase the amount of grid-connected distributed solar generation assets. Reasons cited include the low system size limit of 40kW (the best practices document recommends a 2 MW limit) and a lack of language protecting generators from additional utility fees. This study was conducted to compare Minnesota's policies to national best practices. It provides an overview of the current Minnesota policy in the context of these best practices and other jurisdictions' net metering policies, as well as a qualitative assessment of the impacts of raising the system size cap within the policy based on the experiences of other states.

  16. Net Metering (Ontario, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ontario's net metering regulation allows you to send electricity generated from renewable sources to the electrical grid for a credit toward your energy costs. Here's how it works. Your utility...

  17. Puerto Rico- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Puerto Rico enacted net-metering legislation in August 2007, allowing customers of Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to use electricity generated by solar, wind or "other" renewable...

  18. Net Metering (New Brunswick, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The NB Power Net Metering program provides customers with the option to connect their own environmentally sustainable generation unit to NB Power's distribution system. The program allows customers...

  19. Thermionic electric converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, E.D.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic electric converter is disclosed wherein an externally located heat source causes electrons to be boiled off an electron emissive surface interiorly positioned on one end wall of an evacuated cylindrical chamber. The electrons are electrically focused and accelerated through the interior of an air core induction coil located within a transverse magnetic field, and subsequently are collected on the other end wall of the chamber functioning as a collecting plate. The emf generated in the induction coil by action of the transiting electron stream interacting with the transverse magnetic field is applied to an external circuit to perform work, thereby implementing a direct heat energy to electrical energy conversion.

  20. Stirling converters for space dynamic power concepts with 2 to 130 W{sub e} output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, B.A. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three innovative Stirling converter concepts are described. Two concepts are based on Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission requirements, where two General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules provide the thermal input. The first concept (PFF2) considers a power system with two opposed Stirling converters; the second concept (PFF4) considers four opposed Stirling converters. For both concepts the Stirling converters are designed to vary their power production capability to compensate for the failure of one Stirling converter. While the net thermal efficiency of PFF4 is a few percentage points lower than PFF2, the total Stirling converter mass of PFF4 is half that for PFF2. The third concept (ITTI) is designed to supply 2 watts of power for weather stations on the Martian surface. The predicted thermal performance of the ITTI is low compared to PFF2 and PFF4, yet the ITTI concept offers significant advantages compared to currently available power systems at the 2-watt power level. All three concepts are based on long-life technology demonstrated by an 11-watt output Stirling generator that as of March 1995 has accumulated over 15,000 operating hours without maintenance.

  1. Collector for thermionic energy converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.L.

    1981-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved collector is provided for a thermionic energy converter. The collector comprises a p-type layer of a semiconductor material formed on an n-type layer of a semiconductor material. The p-n junction is maintained in a forward biased condition. The electron affinity of the exposed surface of the p-type layer is effectively lowered to a low level near zero by the presence of a work function lowering activator. The dissipation of energy during collection is reduced by the passage of electrons through the p-type layer in the metastable conduction band state. A significant portion of the electron current remains at the potential of the fermi level of the n-type layer rather than dropping to the fermi level of the p-type layer. Less energy is therefore dissipated as heat and a higher net power output is delivered from a thermionic energy converter incorporating the collector.

  2. Combustion converter design evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodale, D.B.; Miskolczy, G.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The early thermionic converters used hemispherical one-inch-diameter hot shells. They were extensively tested in a natural gas, high-temperature furnace. A converter was life tested for 12,500 hours at emitter temperatures above 1700 K. Two-inch diameter converters with both hemispherical and torispherical shapes were developed next. These converters have been tested in both natural gas-, oil-, and coal-oil slurry-fired environments. A prototype converter for cogeneration applications was also developed using this emitter configuration. A six converter module of cogeneration converters has been constructed.

  3. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will exceed this initial performance estimates. In advancing the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of this type of wave energy converter from 3 to 4, we find the CycWEC to exceed our initial estimates in terms of hydrodynamic performance. Once fully developed and optimized, it has the potential to not just outperform all other WEC technologies, but to also deliver power at a lower LCOE than competing conventional renewables like wind and solar. Given the large wave power resource both domestically and internationally, this technology has the potential to lead to a large improvement in our ability to produce clean electricity at affordable cost.

  4. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Massachusetts, the state's investor-owned utilities must offer net metering. Municipal utilities are not obligated to offer net metering, but they may do so voluntarily. (There are no electric...

  5. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) adopted rules for net metering in September 2004, requiring the state's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) to offer net metering to all electric...

  6. Full bridge converter Transformers and isolated converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    Full bridge converter Transformers and isolated converters Most DC power supplies have the following requirements: 1. Regulated output voltage Solved by a large capacitor at the output, and feedback control. 2. High power factor PFC - discussed previously. 3. Isolation 4. Multiple outputs Isolated

  7. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  8. StreamNet, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Bruce; Roger, Phil; Butterfield, Bart (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Gladstone, OR)

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The StreamNet Project is a cooperative project that provides basic fishery management data in a consistent format across the Columbia Basin region, with some data from outside the region. Specific categories of data are acquired from the multiple data generating agencies in the Columbia Basin, converted into a standardized data exchange format (DEF) and distributed to fish researchers, managers and decision makers directly or through an on-line data retrieval system (www.streamnet.org). The project is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. This cooperative effort is composed of a region-wide project administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) that is responsible for project management, regional data management and data delivery (Region), plus seven contributing projects within the data generating entities: Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC); Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG); Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW); Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS); and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The contributing projects are funded through the StreamNet contract but work within their respective agencies and are referred to here as the agency's StreamNet project (for example, ''IDFG StreamNet'' for Idaho's project). The StreamNet Project provides an important link in the chain of data flow in the Columbia Basin, with specific emphasis on data collected routinely over time by management agencies. Basic fish related data are collected in the field by the various state, tribal and federal agencies in the basin for purposes related to each agency's individual mission and responsibility. As a result, there often is a lack of standardization among agencies in field methodology or data management. To be able to utilize data for comparison or analysis over the entire basin from multiple agencies, it is necessary to standardize the data to the degree possible so that like-data are equivalent over jurisdictional lines. Since the data are not collected in a standardized way, StreamNet fulfills that role by acquiring the data sets and converting the data from all agencies into the standardized DEF. Where field methodologies differ to the degree that the data can not be made comparable, the data are presented as different data types. This way, data are converted only once and made available for research, management and administrative purposes instead of forcing each person needing basin wide data to attempt data standardization individually.

  9. MathNet MathNet Mathematical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MathNet MathNet MathNet Mathematical Preprint Servers Mathematical Preprint Servers Jonas Gomes Janeiro IMPA ­ Rio de Janeiro #12; MathNet MathNet MathNet Preprint Server Preprint Server . . What Atlas: Topology Atlas: http://www.unipissing.ca/topology/ http://www.unipissing.ca/topology/ #12; MathNet

  10. fi net

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Weihong

    Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved. http://www.cnki.net #12;, , , · » » , , , ¡¢ » ¡fi Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved. http://www.cnki.net #12;, ¡£¡£ , » , ¯ ¡/ ¡ , ¡¢ ¡¢ © 1994-2008 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House. All rights reserved. http://www.cnki.net

  11. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) - Usually at utility's avoided cost (a wholesale rate) or a negotiated rate * New Mexico o REC Ownership: Utility owns RECs o Net...

  12. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Jersey's net-metering rules apply to all residential, commercial and industrial customers of the state's investor-owned utilities and energy suppliers (and certain competitive municipal...

  13. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wyoming enacted legislation in February 2001 that established statewide net metering. The law applies to investor-owned utilities, electric cooperatives and irrigation districts. Eligible...

  14. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Net metering has been available in Oklahoma since 1988 under Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC) Order 326195. The OCC's rules require investor-owned utilities and electric cooperatives under...

  15. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri enacted legislation in June 2007 (S.B. 54)* requiring all electric utilities -- investor-owned utilities, municipal utilities and electric cooperatives -- to offer net metering to...

  16. Interleaved power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Lizhi (Canton, MI)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A power converter architecture interleaves full bridge converters to alleviate thermal management problems in high current applications, and may, for example, double the output power capability while reducing parts count and costs. For example, one phase of a three phase inverter is shared between two transformers, which provide power to a rectifier such as a current doubler rectifier to provide two full bridge DC/DC converters with three rather than four high voltage inverter legs.

  17. ITER convertible blanket evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) convertible blankets were reviewed. Key design difficulties were identified. A new particle filter concept is introduced and key performance parameters estimated. Results show that this particle filter concept can satisfy all of the convertible blanket design requirements except the generic issue of Be blanket lifetime. If the convertible blanket is an acceptable approach for ITER operation, this particle filter option should be a strong candidate.

  18. Universal thermochemical energy converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich (Oak Ridge, TN); Sand, James R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Conklin, James C. (Knoxville, TN); VanCoevering, James (Oak Ridge, TN); Courville, George E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for a thermochemical closed cycle employing a polyatomic, chemically active working fluid for converting heat energy into useful work.

  19. External ionization mechanisms for advanced thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatziprokopiou, M.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work investigates ion generation and recombination mechanisms in the cesium plasma as they pertain to the advanced mode thermionic energy converter. The changes in plasma density and temperature within the converter have been studied under the influence of several promising auxiliary ionization candidate sources. Three novel approaches of external cesium ion generation have been investigated in some detail, namely vibrationally excited N/sub 2/ as are energy source of ionization of Cs ions in a dc discharge, microwave power as a means of resonant sustenance of the cesium plasma, and ion generation in a pulse N/sub 2/-Cs mixture. The experimental data obtained and discussed in this work show that all three techniques - i.e. the non-LTE high-voltage pulsing, the energy transfer from vibrationally excited diatomic gases, and the external pumping with a microwave power - have considerable promise as schemes in auxiliary ion generation applicable to the advanced thermionic energy converter.

  20. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Illinois enacted legislation in August 2007 (S.B. 680) requiring investor-owned utilities in Illinois to begin offering net metering by April 1, 2008. In May 2008, the Illinois Commerce Commissio...

  1. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: In December 15, 2014 the New York Public Service Commission (PSC) issued an order directing the investor owned utilities in the State to file net metering tariff revisions doubling the agg...

  2. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nevada's original net-metering law for renewable-energy systems was enacted in 1997 and amended in 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2011, 2013, and 2015. Systems up to one megawatt (MW) in capacity that...

  3. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The program web site listed above links to the Maryland Public Service Commission's Net Metering Working Group page, which contains a variety of information resources related to the ongoing...

  4. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    [http://nebraskalegislature.gov/FloorDocs/101/PDF/Final/LB436.pdf LB 436], signed in May 2009, established statewide net metering rules for all electric utilities in Nebraska. The rules apply to...

  5. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North Carolina Utilities Commission (NCUC) requires the state’s three investor-owned utilities -- Duke Energy, Progress Energy and Dominion North Carolina Power -- to make net metering...

  6. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Net metering is available to all "qualifying facilities" (QFs), as defined by the federal Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA)*, which pertains to systems up to 80 megawatts (MW)...

  7. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: In March 2011, Virginia enacted HB 1983, which increased the residential net-metering limit to 20 kW. However, residential facilities with a capacity of greater than 10 kW must pay a...

  8. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Net metering in West Virginia is available to all retail electricity customers. System capacity limits vary depending on the customer type and electric utility type, according to the following...

  9. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    North Dakota's net-metering policy, adopted in 1991 by the state Public Service Commission (PSC), applies to renewable-energy systems and combined heat and power (CHP) systems up to 100 kilowatts ...

  10. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oregon has established separate net-metering programs for the state's primary investor-owned utilities (PGE and PacifiCorp), and for its municipal utilities and electric cooperatives.

  11. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''The MPSC is reviewing state interconnection and net metering policies in [http://efile.mpsc.state.mi.us/efile/viewcase.php?casenum=15919&submit.x=... Case U-15919].'''''...

  12. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''NOTE: Legislation enacted in 2011 and 2012 (S.B. 1652, H.B. 3036, and S.B. 3811) has changed several aspects of net metering in Illinois. For customers in competitive classes as of July 1,...

  13. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: H.F. 729, enacted in May 2013, includes many changes to Minnesota's net metering law. These changes are described above, but most will not take effect until rules are implemented at the...

  14. Object Petri Nets Using the Nets-within-Nets Paradigm.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburg.Universit�¤t

    Object Petri Nets Using the Nets-within-Nets Paradigm. Rüdiger Valk. revised version from Jörg Desel, Wolfgang Reisig, and Grzegorz Rozenberg, editors, Advances in Petri Nets: Lectures on Concurrency and Petri Nets, volume 3098 of Lecture Notes in Compu- ter Science, pages 819-848. Springer-Verlag, Berlin

  15. Microminiature thermionic converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Donald B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sadwick, Laurence P. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wernsman, Bernard R. (Clairton, PA)

    2001-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Microminiature thermionic converts (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures. Methods of manufacturing those converters using semiconductor integrated circuit fabrication and micromachine manufacturing techniques are also disclosed. The MTCs of the invention incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. Existing prior art thermionic converter technology has energy conversion efficiencies ranging from 5-15%. The MTCs of the present invention have maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices can be fabricated at modest costs.

  16. Photo of the Week: Converting Solar Energy into Fuel | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    toured the facilities that produce wind power generators and converters, in addition to PV solar inverters. In this photo he looks at a Stator 2MW Wind Turbine Generator. | Photo...

  17. Palau- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Palau Net Metering Act of 2009 established net metering on the Island of Palau. Net metering was implemented in order to:

  18. Energy Generation Project Permitting (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vermont Energy Generation Siting Policy Commission is mandated to survey best practices for siting approval of electric generation projects (all facilities except for net- and group-net-metered...

  19. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: In July 2012, the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO) opened a docket ([http://dis.puc.state.oh.us/CaseRecord.aspx?CaseNo=12-2050-EL-ORD Case 12-0250-EL-RDR]) to review the net...

  20. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Adams, Donald Joe (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  1. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Z. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  2. Optimizing Ballast Design of Wave Energy Converters Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tumer, Kagan

    Optimizing Ballast Design of Wave Energy Converters Using Evolutionary Algorithms Mitch Colby, 97331 kagan.tumer@oregonstate.edu ABSTRACT Wave energy converters promise to be a viable alternative the ballast geometry of a wave energy genera- tor using a two step process. First, we generate a function

  3. DC systems with transformerless converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vithayathil, J.J.; Mittlestadt, W. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)] [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Bjoerklund, P.E. [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)] [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical and economic feasibility study of HVDC systems without converter transformers is presented. The presentation includes proposed solutions to the drawback related to the absence of galvanic separation between the ac and dc systems, if the converter transformers are eliminated. The results show that HVDC systems without converter transformers are both technically and economically feasible. The cost savings can be substantial.

  4. A study of Schwarz converters for nuclear powered spacecraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, T.A. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Schwarze, G.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High power space systems which use low dc voltage, high current sources such as thermoelectric generators, will most likely require high voltage conversion for transmission purposes. This study considers the use of the Schwarz resonant converter for use as the basic building block to accomplish this low-to-high voltage conversion for either a dc or an ac spacecraft bus. The Schwarz converter has the important assets of both inherent fault tolerance and resonant operation and parallel operation in modular form is possible. A regulated dc spacecraft bus requires only a single stage converter while a constant frequency ac bus requires a cascaded Schwarz converter configuration. If the power system requires constant output power from the dc generator, then a second converter is required to route unneeded power to a ballast load.

  5. A computer program for HVDC converter station RF noise calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasten, D.G.; Caldecott, R.; Sebo, S.A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Liu, Y. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Bradley Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HVDC converter station operations generate radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) noise which could interfere with adjacent communication and computer equipment, and carrier system operations. A generic Radio Frequency Computer Analysis Program (RAFCAP) for calculating the EM noise generated by valve ignition of a converter station has been developed as part of a larger project. The program calculates RF voltages, currents, complex power, ground level electric field strength and magnetic flux density in and around an HVDC converter station. The program requires the converter station network to be represented by frequency dependent impedance functions. Comparisons of calculated and measured values are given for an actual HVDC station to illustrate the validity of the program. RAFCAP is designed to be used by engineers for the purpose of calculating the RF noise produced by the igniting of HVDC converter valves.

  6. Kansas- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing net metering for customers of investor-owned utilities in Kansas. Net metering...

  7. Solar thermionic energy converter experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodale, D.; Lieb, D.; Neale, D.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-inch CVD converter was solar tested in a central receiver heliostat array at the Advanced Components Test Facility at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The test examined heat flux cycling control of the operating point and mounting arrangements. The converter was mounted directly in the solar image with no cavity. The input heat flux was 40-60 W/cm/sup 2/. The converter performance was comparable to combustion measurements made on the same diode. Thermal cycling caused no problems with converter operation. The converter showed no degradation after the test.

  8. Murray City Power- Net Metering Pilot Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under a pilot program, Murray City Power offers net metering to customers that generate electricity using photovoltaic (PV), wind-electric or hydroelectric systems with a maximum capacity of 10...

  9. Hydro-Québec Net Metering (Quebec, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In line with Hydro-Québec's commitment to the environment and sustainable development, Hydro-Québec is supporting self-generation with a new rate offering: the net metering option. This option...

  10. Scotia Energy Electricity- Net Metering Program (Nova Scotia, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nova Scotia Power Inc. Net Metering allows residential and commercial customers to connect small, renewable energy generating units to the provincial power grid.

  11. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esser, A.A.M.

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero. 20 figs.

  12. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Esser, Albert Andreas Maria (Niskayuna, NY)

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero.

  13. If current capacity were to be expanded so that all of the non-recycled municipal solid waste that is currently sent to U.S. landfills each year could instead be converted to energy, we could generate enough electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    If current capacity were to be expanded so that all of the non-recycled municipal solid waste at Columbia University assessed the energy value of municipal solid waste that is currently sent to U so that we could convert our non-recycled waste to alternative energy instead of landfilling it, we

  14. The economics of net metering Larry Hughes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    . In jurisdictions that permit net metering, the owners of these facilities (the customer-generators) can supply of financial compensation on the selection of generation equipment from the perspective of the customer that generate electricity intermittently (typically renewables such as wind and solar) need not be concerned

  15. The Goal of Net Zero

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronquillo, M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Goal of Net Zero CATEE 2014 Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference Andrew T. Cronberg, PE Interim Water Director City of Fort Worth, Texas November 19, 2014 Dallas, Texas ESL-KT-14-11-47 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency... Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 •10 Journey to Net Zero began in the 1960’s •Digester Gas fueled Engine Blowers & Generators •Some heat recovery for anaerobic digesters ESL-KT-14-11-47 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas...

  16. Converting Biomass to Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graybeal, Judith W.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For nearly 30 years, PNNL has been developing and applying novel thermal, chemical and biological processes to convert biomass to industrial and consumer products, fuels and energy. Honors for technologies resulting from this research include the Presidential Green Chemistry Award and several Federal Laboratory Consortium and R&D 100 Awards. PNNL’s research and development activities address the complete processing scheme, from feedstock pretreatment to purified product recovery. The laboratory applies fundamental science and advanced engineering capabilities to biomass conversion and processing to ensure effective recovery of optimal value from biomass; carbohydrate polymer systems to maximize energy efficiencies; and micro-technology systems for separation and conversion processes. For example, bioproducts researchers in the laboratory’s Institute for Interfacial Catalysis develop and demonstrate the utility of new catalyst formulations for production of bio-based chemicals. This article describes a sampling of current and recent catalysis projects for biomass conversion.

  17. Self-powered microthermionic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Albert C.; King, Donald B.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-powered microthermionic converter having an internal thermal power source integrated into the microthermionic converter. These converters can have high energy-conversion efficiencies over a range of operating temperatures. Microengineering techniques are used to manufacture the converter. The utilization of an internal thermal power source increases potential for mobility and incorporation into small devices. High energy efficiency is obtained by utilization of micron-scale interelectrode gap spacing. Alpha-particle emitting radioisotopes can be used for the internal thermal power source, such as curium and polonium isotopes.

  18. Thyristor converter simulation and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, S.Y.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present a simulation on thyristor converters. The simulation features nonlinearity, non-uniform firing, and the commutations. Several applications such as a current regulation, a converter frequency characteristics analysis, and a power line disturbance analysis will be presented. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Kansas Nuclear Profile - Wolf Creek Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    April 2012" "Next Release Date: February 2013" "Wolf Creek Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor...

  20. Washington Nuclear Profile - Columbia Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Columbia Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...

  1. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Dresden Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dresden Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...

  2. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Byron Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Byron Generating Station" ,"Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  3. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Braidwood Generation Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Braidwood Generation Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

  4. MathNetMathNetMathNet Mathematical Preprint ServersMathematical Preprint Servers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MathNetMathNetMathNet Mathematical Preprint ServersMathematical Preprint Servers Jonas GomesIMPA - Rio de Janeiro #12;MathNetMathNetMathNet Preprint ServerPreprint Server ·· What is a Preprint server;MathNetMathNetMathNet Preprint ServerPreprint Server ·· DatabaseDatabase ·· Store preprints

  5. Avista Utilities- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho does not have a statewide net-metering policy. However, each of the state's three investor-owned utilities -- Avista Utilities, Idaho Power and Rocky Mountain Power -- has developed a net...

  6. Idaho Power- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho does not have a statewide net-metering policy. However, each of the state's three investor-owned utilities -- Avista Utilities, Idaho Power and Rocky Mountain Power -- has developed a net...

  7. Progress Energy- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In August 2009, the South Carolina Public Service Commission issued an order mandating net metering be made available by the regulated electric utilities; the order incorporates a net metering...

  8. Net Metering Rules (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Net Metering Rules are promulgated under the authority of the Arkansas Public Service Commission. These rules are created to establish rules for net energy metering and interconnection. These...

  9. Duke Energy- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In August 2009, the South Carolina Public Service Commission issued an order mandating net metering be made available by the regulating utilities; the order incorporates a net metering settlement...

  10. Soft-Switching High-Frequency AC-Link Universal Power Converters with Galvanic Isolation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amirabadi, Mahshid

    2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    be used in a variety of applications, including photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, and electric vehicles. In these converters the link current and voltage are both alternating and their frequency can be high, which leads...

  11. Design and testing of a combustion-heated nineteen-converter SAVTEC array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyren, T.; Fitzpatrick, G.O.; Korringa, M.; McVey, J.; Sahines, T.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SAVTEC (Self-Adjusting Versatile Thermionic Energy Converter) is a new design approach for achieving very close (<12..mu..) interelectrode spacing in a thermionic converter. Techniques were developed for fabricating an array of nineteen SAVTEC converters. The array was incorporated in an SiC protective ''hot shell'' which also served as a radiant heat source for the emitter of each converter. The completed assembly was tested with a specially constructed combustion heat source. Electric output was generated by sixteen of the nineteen converters, despite poor thermal contact in a cooling block, which resulted in high collector temperatures. Details of the array design and test results are described.

  12. Thermionic-photovoltaic energy converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chubb, D. L.

    1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic-photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or galium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  13. Monolithic series-connected gallium arsenide converter development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitzer, M.B.; McClelland, R.W.; Dingle, B.D.; Dingle, J.E.; Hill, D.S. (Kopin Corp., Taunton, MA (United States)); Rose, B.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the development of monolithic GaAs photovoltaic devices intended to convert light generated by a laser or other bright source to electricity. The converters described here can provide higher operating voltage than is possible using a single-junction converter, owing to use of a monolithic circuit that forms a planar series-connected string of single-junction sub-cells. This planar monolithic circuit is arranged to deliver the desired voltage and current during operation at the maximum power point. The paper describes two-, six-, and twelve-junction converters intended for illumination by a laser diode with a wavelength of 0.8 {mu}m. Design and characterization data are presented for optical power in the range of 100 mW to 1 W. The best conversion efficiency exceeds 50%. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Power converter connection configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C. (Wauwatosa, WI); Kehl, Dennis L. (Milwaukee, WI); Gettelfinger, Lee A. (Brown Deer, WI); Kaishian, Steven C. (Milwaukee, WI); Phillips, Mark G. (Brookfield, WI); Radosevich, Lawrence D. (Muskego, WI)

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    EMI shielding is provided for power electronics circuits and the like via a direct-mount reference plane support and shielding structure. The thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support forms a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  15. Converting Biomass to High-Value Feedstocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Converting Biomass to High-Value Feedstocks Advanced feedstocks play an important role in economically and efficiently converting biomass into bioenergy products. Advanced...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: wave energy converters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marine hydrokinetic (MHK) reference models (RMs) for wave energy converters and tidal, ocean, and river current energy converters. The RMP team includes a partnership between...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: river current energy converters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marine hydrokinetic (MHK) reference models (RMs) for wave energy converters and tidal, ocean, and river current energy converters. The RMP team includes a partnership between...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: tidal energy converters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marine hydrokinetic (MHK) reference models (RMs) for wave energy converters and tidal, ocean, and river current energy converters. The RMP team includes a partnership between...

  19. Semiconductor quantum dots used in so-called"third-generation"solar cells have the potential to dramatically increase--in some cases even double--the efficiency of converting sunlight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    innovati n Semiconductor quantum dots used in so-called"third-generation"solar cells have quantum dots (QDs). These semiconductor nanocrystals typically have diameters from about 2 to 10

  20. The scope of SaCoNet is to deal with the growing smart communications fields embedded in complex systems for a wide variety of applications in the future generation of network and cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    emerging networks: sky of clouds, Internet of things, Smart Grids, Smart Cities, etc. The evolutionThe scope of SaCoNet is to deal with the growing smart communications fields embedded in complex technologies. SaCoNet focuses on how smart communications and ICT networks impact not only on network

  1. A thermionic converter success story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, B.D.; Lamp, T.R. (Aerospace Power Division, Wright Laboratory Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-6563 (United States)); Ramaligam, M.L. (UES, Inc. 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, OH 45432-1894 (United States))

    1993-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the advanced out-of-core thermionic technology program being managed at Wright Laboratory: The Thermionic Critical Technology (TCT) Investigation. This program has been supported primarily by the United State Air Force for design and fabrication, and supported by Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) for performance and life testing efforts. Converter design parameters, specifications, and performance testing data is summarized. Converters fabricated by Loral Electro Optical Systems (Loral EOS) under this program have exceeding performance requirements, and have demonstrated efficiencies as high as 14%.

  2. Power converters for parabolic dishes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truscello, V.C.; Williams, A.N.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development status of receivers and power conversion units to be used with parabolic dish concentrators is presented. Applications are identified, and the key role played by the power converter element of the collector module is emphasized. The electrical output of the 11-meter-diameter dish modules which are being developed varies up to a maximum of about 25 kilowatts, depending on the thermodynamic cycle of the power converter. Three power conversion units are being developed: an organic Rankine, an air Brayton, and a Stirling. The development program for the receivers and the power conversion units is described in detail.

  3. Net Energy Metering (NEM)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Arizona Public Service Co. (APS) request for a charge on future rooftop solar panel installations connected to the grid under the state's net energy metering (NEM)...

  4. Net Energy Billing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All of Maine's electric utilities -- investor-owned utilities (IOUs), consumer-owned utilities (COUs), which include municipal utilities and electric cooperatives -- must offer net energy billing...

  5. kpro-net.inf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... us and help promote the Kaypro as the best portable computer today. Any Sysop's wishing to join the K-Net please contact Steve Sanders through this system.

  6. Soft-Switching High-Frequency AC-Link Universal Power Converters with Galvanic Isolation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amirabadi, Mahshid

    2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    ) direct drive using wound-field synchronous generator [10]. ...................................................................................................... 6 Figure 6 Dc-dc buck-boost converter: (a) configuration, (b) energizing mode (mode 1), (c...) de-energizing mode (mode 2), (d) voltage and current waveforms ........ 12 Figure 7 An alternative representation of the dc-dc buck-boost converter ...................... 13 Figure 8 Dc-dc ac-link buck-boost converter: configuration, behavior...

  7. Development, evaluation, and design applications of an AMTEC converter model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Cliff Alan

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of performance curves . . . . . . . 90 INTRODUCTION In the recent history of space exploration, space vehicles slated for missions that ventured into deep space, far from the sun, typically relied on Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) power sources... this need is a type of generator that uses technology known as alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC). This device, like previous thermoelectric power systems, converts thermal energy directly to electricity. Developed at Ford Scientific...

  8. Computer Literacy Skills of Net Generation Learners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duke, Christopher

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Younger learners are widely considered to be technologically savvy and computer literate because of their lifelong exposure to ubiquitous technology. Educators often rely on that assumption to justify changes to institutional curricula, technology...

  9. Computer Literacy Skills of Net Generation Learners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duke, Christopher

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    -comparative examination of learner computer literacy skills prior to a college level computer literacy course found that both NGLs and non-NGLs exhibited inadequate computer literacy skill. A 1-way ANOVA indicated NGLs performed significantly better than non-NGLs on a...

  10. PSEG Long Island- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although PSEG Long Island’s net metering policy is not governed by the State’s net metering law, the provisions are similar to the State law. Net metering is available for residential, non-reside...

  11. New Jersey Nuclear Profile - PSEG Salem Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    PSEG Salem Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

  12. California Nuclear Profile - San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

  13. New Jersey Nuclear Profile - PSEG Hope Creek Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    PSEG Hope Creek Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License...

  14. Illinois Nuclear Profile - LaSalle Generating Station

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    LaSalle Generating Station" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration...

  15. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  16. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  17. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  18. Baseline for the cumulants of net-proton distributions at STAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaofeng Luo; Bedangadas Mohanty; Nu Xu

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a systematic comparison between the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions by STAR for 0-5% central Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=7.7-200 GeV and two kinds of possible baseline measures, the Poisson and Binomial baselines. These baseline measures are assuming that the proton and anti-proton distributions independently follow Poisson statistics or Binomial statistics. The higher order cumulant net-proton data are observed to deviate from all the baseline measures studied at 19.6 and 27 GeV. We also compare the net-proton with net-baryon fluctuations in UrQMD and AMPT model, and convert the net-proton fluctuations to net-baryon fluctuations in AMPT model by using a set of formula.

  19. Cell modulated DC/DC converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, James Raymond, III

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A very high frequency converter roughly based on a class E topology is investigated for replacing a conventional boost converter circuit. The loss mechanisms in class E inverters are characterized, and metrics are developed ...

  20. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.; Gelman, R.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  1. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Gelman, R.; Bird, L.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  2. COMMUNITY ALERT INCIDENT: Catalytic Converter Thefts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    converter is a part used to reduce the toxicity of emissions from an internal combustion engine. What can

  3. CONVERTIBLE BONDS IN A DEFAULTABLE DIFFUSION MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanblanc, Monique

    CONVERTIBLE BONDS IN A DEFAULTABLE DIFFUSION MODEL Tomasz R. Bielecki Department of Applied Research Grant PS12918. #12;2 Convertible Bonds in a Defaultable Diffusion Model 1 Introduction In [4), such as Convertible Bonds (CB), and we provided a rigorous decomposition of a CB into a bond component and a (game

  4. Guam- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guam's Public Utilities Commission (PUC) reviewed net metering and interconnection during a regular meeting in February 2009 (Docket 08-10). Please contact the [http://www.guampuc.com/ Guam PUC]...

  5. LADWP- Net Metering (California)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LADWP allows its customers to net meter their photovoltaic (PV), wind, and hybrid systems with a capacity of not more than one megawatt. LADWP will provide the necessary metering equipment unless...

  6. LADWP- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LADWP allows its customers to net meter their photovoltaic (PV), wind, and hybrid systems with a capacity of not more than one megawatt. LADWP will provide the necessary metering equipment unless...

  7. Ashland Electric- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1996, Ashland adopted a net-metering program that includes simple interconnection guidelines. The program encourages the adoption of renewable-energy systems by committing the city to purchase,...

  8. Timeline for Net Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x By July 31 of each Forecast Year, BPA publishes all Load Following customers' Net Requirements data for the two years of the upcoming Rate Period. 17.6.1 7312010 Yes...

  9. N=2 superconformal nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiano Carpi; Robin Hillier; Yasuyuki Kawahigashi; Roberto Longo; Feng Xu

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide an Operator Algebraic approach to N=2 chiral Conformal Field Theory and set up the Noncommutative Geometric framework. Compared to the N=1 case, the structure here is much richer. There are naturally associated nets of spectral triples and the JLO cocycles separate the Ramond sectors. We construct the N=2 superconformal nets of von Neumann algebras in general, classify them in the discrete series cnets with cnet representations.

  10. Digital control of HVDC converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilotto, L.A.S.; Roitman, M.; Alves, J.E.R.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the project of a completely digital HVDC converter controller based on a 16-bit microcomputer. It was decided to achieve as much as possible by software in order to minimize functions performed by external hardware. The presented design comprises software programmed functions such as a PID current control amplifier, voltage dependent current order limiters and an alpha-minimum symmetrization unit, among others. HVDC control principles are briefly reviewed and a detailed description of both the hardware and software structure of the controller is presented. The digital controller was implemented in an HVDC simulator and several dynamic performance tests demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  11. Converting Energy to Medical Progress

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy, science, and technology-- Energy, science, and technologyConverting to

  12. GAISUS-1 thermionic converter for the integrated solar upper stage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begg, L.L.; Heffernan, T.F.; Horner, M.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) system is a compact orbital transfer vehicle which generates thrust to boost payloads from LEO to higher orbits. It does this by collecting and concentrating solar flux into a sensible thermal storage, graphite receiver which is used to heat hydrogen propellant to temperatures of up to 2500 K. The ISUS receiver also radiates heat into an array of thermionic converters which produce electrical power. The GAISUS-1 thermionic converter is a first generation planar converter designed to produce electrical power when coupled with the ISUS receiver. GAISUS-1 will deliver over 31 W{sub e} at 1900 K. A wrought Re hotshoe accepts radiant heat from the receiver. The back side of the hotshoe forms the emitting surface of the converter. Special attention was paid to optimize the electrical and thermal losses experienced through the sleeve. Triple and single sleeve geometries were thermally modeled and evaluated, resulting in the selection of a single sleeve design. A high temperature metal/ceramic seal isolates the emitter sleeve from the collector. A Nb collector is used and is an integral part of a Nb/Na heat pipe. The heat pipe transports reject heat from the collector surface to a thermal radiator (condenser) portion of the heat pipe. The converter utilizes an integral graphite Cs reservoir. This type of reservoir automatically produces a rise in Cs pressure in response to a rise in emitter/collector temperatures. This Cs pressure feedback mechanism insures adequate Cs coverage of the emitter over a broad range of operating conditions (temperatures).

  13. DC to DC power converters and methods of controlling the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Todorovic, Maja Harfman; Agamy, Mohammed

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A power generation system configured to provide direct current (DC) power to a DC link is described. The system includes a first power generation unit configured to output DC power. The system also includes a first DC to DC converter comprising an input section and an output section. The output section of the first DC to DC converter is coupled in series with the first power generation unit. The first DC to DC converter is configured to process a first portion of the DC power output by the first power generation unit and to provide an unprocessed second portion of the DC power output of the first power generation unit to the output section.

  14. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Daniel T. (La Jolla, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support is provided for use in a therminonic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end (34) is supported by a spring structure (44) that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure (42) fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element (74) at the front end, a larger metal main support (76) at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer (80) between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer (120) captured between the Belleville springs.

  15. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, D.T.

    1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A support is presented for use in a thermionic converted to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially at its temperatures changes. The emitter end is supported by a spring structure that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element at the front end, a large metal main support at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer captured between the Belleville springs.

  16. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Daniel T. (La Jolla, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support is provided for use in a thermionic converter to support an end an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially at its temperatures changes. The emitter end (34) is supported by a spring structure (44) that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure (42) fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element (74) at the front end, a larger metal main support (76) at the rear end that is attached to the housng, and with a ceramic layer (80) between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer (120) captured between the Belleville springs.

  17. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, D.T.

    1989-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document discusses a support provided for use in a thermionic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end is supported by a spring structure that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element at the front end, a larger metal main support at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer captured between the Belleville springs. 7 figs.

  18. Thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, D.T.

    1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a support provided for use in a therminonic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end is supported by a spring structure that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element at the front end, a larger metal main support at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer captured between the Belleville springs.

  19. Modular Power Converters for PV Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need for detailed design of new power converters for each new application or installation. One set of modules and controllers can be pre-developed and the only design question would be how many modules need to be in series or parallel for the specific power requirement. Then, a designer can put the modules together and add the intelligent reconfigurable controller. The controller determines how many modules are connected, but it might also ask for user input for the specific application during setup. The modules include protection against faults and can reset it, if necessary. In case of a power device failure, the controller reconfigures itself to continue limited operation until repair which might be as simple as taking the faulty module out and inserting a new module. The result is cost savings in design, maintenance, repair, and a grid that is more reliable and available. This concept would be a perfect fit for the recently announced funding opportunity announcement (DE-FOA-0000653) on Plug and Play Photovoltaics.

  20. Energy Savings Assessment for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  1. Compact self-contained electrical-to-optical converter/transmitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seligmann, D.A.; Moss, W.C.; Valk, T.C.; Conder, A.D.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical-to-optical converter/transmitter is disclosed. A first optical receiver and a second optical receiver are provided for receiving a calibrate command and a power switching signal, respectively, from a remote processor. A third receiver is provided for receiving an analog electrical signal from a transducer. A calibrator generates a reference signal in response to the calibrate command. A combiner mixes the electrical signal with the reference signal to form a calibrated signal. A converter converts the calibrated signal to an optical signal. A transmitter transmits the optical signal to the remote processor. A primary battery supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter. An optically-activated switch supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter in response to the power switching signal. An auxiliary battery supplies power continuously to the switch means.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: wave energy converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    release. This model has ... Sandia Funded to Model Power Pods for Utility-Scale Wave-Energy Converter On September 16, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy,...

  3. New Catalyst Converts CO2 to Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a catalyst that improves their system for converting waste carbon dioxide (CO) into syngas, a precursor of gasoline and other energy-rich products, bringing the process closer...

  4. Bi-directional dc-dc Converter

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Purpose of Work for FY08 1. Vehicle modeling, simulation, and operation voltages optimization. 2. DC-DC Power converter and control modeling. 3. Silicon Carbide device...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: current energy converter array...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    array optimization framework Current Energy Converter Array Optimization Framework On March 13, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, News, News & Events,...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: ocean energy converters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ocean energy converters DOE-Sponsored Reference Model Project Results Released On January 28, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, News, News & Events,...

  7. Intensive neutrino source on the base of lithium converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Lyashuk; Yu. S Lutostansky

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An intensive antineutrino source with a hard spectrum (with energy up to 13 MeV, average energy 6.5 MeV) can be realized on the base of beta-decay of short living isotope 8Li (0.84 s). The 8Li isotope (generated in activation of 7Li isotope) is a prime perspective antineutrino source owing to the hard antineutrino spectrum and square dependence of cross section on the energy. Up today nuclear reactors are the most intensive neutrino sources. Antineutrino reactor spectra have large uncertainties in the summary antineutrino spectrum at energy E>6 MeV. Use of 8Li isotope allows to decrease sharply the uncertainties or to exclude it completely. An intensive neutron fluxes are requested for rapid generation of 8Li isotope. The installations on the base of nuclear reactors can be an alternative for nuclear reactors as traditional neutron sources. It is possible creation of neutrino sources another in principle: on the base of tandem of accelerators, neutron generating targets and lithium converter. An intensive neutron flux (i.e., powerful neutron source) is requested for realization of considered neutrino sources (neutrino factories). Different realizations of lithium antineutrino sources (lithium converter on the base of high purified 7Li isotope) are discussed: static regime (i.e., without transport of 8Li isotope to the neutrino detector); dynamic regime (transport of 8Li isotope to the remote detector in a closed cycle); an operation of lithium converter in tandem of accelerator with a neutron-producing target on the base of tungsten, lead or bismuth. Different chemical compounds of lithium (as the substance of the converter) are considered. Heavy water solution of LiOD is proposed as a serious alternative to high-pure 7Li in a metallic state.

  8. Intensive neutrino source on the base of lithium converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Lyashuk; Yu. S Lutostansky

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An intensive antineutrino source with a hard spectrum (with energy up to 13 MeV, average energy 6.5 MeV) can be realized on the base of beta-decay of short living isotope 8Li (0.84 s). The 8Li isotope (generated in activation of 7Li isotope) is a prime perspective antineutrino source owing to the hard antineutrino spectrum and square dependence of cross section on the energy. Up today nuclear reactors are the most intensive neutrino sources. Antineutrino reactor spectra have large uncertainties in the summary antineutrino spectrum at energy E>6 MeV. Use of 8Li isotope allows to decrease sharply the uncertainties or to exclude it completely. An intensive neutron fluxes are requested for rapid generation of 8Li isotope. The installations on the base of nuclear reactors can be an alternative for nuclear reactors as traditional neutron sources. It is possible creation of neutrino sources another in principle: on the base of tandem of accelerators, neutron generating targets and lithium converter. An intensive neutron flux (i.e., powerful neutron source) is requested for realization of considered neutrino sources (neutrino factories). Different realizations of lithium antineutrino sources (lithium converter on the base of high purified 7Li isotope) are discussed: static regime (i.e., without transport of 8Li isotope to the neutrino detector); dynamic regime (transport of 8Li isotope to the remote detector in a closed cycle); an operation of lithium converter in tandem of accelerator with a neutron-producing target on the base of tungsten, lead or bismuth. Different chemical compounds of lithium (as the substance of the converter) are considered. Heavy water solution of LiOD is proposed as a serious alternative to high-pure 7Li in a metallic state.

  9. N. Mariana Islands- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The Commonwealth Utility Corporation issued a moratorium on net metering. However, Public Law 18-62 signed September 6, 2014 states that net metering should be available to all residential...

  10. Rocky Mountain Power- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho does not have a statewide net-metering policy. However, each of the state's three investor-owned utilities -- Avista Utilities, Idaho Power and Rocky Mountain Power -- has a net-metering...

  11. SCE&G- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In August 2009, the South Carolina Public Service Commission issued an order mandating net metering be made available by the regulated electric utilities; the order incorporates a net metering...

  12. One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net at the core of a zero-net-energy demonstration home designed to generate enough electricity to also power policy initiatives to advance zero net energy homes as standard practice. #12;As heat pump systems become

  13. MaxNet: Faster Flow Control Convergence Bartek P. Wydrowski, Lachlan L. H. Andrew, Iven M. Y. Mareels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lachlan

    MaxNet: Faster Flow Control Convergence Bartek P. Wydrowski, Lachlan L. H. Andrew, Iven M. Y of Melbourne, Vic, 3010, Australia Ph. +61 3 8344 3816 Fax. +61 3 8344 6678 Abstract. MaxNet is a distributed generates the congestion signal that controls the source rate. This is unlike SumNet networks

  14. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  15. Petri Nets (for Planners) ICAPS 2009 --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haslum, Patrik

    Petri Nets (for Planners) ICAPS 2009 -- Introduction 1-Safe Petri Nets: Basic Definitions Transition Systems Petri Nets Petri Nets for Planning Unfolding Transition Systems Products and Petri Nets in Product Systems Directed Unfolding Planning via Unfolding & Concurrency From Planning Problem to Petri Net

  16. High performance, close-spaced thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.S.; Britt, E.J.; Fitzpatrick, G.O.; McVey, J.B.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near ideal performance in a Thermionic Energy Converter (TEC) can be obtained using extremely small (< 10 microns) interelectrode spacings. Previous efforts to build such converters have encountered engineering problems. A new type of converter, called SAVTEC (for Self-Adjusting, Versatile Thermionic Energy Converter) has been developed at Rasor Associates, Inc., as a practical way to achieve small spacings. It has been demonstrated to deliver improved performance over conventional, ignited-mode converters. A series of individual SAVTEC's have been built and tested. Two general configurations were built: in the first a single emitter support lead (0.25 mm wire) passes through a hole in the center of the collector, with the emitter being welded to it. In the second three smaller wires replace the center wire and are welded to the emitter perimeter. These converters have shown reliable, temperature controlled spacings of the emitter and collector. Reproducible spacing of 10 microns (0.4 mils) were achieved on several converters. This paper presents details of SAVTEC converter construction and performance, including volt-ampere curves.

  17. New Power Electronics Converter Interfacing a Hybrid Dc/Ac Microgrid M. Alibeik, E. C. dos Santos Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    New Power Electronics Converter Interfacing a Hybrid Dc/Ac Microgrid M. Alibeik, E. C. dos Santos microgrid is that it has higher efficiency and lesser power conversion. In this work is proposed a new integrated power electronics converter able to connect a Distributed Generation (DG) unit with a hybrid dc

  18. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost of Natural Gas Generation, p Figure 6. Normalised NetCost of Natural Gas Generation, p Figure 7. Wait InvestCost of Natural Gas Generation (US$/kWh e ), C Figure 8.

  19. Electrical power converter method and system employing multiple output converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C. (Wauwatosa, WI); Radosevich, Lawrence D. (Muskego, WI); Meyer, Andreas A. (Richmond Heights, OH); Gollhardt, Neil (Fox Point, WI); Kannenberg, Daniel G. (Waukesha, WI)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  20. A variable parameter thermionic energy converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bragg, Bobby Joe

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Point Spacing Figure~ Power Jersus Spacing Wit?&out 'inmmum Power Point CHAPTER III THEORY OF OPERATION Brief History Vacuum diodes. The earliest known analysis and testing of therm- ionic energy converters was made on vacuum converters (i. e.... , a converter in which the interelectrode space is highly evacuated) by W. Schlicter in 1915 (2). He built a vacuum diode with a platinum emitter at 1000 0 yielding 1. 5 x 10 watt with an efficiency of about 10 $. These results, plus his analysis...

  1. A Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    providing positive net annual energy generation. These technologies may include demand response, vehicle-to-grid systems, and large-scale energy storage. Authors Elaine...

  2. New Perspectives on Wave Energy Converter Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Alexandra A E

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work examines some of the fundamental problems behind the control of wave energy converters (WECs). Several new perspectives are presented to aid the understanding of the problem and the interpretation of the ...

  3. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Druce, Robert L. (Union City, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA); Newton, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current.

  4. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  5. Road to Net Zero (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, B.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PowerPoint presentation on NREL's Research Support Facility (RSF) and the road to achieving net zero energy for new construction.

  6. Compact self-contained electrical-to-optical converter/transmitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seligmann, D.A.; Moss, W.C.; Valk, T.C.; Conder, A.D.

    1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A first optical receiver and a second optical receiver are provided for receiving a calibrate command and a power switching signal, respectively, from a remote processor. A third receiver is provided for receiving an analog electrical signal from a transducer. A calibrator generates a reference signal in response to the calibrate command. A combiner mixes the electrical signal with the reference signal to form a calibrated signal. A converter converts the calibrated signal to an optical signal. A transmitter transmits the optical signal to the remote processor. A primary battery supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter. An optically-activated switch supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter in response to the power switching signal. An auxiliary battery supplies power continuously to the switch. 13 figs.

  7. Interleaving Semantics of Petri Nets Concurrency Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Interleaving Semantics of Petri Nets Concurrency Theory Interleaving Semantics of Petri Nets Joost/47 Interleaving Semantics of Petri Nets Overview 1 Introduction 2 Basic net concepts 3 The interleaving semantics of Petri nets 4 Sequential runs 5 Summary Joost-Pieter Katoen and Thomas Noll Concurrency Theory 2

  8. Weekly Blender Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand expected toallBlender Net

  9. Improved Low-Temperature Performance of Catalytic Converters...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalytic converters, installed on vehicles with internal combustion and diesel engines, convert the toxic byproducts of combustion to less toxic compounds. In two-way (lean...

  10. acid residues converted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: - Resonant converters and related systems, such as piezoelectric transformers, may require a high of resonant converters: a series-resonant parallel-...

  11. ars projekt converted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: - Resonant converters and related systems, such as piezoelectric transformers, may require a high of resonant converters: a series-resonant parallel-...

  12. angiotensin converting enzyme-3: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: - Resonant converters and related systems, such as piezoelectric transformers, may require a high of resonant converters: a series-resonant parallel-...

  13. angiotensin converting enzyme: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: - Resonant converters and related systems, such as piezoelectric transformers, may require a high of resonant converters: a series-resonant parallel-...

  14. SEP Success Story: State Energy Program Helping Arkansans Convert...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    State Energy Program Helping Arkansans Convert to Compressed Natural Gas SEP Success Story: State Energy Program Helping Arkansans Convert to Compressed Natural Gas January 25,...

  15. Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel Enterprise converting buses to biodiesel April 1, 2010 - 6:48pm Addthis Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  16. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC���¢��������s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  17. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes 1 fey, 1David Feasibility of Achieving a ZeroNetEnergy, ZeroNetCost Homes 1 #12;2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The material reduction, by requiring design entries to meet "zero net energy" and "zero net cost" criteria

  18. EHS-Net Cooling Study EHS-Net Cooling Study Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EHS-Net Cooling Study 1 EHS-Net Cooling Study Protocol 1. Title EHS-Net Cooling Study 2. Research (EHS-Net) special study. EHS-Net is a collaboration involving the Centers for Disease Control confirmed foodborne outbreaks in the US (unpublished FoodNet data). These data clearly indicate

  19. 100kW Energy Transfer Multiplexer Power Converter Prototype Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Merrill Skeist; Richard H. (Dick) Baker; Anthony G.P. Marini; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Final Report for "100kW Energy Transfer Multiplexer Power Converter Prototype Development Project" prepared under DOE grant number DE-FG36-03GO13138. This project relates to the further development and prototype construction/evaluation for the Energy Transfer Multiplexer (ETM) power converter topology concept. The ETM uses a series resonant link to transfer energy from any phase of a multiphase input to any phase of a multiphase output, converting any input voltage and frequency to any output voltage and frequency. The basic form of the ETM converter consists of an eight (8)-switch matrix (six phase power switches and two ground power switches) and a series L-C resonant circuit. Electronic control of the switches allows energy to be transferred in the proper amount from any phase to any other phase. Depending upon the final circuit application, the switches may be either SCRs or IGBTs. The inherent characteristics of the ETM converter include the following: Power processing in either direction (bidirectional); Large voltage gain without the need of low frequency magnetics; High efficiency independent of output load and frequency; Wide bandwidth with fast transient response and; Operation as a current source. The ETM is able to synthesize true sinusoidal waveforms with low harmonic distortions. For a low power PM wind generation system, the ETM has the following characteristics and advantages: It provides voltage gain without the need of low frequency magnetics (DC inductors) and; It has constant high efficiency independent of the load. The ETM converter can be implemented into a PM wind power system with smaller size, reduced weight and lower cost. As a result of our analyses, the ETM offers wind power generation technology for the reduction of the cost and size as well as the increase in performance of low power, low wind speed power generation. This project is the further theoretical/analytical exploration of the ETM converter concept in relationship to PM wind power generator applications in the 100kW and under power range. The theoretical/analytical and bench scale work focuses on simplifying the basic ETM converter topology (in terms of parts count and complexity) for the specific application of the low power PM system. The project goals and objectives were for Spellman HV will develop a 100kW prototype ETM power converter based on paralleled lower ratings converters. The proposed configuration of this prototype is a 100kW rated converter comprised of four (4) 34kW rated modules connected in parallel (the fourth converter is included to demonstrate N+1 fault tolerance). This approach is more viable as there is lower technological risk involved in developing a 34kW-rated converter than a single 100kW unit. The modular system approach should have a lower deployment and service cost over a single unit system, because of the economics of scale (smaller units at a higher volume means lower manufacturing cost) and because of improved serviceability (a non-redundant power system with one failed module will still operate at a lower power level). There is also the added benefit that greater commercial application and acceptance should be achieved by having a modular system available in which fault tolerance (N+1 or 2N) is a feature. This modular approach would allow the output power to be increased by adding more paralleled converters. Thus, the maximum output power of the overall power system is a function of the interconnection medium (the hot swap connection subsystem), rather than the ratings of a single module. The project was implemented with Spellman HV acting as the program management and production assembly and test facility; The Baker Company acting as a technical consultant and resource when required; and dtm Associates acting as the design/development resource for the hardware development of the 100kW ETM converter prototype.

  20. 1, 275309, 2004 Net ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    respiration rates are 5 µmol m-2 s-1 . Net annual sequestration of carbon (C) was estimated at 1.7 (±0.5) ton the short intense growing season. The associated cost to the sequestration of carbon may be another C ha-1 in 2001. The net carbon exchange of the forest was extremely sensitive to small changes

  1. A DISTENSIBLETUBE WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER WITH A DISTRIBUTED POWERTAKEOFF R.C.T.Rainey, Atkins Ltd., Woodcote Grove, Epsom KT18 5BW, U.K. rod.rainey@atkinsglobal.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A DISTENSIBLETUBE WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER WITH A DISTRIBUTED POWERTAKEOFF R.C.T.Rainey, Atkins A distensibletube Wave Energy Converter (WEC) operates by converting the wave energy into "bulge waves interaction then occurs, and large bulge waves are generated, concentrating the wave energy

  2. Apparatuses and method for converting electromagnetic radiation to direct current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K; Novack, Steven D

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy conversion device may include a first antenna and a second antenna configured to generate an AC current responsive to incident radiation, at least one stripline, and a rectifier coupled with the at least one stripline along a length of the at least one stripline. An energy conversion device may also include an array of nanoantennas configured to generate an AC current in response to receiving incident radiation. Each nanoantenna of the array includes a pair of resonant elements, and a shared rectifier operably coupled to the pair of resonant elements, the shared rectifier configured to convert the AC current to a DC current. The energy conversion device may further include a bus structure operably coupled with the array of nanoantennas and configured to receive the DC current from the array of nanoantennas and transmit the DC current away from the array of nanoantennas.

  3. Towards Discovering Data Center Genome Using Sensor Nets Microsoft Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir, Yair

    en- ergy consumption. Improving data center energy efficiency is a pressing issue with significant operators lack sufficient visibility into how heat is generated, distributed, and exchanged in data centersTowards Discovering Data Center Genome Using Sensor Nets Jie Liu Microsoft Research One Microsoft

  4. Courtesy of Sandro Ierovante Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    Courtesy of Sandro Ierovante Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12;Distributed by WWW.LENSINC.NET #12

  5. Bacteria can help convert waste to power IANS 7 September 2009, 02:59pm IST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    that generate power could be used in microbial fuel cells to convert waste into electricity, according counterparts with a smooth surface. The researchers isolated a strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens which-film on the anode surface, which conducted electricity. The researchers found large quantities of pilin, a protein

  6. Stresa, Italy, 25-27 April 2007 STEP-UP CONVERTER FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC VIBRATIONAL ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    micro-machined vibration based power generator with diode based voltage multiplier (VM) circuits which the piezoceramic composite beam coupled with a flyback converter circuit and also derived the equivalent circuits and the EM vibration harvesting device. The measured and calculated results of the VM circuits for the

  7. Multi-port DC-DC Power Converter for Renewable Energy Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Hung-Ming

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. For Wind Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. For Solar Photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. For Fuel Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. On Energy Storage... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 C. Concept of Hybrid Distributed Generation System . . . . . 8 D. Benefits of Multi-port Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 E. Previous Research Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 F. Research Objective...

  8. A Hybrid Energy System Using Cascaded H-bridge Converter , Zhong Du2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    A Hybrid Energy System Using Cascaded H-bridge Converter Hui Li1 , Zhong Du2 , Kaiyu Wang1 , Leon M proposes a hybrid energy system to integrate the variable-speed wind turbine, fuel cell, and battery using generation, storage, and transmission. The power from hybrid energy systems can be combined on the dc side

  9. Characteristics of two thermionic converters with oxide collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, E.A.; Huffman, F.N.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermionic converters built with selected metal oxide coatings on their collectors have given enhanced performance at interelectrode spacings greater than 0.25 mm. The capability of such converters to operate efficiently at large interelectrode spacings is of interest for in-core thermionic power systems. Performance data are reported from one converter built with a collector having a coating of molybdenum sublimed in oxygen and a second converter containing an oxidized zirconium collector. The molybdenum oxide collector converter demonstrated enhanced performance.

  10. Electricity generation with looped transmission networks: Bidding to an ISO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferris, Michael C.

    on a transmission network from net generation nodes to net consumption nodes is governed by the Kirchoff Laws [45Electricity generation with looped transmission networks: Bidding to an ISO Xinmin Hu Daniel Ralph to model markets for delivery of electrical power on looped transmission networks. It analyzes

  11. SESILwww.nordSESIL.net NordSESIL.net

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Nord SESILwww.nordSESIL.net Many communities in the Nordic region have: · remote locations · small populations · isolated energy systems · high enegy costs · high relative energy demands (heating

  12. Abatement of Air Pollution: Distributed Generators (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the purpose of these regulations, a distributed generator is defined as any equipment that converts primary fuel, including fossil fuel and renewable fuel, into electricity or electricity and...

  13. Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    research team is using device and system modeling to design and test a next-generation solar- thermal energy converter proof-of-concept that is capable of >15%...

  14. Conformal nets II: conformal blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; André Henriques

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  15. Switched-Mode Power Converter Programmable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -line identification of converter dynamic responses [2, 5, 6], tuning of controller parameters based on identification dynamics followed by an automated algorithm to derive a controller design to meet a desired closed performance controller, an accurate parametric model is necessary. Particularly, a Z-domain transfer function

  16. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  17. Converting Centrifugal Chillers to HCFC-123 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebert, B.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of large water chillers in addressing the CFC issue. These owners, for a variety of reasons, chose to address the issue through the conversion of the existing equipment to an HCFC refrigerant. For each of the three owners, the option of converting...

  18. Thermoelectric Power Generation Allison Duh and Joel Dungan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    Thermoelectric Power Generation Allison Duh and Joel Dungan May 15, 2013 #12;Introduction A thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a device that converts heat energy directly into electrical energy. Thermoelectric systems capitalize on semiconductor charge carriers excited by a temperature difference to convert

  19. Excitation and control of a high-speed induction generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Englebretson, Steven Carl

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project investigates the use of a high speed, squirrel cage induction generator and power converter for producing DC electrical power onboard ships and submarines. Potential advantages of high speed induction generators ...

  20. Modeling of solar thermal selective surfaces and thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEnaney, Kenneth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric generator is a solid-state device that converts a heat flux into electrical power via the Seebeck effect. When a thermoelectric generator is inserted between a solar-absorbing surface and a heat sink, a ...

  1. Improvements to solar thermoelectric generators through device design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Lee A. (Lee Adragon)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) is a device which converts sunlight into electricity through the thermoelectric effect. A STEG is nominally formed when a thermoelectric generator (TEG), a type of solid state heat ...

  2. 2004 NET SYSTEM POWER CALCULATION COMMISSIONREPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2004 NET SYSTEM POWER CALCULATION COMMISSIONREPORT April 2005 CEC-300 on net system power [Senate Bill 1305, (Sher), Chapter 796, Statute of 1997]1 . Net system power in California. Net system power plays a role in California's retail disclosure program, which requires every

  3. Valley Electric Association- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Board of Directors for Valley Electric Association (VEA) approved net metering in April 2008. The rules apply to systems up to 30 kW, though owners of larger systems may be able to negotiate...

  4. Net Zero Energy Installations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, S.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A net zero energy installation (NZEI) is one that produces as much energy from on-site renewable sources as it consumes. NZEI assessment provides a systematic approach to energy projects.

  5. Austin Energy- Net Metering (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Austin Energy, the municipal utility of Austin Texas, offers net metering for renewable energy systems up to 20 kilowatts (kW) to its non-residential retail electricity customers. The definition of...

  6. Combustion converter development for topping and cogeneration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodale, D.; Lieb, D.; Miskolczy, G.; Moffat, A.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the development of combustion-heated thermionic converters. Combustion applications pose a materials problem that does not exist for thermionic converters used in the vacuum of outer space. The high-temperature components of a thermionic converter must be protected from the oxidizing terrestrial environment. A layer of silicon carbide provides the most satisfactory protective coating, or ''hot shell,'' for the emitter and lead of a combustion-heated thermionic converter. Four areas of work aimed at developing combustion heated thermionic converters will be discussed: improving the performance of the two-inch torispherical converter, modifications to the converter so that it may be used in multi-converter modules, the construction of a thermionic cogeneration test furnace, and a converter life test in an oil-fired furnace.

  7. NET-ZERO CARBON MANUFACTURING AT NET-ZERO COST Dustin Pohlman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    1 NET-ZERO CARBON MANUFACTURING AT NET-ZERO COST Dustin Pohlman Industrial Assessment Center energy in manufacturing plants that results in net-zero carbon emissions at net-zero costs. The paper begins by reviewing the economics of net- zero energy buildings and discussing why a different approach

  8. EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study 1 EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Tomato Handling Study Protocol Summary Few studies have examined in detail the nature Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) special study. EHS- Net is a collaboration involving the Centers

  9. A new control strategy to improve the performance of PWM ac to dc converter under unbalanced operating condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Shamim A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , this improved performance of the converter is not necessarily achieved. Unbalanced voltage inputs introduce a significant amount of unwanted harmonics in the input current and output voltage of the converter. These unwanted harmonics result in increased... and to develop some techniques to preserve their high performance features. This thesis. therefore. presents a new control strategy which selectively cancels the generated abnormal harmonics from the input and output waveforms without the addition of any...

  10. Evaluation of the effectiveness of shielding and filtering of HVDC converter stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallaire, R.D.; Maruvada, P.S.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by the periodic turn-on and turn-off of the valves is an important consideration in the design of HVDC converter stations. Remedial measures such as shielding the valve hall and filtering have been used in order to reduce the interference levels to acceptable values. The application of recently-developed Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC) to the problem of EMI from HVDC converter stations is investigated in this paper, with particular emphasis on evaluating the effectiveness of valve hall shielding and filtering.

  11. Thermionic converters for an Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, W.G.; Horner-Richardson, K. [Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) is a solar bimodal system which combines thermal propulsion and electric power generation in a single integrated system. A thermionic converter was designed and fabricated for the ISUS system. The ISUS thermionic energy converters differ from previous designs, due to the significant changes in operating temperature prior to and during an eclipse, with the emitter temperature increasing from 1,900 K to 2,200 K, and then back again. A complete thermal and electrical model was developed for a planar diode to determine optimum operating dimensions and parameters. The model includes an overall energy balance for the diode, and changes the interelectrode gap spacing due to thermal expansion of the parts as the emitter and/or collector temperatures change. Cesium pressure can be chosen from an external liquid reservoir, an integral reservoir using cesium intercalated into graphite attached to the collector heat pipe, or optimum cesium pressure. With optimum cesium pressure, the maximum efficiency increases from 14% to 16% as the emitter temperature increases from 1,900 K to 2,200 K. The improvement in efficiency is only 2% as the emitter temperature is increased. Optimum efficiency requires an external, actively controlled liquid reservoir.

  12. A square root analog to digital converter to optimally convert photonic signals for computed tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieniosek, Matthew (Matthew F.)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The arrival of photons at a given location is a Poisson process with an associated shot noise which rises with the square root of the number of photons received. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a square root ...

  13. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  14. A Multiphase, Modular, Bidirectional, Triple-Voltage DC-DC Converter Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical power systems in future hybrid and fuel cell vehicles may employ three voltage [14 V, 42 V, and high voltage (HV)] nets. These will be necessary to accommodate existing 14-V loads as well as efficiently handle new heavy loads at the 42-V net and a traction drive on the HV bus. A low-cost DC-DC converter was proposed for connecting the three voltage nets. It minimizes the number of switches and their associated gate driver components by using two half-bridges and a high-frequency transformer. Another salient feature is that the half bridge on the 42-V bus is also utilized to provide the 14-V bus by operating at duty ratios around an atypical value of 1/3. Moreover, it makes use of the parasitic capacitance of the switches and the transformer leakage inductance for soft switching. The use of half bridges makes the topology well suited for interleaved multiphase modular configurations as a means to increase the power level because the capacitor legs can be shared. This paper presents simulation and experimental results on an interleaved two-phase arrangement rated at 4.5 kW. Also discussed are the benefits of operating with an atypical duty ratio on the transformer and a preferred multiphase configuration to minimize capacitor ripple currents.

  15. Next generation solar bimodal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babanin, V.I.; Ender, A.Y.; Kolyshkin, I.N.; Kuznetsov, V.I.; Sitnov, V.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Paramonov, D.V. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal advantages of a solar thermal propulsion system as compared to a conventional chemical propulsion one is high specific impulse which is proportional to the square root of a propellant temperature. Obviously, next generation solar propulsion and bimodal systems must take advantage of high and ultra-high temperatures. This requires use of an appropriate energy conversion system capable to take advantage of high temperature potentially achievable in a solar receiver. High efficiency and power density of a high temperature thermionic converter open new perspectives in the development of advanced bimodal power systems having performance significantly higher than that achievable by the state-of-the-art technology. The paper presents an innovative concept of a cascaded solar bimodal power system with a high temperature Cs-Ba thermionic converter. The paper shows that the use of high temperature Knudsen cesium-barium thermionic converter in a solar bimodal system allows to eliminate thermal insulation sleeve, generate electrical power in the propulsion mode, and precise control thermal state of the solar receiver. In the Cs-Ba thermionic converter an electron instability and high amplitude current oscillations develop. These effects can be used to obtain alternate current power directly in the converter. Possibility and potential advantage of such a generator are discussed.

  16. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Patricia M; Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Hwang, Jimee; Getachew, Asefaw; Gebre, Teshome; Mosher, Aryc W; Patterson, Amy E; Shargie, Estifanos B; Tadesse, Zerihun; Wolkon, Adam; Reithinger, Richard; Emerson, Paul M; Richards, Frank O Jr

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use...

  17. Net ecosystem production: A comprehensive measure of net carbon accumulation by ecosystems. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randerson, J. T; Chapin, F. S; Harden, J. W; Neff, J. C; Harmon, M. E

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and F A. Bazzaz. August 2002 NET ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTION 1993.Net exchange of CO2 in a mid-latitude forest. ScienceN. , and E. -D. Schulze. 1999. Net CO, and H,O fluxes from

  18. import java.io.IOException; import java.net.URI;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricci, Laura

    import java.io.IOException; import java.net.URI; import java.util.Enumeration; import net.jxta.discovery.DiscoveryService; import net.jxta.document.AdvertisementFactory; import net.jxta.document.Element; import net.jxta.document.MimeMediaType; import net.jxta.document.StructuredDocument; import net.jxta.document.StructuredDocumentFactory; import

  19. Has Restructuring Improved Operating Efficiency at U.S. Electricity Generating Plants?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrizio, Kira; Rose, Nancy; Wolfram, Catherine

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in electricity generation, relative to IOU plants in stateselectricity generation sector restructuring in the United States on plant-plant over the year, measured by annual net megawatt-hours of electricity generation,

  20. Intensive neutrino source on the base of lithium converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyashuk, V I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An intensive antineutrino source with a hard spectrum (with energy up to 13 MeV, average energy 6.5 MeV) can be realized on the base of beta-decay of short living isotope 8Li (0.84 s). The 8Li isotope (generated in activation of 7Li isotope) is a prime perspective antineutrino source owing to the hard antineutrino spectrum and square dependence of cross section on the energy. Up today nuclear reactors are the most intensive neutrino sources. Antineutrino reactor spectra have large uncertainties in the summary antineutrino spectrum at energy E>6 MeV. Use of 8Li isotope allows to decrease sharply the uncertainties or to exclude it completely. An intensive neutron fluxes are requested for rapid generation of 8Li isotope. The installations on the base of nuclear reactors can be an alternative for nuclear reactors as traditional neutron sources. It is possible creation of neutrino sources another in principle: on the base of tandem of accelerators, neutron generating targets and lithium converter. An intensive neu...

  1. An economical single to three phase converter for induction motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Zerega, Philp Van Uytandaele

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are several different types of single to three phase converters for induction motors available today. However, many of the presently available phase converters suffer from disadvantages such as high cost or low performance. An economical...

  2. DOE Announces Webinars on the Wave Energy Converter Prize, the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Announces Webinars on the Wave Energy Converter Prize, the Best of the Clean Cities Tools and Resources, and More DOE Announces Webinars on the Wave Energy Converter Prize, the...

  3. Automated Synthesis Tool for Design Optimization of Power Electronic Converters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirjafari, Mehran

    2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    module-integrated photovoltaic inverter is also optimized for efficiency, volume and reliability. An actual converter is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components. The converter design is chosen as close as possible to a point obtained...

  4. An economical single to three phase converter for induction motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Zerega, Philp Van Uytandaele

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are several different types of single to three phase converters for induction motors available today. However, many of the presently available phase converters suffer from disadvantages such as high cost or low performance. An economical...

  5. Digital radix converters for high accuracy data conversion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghanta, Venkataratnam Chowdary

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sub-binary radix Digital to Analog converter(DAC) which achieves high effective resolution is demonstrated. The converter does not have any built-in-self calibration mechanisms, but achieves high resolution and accuracy through the sub...

  6. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

  7. A low-power reconfigurable analog-to-digital converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulati, Kush

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the concept, theory and design of a low power CMOS analog-to-digital converter that can digitize signals over a wide range of bandwidth and resolution with adaptive power consumption. The converter ...

  8. A transient model for a cesium vapor thermionic converter. [Cs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Murray, C.S.; Chaudhuri, S. (Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA))

    1991-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an analytical model for simulating the transient and steady-state operation of cesium vapor thermionic converters. A parametric analysis is performed to assess the transient response of the converter to changes in fission power and width of interelectrode gap. The model optimizes the converter performance for maximum electric power to the load.(AIP)

  9. Modelling and geometry optimisation of wave energy converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nørvåg, Kjetil

    Modelling and geometry optimisation of wave energy converters Adi Kurniawan Supervisors: Prof;Research questions Modelling How to develop more realistic wave energy converter (WEC) models while wave energy converter (WEC) models while at the same time reduce their simulation time? Optimisation

  10. Multiport Converter Topologies for Distributed Energy System Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawke, Joshua

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies into singular systems, there is a growing appetite for multiport converter (MPC) design. In response, three unique DER MPC topologies are presented: the power sharing converter (PSC), the multi-level nine switch converter (ML9SC), and the modular...

  11. A Dual Supply Buck Converter with Improved Light Load Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Thesis Organization.................................................................................................. 3 2. BACKGROUND OF BUCK CONVERTER ................................................................ 4 2.1 DC-DC Converter... ...................................................... 2 Fig. 2. 1. A basic DC-DC converter ................................................................................... 5 Fig. 2. 2. Basic topology of a close loop linear regulator................................................... 6 Fig. 2. 3...

  12. Method of converting an existing vehicle powertrain to a hybrid powertrain system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Castaing, Francois J. (Bloomfield Township, MI)

    2001-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting an existing vehicle powertrain including a manual transmission to a hybrid powertrain system with an automated powertrain transmission. The first step in the method of attaching a gear train housing to a housing of said manual transmission, said gear train housing receiving as end of drive shaft of said transmission and rotatably supporting a gear train assembly. Secondly, mounting an electric motor/generator to said gear train housing and attaching a motor/generator drive shaft of said electric motor/generator to said gear train assembly. Lastly, connecting an electro-mechanical clutch actuator to a friction clutch mechanism of said manual transmission.

  13. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectricity is produced by applying a temperature differential to dissimilar electrically conducting or semiconducting materials, thereby producing a voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference. Thermoelectric generators use this effect to directly convert heat into electricity; however, presently-known generators have low efficiencies due to the production of high currents which in turn cause large resistive heating losses. Some thermoelectric generators operate at efficiencies between 4% and 7% in the 800{degrees} to 1200{degrees}C range. According to its major aspects and bradly stated, the present invention is an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. In particular, the invention is a thermoelectric generator that juxtaposes a superconducting material and a semiconducting material - so that the superconducting and the semiconducting materials touch - to convert heat energy into electrical energy without resistive losses in the temperature range below the critical temperature of the superconducting material. Preferably, an array of superconducting material is encased in one of several possible configurations within a second material having a high thermal conductivity, preferably a semiconductor, to form a thermoelectric generator.

  14. Linear Programming Lower Bounds for Minimum Converter ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    generation algorithm for solving the linear relaxation of the most promising ... Keywords: Optical Networks, Wavelength Assignment, Integer Programming.

  15. NetCDF at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilverNepheline crystallization inNetCDF NetCDF

  16. Voltage balanced multilevel voltage source converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a voltage balanced multilevel converter for high power AC applications such as adjustable speed motor drives and back-to-back DC intertie of adjacent power systems. This converter provides a multilevel rectifier, a multilevel inverter, and a DC link between the rectifier and the inverter allowing voltage balancing between each of the voltage levels within the multilevel converter. The rectifier is equipped with at least one phase leg and a source input node for each of the phases. The rectifier is further equipped with a plurality of rectifier DC output nodes. The inverter is equipped with at least one phase leg and a load output node for each of the phases. The inverter is further equipped with a plurality of inverter DC input nodes. The DC link is equipped with a plurality of rectifier charging means and a plurality of inverter discharging means. The plurality of rectifier charging means are connected in series with one of the rectifier charging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of rectifier DC output nodes. The plurality of inverter discharging means are connected in series with one of the inverter discharging means disposed between and connected in an operable relationship with each adjacent pair of inverter DC input nodes. Each of said rectifier DC output nodes are individually electrically connected to the respective inverter DC input nodes. By this means, each of the rectifier DC output nodes and each of the inverter DC input nodes are voltage balanced by the respective charging and discharging of the rectifier charging means and the inverter discharging means. 15 figs.

  17. Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhiyu

    2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, a semiconducting collector and an electron emitter. The electron emitter comprises a metal nanoparticle layer or plurality of metal nanocatalyst particles disposed on one side of said separator layer. A first electrically conductive lead is electrically coupled to the electron emitter. The collector layer is disposed on the other side of the separator layer, wherein the thickness of the separator layer is less than 1 .mu.m. A second conductive lead is electrically coupled to the collector layer.

  18. convert program | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved: 5-13-14Russian NuclearNational5/%2A en Office ofcontracting |convert

  19. Power Maximization in Wave-Energy Converters Using Sampled -Data Extremum Seeking /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tianjia

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power Maximization in Wave-Energy Converters Using Sampled-design optimization of wave energy converters con- sistingN. Sahinkaya. A review of wave energy converter technology.

  20. Construction of fractal nanostructures based on Kepler-Shubnikov nets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, V. V., E-mail: valtalanov@mail.ru; Talanov, V. M. [South Russian State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of information codes for deterministic fractal lattices and sets of multifractal curves is proposed. An iterative modular design was used to obtain a series of deterministic fractal lattices with generators in the form of fragments of 2D structures and a series of multifractal curves (based on some Kepler-Shubnikov nets) having Cantor set properties. The main characteristics of fractal structures and their lacunar spectra are determined. A hierarchical principle is formulated for modules of regular fractal structures.

  1. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  2. Long Island Power Authority- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    : Note: In October 2012 the LIPA Board of Trustees adopted changes to the utility's net metering tariff that permit remote net metering for non-residential solar and wind energy systems, and farm...

  3. AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF NET INVESTMENT IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOTES AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF NET INVESTMENT IN GULF SHRIMP FISHING VESSELS1 The major capital to the Gulf shrimp fishery. The purpose of this study is to estimate an econometric model of annual real net

  4. City of St. George- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The St. George City Council adopted a [http://www.sgcity.org/wp/power/NetMeteringPolicy.pdf net-metering program for area utilities], including interconnection procedures, in October 2005.* The...

  5. Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) thermionic converter string evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, G.J.; Ramsey, W.D.; Chao, C.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A serial string of eighth (8) thermionic converters were performance tested at New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI) by Frank Wyant et al1. The tests results from the second String Thermionic Assembly Research Testbed (START II) produced less than one half the expected power based on individual converter performance tests. Seven of the eight converters were returned to Lockheed Martin Information Systems-EOS for performance evaluation. Six of the seven produced nominal performance while the seventh converter showed a drastic reduction in performance due to a cesium leak to atmosphere. Several models were proposed to explain why the individual converter performance differed so markedly from the START II serial array. This paper discusses the models, evaluates model validity and compares the models with results from a tow converter serial test using of the returned START II converters.

  6. RETI Phase 1B Final Report Update NET SHORT RECALCULATION AND NEW PV ASSUMPTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RETI Phase 1B Final Report Update NET SHORT RECALCULATION AND NEW PV ASSUMPTIONS With Revisions distributed photovoltaic (PV) installations in the Report is unclear and perhaps misleading. At the direction-generation is required. The CEC forecast assumed that 1,082 GWh will be self-generated by consumers from new PV

  7. Current Experience With Net Metering Programs Yih-huei Wan, NREL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    their consumption or install energy storage devices to maximize the value of their generation. The generating facility may be sized to match long-term energy consumption. On the other hand, customers with net purchase Boulevard Golden, Colorado, 80401-3393 USA PRESENTED AT WINDPOWER '98 Bakersfield, CA USA April 27 - May 1

  8. Intelligent Controls for Net-Zero Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Haorong; Cho, Yong; Peng, Dongming

    2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies that can empower homeowners to convert their homes into net-zero energy buildings in a cost-effective manner. The project objectives and expected outcomes are as follows: • To develop rapid and scalable building information collection and modeling technologies that can obtain and process “as-built” building information in an automated or semiautomated manner. • To identify low-cost measurements and develop low-cost virtual sensors that can monitor building operations in a plug-n-play and low-cost manner. • To integrate and demonstrate low-cost building information modeling (BIM) technologies. • To develop decision support tools which can empower building owners to perform energy auditing and retrofit analysis. • To develop and demonstrate low-cost automated diagnostics and optimal control technologies which can improve building energy efficiency in a continual manner.

  9. Feasibility of Achieving Net-Zero-Energy Net-Zero-Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Feasibility of Achieving Net- Zero-Energy Net-Zero-Cost Homes I.S. Walker, Al-Beaini, SSimjanovic,JohnStanley,BretStrogen,IainWalker FeasibilityofAchieving ZeroNetEnergy,Zero NetCostHomes #12;4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  10. Using WordNet to Extend FrameNet Coverage Richard Johansson and Pierre Nugues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nugues, Pierre

    Using WordNet to Extend FrameNet Coverage Richard Johansson and Pierre Nugues Department to address the prob- lem of sparsity in the FrameNet lexical database. The first method is based on the idea using a WordNet- based variant of the Lesk metric. The sec- ond method uses the sequence of synsets

  11. .NET DEVELOPER PROGRAM A ten-week comprehensive program covering Microsoft .NET technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    .NET DEVELOPER PROGRAM A ten-week comprehensive program covering Microsoft® .NET technologies DePaul University's .NET Developer Program is designed to provide programmers with an intensive and comprehensive introduction to all essential aspects of the technologies, techniques and principles of Microsoft .NET

  12. Algebraic Higher-Order Nets: Graphs and Petri Nets as Tokens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mossakowski, Till - Deutschen Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz & Fachbereich 3

    Algebraic Higher-Order Nets: Graphs and Petri Nets as Tokens Kathrin Hoffmann1 and Till Mossakowski 2 BISS, Department of Computer Science University of Bremen Abstract. Petri nets and Algebraic High-Level Nets are well-known to model parallel and concurrent systems. In this paper, we introduce the concept

  13. Reconfigurable Nets, a Class of High Level Petri Nets Supporting Dynamic Changes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpuente, María

    Reconfigurable Nets, a Class of High Level Petri Nets Supporting Dynamic Changes. E-mail: fjoliver@dsic.upv.es. Abstract.We introduce a class of high level Petri nets, called reconfig- urable nets, that can dynamically modify their own structure by rewrit- ing

  14. Algebraic HigherOrder Nets: Graphs and Petri Nets as Tokens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mossakowski, Till - Deutschen Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz & Fachbereich 3

    Algebraic Higher­Order Nets: Graphs and Petri Nets as Tokens Kathrin Ho#mann 1 and Till Mossakowski 2 BISS, Department of Computer Science University of Bremen Abstract. Petri nets and Algebraic High­Level Nets are well­known to model parallel and concurrent systems. In this paper, we introduce the concept

  15. Converting online algorithms to local computation algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansour, Yishay; Vardi, Shai; Xie, Ning

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a general method for converting online algorithms to local computation algorithms by selecting a random permutation of the input, and simulating running the online algorithm. We bound the number of steps of the algorithm using a query tree, which models the dependencies between queries. We improve previous analyses of query trees on graphs of bounded degree, and extend the analysis to the cases where the degrees are distributed binomially, and to a special case of bipartite graphs. Using this method, we give a local computation algorithm for maximal matching in graphs of bounded degree, which runs in time and space O(log^3 n). We also show how to convert a large family of load balancing algorithms (related to balls and bins problems) to local computation algorithms. This gives several local load balancing algorithms which achieve the same approximation ratios as the online algorithms, but run in O(log n) time and space. Finally, we modify existing local computation algorithms for hypergraph 2-color...

  16. Converting acoustic energy into useful other energy forms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Putterman, Seth J. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Barber, Bradley Paul (Northridge, CA); Hiller, Robert Anthony (Los Angeles, CA); Lofstedt, Ritva Maire Johanna (Los Angeles, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sonoluminescence is an off-equilibrium phenomenon in which the energy of a resonant sound wave in a liquid is highly concentrated so as to generate flashes of light. The conversion of sound to light represents an energy amplification of eleven orders of magnitude. The flashes which occur once per cycle of the audible or ultrasonic sound fields can be comprised of over one million photons and last for less 100 picoseconds. The emission displays a clocklike synchronicity; the jitter in time between consecutive flashes is less than fifty picoseconds. The emission is blue to the eye and has a broadband spectrum increasing from 700 nanometers to 200 nanometers. The peak power is about 100 milliWatts. The initial stage of the energy focusing is effected by the nonlinear oscillations of a gas bubble trapped in the liquid. For sufficiently high drive pressures an imploding shock wave is launched into the gas by the collapsing bubble. The reflection of the shock from its focal point results in high temperatures and pressures. The sonoluminescence light emission can be sustained by sensing a characteristic of the emission and feeding back changes into the driving mechanism. The liquid is in a sealed container and the seeding of the gas bubble is effected by locally heating the liquid after sealing the container. Different energy forms than light can be obtained from the converted acoustic energy. When the gas contains deuterium and tritium there is the feasibility of the other energy form being fusion, namely including the generation of neutrons.

  17. The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Stefan

    Nets Network Virtualization Architecture Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de 05. Februar, 2014 Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12;..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12

  18. 2006 NET SYSTEM POWER REPORT COMMISSIONREPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 2006 NET SYSTEM POWER REPORT COMMISSIONREPORT April 2007 CEC-300 This report provides the California Energy Commission's annual calculation of net system power as required by state law (Public Utilities Code, § 398.1 - 398.5). The report also defines net system power

  19. Representations of Petri net interactions Pawel Sobocinski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobocinski, Pawel

    Representations of Petri net interactions Pawel Soboci´nski ECS, University of Southampton, UK Abstract. We introduce a novel compositional algebra of Petri nets, as well as a stateful extension In part owing to their intuitive graphical representation, Petri nets [28] are of- ten used both

  20. Generalised Soundness of Workflow Nets is Decidable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorova, Natalia

    Generalised Soundness of Workflow Nets is Decidable Kees van Hee, Natalia Sidorova, and Marc investigate the decidability of the problem of generalised soundness for Workflow nets: ``Every marking with considering simple correctness criteria for Workflow nets and reduce them to the check of structural

  1. NET SYSTEM POWER: A SMALL SHARE OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NET SYSTEM POWER: A SMALL SHARE OF CALIFORNIA'S POWER MIX IN 2005 the California Energy Commission's annual calculation of net system power as required by state law (Public Utilities Code, § 398.1 - 398.5). The report also defines net system power and explains how

  2. A three-phase converter model for harmonic analysis of HVDC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W.; Drakos, J.E.; Mansour, Y.; Chang, A. (B.C. Hydro, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada))

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An equivalent circuit model is presented to model bridge converters for three-phase HVDC harmonic power flow analysis. The validity and accuracy of the model are verified by comparing simulation results against field test results. The model is interfaced with a multiphase harmonic load flow program to investigate the generation of non-characteristic harmonics from HVDC links and the flow of HVDC harmonics in a real system.

  3. EXTENDED SIMPLE COLORED PETRI NETS: A TOOL FOR PLANT SIMULATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coglio, Alessandro

    EXTENDED SIMPLE COLORED PETRI NETS: A TOOL FOR PLANT SIMULATION Antonio Camurri and Alessandro, I­16145 Genova, Italy {music, tokamak}@dist.unige.it ABSTRACT Extended Simple Colored Petri Nets (ESCP­nets) are a new class of High­level Petri Nets conceived as a good trade­off between Petri Nets (P­nets

  4. FY 2002 Generation Audited Accumulated Net Revenues, February 10, 2003

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-lFederalFY 2008 FOIA - Request1 02/10/03 February

  5. FY 2003 Generation Audited Accumlated Net Revenues, March 2004

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-lFederalFY 2008 FOIA - Request1 02/10/03

  6. DIAGNOSING, BENCHMARKING AND TRANSFORMING THE LEED CERTIFIED FIU SIPA BUILDING INTO A NET-ZERO-ENERGY BUILDING (NET-ZEB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pala, Nezih

    INTO A NET-ZERO-ENERGY BUILDING (NET-ZEB) Thomas Spiegelhalter Florida International University-neutral or Net-Zero-Energy buildings until 2030. (1) The topic of Net-Zero-Energy-Buildings (Net-ZEBs) has the performance with passive and active strategies towards a Net-Zero-Energy Building. (Fig. 1, 2) 1.1 SIPA

  7. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  8. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  9. Design of series-parallel connected thermionic converter arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcvey, J.B.; Britt, E.J.; Fitzpatrick, G.O.; Dick, R.S.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applications of thermionic converters require that a large number of converters be connected together in a series-parallel array in order to provide a useful output voltage. Such an array also serves to insure a very high overall system reliability, despite possible failures of individual converters. This paper predicts the effects of a nonuniform distribution of input power on the performance of such an array. 9 refs.

  10. 480 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 22, NO. 2, MARCH 2007 Three-Port Bidirectional Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    variations, the converter regulates this extra power flow from or to the energy storage element. Furthermore regulates the energy flow between the fuel cell generator, an energy storage device, and the load. Fig. 2 a three-winding transformer and bidirectional high-frequency switching bridges. Full H-bridges are shown

  11. Intentional Islanded Operation of Converter Fed Microgrids Charles K. Sao, Student Member, IEEE, and Peter W. Lehn, Member, IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehn, Peter W.

    . INTRODUCTION Many new distributed power sources, such as wind turbine generators and fuel cells, do is determined by the reactive power balance. Such steady state relations have been identified in the literature, and Peter W. Lehn, Member, IEEE Abstract-- This paper develops a dynamic model of a converter fed is- landed

  12. acid change converts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission, Distribution and Plants Websites Summary: converters can optimize the number of levels by using H bridges scaled in power of three. The shortcoming, the faulty...

  13. Sandia Energy - Sandia, NREL Release Wave Energy Converter Modeling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia, NREL Release Wave Energy Converter Modeling and Simulation Code: WEC-Sim Home Renewable Energy Energy Water Power Partnership News News & Events Computational Modeling &...

  14. DOE Announces Webinars on the Wave Energy Converter Prize, the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    24: Live Webinar on the Administration of the Wave Energy Converter Prize Funding Opportunity Announcement Webinar Sponsor: EERE Water Power Program The Energy Department will...

  15. Researchers hope better catalysts lead to better ways of converting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers hope better catalysts lead to better ways of converting biomass to fuel By Jared Sagoff * August 7, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - Scientists and entrepreneurs...

  16. ac to dc converters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to use solid state Inverters(DC to AC converters) to have a variable voltage, fixed or variable frequency power source available for industrial applications. With advancements...

  17. active npc converter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Transformer Engineering Websites Summary: converters as distribution transformers 1. A power electronics-based solid state transformer (SST) providesAc-Ac Dual...

  18. alcohol angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: Topics by E...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    complications. There is no specific treatment for membranous nephropathy. Supportive care with the use of diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in combination...

  19. The origin of net electric currents in solar active regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalmasse, K; Démoulin, P; Kliem, B; Török, T; Pariat, E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a recurring question in solar physics about whether or not electric currents are neutralized in active regions (ARs). This question was recently revisited using three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations of magnetic flux emergence into the solar atmosphere. Such simulations showed that flux emergence can generate a substantial net current in ARs. Another source of AR currents are photospheric horizontal flows. Our aim is to determine the conditions for the occurrence of net vs. neutralized currents with this second mechanism. Using 3D MHD simulations, we systematically impose line-tied, quasi-static, photospheric twisting and shearing motions to a bipolar potential magnetic field. We find that such flows: (1) produce both {\\it direct} and {\\it return} currents, (2) induce very weak compression currents - not observed in 2.5D - in the ambient field present in the close vicinity of the current-carrying field, and (3) can generate force-free magnetic fields with a net current...

  20. Integrated Solar Power Converters: Wafer-Level Sub-Module Integrated DC/DC Converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar ADEPT Project: CU-Boulder is developing advanced power conversion components that can be integrated into individual solar panels to improve energy yields. The solar energy that is absorbed and collected by a solar panel is converted into useable energy for the grid through an electronic component called an inverter. Many large, conventional solar energy systems use one, central inverter to convert energy. CU-Boulder is integrating smaller, microinverters into individual solar panels to improve the efficiency of energy collection. The University’s microinverters rely on electrical components that direct energy at high speeds and ensure that minimal energy is lost during the conversion process—improving the overall efficiency of the power conversion process. CU-Boulder is designing its power conversion devices for use on any type of solar panel.

  1. (In press). In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Identity. MacArthur Series on Digital Media and Learning. Questioning The Generational Divide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herring, Susan

    (In press). In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Identity. MacArthur Series on Digital Media and Learning there is little doubt that young people will determine the future of digital media, if only by virtue of growing the "Net Generation," "NetGen," "Generation i," the "Digital Generation," or the "Millenials") socializes

  2. Spin Seebeck power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahaya, Adam B.; Tretiakov, O. A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Bauer, Gerrit E. W. [Institute for Materials Research and WPI-AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kavli Institute of NanoScience, TU Delft Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive expressions for the efficiency and figure of merit of two spin caloritronic devices based on the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), i.e., the generation of spin currents by a temperature gradient. The inverse spin Hall effect is conventionally used to detect the SSE and offers advantages for large area applications. We also propose a device that converts spin current into electric one by means of a spin-valve detector, which scales favorably to small sizes and approaches a figure of merit of 0.5 at room temperature.

  3. A microfabricated ElectroQuasiStatic induction turbine-generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steyn, J. Lodewyk (Jasper Lodewyk), 1976-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ElectroQuasiStatic (EQS) induction machine has been fabricated and has generated net electric power. A maximum power output of 192 [mu]W at 235 krpm has been measured under driven excitation of the six phases. Self ...

  4. , Analysis of U.S. Net Metering and Interconnection Policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, Rusty; Cook, Chris

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, the absence of interconnection standards has been one of the primary barriers to the deployment of distributed generation (DG) in the United States. Although significant progress in the development of interconnection standards was achieved at both the federal and state levels in 2005, interconnection policy and net-metering policy continue to confound regulators, lawmakers, DG businesses, clean-energy advocates and consumers. For this reason it is critical to keep track of developments related to these issues. The North Carolina Solar Center (NCSC) is home to two Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) projects -- the National Interconnection Project and the Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE). This paper will present the major federal and state level policy developments in interconnection and net metering in 2005 and early 2006. It will also present conclusions based an analysis of data collected by these two projects.

  5. Advanced Gate Drive for the SNS High Voltage Converter Modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, M.N.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC; Anderson, D.E.; /Oak Ridge

    2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is developing a next generation H-bridge switch plate [1], a critical component of the SNS High Voltage Converter Modulator [2]. As part of that effort, a new IGBT gate driver has been developed. The drivers are an integral part of the switch plate, which are essential to ensuring fault-tolerant, high-performance operation of the modulator. The redesigned driver improves upon the existing gate drive in several ways. The new gate driver has improved fault detection and suppression capabilities; suppression of shoot-through and over-voltage conditions, monitoring of dI/dt and Vce(sat) for fast over-current detection and suppression, and redundant power isolation are some of the added features. In addition, triggering insertion delay is reduced by a factor of four compared to the existing driver. This paper details the design and performance of the new IGBT gate driver. A simplified schematic and description of the construction are included. The operation of the fast over-current detection circuits, active IGBT over-voltage protection circuit, shoot-through prevention circuitry, and control power isolation breakdown detection circuit are discussed.

  6. Modeling of thin-film solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Lee Adragon

    Recent advances in solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) performance have raised their prospect as a potential technology to convert solar energy into electricity. This paper presents an analysis of thin-film STEGs. ...

  7. A thermally efficient micro-reactor for thermophotovoltaic power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Ole Mattis, 1977-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon fuels exhibit very high energy densities, and micro-generators converting the stored chemical energy into electrical power are interesting alternatives to batteries in certain applications. The increasing demands ...

  8. Co-Generation at a Practical Plant Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feuell, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Steam Turbine: A basic description of how a steam turbine converts available heat into mechanical energy to define the formulae used for the cost comparisons in the subsequent examples. Co-Generation: Comparison between condensing cycle...

  9. Co-Generation at a Practical Plant Level 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feuell, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Steam Turbine: A basic description of how a steam turbine converts available heat into mechanical energy to define the formulae used for the cost comparisons in the subsequent examples. Co-Generation: Comparison between condensing cycle...

  10. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew (Clifton Park, NY); Steigerwald, Robert Louis (Burnt Hills, NY); Delgado, Eladio Clemente (Burnt Hills, NY)

    2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  11. Way to reduce arc voltage losses in hybrid thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tskhakaya, V.K.; Yarygin, V.I.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are reported concerning the output and emission characteristics of the arc and hybrid regimes in a plane-parallel thermionic converter with Pt--Zr--O electrode pair. It is shown that arc voltage losses can be reduced to values below those obtainable in ordinary arc thermionic converters.

  12. Drive System for Traction Applications Using 81-Level Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    of frequency converter. Keywords: vehicle power electronics, vehicle motor drives. I. INTRODUCTION Power Electronics technologies contribute with important part in the development of electric vehicles. On the otherDrive System for Traction Applications Using 81-Level Converter Juan W. Dixon, Micah E. Ortúzar

  13. Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    NOx - 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;NOx - 2 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST INTRODUCTION Automobile engines

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    functions of these peptides derived from milk proteins are antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme antioxidant activities of the peptides have been observed as chelation of transition metals and scavengingORIGINAL PAPER Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of yoghurt

  15. The frequency dependent impedance of an HVdc converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A.R.; Arrillaga, J. [Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)] [Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A linear and direct method of determining the frequency dependent impedance of a 12 pulse HVdc converter is presented. Terms are developed for both the dc and ac side impedances of the converter, including the effect of the firing angle control system, the commutation period, and the variability of the commutation period. The impedance predictions are verified by dynamic simulation.

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 33, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1997 1203 Design of a Low-Input-Voltage Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bornemann, Jens

    of a thermoelectric generator (TEG). A design of a self-starting dc­dc converter is developed and optimized for very, an independent and reliable power source is needed. One solution is to use a thermoelectric generator (TEG the application, a large array of high-performance TEG's would be needed. With a single high-performance module

  17. Resonant behaviour of an oscillating wave energy converter in a channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Renzi; F. Dias

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model is developed to study the behaviour of an oscillating wave energy converter in a channel. During recent laboratory tests in a wave tank, peaks in the hydrodynamic actions on the converter occurred at certain frequencies of the incident waves. This resonant mechanism is known to be generated by the transverse sloshing modes of the channel. Here the influence of the channel sloshing modes on the performance of the device is further investigated. Within the framework of a linear inviscid potential-flow theory, application of the Green theorem yields a hypersingular integral equation for the velocity potential in the fluid domain. The solution is found in terms of a fast-converging series of Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. The physical behaviour of the system is then analysed, showing sensitivity of the resonant sloshing modes to the geometry of the device, that concurs in increasing the maximum efficiency. Analytical results are validated with available numerical and experimental data.

  18. Resonant behaviour of an oscillating wave energy converter in a channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renzi, E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model is developed to study the behaviour of an oscillating wave energy converter in a channel. During recent laboratory tests in a wave tank, peaks in the hydrodynamic actions on the converter occurred at certain frequencies of the incident waves. This resonant mechanism is known to be generated by the transverse sloshing modes of the channel. Here the influence of the channel sloshing modes on the performance of the device is further investigated. Within the framework of a linear inviscid potential-flow theory, application of the Green theorem yields a hypersingular integral equation for the velocity potential in the fluid domain. The solution is found in terms of a fast-converging series of Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. The physical behaviour of the system is then analysed, showing sensitivity of the resonant sloshing modes to the geometry of the device, that concurs in increasing the maximum efficiency. Analytical results are validated with available numerical and experimental d...

  19. Calculation of HVDC converter noncharacteristic harmonics using digital time-domain simulation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarshar, A. [Trench Electric, Scarborough, Ontario (Canada)] [Trench Electric, Scarborough, Ontario (Canada); Iravani, M.R.; Li, J. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, noncharacteristic harmonics of an HVdc converter station are calculated based on the use of digital time-domain simulation methods. An enhanced version of the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) is used for the studies. The noncharacteristic harmonics of interest are (1) the dc side triplen harmonics, and (2) the ac side second harmonic. Impacts of loading conditions, neutral filter, and converter firing angle on the dc side triplen harmonics are discussed. Effects of ac side network parameters, static VAR compensator (SVC), transformer half-cycle saturation, and Geomagnetically Induced Current (GIC) on the ac side second harmonic instability are also presented. This paper concludes that the digital time-domain simulation method provides significant flexibility for accurate prediction of (1) generation mechanism, and (2) adverse impacts of HVdc noncharacteristic harmonics.

  20. City of Danville- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A customer may begin operation of their renewable energy generator once the conditions of interconnection have been met. These include:

  1. StreamNet; Northwest Aquatic Information Network, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Bruce (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Portland, OR); Roger, Phil (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR); Butterfield, Bart (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    StreamNet is a cooperative data compilation, development, and distribution project involving the state, tribal and federal fish and wildlife agencies in the Columbia River basin. It is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) through the Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), and is administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC). The project is organized to perform three broad functions: Agency support: The project supports staff in the Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington state fish and wildlife agencies; the Columbia River Inter Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC); and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) who locate, obtain, quality check and format specific types of fish related data. They convert these data into a standard data exchange format (DEF) and submit them, with references, to the regional StreamNet office. Regional Support: The regional component of StreamNet at PSMFC administers the project, coordinates with the FWP and other regional entities, and disseminates data regionally. As data are received from cooperators they are again quality checked then imported into the StreamNet database. Access to the data is provided on-line via a tabular data query system and interactive map applications at www.streamnet.org. The web site also provides access to independent data sets from other projects, pre-sorted data sets useful for specific purposes (such as for a recent pesticide spraying ruling or subbasin assessments), and general fish information for education purposes. Reference Support: The StreamNet Library, located at CRITFC, maintains access to all reference documents supporting the data in the StreamNet database, and provides full library services for patrons interested in fish and wildlife in the Pacific Northwest. The StreamNet Library also maintains probably the largest collection of agency gray literature related to fish and wildlife resources in the basin. The library participates in the Inter Library Loan program, and can exchange literature worldwide. This report summarizes StreamNet Project activities during fiscal year 2004 (FY-04). Detailed descriptions of accomplishments by individual objective and task are provided in the Project's quarterly progress reports, available on the reports and publications page of the StreamNet web site.

  2. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  3. Farmington Electric Utility System- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Net metering rules developed by the New Mexico Public Regulation Commission (PRC) apply to the state's investor-owned utilities and electric cooperatives. Municipal utilities, which are not...

  4. Boost Converters for Gas Electric and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, JW

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are driven by at least two prime energy sources, such as an internal combustion engine (ICE) and propulsion battery. For a series HEV configuration, the ICE drives only a generator, which maintains the state-of-charge (SOC) of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. For a parallel HEV configuration, the ICE is mechanically connected to directly drive the wheels as well as the generator, which likewise maintains the SOC of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. Today the prime energy source is an ICE; tomorrow it will very likely be a fuel cell (FC). Use of the FC eliminates a direct drive capability accentuating the importance of the battery charge and discharge systems. In both systems, the electric traction motor may use the voltage directly from the batteries or from a boost converter that raises the voltage. If low battery voltage is used directly, some special control circuitry, such as dual mode inverter control (DMIC) which adds a small cost, is necessary to drive the electric motor above base speed. If high voltage is chosen for more efficient motor operation or for high speed operation, the propulsion battery voltage must be raised, which would require some type of two-quadrant bidirectional chopper with an additional cost. Two common direct current (dc)-to-dc converters are: (1) the transformer-based boost or buck converter, which inverts a dc voltage, feeds the resulting alternating current (ac) into a transformer to raise or lower the voltage, and rectifies it to complete the conversion; and (2) the inductor-based switch mode boost or buck converter [1]. The switch-mode boost and buck features are discussed in this report as they operate in a bi-directional chopper. A benefit of the transformer-based boost converter is that it isolates the high voltage from the low voltage. Usually the transformer is large, further increasing the cost. A useful feature of the switch mode boost converter is its simplicity. Its inductor must handle the entire current, which is responsible for its main cost. The new Z-source inverter technology [2,3] boosts voltage directly by actively using the zero state time to boost the voltage. In the traditional pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter, this time is used only to control the average voltage by disconnecting the supply voltage from the motor. The purpose of this study is to examine the Z-source's potential for reducing the cost and improving the reliability of HEVs.

  5. Zero-Safe Nets: Modeling Transactions via Transition Synchronization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruni, Roberto

    Zero-Safe Nets: Modeling Transactions via Transition Synchronization Roberto Bruni and Ugo of the same zero-safe net. Zero-safe nets (ZS nets) have been introduced in [BM97] to provide a basic called stable places), ZS nets include a set of zero places. These are idealized resources that remain in

  6. Presented by SensorNet: The New Science of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. Department of Energy DeNap_SensorNet_SC10 SensorNet Collection Processing DisseminationSecurity Knowledge requirements Regulations Technology Intelligent Real world #12;3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy DeNap_SensorNet_SC10 SensorNet SensorNet is ORNL's research in sensor network interoperability

  7. Overfitting in Neural Nets: Backpropagation, Conjugate Gradient, and Early Stopping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caruana, Rich

    Overfitting in Neural Nets: Backpropagation, Conjugate Gradient, and Early Stopping Rich Caruana is that backprop nets with excess hidden units generalize poorly. We show that nets with excess capacity generalize) Regardless of size, nets learn task subcomponents in similar sequence. Big nets pass through stages similar

  8. Partial Order Semantics of Types of Nets Robert Lorenz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desel, Jörg

    Partial Order Semantics of Types of Nets Robert Lorenz1 , Gabriel Juh´as2 , and Sebastian Mauser3 1 of types of nets. Types of nets are a parametric definition of Petri nets originally developed for a general presentation of the synthesis of Petri nets from (step) transition systems. Partial order

  9. Structural and Dynamic Changes in Concurrent Systems: Reconfigurable Petri Nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpuente, María

    Structural and Dynamic Changes in Concurrent Systems: Reconfigurable Petri Nets Marisa Llorens subject to dynamic changes using extensions of Petri nets. We begin by introducing the notion of net rewriting system. In a net rewriting system, a system configuration is described as a Petri net and a change

  10. Executability of Scenarios in Petri Nets Robert Lorenz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desel, Jörg

    Executability of Scenarios in Petri Nets Robert Lorenz Lehrstuhl f¨ur Angewandte Informatik whether a scenario is an execution of a Petri net. This holds for a wide variety of Petri net classes, ranging from elementary nets to general inhibitor nets. Scenarios are given by causal structures

  11. Effect on Non-Uniform Heat Generation on Thermionic Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The penalty resulting from non-uniform heat generation in a thermionic reactor is examined. Operation at sub-optimum cesium pressure is shown to reduce this penalty, but at the risk of a condition analogous to burnout. For high pressure diodes, a simple empirical correlation between current, voltage and heat flux is developed and used to analyze the performance penalty associated with two different heat flux profiles, for series-and parallel-connected converters. The results demonstrate that series-connected converters require much finer power flattening than parallel converters. For example, a ±10% variation in heat generation across a series array can result in a 25 to 50% power penalty.

  12. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in moving air into rotational energy, which in turn is converted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in moving air into rotational energy, which in turn is converted to electricity. Since wind speeds vary from month to month and second to second, the amount of electricity wind can make varies constantly. Sometimes a wind turbine will make no power at all

  13. EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study 1 EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol I. Project Overview Title EHS-Net Hand Hygiene Study Protocol Summary Good hand hygiene is of critical importance in preventing of personal hygiene policies and practices in food service establishments. The purpose of this study

  14. Magnet Technology for Power Converters: Nanocomposite Magnet Technology for High Frequency MW-Scale Power Converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar ADEPT Project: CMU is developing a new nanoscale magnetic material that will reduce the size, weight, and cost of utility-scale PV solar power conversion systems that connect directly to the grid. Power converters are required to turn the energy that solar power systems create into useable energy for the grid. The power conversion systems made with CMU’s nanoscale magnetic material have the potential to be 150 times lighter and significantly smaller than conventional power conversion systems that produce similar amounts of power.

  15. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that the cost of electricity generated by home generation technologies will continue to exceed the price of US grid electricity in almost all locations. Strategies to minimize whole-house energy demand generally involve some combination of the following measures: optimization of surface (area) to volume ratio; optimization of solar orientation; reduction of envelope loads; systems-based engineering of high efficiency HVAC components, and on-site power generation. A 'Base Case' home energy model was constructed, to enable the team to quantitatively evaluate the merits of various home energy efficiency measures. This Base Case home was designed to have an energy use profile typical of most newly constructed homes in the Champaign-Urbana, Illinois area, where the competition is scheduled to be held. The model was created with the EnergyGauge USA software package, a front-end for the DOE-2 building energy simulation tool; the home is a 2,000 square foot, two-story building with an unconditioned basement, gas heating, a gas hot-water heater, and a family of four. The model specifies the most significant details of a home that can impact its energy use, including location, insulation values, air leakage, heating/cooling systems, lighting, major appliances, hot water use, and other plug loads. EFHC contestants and judges should pay special attention to the Base Case model's defined 'service characteristics' of home amenities such as lighting and appliances. For example, a typical home refrigerator is assumed to have a built-in freezer, automatic (not manual) defrost, and an interior volume of 26 cubic feet. The Base Case home model is described in more detail in Section IV and Appendix B.

  16. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations Carl S. Kirby a,*, Charles A. Cravotta III b,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, Carl S.

    Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations Carl S. Kirby a,*, Charles A. Cravotta of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (=Ã?net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral p in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity

  17. 3-Port Single-Stage PV & Battery Converter Improves Efficiency and Cost in Combined PV/Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundschuh, Paul [Ideal Power

    2013-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to impressive cost reductions in recent years, photovoltaic (PV) generation is now able to produce electricity at highly competitive prices, but PV’s inherent intermittency reduces the potential value of this energy. The integration of battery storage with PV will be transformational by increasing the value of solar. Utility scale systems will benefit by firming intermittency including PV ramp smoothing, grid support and load shifting, allowing PV to compete directly with conventional generation. For distributed grid-tied PV adding storage will reduce peak demand utility charges, as well as providing backup power during power grid failures. The largest long term impact of combined PV and battery systems may be for delivering reliable off-grid power to the billions of individuals globally without access to conventional power grids, or for billions more that suffer from daily power outages. PV module costs no longer dominate installed PV system costs. Balance-of-System (BOS) costs including the PV inverter and installation now contribute the majority of installed system costs. Battery costs are also dropping faster than installation and battery power converter systems. In each of these separate systems power converters have become a bottleneck for efficiency, cost and reliability. These bottlenecks are compounded in hybrid power conversion systems that combine separate PV and battery converters. Hybrid power conversion systems have required multiple power converters hardware units and multiple power conversion steps adding to efficiency losses, product and installation costs, and reliability issues. Ideal Power Converters has developed and patented a completely new theory of operation for electronic power converters using its indirect EnergyPacket Switching™ topology. It has established successful power converter products for both PV and battery systems, and its 3-Port Hybrid Converter is the first product to exploit the topology’s capability for the industry’s first single-stage multi-port hybrid power converter. This unique low cost approach eliminates the hybrid power conversion bottlenecks when integrating batteries into PV systems. As result this product will significantly accelerate market adoption of these systems.

  18. Net Benefits to Agriculture from the Trinity River Project, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, B.; Williford, G.; Elling, H.; Lacewell, R. D.; Hosch, P.; Griffin, W.; Reddell, D. L.; Hiler, E. A.; Bausch, W.

    by applying published seasonal flood damage factors and flood frequency as developed from a producer survey to annual gross returns. Annual net benefits were calculated as net returns with flood protection less net returns without flood protection...

  19. New constraints on Northern Hemisphere growing season net flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AL. : LARGER NORTH HEMISPHERE NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE L12807AL. : LARGER NORTH HEMISPHERE NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE Levin,Northern Hemisphere growing season net flux Z. Yang, 1 R. A.

  20. A .NET ASSEMBLY FOR EPICS SIMPLE CHANNEL ACCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timossi, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application Development Using .NET”, PCAPAC [5] H. NishimuraA .NET ASSEMBLY FOR EPICS SIMPLE CHANNEL ACCESS* C. Timossi,interface software using the .NET platform and the C#

  1. EPICS SCA CLIENTS ON THE .NET X64 PLATFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timossi, Chris; Nishimura, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPICS SCA CLIENTS ON THE .NET X64 PLATFORM* C. Timossi 1 andAbstract We have developed a .NET assembly, which we callCa.dll) are categorized by .NET as unmanaged because they

  2. Supported by GreenNet-EU27

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueiredo Integration costs of wind due to changed system operation and investment decisions in GermanySupported by GreenNet-EU27 EIE/04/049/S07.38561 GreenNet-EU27 GUIDING A LEAST COST GRID INTEGRATION cost and grid extension cost caused by intermittent RES-E grid integration Derk Jan Swider (Ed

  3. THalumni.net Trinity Hall's online community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasenby, Joan

    THalumni.net Trinity Hall's online community Joining THalumni.net allows members to: · Check or location and send a private message to other Trinity Hall members. · Join the careers directory if you or loca- tion and send Trinity Hall members a private message. · Book and pay for events online and see

  4. Ion trapping in the emitter sheath in thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundgren, L.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of ion trapping in the emitter sheath in ignited thermionic converters is studied. The ion trapping prevents the emitter-sheath barrier from being higher than approximately 0.1 eV, when the current decreases in the converter. This gives a condition for the constriction of the arc. I-V curves are calculated for an ignited thermionic converter with a hydrodynamic plasma theory that takes into account the effect of Coulomb scattering and volume recombination, but assumes that the electron temperature is constant in the plasma.

  5. Design and operation of a thermionic converter in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, M.H.; Begg, L.L.; Smith, J.N. Jr. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Geller, C.B.; Kallnowski, J.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., West Mifflin, PA (United States). Bettis Atomic Power Lab.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically heated thermionic converter has been designed, built and successfully tested in air. Several unique features were incorporated in this converter: an integral cesium reservoir, innovative ceramic-to-metal seals, a heat rejection system coupling the collector to a low temperature heat sink and an innovative cylindrical heater filament. The converter was operated for extended periods of time with the emitter at about 1900 K. the collector at about 700 K, and a power density of over 2 w(e)/sq. cm. Input power transients were run between 50% and 100% thermal power, at up to 1% per second, without instabilities in performance.

  6. Prediction of core saturation instability at an HVDC converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, R.S. [Teshmont Consultants, Inc., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)] [Teshmont Consultants, Inc., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Fuchshuber, C.F. [Alberta Power Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)] [Alberta Power Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Woodford, D.A. [Manitoba HVDC Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)] [Manitoba HVDC Research Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Gole, A.M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)] [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Core saturation instability has occurred on several HVDC schemes resulting from interactions between second harmonic and dc quantities (voltages and currents) on the ac side of the converter and fundamental frequency quantities on the dc side of the converter. The instability can be reinforced by unbalanced saturation of the converter transformers. The paper presents an analytical method which can be used to quickly screen ac and dc system operating conditions to predict where core saturation instability is likely to occur. Analytical results have been confirmed using the digital transients simulation program PSCAD/EMTDC.

  7. Biogeosciences, 4, 597612, 2007 www.biogeosciences.net/4/597/2007/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of 6.1 TgC yr-1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous­2002) of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution) at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon

  8. Net Zero Design Yields Positive Results "Net zero" is used to describe a building designed to provide as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Net Zero Design Yields Positive Results "Net zero" is used to describe a building designed federal buildings in the planning process as of 2020 or later must be designed to meet net zero standards

  9. Energy Department Helps University of California Develop Net...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Transition Initiative Energy Department Helps University of California Develop Net-Zero Campus Energy Department Helps University of California Develop Net-Zero Campus...

  10. Best Practices for Controlling Capital Costs in Net Zero Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Best Practices for Controlling Capital Costs in Net Zero Energy Design and Construction - 2014 BTO Peer Review Best Practices for Controlling Capital Costs in Net Zero Energy...

  11. Designing Hawaii's First LEED Platinum Net Zero Community: Kaupuni...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designing Hawaii's First LEED Platinum Net Zero Community: Kaupuni Village Designing Hawaii's First LEED Platinum Net Zero Community: Kaupuni Village U.S. Department of Energy...

  12. Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations Presentation at Waste-to-Energy using...

  13. NREL: Continuum Magazine - Net-Zero Building Technologies Create...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Issue 6 Print Version Share this resource Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings...

  14. Aspinall Courthouse: GSA's Historic Preservation and Net-Zero...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aspinall Courthouse: GSA's Historic Preservation and Net-Zero Renovation Aspinall Courthouse: GSA's Historic Preservation and Net-Zero Renovation Aspinall Courthouse: GSA's...

  15. Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy...

  16. U-074: Microsoft .NET Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4: Microsoft .NET Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Commands, Access User Accounts, and Redirect Users U-074: Microsoft .NET Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Commands,...

  17. US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports Source: Energy Information Administration Short Term Energy Outlook. Chart by Daniel...

  18. assessing bed net: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Net Environmental Benefit Analysis: A New Assessment Methodology R. A. Efroymson 4 Assessing Debris Flow Hazard by Credal Nets A. Antonucci1 Computer Technologies and...

  19. Design, status and first operations of the spallation neutron source polyphase resonant converter modulator system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reass, W. A. (William A.); Apgar, S. E. (Sean E.); Baca, D. M. (David M.); Doss, James D.; Gonzales, J. (Jacqueline); Gribble, R. F. (Robert F.); Hardek, T. W. (Thomas W.); Lynch, M. T. (Michael T.); Rees, D. E. (Daniel E.); Tallerico, P. J. (Paul J.); Trujillo, P. B. (Pete B.); Anderson, D. E. (David E.); Heidenreich, D. A. (Dale A.); Hicks, J. D. (Jim D.); Leontiev, V. N.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a new 1.4 MW average power beam, 1 GeV accelerator being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator requires 15 converter-modulator stations each providing between 9 and 11 MW pulses with up to a 1 .I MW average power. The converter-modulator can be described as a resonant 20 kHz polyphase boost inverter. Each converter modulator derives its buss voltage from a standard substation cast-core transformer. Each substation is followed by an SCR pre-regulator to accommodate voltage changes from no load to full load, in addition to providing a soft-start function. Energy storage is provided by self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene traction capacitors. These capacitors do not fail short, but clear any internal anomaly. Three 'H-Bridge' IGBT transistor networks are used to generate the polyphase 20 kHz transformer primary drive waveforms. The 20 kHz drive waveforms are time-gated to generate the desired klystron pulse width. Pulse width modulation of the individual 20 lcHz pulses is utilized to provide regulated output waveforms with DSP based adaptive feedforward and feedback techniques. The boost transformer design utilizes nanocrystalline alloy that provides low core loss at design flux levels and switching frequencies. Capacitors are used on the transformer secondary networks to resonate the leakage inductance. The transformers are wound for a specific leakage inductance, not turns ratio. This design technique generates multiple secondary volts per turn as compared to the primary. With the appropriate tuning conditions, switching losses are minimized. The resonant topology has the added benefit of being deQed in a klystron fault condition, with little energy deposited in the arc. This obviates the need of crowbars or other related networks. A review of these design parameters, operational performance, production status, and OWL installation and performance to date will be presented.

  20. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  1. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  2. Idaho Application for Permit to Convert a Geothermal Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Idaho Application for Permit to Convert a Geothermal Injection Well - Form 4003-3 Form Type ApplicationNotice Form...

  3. Multilevel Converter Topologies for Utility Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Essakiappan, Somasundaram

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    sources like photovoltaics (PV) to the utility grid, some of which are multilevel topologies. Multilevel topologies allow for use of lower voltage semiconductor devices than two-level converters. They also produce lower distortion output voltage waveforms...

  4. Oversampled pipline A/D converters with mismatch shaping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabra, Ayman U. (Ayman Umar)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis introduces a technique to improve the linearity of pipeline analog to digital converters (ADC). Through a combination of oversampling and mismatch shaping, the distortion introduced by component mismatch is ...

  5. Protocols for the Equitable Assessment of Marine Energy Converters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingram, David; Smith, George; Bittencourt-Ferreira, Claudio; Smith, Helen

    This book contains the suite of protocols for the equitable evaluation of marine energy converters (based on either tidal or wave energy) produced by the EquiMar consortium led by the University of Edinburgh. These protocols ...

  6. Automated Synthesis Tool for Design Optimization of Power Electronic Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirjafari, Mehran

    2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Designers of power electronic converters usually face the challenge of having multiple performance indices that must be simultaneously optimized, such as maximizing efficiency while minimizing mass or maximizing reliability while minimizing cost...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: resonant wave-energy converter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    resonant wave-energy converter devices Inter-Agency Agreement Signed between DOE's Wind and Water Power Program and Carderock On December 3, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events,...

  8. Multiport Converter Topologies for Distributed Energy System Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawke, Joshua

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel cell hybrid energy storage (MFC+HES) converter. First, low-voltage and medium-voltage PSC architectures are shown to decouple series-connected source currents and enable independent control. Multidimensional modeling and analysis is then discussed...

  9. A global maximum power point tracking DC-DC converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Joseph, 1981-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the design, and validation of a maximum power point tracking DC-DC converter capable of following the true global maximum power point in the presence of other local maximum. It does this without the ...

  10. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF A WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER ARNAUD ROUGIREL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for buoy-type ocean wave energy converter. The simplest model for this scheme is a non autonomous piecewise): see [OOS10]. Basically, a WEC is a floating body with a power takeoff system. It uses the vertical

  11. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  12. A Dual Supply Buck Converter with Improved Light Load Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Power consumption is the primary concern in battery-operated portable applications. Buck converters have gained popularity in powering portable devices due to their compact size, good current delivery capability and high efficiency. However...

  13. Development, evaluation, and design applications of an AMTEC converter model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Cliff Alan

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An AMTEC converter model was developed and its effectiveness as a design tool was evaluated. To develop the model, requirements of the model were defined, modeling equations were selected, and a methodology for model development was established...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: WBG Converters and Chargers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about WBG converters...

  15. Non-synchronous control of self-oscillating resonant converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaser, John Stanley (Niskayuna, NY); Zane, Regan Andrew (Scotia, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-oscillating switching power converter has a controllable reactance including an active device connected to a reactive element, wherein the effective reactance of the reactance and the active device is controlled such that the control waveform for the active device is binary digital and is not synchronized with the switching converter output frequency. The active device is turned completely on and off at a frequency that is substantially greater than the maximum frequency imposed on the output terminals of the active device. The effect is to vary the average resistance across the active device output terminals, and thus the effective output reactance, thereby providing converter output control, while maintaining the response speed of the converter.

  16. Randomized modulation of power converters via Markov chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stankovic, Aleksandar M.

    Randomized modulation of switching in power converters holds promise for reducing filtering requirements and reducing acoustic noise in motor drive applications. This paper is devoted to issues in analysis and synthesis ...

  17. Bull. U. 5. F. C.1892. Fykc Nets. (To face page 299.) PLATELXXII. &-THE FYKE NETS AND FYKE-NET FISHERIES OF THE UNITED STATES,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bull. U. 5. F. C.1892. Fykc Nets. (To face page 299.) PLATELXXII. ti P W n W a Y .- W Y >LL a 0 0: n W Y tLL Y 0 0 n m #12;&-THE FYKE NETS AND FYKE-NET FISHERIES OF THE UNITED STATES, WITH NOTES ON THE FYKE NETS OF OTHER COUNTRIES. BY HUGH M. SMITH, M. D. DEFINITION OF THE FYKE NET. The inquirer who goes

  18. Quantum Non-Gaussianity of Frequency Up-Converted Single Photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph Baune; Axel Schönbeck; Aiko Samblowski; Jaromír Fiurášek; Roman Schnabel

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonclassical states of light are an important resource in today's quantum communication and metrology protocols. Quantum up-conversion of nonclassical states is a promising approach to overcome frequency differences between disparate subsystems within a quantum information network. Here, we present the generation of heralded narrowband single photons at 1550 nm via cavity enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) and their subsequent up-conversion to 532 nm. Quantum non-Gaussianity (QNG), which is an important feature for applications in quantum information science, was experimentally certified for the first time in frequency up-converted states.

  19. A New Methodology for Frequency Domain Analysis of Wave Energy Converters with Periodically Varying Physical Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    A New Methodology for Frequency Domain Analysis of Wave Energy Converters with Periodically Varying Methodology for Frequency Domain Analysis of Wave Energy Converters with Periodically Varying Physical of Mechanical Engineering) ABSTRACT Within a wave energy converter's operational bandwidth, device operation

  20. An evaluation of a parallel-resonant current-source converter for an electrothermal thruster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tchamdjou, Aristide-Marie

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Parallel-Resonant Current-Source Converter promises highly efficient DCDC power conversion. It uses zero-voltage switching to reduce the losses and improve the converter efficiency. The Parallel-Resonant Current-Source Converter has been...

  1. An evaluation of a parallel-resonant current-source converter for an electrothermal thruster 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tchamdjou, Aristide-Marie

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Parallel-Resonant Current-Source Converter promises highly efficient DCDC power conversion. It uses zero-voltage switching to reduce the losses and improve the converter efficiency. The Parallel-Resonant Current-Source Converter has been...

  2. Bi-directional Current-fed Medium Frequency Transformer Isolated AC-DC Converter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Essakiappan, Somasundaram

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of high power converters has increased tremendously. Increased demand for transportation, housing and industrial needs means that more number of power converters interact with the utility power grid. These converters are non...

  3. Analysis and design of matrix converters for adjustable speed drives and distributed power sources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cha, Han Ju

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, matrix converter has received considerable interest as a viable alternative to the conventional back-to-back PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) converter in the ac/ac conversion. This direct ac/ac converter provides some attractive...

  4. Formation of double-valued sheaths in thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundgren, L.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theory for the sheath in an ignited thermionic converter is presented. The theory includes the effect of the velocity spread of the particles but the charge-particle collisions are neglected. Conditions for the appearance of a virtual emitter are given. The theory is compared with a beam approximation theory and a hydrodynamic theory. All three theories give almost the same condition for the appearance of a virtual emitter in an ignited thermionic converter.

  5. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, N.R.; King, R.D.; Schwartz, J.E.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals. 10 figs.

  6. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrigan, Neil Richard (Niskayuna, NY); King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); Schwartz, James Edward (Slingerlands, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals.

  7. 2/1/2014 Miniature Windmill generating wind energy-wordlessTech http://wordlesstech.com/2014/01/14/miniature-windmill-generating-wind-energy/ 1/3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    and affordable Better rates. Better service. Better Planet! 1Like ShareShareShareMore Wind Generator Motor comparestores.net Find Lowest Prices of August 2014. Home Wind Generators Up to 55% Off Follow us Search

  8. Power converter having improved terminal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.; Phillips, Mark G.; Kaishian, Steven C.

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A terminal structure for power electronics circuits reduces the need for a DC bus and thereby the incidence of parasitic inductance. The structure is secured to a support that may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as by direct contact between the terminal assembly and AC and DC circuit components. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  9. Thermally matched fluid cooled power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Beihoff, Bruce C.

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. Power electronic circuits are thermally matched, such as between component layers and between the circuits and the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  10. Power converter having improved fluid cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Andreas A.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support, which may be controlled in a closed-loop manner. Interfacing between circuits, circuit mounting structure, and the support provide for greatly enhanced cooling. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  11. Power converter having improved EMI shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Gettelfinger, Lee A.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Phillips, Mark G.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.

    2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    EMI shielding is provided for power electronics circuits and the like via a direct-mount reference plane support and shielding structure. The thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support forms a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  12. angiotensin-i converting enzyme: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: - Resonant converters and related systems, such as piezoelectric transformers, may require a high of resonant converters: a series-resonant parallel-...

  13. ac-dc-ac z-source converter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: - Resonant converters and related systems, such as piezoelectric transformers, may require a high of resonant converters: a series-resonant parallel-...

  14. DOE-TSPP-8-2013, Converting DOE Technical Standards to Voluntary...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    8-2013, Converting DOE Technical Standards to Voluntary Consensus Standards DOE-TSPP-8-2013, Converting DOE Technical Standards to Voluntary Consensus Standards Technical Standards...

  15. Simulating net particle production and chiral magnetic current in a CP-odd domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We elucidate the numerical formulation to simulate net production of particles and anomalous currents with CP-breaking background fields which cause an imbalance of particles over anti-particles. For a concrete demonstration we numerically impose pulsed electric and magnetic fields to observe that the dynamical chiral magnetic current follows together with the net particle production. The produced particle density is quantitatively consistent with the axial anomaly, while the chiral magnetic current is suppressed by a delay before the the onset of the current generation.

  16. High-Level Nets with Nets and Rules as Tokens Kathrin Ho mann 1 , Hartmut Ehrig 1 , and Till Mossakowski 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mossakowski, Till - Deutschen Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz & Fachbereich 3

    High-Level Nets with Nets and Rules as Tokens Kathrin Ho#11;mann 1 , Hartmut Ehrig 1 , and Till-Level net models following the paradigm \

  17. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Net metering has become a widespread policy in the U.S. for supporting distributed photovoltaics (PV) adoption. Though specific design details vary, net metering allows customers with PV to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption - in effect, compensating the PV generation at retail electricity rates (Rose et al. 2009). While net metering has played an important role in jump-starting the residential PV market in the U.S., challenges to net metering policies have emerged in a number of states and contexts, and alternative compensation methods are under consideration. Moreover, one inherent feature of net metering is that the value of the utility bill savings it provides to customers with PV depends heavily on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate, as well as on the characteristics of the customer and PV system. Consequently, the value of net metering - and the impact of moving to alternative compensation mechanisms - can vary substantially from one customer to the next. For these reasons, it is important for policymakers and others that seek to support the development of distributed PV to understand both how the bill savings varies under net metering, and how the bill savings under net metering compares to other possible compensation mechanisms. To advance this understanding, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) and Southern California Edison (SCE). The analysis is based on hourly load data from a sample of 215 residential customers located in the service territories of the two utilities, matched with simulated hourly PV production for the same time period based on data from the nearest of 73 weather stations in the state.

  18. Mid-Course Review: NetCDF in the Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    architecture Improved performance Generic tools NetCDF-4 adoption Standards endorsements Gridspec APICDF/libcf, netCDF-Java, CDM, TDS, NcML, CF conventions Adopt, develop, and promote open standards, conventions for observational data Improve compatibility between netCDF APIs and OPeNDAP protocols Improve netCDF performance

  19. NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES G.R. Foulger, B.R. Julian University-980) to include net forces in the mechanisms. Net forces are theoretically required to describe earthquakes) waves cannot resolve sources such as vertical dipoles. When source mechanisms include net forces, even

  20. A Theory of Operational Equivalence for Interaction Nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández, Maribel

    A Theory of Operational Equivalence for Interaction Nets Maribel Fernâ??andez 1 and Ian Mackie 2 1. In this paper we apply these (now standard) techniques to interactions nets, a graphical programming language in interaction nets since it can be applied to untyped systems, thus all systems of interaction nets are captured

  1. Rewriting Logic as a Unifying Framework for Petri Nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meseguer, José

    Rewriting Logic as a Unifying Framework for Petri Nets Mark-Oliver Stehr, Jos#19;e Meseguer as a unifying framework for a wide range of Petri nets models. We treat in detail place/transition nets that \\Petri nets are monoids" suggested by Meseguer and Montanari we de#12;ne a rewriting semantics that maps

  2. Putting high-level Petri nets to work in industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Aalst, Wil

    Putting high-level Petri nets to work in industry W.M.P. van der Aalst Department of Mathematics Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practice extensively. Thanks to several useful ex- tensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have

  3. U.S. Virgin Islands- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In February 2007, the U.S. Virgin Islands Public Services Commission approved a limited net-metering program for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV), wind-energy or other renewable energ...

  4. SIXTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME PRIORITY "ERA-NET"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Co-ordination Action to Establish a Hydrogen and Fuel Cell ERA-Net, Hydrogen Co- ordination Work.....................................................................34 4.5 Hydrogen conversion ­ Fuel cells......................................................................36 4.6 Application of hydrogen and fuel cell technology

  5. Definition of a 'Zero Net Energy' Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, N.; Van Geet, O.; Pless, S.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a definition for a net zero-energy community. A community that offsets all of its energy use from renewables available within the community's built environment.

  6. Microsoft Word - Net Requirements Transparency Process_09302014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 As part of its Net Requirements Transparency process, on July 31, 2014 BPA published the SliceBlock and Block customers' FY2013 and forecast FY2015 Total Retail Load (TRL) and...

  7. City of New Orleans- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In May 2007, the New Orleans City Council adopted net-metering rules that are similar to rules adopted by the Louisiana Public Service Commission (PSC) in November 2005. The City Council's rules...

  8. Zero Net Energy Myths and Modes of Thought

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajkovich, Nicholas B.; Diamond, Rick; Burke, Bill

    2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), and a number of professional organizations have established a target of zero net energy (ZNE) in buildings by 2030. One definition of ZNE is a building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. The push to ZNE is a response to research indicating that atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased sharply since the eighteenth century, resulting in a gradual warming of the Earth?s climate. A review of ZNE policies reveals that the organizations involved frame the ZNE issue in diverse ways, resulting in a wide variety of myths and a divergent set of epistemologies. With federal and state money poised to promote ZNE, it is timely to investigate how epistemologies, meaning a belief system by which we take facts and convert them into knowledge upon which to take action, and the propagation of myths might affect the outcome of a ZNE program. This paper outlines myths commonly discussed in the energy efficiency and renewable energy communities related to ZNE and describes how each myth is a different way of expressing"the truth." The paper continues by reviewing a number of epistemologies common to energy planning, and concludes that the organizations involved in ZNE should work together to create a"collaborative rationality" for ZNE. Through this collaborative framework it is argued that we may be able to achieve the ZNE and greenhouse gas mitigation targets.

  9. Freeze-out conditions from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Alba; Wanda Alberico; Rene Bellwied; Marcus Bluhm; Valentina Mantovani Sarti; Marlene Nahrgang; Claudia Ratti

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate ratios of higher-order susceptibilities quantifying fluctuations in the number of net protons and in the net-electric charge using the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model. We take into account the effect of resonance decays, the kinematic acceptance cuts in rapidity, pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum used in the experimental analysis, as well as a randomization of the isospin of nucleons in the hadronic phase. By comparing these results to the latest experimental data from the STAR collaboration, we determine the freeze-out conditions from net-electric charge and net-proton distributions and discuss their consistency.

  10. A Solid Core Heatpipe Reactor with Cylindrical Thermoelectric Converter Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayre, Edwin D. [218 Brooke Acres Drive, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (United States); Vaidyanathan, Sam [6663 Pomander Place, San Jose, CA 95120 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear space power system that consists of a solid metal nuclear reactor core with heat pipes carrying energy to a cylindrical thermoelectric converter surrounding each of the heat pipes with a heat pipe radiator surrounding the thermoelectric converter is the most simple and reliable space power system. This means no single point of failure since each heat pipe and cylindrical converter is a separate power system and if one fails it will not affect the others. The heat pipe array in the solid core is designed so that if an isolated heat pipe or even two adjacent heat pipes fail, the remaining heat pipes will still transport the core heat without undue overheating of the uranium nitride fuel. The primary emphasis in this paper is on simplicity, reliability and fabricability of such a space nuclear power source. The core and heat pipes are made of Niobium 1% Zirconium alloy (Nb1Zr), with rhenium lined fuel tubes, bonded together by hot isostatic pressure (HIPing) and with sodium as the heat pipe working fluid, can be operated up to 1250K. The cylindrical thermoelectric converter is made by depositing the constituents of the converter around a Nb1%Zr tube and encasing it in a Nb 1% Zr alloy tube and HIPing the structure to get final bonding and to produce residual compressive stresses in all brittle materials in the converter. A radiator heat pipe filled with potassium that operates at 850K is bonded to the outside of the cylindrical converter for cooling. The solid core heat pipe and cylindrical converter are mated by welding during the final assembly. A solid core reactor with 150 heat pipes with a 0.650-inch (1.65 cm) ID and a 30-inch (76.2 cm) length with an output of 8 Watts per square inch as demonstrated by the SP100 PD2 cell tests will produce about 80 KW of electrical power. An advanced solid core reactor made with molybdenum 47% rhenium alloy, with lithium heat pipes and the PD2 theoretical output of 11 watts per square inch or advanced higher temperature converter to operate at 1350K could produce a greater output of approximately 100KW.

  11. Effects of emitter sheath ion reflection and trapped ions on thermionic converter performance using an isothermal electron model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Main, G.L.; Lam, S.H.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper couples exact collisionless sheath calculations to an isothermal electron model of a thermionic converter. The emitter sheath structure takes into account reflected ions, trapped ions, and surface emission ions. It is shown that lessening the net loss of ions at the emitter in the ignited mode by these phenomena degrades performance. In addition, it is shown that when the emitter returns too many of the ions, the arc is extinguished because there is insufficient resistive heating to maintain the necessary plasma electron temperature for ionization. These results suggest that the ignited mode cannot be improved much. However, nonignited modes in which the electron temperature remains low, such as the pulsed mode, do not suffer from this adverse behavior.

  12. A 1 MEGAWATT POLYPHASE BOOST CONVERTER-MODULATOR FOR KLYSTRON PULSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.A. REASS; J.D. DOSS; R.F. GRIBBLE

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes electrical design criteria and first operational results a 140 kV, 1 MW average, 11 MW peak, zero-voltage-switching 20 kHz polyphase bridge, boost converter/modulator for klystron pulse application. The DC-DC converter derives the buss voltages from a standard 13.8 kV to 2300 Y substation cast-core transformer. Energy storage and filtering is provided by self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene traction capacitors. Three ''H-Bridge'' Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switching networks are used to generate the polyphase 20 kHz transformer primary drive waveforms. The 20 kHz drive waveforms are chirped the appropriate duration to generate the desired klystron pulse width. PWM (pulse width modulation) of the individual 20 kHz pulses is utilized to provide regulated output waveforms with adaptive feedforward and feedback techniques. The boost transformer design utilizes amorphous nanocrystalline material that provides the required low core loss at design flux levels and switching frequencies. Resonant shunt-peaking is used on the transformer secondary to boost output voltage and resonate transformer leakage inductance. With the appropriate transformer leakage inductance and peaking capacitance, zero-voltage-switching of the IGBT's is attained, minimizing switching losses. A review of these design parameters and the first results of the performance characteristics will be presented.

  13. Design and performance of radioisotope space power systems based on OSC multitube AMTEC converter designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C. [Orbital Sciences Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper extends the analytical procedure described in another paper in these proceedings to analyze a variety of compact and light-weight OSC-designed radioisotope-heated generators. Those generators employed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules and a converter containing sixteen AMTEC cells of OSC`s revised five-tube design with enhanced cell wall reflectivity described in a companion paper in these proceedings. OSC found that the performance of the generator is primarily a function of the thermal insulation between the outside of the generator`s 16 cells and the inside of its wall. After examining a variety of insulation options, it was found that the generator`s performance is optimized by employing a hybrid insulation system, in which the space between the cells is filled with fibrous Min-K insulation, and the generator walls are lined with tapered (i.e., graded-length) multifoil insulation. The OSC design results in a very compact generator, with eight AMTEC cells on each end of the heat source stack. The choice of the five-tube cells makes it possible to expand the BASE tube diameter without increasing the cell diameter. This is important because the eight cells mate well with the stacked GPHS modules. The OSC generator design includes a compliant heat source support and preload arrangement, to hold the heat source modules together during launch, and to maintain thermal contact conductance at the generator`s interfaces despite creep relaxation of its housing. The BOM and EOM (up to 15 years) performances of the revised generators were analyzed for two and three GPHS modules, both for fresh fuel and for aged fuel left over from a spare RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) fueled in 1982. The resulting power outputs were compared with JPL`s latest EOM power demand goals for the Pluto Express and Europa Orbiter missions, and with the generic goals of DOE`s Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) study. The OSC AMTEC designs yielded system efficiencies three to four times as high as present-generation RTGs.

  14. Tailpulse signal generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John (Walnut Creek, CA); Archer, Daniel E. (Knoxville, TN); Luke, Stanley John (Pleasanton, CA); Decman, Daniel J. (Livermore, CA); White, Gregory K. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A tailpulse signal generating/simulating apparatus, system, and method designed to produce electronic pulses which simulate tailpulses produced by a gamma radiation detector, including the pileup effect caused by the characteristic exponential decay of the detector pulses, and the random Poisson distribution pulse timing for radioactive materials. A digital signal process (DSP) is programmed and configured to produce digital values corresponding to pseudo-randomly selected pulse amplitudes and pseudo-randomly selected Poisson timing intervals of the tailpulses. Pulse amplitude values are exponentially decayed while outputting the digital value to a digital to analog converter (DAC). And pulse amplitudes of new pulses are added to decaying pulses to simulate the pileup effect for enhanced realism in the simulation.

  15. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat is disclosed. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device. 4 figs.

  16. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, John D. (Eaton's Neck, NY); El-Genk, Mohamed S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  17. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  18. .NET WEB DEVELOPER PROGRAM A ten-week comprehensive program covering web development using Microsoft .NET technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    .NET WEB DEVELOPER PROGRAM A ten-week comprehensive program covering web development using Microsoft® .NET technologies DePaul University's .NET Web Developer Program is designed to provide, techniques and principles of Microsoft .NET. The program stresses an understanding of the relevant

  19. Methods for degrading or converting plant cell wall polysaccharides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berka, Randy (Davis, CA); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA)

    2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into saccharified material; (b) fermenting the saccharified material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  20. DeepWind WP3 D3.32 Technical Report Submersible Converter ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    ............................................................................................................................................... 3 2. Test Bench Converter for the 1 kW Floating VAWT Demonstrator

  1. Northwest Energy Innovations (TRL 5 6 System)- WETNZ MtiMode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Northwest Energy Innovations (TRL 5 6 System) - WETNZ MtiMode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project

  2. High speed bypass Fig. 1. Sub-module of MMC converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhary, Sanjay

    Modular Converter for VSC-HVDC Transmission Applications: Control and Operational Aspects Udana N, the multilevel modular converter (MMC), recently introduced for HVDC transmission are discussed. The paper. Keywords-Voltage Source Convert (VSC), Multilevel Modular Converter (MMC), HVDC Transmission, Weak ac

  3. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. The important effect of electron reflection on thermionic converter performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasor, N.S.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although only a few percent of high energy electrons are reflected from bare metal surfaces, 20--60% of low energy incident electrons are reflected from thermionic converter electrodes with adsorbed cesium and oxygen. The TECMDL computer model indicates that electron reflection in cesium vapor thermionic converters increases the arc potential drop, offsetting the gain in performance obtainable by lowering the collector work function via the coadsorbed Cs/O layer. The possible suppression of electron reflection by using electrodes with sub-micron surface structure is hypothesized and supported by experimental data obtained by employing a new method for testing in cesium-oxygen vapor.

  5. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.

  6. Method for converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Volponi, Joanne V. (Livermore, CA); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Andrew (Woodinville, WA)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for continuously converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose. The method comprises a three-stage enzymatic reactor in which an aqueous solution of sucrose is first converted into a solution of fructose and .alpha.-D-glucose by passing it through a porous, packed column containing an inert media on which invertase is immobilized. This solution is then sent through a second packed column containing glucose isomerase and finally a third packed column containing mutarotase. Solution temperature and pH are adjusted to maximize glucose output.

  7. Development of electron reflection suppression materials for improved thermionic energy converter performance using thin film deposition techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, Mohammad; Inal, Osman T.; Luke, James R. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Institute for Engineering Research and Applications (IERA) , 901 University Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106-4339 (United States)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonideal electrode surfaces cause significant degree of electron reflection from collector during thermionic converter operation. The effect of the collector surface structure on the converter performance was assessed through the development of several electron reflection suppression materials using various thin film deposition techniques. The double-diode probe method was used to compare the J-V characteristics of converters with polished and modified collector surfaces for emitter temperature and cesium vapor pressure in the ranges of 900-2000 K and 0.02-1.5 torr, respectively. The coadsorption of cesium and oxygen with respective partial vapor pressures of {approx}1.27 torr and a few microtorrs reduced the emitter work function to a minimum value of 0.99 eV. It was found that the collector surfaces with matte black appearance such as platinum black, voided nickel from radio-frequency plasma sputtering, and etched electroless Ni-P with craterlike pore morphology exhibited much better performance compared with polished collector surface. For these thin films, the increase in the maximum output voltage was up to 2.0 eV. For optimum performance with minimum work function and maximum saturation emission current density, the emitter temperature was in the range of 1100-1500 K, depending on the collector surface structure. The use of these materials in cylindrical converter design and/or in combination with hybrid mode triode configuration holds great potential in low and medium scale power generators for commercial use.

  8. Predicted Bremsstrahlung generation by energetic electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faehl, R.J.; Snell, C.M.; Keinigs, R.K.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CYLTRAN photon/electron Monte Carlo code has been employed to predict Bremsstrahlung generation by monoenergetic electron beams from 10 to 1000 MeV. The forward-directed Bremsstrahlung intensity is investigated as a function of beam energy converter thickness, and material. At high energies, the forward extraction efficiency is maximized by using converters that are about 0.1-electron ranges thick. The largest intensities are attained with low-Z converter materials such as beryllium. Because the Bremsstrahlung radiation is strongly forward-directed, low divergence of the incident electron beam is crucial. Under deal conditions, a 1000-MeV beam can produce intensities up to 10{sup 8} MeV per steradian, per incident electron. 9 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. NetCDF-4: Combining the Strengths of NetCDF and HDF5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and simplicity of netCDF ­ Generality and performance of HDF5 · Preserve format and API compatibility for net Standardization · DOD Joint Technical Architecture "Emerging" standard for Application Specific Data Interchange;Community Standards Based on HDF5 · HDF-EOS5 · DOE Defense Labs libsheaf (meshes) · Nexus (neutron

  10. Photovoltaic (PV)energy conversion is a rapidly growing technology for converting solar energy into electricity. The current production is over 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    Photovoltaic (PV)energy conversion is a rapidly growing technology for converting solar energy to about $1.50 per watt, from over $100/W in the 1970s. The current generation of technology is mainly polymers, is making rapid strides towards becoming the low cost material of choice for PV energy conversion

  11. High efficiency battery converter with SiC devices for residential PV Cam Pham, Remus Teodorescu, Tamas Kerekes and Laszlo Mathe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teodorescu, Remus

    High efficiency battery converter with SiC devices for residential PV systems Cam Pham, Remus, where the generated energy price is relatively high. Smart PV systems with internal battery storage launched a financial support program for residential PV systems with battery storage [2]. Furthermore

  12. Comparison of architectures for two-step flash analog-to-digital converters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reese, Robert Bryan

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A/D converters have been designed and fabricated in the last three to five ?om a survey of the literature it was discovered that the majority of these converters were of the successive approximation (SAP) type (Table I, page 4). This is because... the SAP converter offers a fast conversion time, a low complexity level and a small area requirement. Only one comparator, the design critical subcircuit of most converters, is needed in a SAP converter. Area requirements increase only moderately...

  13. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley; Darghouth, Naim R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate.

  14. The Economic Value of PV and Net Metering to Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of the California's two largest electric utilities, under existing net metering tariffs as well as under several alternative compensation mechanisms. We find that economic value of PV to the customer is dependent on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate and can vary quite significantly from one customer to another. In addition, we find that the value of the bill savings from PV generally declines with PV penetration level, as increased PV generation tends to offset lower-priced usage. Customers in our sample from both utilities are significantly better off with net metering than with a feed-in tariff where all PV generation is compensated at long-run avoided generation supply costs. Other compensation schemeswhich allow customers to displace their consumption with PV generation within each hour or each month, and are also based on the avoided costs, yield similar value to the customer as net metering.

  15. Introduction to workshop on spectral control and converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M.W.; Schwartz, R.J.

    1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This workshop focused on the portion of the TPV system that involves the photovoltaic energy converter and the spectral control element that affects subband-gap photon energy recovery. The discussion was divided into three major topic areas: status of the technology, status of the infrastructure, and champions of the technology. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  16. Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2}. The second stage serves to convert NO{sub 2} to environmentally benign gases that include N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. By preconverting NO to NO{sub 2} in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO{sub x} reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO{sub 2} in the presence of O{sub 2} and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C{sub x}H{sub y}) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO{sub 2} from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, and includes a {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst. 9 figs.

  17. A/D Converter Jee-Hwan Ryu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Jee-Hwan

    A/D , MUX and REFS update #12;Korea University of Technology and Education ADSC=1 of Technology and Education Korea University of Technology and Education A/D converter #12;Korea University of Technology and Education () AD > -> X = 1 Korea University of Technology and Education AD #12;Korea

  18. Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Based on the EquiMar Methodology S of the wave energy sector, device developers are called to provide reliable estimates on power performanceMar, Nissum Bredning, Hanstholm, North Sea, Ekofisk, Wave-to-wire, Wave energy. I. INTRODUCTION The wave

  19. Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Mark C. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2. The second stage serves to convert NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO.sub.2 from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO.sub.2 to N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a gamma-alumina .gamma.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst.

  20. Simulation Model for UltrasonicMotors powered by Resonant Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    of the stator, producing a traveling wave. This process can be assumed as a linear phenomenon. In a second for the drive. Based on recent mechanical approaches in modelingthe stator under considerationof unsymmetriesand-modeapproximationof the stator and piezoceramic. Incorporation of a converter model into the mechanicalsubsystem a proper

  1. Coupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    components, including transformers and inductors, significantly influences the overall profiles magnetic core to store the energy in the power transformer. A Flyback converter is a popular choice for low. All the center and outer legs are gapped, and the transformers are integrated into one magnetic core

  2. Soft switched high frequency ac-link converter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Anand Kumar

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    topology for medium and high power ac-ac, ac-dc and dc-ac applications. An ac-link formed by an inductor-capacitor pair replaces the conventional dc-link. Each leg of the converter is formed by two bidirectional switches. Power transfer from input to output...

  3. "Black Box" EMC model for Power Electronics Converter Mikael Foissac

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    "Black Box" EMC model for Power Electronics Converter Mikael Foissac Grenoble Electrical be forecasted accurately, in order to avoid disturbance of the complete system. To quantify the EMC behaviour will then illustrate the method on a complete chopper cell. II. BLACK BOX EMC MODEL Any EMC analysis must account

  4. A summary of North American HVDC converter station reliability specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vancers, I. (ABB Power Systems Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Hormozi, F.J. (Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) specifications that were issued for thyristor based HVDC converter stations in service in North America. A total of twenty project specifications are summarized. A detailed summary by project is shown with specific quantitative requirements categorized. Definitions of terms, representative design principles, and formulas used in calculating RAM parameters contained in existing reliability specifications are presented.

  5. INVERSION OF CONVERTED-WAVE SEISMIC DATA FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVERSION OF CONVERTED-WAVE SEISMIC DATA FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AT RULISON FIELD, COLORADO Basin of northwest Colorado. The reservoir consists of lenticular fluvial sands, shales, and coals of magnitude lower than the seismic resolution which is 105 ft. The sandstone reservoirs are the primary target

  6. The polyphase resonant converter modulator for pulse power and plasma applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reass, W. A. (William A.); Baca, D. M. (David M.); Doss, James D.; Gribble, R. (Robert F.); North, W. R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a new technique to generate high voltage pulses (100 kV and up) with high peak power (10 MW and up) and high average power (1 MW and up) from a low voltage input source (e.g. +/- 1.2 kV). This technology is presently being used to provide cathode pulse modulation for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator klystron RF amplifiers, which operate to 140 kV 11 MW peak power and 1.1 MW average power. The design of the modulator, referred to as the Polyphase Resonant Converter-Modulator takes advantage of high-power component advances, in response to the needs of the traction motor industry (in particular, railroad locomotives), such as Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT's) and self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene capacitors. In addition, the use of amorphous nanocrystalline transformer core alloy permits high frequency voltage and current transformation with low loss and small size. Other unique concepts embodied in the converter-modulator topology are polyphase resonant voltage multiplication and resonant rectification. These techniques further reduce size and improve electrical efficiency. Because of the resonant conversion techniques, electronic 'crowbars' and other load protective networks are not required. A shorted load detunes the circuit resonance and little power transfer can occur. This yields a high-power, high-voltage system that is inherently self-protective. To provide regulated output voltages, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) of the individual IGBT pulses is used. A Digital signal Processor (DSP) is used to control the IGBT's, with adaptive feed forward and feedback control algorithms that improve pulse fidelity. The converter-modulator has many attributes that make it attractive to various pulse power and plasma applications such as high power RF sources, neutral beam modulators, and various plasma applications. This paper will review the design as used for the SNS accelerator and speculate on related plasma applications.

  7. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  8. Net-Baryon Physics: Basic Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Alvarez-Muniz; R. Conceicao; J. Dias de Deus; M. C. Espirito Santo; J. G. Milhano; M. Pimenta

    2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that, in nuclear collisions, a sizable fraction of the available energy is carried away by baryons. As the baryon number is conserved, the net-baryon $B-\\bar{B}$ retains information on the energy-momentum carried by the incoming nuclei. A simple but consistent model for net-baryon production in high energy hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The basic ingredients of the model are valence string formation based on standard PDFs with QCD evolution and string fragmentation via the Schwinger mechanism. The results of the model are presented and compared with both data and existing models. These results show that a good description of the main features of net-baryon data is possible on the framework of a simplistic model, with the advantage of making the fundamental production mechanisms manifest.

  9. Conformal nets III: fusion of defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; André Henriques

    2015-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Conformal nets provides a mathematical model for conformal field theory. We define a notion of defect between conformal nets, formalizing the idea of an interaction between two conformal field theories. We introduce an operation of fusion of defects, and prove that the fusion of two defects is again a defect, provided the fusion occurs over a conformal net of finite index. There is a notion of sector (or bimodule) between two defects, and operations of horizontal and vertical fusion of such sectors. Our most difficult technical result is that the horizontal fusion of the vacuum sectors of two defects is isomorphic to the vacuum sector of the fused defect. Equipped with this isomorphism, we construct the basic interchange isomorphism between the horizontal fusion of two vertical fusions and the vertical fusion of two horizontal fusions of sectors.

  10. Reaction force control implementation of a linear generator in irregular waves for a wave power system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Bin

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Most designs for wave energy converters include a hydraulic (or pneumatic) interface between the wave device and the generator to smooth electricity production, but a direct drive power take-off system is a possible way ...

  11. Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

  12. D o s s i e r Second and Third Generation Biofuels: Towards Sustainability and Competitiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    D o s s i e r Second and Third Generation Biofuels: Towards Sustainability and Competitiveness into synthetic biofuels. A gasification step converts the feed into a synthesis gas (CO and H2 mixture), which

  13. Electrical power converter method and system employing multiple-output converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  14. Design and Analysis for a Floating Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y. H.; Li, Y.; Hallett, K.; Hotimsky, C.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a recent study on the design and analysis of an oscillating surge wave energy converter. A successful wave energy conversion design requires the balance between the design performance and cost. The cost of energy is often used as the metric to judge the design of the wave energy conversion system. It is often determined based on the device power performance, the cost for manufacturing, deployment, operation and maintenance, as well as the effort to ensure the environmental compliance. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the importance of a cost driven design strategy and how it can affect a WEC design. Three oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) designs were used as the example. The power generation performance of the design was modeled using a time-domain numerical simulation tool, and the mass properties of the design were determined based on a simple structure analysis. The results of those power performance simulations, the structure analysis and a simple economic assessment were then used to determine the cost-efficiency of selected OSWEC designs. Finally, a discussion on the environmental barrier, integrated design strategy and the key areas that need further investigation is also presented.

  15. Building Scale vs. Community Scale Net-Zero Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Fernandez, Nicholas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Many government and industry organizations are focusing building energy-efficiency goals around producing individual net-zero buildings (nZEBs), using photovoltaic (PV) technology to provide on-site renewable energy after substantially improving the energy efficiency of the buildings themselves. Seeking net-zero energy (NZE) at the community scale instead introduces the possibility of using a wider range of renewable energy technologies, such as solar-thermal electricity generation, solar-assisted heating/cooling systems, and wind energy, economically. This paper reports results of a study comparing NZE communities to communities consisting of individual nZEBs. Five scenarios are examined: 1) base case – a community of nZEBs with roof mounted PV systems; 2) NZE communities served by wind turbines on leased land; 3) NZE communities served by wind turbines on owned land; 4) communities served by solar-thermal electric generation; and 5) communities served by photovoltaic farms. All buildings are assumed to be highly efficient, e.g., 70% more efficient than current practice. The scenarios are analyzed for two climate locations (Chicago and Phoenix), and the levelized costs of electricity for the scenarios are compared. The results show that even for the climate in the U.S. most favorable to PV (Phoenix), more cost-effective approaches are available to achieving NZE than the conventional building-level approach (rooftop PV with aggressive building efficiency improvements). The paper shows that by expanding the measurement boundary for NZE, a community can take advantage of economies of scale, achieving improved economics while reaching the same overall energy-performance objective.

  16. Compositional construction and analysis of Petri net systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas, Isabel C.

    Most Petri net (PN) based modelling formalisms represent the system modelled as a flat net. This may not clearly reflect the elements that participate in the system and the way they communicate or interact. It can also ...

  17. UMTC Climate Action Plan: Roadmap to Net Zero

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    UMTC Climate Action Plan: Roadmap to Net Zero Emissions Co-chairs of UMTC Sustainability Committee changes · Goal: Develop a plan for achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions #12;UMTC Greenhouse Gas

  18. NetPal: A Dynamic Network Administration Knowledge Base

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milios, Evangelos E.

    NetPal: A Dynamic Network Administration Knowledge Base Ashley George, Adetokunbo Makanju system designed to assist network administra- tors in their troubleshooting tasks, in recall- ing hosting environments, Net- pal summarises network data and and supports retrieval of relevant

  19. Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning In 2008, DoD and DOE defined a...

  20. Zero Net Energy Myths and Modes of Thought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajkovich, Nicholas B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    buildings, see the Zero Energy Buildings Database at http://2009). "Net-Zero Energy Commercial Buildings Initiative."a target of zero net energy (ZNE) in buildings by 2030. One

  1. Fabrication of Carbide-Particle-Reinforced Titanium AluminideMatrix Composites by Laser-Engineered Net Shaping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DuPont, John N.

    -temperature applications in the automotive, aerospace, and power-generation industries.[1] The TiAl-based alloys have-Engineered Net Shaping WEIPING LIU and J.N. DuPONT TiAl-based titanium aluminide alloys and their composites of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. I. INTRODUCTION TITANIUM aluminide alloys based on TiAl and their com- posites

  2. http://www.revistaecosistemas.net/articulo.asp?Id=724 INVESTIGACIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Inventarios Forestales (BIOTREE-NET) en Mesoamérica: avances, retos y perspectivas futuras L. Cayuela 1, L

  3. Control and Power Management of Converter Fed Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehn, Peter W.

    ]. Many new distributed power sources, such as wind turbine generators, microturbines and fuel cells, do

  4. Low work function material development for the microminiature thermionic converter.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Marshall, Albert Christian; King, Donald Bryan; Jennison, Dwight Richard

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermionic energy conversion in a miniature format shows potential as a viable, high efficiency, micro to macro-scale power source. A microminiature thermionic converter (MTC) with inter-electrode spacings on the order of microns has been prototyped and evaluated at Sandia. The remaining enabling technology is the development of low work function materials and processes that can be integrated into these converters to increase power production at modest temperatures (800 - 1300 K). The electrode materials are not well understood and the electrode thermionic properties are highly sensitive to manufacturing processes. Advanced theoretical, modeling, and fabrication capabilities are required to achieve optimum performance for MTC diodes. This report describes the modeling and fabrication efforts performed to develop micro dispenser cathodes for use in the MTC.

  5. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attrition mill and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system. 1 fig.

  6. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters: Part II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M., Ph.D.; Slama, George (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Abel, David (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD)

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a continuation of the work presented in SAND2007-2591 'Planar LTCC Transformers for High Voltage Flyback Converters'. The designs in that SAND report were all based on a ferrite tape/dielectric paste system originally developed by NASCENTechnoloy, Inc, who collaborated in the design and manufacturing of the planar LTCC flyback converters. The output/volume requirements were targeted to DoD application for hard target/mini fuzing at around 1500 V for reasonable primary peak currents. High voltages could be obtained but with considerable higher current. Work had begun on higher voltage systems and is where this report begins. Limits in material properties and processing capabilities show that the state-of-the-art has limited our practical output voltage from such a small part volume. In other words, the technology is currently limited within the allowable funding and interest.

  7. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  8. The BLOOMhouse:Zero Net Energy Housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrison, M.; Krepart, R.; Randall, S.; Novoselac, A.

    The 2007 University of Texas Solar Decathlon House is called the BLOOMhouse because it represents the “seed” of new ideas for zero net energy housing. The University of Texas student team developed a prefabricated 7.9 kW stand-alone solar-powered...

  9. Bayes Nets Representation: joint distribution and conditional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Tom

    Bayes Nets Representation: joint distribution and conditional independence Yi Zhang 10-701, Machine joint distribution of BNs Infer C. I. from factored joint distributions D-separation (motivation) 2 structure All about the joint distribution of variables ! Conditional independence assumptions are useful

  10. NET-ZERO ENERGY HIGH PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    , University of Nebraska­Lincoln · Denise Kuehn, Manager, Demand Side and Sustainable Management, Omaha Public was that the largest potential for enhancing energy supplies in this country is making buildings more efficient. "-- Harvey Perlman, UNL Chancellor #12;Net-Zero Energy, High-Performance Green Buildings | 1 INTRODUCTION

  11. Thermal analysis of the ATI thermionic converter for optimum cesium reservoir location

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, T.J. (Aerospace Power Division, Wright Laboratory/POOC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-6563 (United States)); Thayer, K.L.; Ramalingam, M.L. (UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, Ohio 45432-1894 (United States))

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A first-order thermal analysis was performed on the emitter lead region of the Advanced Thermionic Initiative (ATI) Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) design. The lead region is the candidate location for a metal-matrix, cesium-graphite reservoir to supply cesium vapor to the thermionic converter. The cesium pressure developed is dependent upon the temperature and cesium-carbon equilibrium reaction of the reservoir. Steady-state, one dimensional conduction, with thermal radiation losses and Joulean heat generation, was used to calculate the temperature distribution in the non-fueled lead region. This temperature distribution was linked to the ATI reactor core design through the integration of axial emitter temperature distributions for the maximum, minimum, and average power TFE fuel pins. The axial temperature distribution in the emitter lead region was found to be most pronounced for the maximum power fuel element and least pronounced for the minimum power TFE.

  12. Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave Current and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay CA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jones, Craig; Magalen, Jason

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal s of this study were to develop tools to quantitatively characterize environments where wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices may be installed and to assess e ffects on hydrodynamics and lo cal sediment transport. A large hypothetical WEC array was investigated using wave, hydrodynamic, and sediment transport models and site - specific average and storm conditions as input. The results indicated that there were significant changes in sediment s izes adjacent to and in the lee of the WEC array due to reduced wave energy. The circulation in the lee of the array was also altered; more intense onshore currents were generated in the lee of the WECs . In general, the storm case and the average case show ed the same qualitative patterns suggesting that these trends would be maintained throughout the year. The framework developed here can be used to design more efficient arrays while minimizing impacts on nearshore environmen ts.

  13. Design of HVDC converter stations with respect to audible noise requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smede, J.; Johansson, C.G.; Winroth, O. [ASEA Brown Boveri, Vaesteraas (Sweden)] [ASEA Brown Boveri, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Schuett, H.P. [ASEA Brown Boveri, Ludvika (Sweden)] [ASEA Brown Boveri, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the engineering methods, tools, design solutions and verification methods used in the design of HVDC converter stations subject to acoustic requirements. The sound generation part describes how the sound power level radiated from electrical components can be calculated based on the load. The sound propagation part describes how the sources are affecting the sound pressure level at emission points of interest. A method to break down the acoustic requirement to component level and practical studies to verify the concordance with the requirements are also illustrated. Different solutions for screening and absorption are described as well as measurement methods. The remainder describes a working method used to fulfill outdoor acoustic requirements.

  14. Note: Increasing dynamic range of digital-to-analog converter using a superconducting quantum interference device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakanishi, Masakazu, E-mail: m.nakanishi@aist.go.jp [Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Central-3, 1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Responses of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) are periodically dependent on magnetic flux coupling to its superconducting ring and the period is a flux quantum (?{sub o} = h/2e, where h and e, respectively, express Planck's constant and elementary charge). Using this periodicity, we had proposed a digital to analog converter using a SQUID (SQUID DAC) of first generation with linear current output, interval of which corresponded to ?{sub o}. Modification for increasing dynamic range by interpolating within each interval is reported. Linearity of the interpolation was also based on the quantum periodicity. A SQUID DAC with dynamic range of about 1.4 × 10{sup 7} was created as a demonstration.

  15. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Beaini, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    near zero” energy definitions exist.    EnEV Compliant to differing definitions of zero  energy, methods for cost to the “net zero” definitions, a range of “low energy” or “

  16. Capacitor-Less VAR Compensator Based on a Matrix Converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Divya Rathna

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    greatly contributed to the completion of this work. I owe my gratitude to them for always believing in me and helping me through my academic pursuit. vii NOMENCLATURE VAR Volt-ampere reactive MC 3-phase ac-to-3-phase ac matrix converter v1... [10] ...... 12 10 Equivalent circuit of a capacitor................................................................. 13 11 Basic layout of a 3/3 MC............................................................................ 16 12 Block diagram...

  17. Low current plasmatron fuel converter having enlarged volume discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA); Alexeev, Nikolai (Moscow, RU); Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Samokhin, Andrei (Moscow, RU)

    2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter ("plasmatron") that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.

  18. Low current plasmatron fuel converter having enlarged volume discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai; Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Samokhin, Andrei

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter (""plasmatron"") that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.

  19. Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter bench test module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukens, L.L.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and test of a Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter Bench Test Module. The work presented in this document was conducted as a part of Heat Engine Task of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program. The objective of this task is the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies applicable to distributed receiver systems, in particular, dish electric systems.

  20. Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.