Sample records for nems solution process

  1. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  2. Net Energy Metering (NEM)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Arizona Public Service Co. (APS) request for a charge on future rooftop solar panel installations connected to the grid under the state's net energy metering (NEM)...

  3. NEMS industrial module documentation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2010) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of output of industrial activity. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types.

  4. National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. through 2030. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. NEMS was designed and implemented by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). NEMS can be used to analyze the effects of existing and proposed government laws and regulations related to energy production and use; the potential impact of new and advanced energy production, conversion, and consumption technologies; the impact and cost of greenhouse gas control; the impact of increased use of renewable energy sources; and the potential savings from increased efficiency of energy use; and the impact of regulations on the use of alternative or reformulated fuels. NEMS has also been used for a number of special analyses at the request of the Administration, U.S. Congress, other offices of DOE and other government agencies, who specify the scenarios and assumptions for the analysis. Modules allow analyses to be conducted in energy topic areas such as residential demand, industrial demand, electricity market, oil and gas supply, renewable fuels, etc.

  5. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solution-Processed Graphene Electronics,” Nano Letters, vol.applications,” Organic Electronics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 249-design in organic electronics by dual-gate technology,” in

  6. U.S. Regional Demand Forecasts Using NEMS and GIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Jesse A.; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a multi-sector, integrated model of the U.S. energy system put out by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration. NEMS is used to produce the annual 20-year forecast of U.S. energy use aggregated to the nine-region census division level. The research objective was to disaggregate this regional energy forecast to the county level for select forecast years, for use in a more detailed and accurate regional analysis of energy usage across the U.S. The process of disaggregation using a geographic information system (GIS) was researched and a model was created utilizing available population forecasts and climate zone data. The model's primary purpose was to generate an energy demand forecast with greater spatial resolution than what is currently produced by NEMS, and to produce a flexible model that can be used repeatedly as an add-on to NEMS in which detailed analysis can be executed exogenously with results fed back into the NEMS data flow. The methods developed were then applied to the study data to obtain residential and commercial electricity demand forecasts. The model was subjected to comparative and statistical testing to assess predictive accuracy. Forecasts using this model were robust and accurate in slow-growing, temperate regions such as the Midwest and Mountain regions. Interestingly, however, the model performed with less accuracy in the Pacific and Northwest regions of the country where population growth was more active. In the future more refined methods will be necessary to improve the accuracy of these forecasts. The disaggregation method was written into a flexible tool within the ArcGIS environment which enables the user to output the results in five year intervals over the period 2000-2025. In addition, the outputs of this tool were used to develop a time-series simulation showing the temporal changes in electricity forecasts in terms of absolute, per capita, and density of demand.

  7. How to obtain the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) NEMS is used by the modelers at the U. S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) who understand its structure and programming. NEMS has only been used by a few organizations outside of the EIA, because most people that requested NEMS found out that it was too difficult or rigid to use. NEMS is not typically used for state-level analysis and is poorly suited for application to other countries. However, many do obtain the model simply to use the data in its input files or to examine the source code.

  8. NEMS Buildings Sector Working Group Meeting

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of FossilFoot) Year JanCubicXIV.Mr.NEMS Buildings

  9. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  10. Overview of NEMS-H2, Version 1.0

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Overview of NEMS-H2, Version 1.0 given by Frances Wood of OnLocation during the DOE Hydrogen Transition Analysis Workshop on January 26, 2006.

  11. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    basic shapes 33. Articles of base metal 41. Waste and scrap 3. Processed food 5. Meat, fish, seafood, and their preparations 6. Milled grain products and preparations, and bakery...

  12. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  13. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  14. Assessment and Suggestions to Improve the Commercial Building Module of EIA-NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Reddy, T. A.; Sucher, B.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a comprehensive, computer-based, energy-economy modeling system developed and maintained by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS forecasts the national production...

  15. Inverted-Rib Chalcogenide Waveguides by Solution Process Yunlai Zha,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    Inverted-Rib Chalcogenide Waveguides by Solution Process Yunlai Zha,, Pao Tai Lin,,§ Lionel by a microtrench filling method. In this process, channels are etched on substrates and backfilled with solution for making reliable and low-loss arsenic sulfide waveguides based on a microtrench filling method. Channels

  16. Analysis of PostProcessing for Nonconforming Finite Element Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schieweck, Friedhelm

    Analysis of Post­Processing for Nonconforming Finite Element Solutions F. Schieweck \\Lambda of a conforming finite element function v C h 2 V C h . One ``nice'' feature of our analysis­processing procedure where a conforming approximation is computed from a nonconforming finite element solution

  17. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial air conditioning and distribution transformers.

  18. Business Process driven solutions for innovative enterprise information systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Business Process driven solutions for innovative enterprise information systems F. Taglino, M. In particular, it will be argued about business process driven approach to information systems development and overcome current limits. Business process driven approach to IS development is here characterized by: (i

  19. National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpen Energy Information National AllianceDayNEMS) Jump to:

  20. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

  1. Process for the removal of tritium from the product solutions obtained by the Purex process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossche, A.V.; Olinger, R.

    1983-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the removal of tritium from the product solutions obtained in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels by the Purex process comprising a plurality of series-connected extraction cycles having an organic solvent.

  2. High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,8 consisting of an interpenetrating network of electron donor and acceptor materials. This concept has alsoARTICLES High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends GANG LI1 , VISHAL SHROTRIYA1 , JINSONG HUANG1 , YAN YAO1 , TOM MORIARTY2 , KEITH EMERY2

  3. Solution-processed coreshell nanowires for efficient photovoltaic cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    Solution-processed core­shell nanowires for efficient photovoltaic cells Jinyao Tang1,3 , Ziyang are promising for photovoltaic appli- cations1­11 , but, so far, nanowire-based solar cells have had lower efficiencies than planar cells made from the same materials6­10,12,13 , even allowing for the generally lower

  4. Price Responsiveness in the AEO2003 NEMS Residential and Commercial Buildings Sector Models

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the demand responses to changes in energy prices in the Annual Energy Outlook 2003 versions of the Residential and Commercial Demand Modules of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). It updates a similar paper completed for the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 version of the NEMS.

  5. TRUEX processing of plutonium analytical solutions at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A.; Wygmans, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRUEX (TRansUranic EXtraction) solvent extraction process was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Department of Energy. A TRUEX demonstration completed at ANL involved the processing of analytical and experimental waste generated there and at the New Brunswick Laboratory. A 20-stage centrifugal contactor was used to recover plutonium, americium, and uranium from the waste. Approximately 84 g of plutonium, 18 g of uranium, and 0.2 g of americium were recovered from about 118 liters of solution during four process runs. Alpha decontamination factors as high as 65,000 were attained, which was especially important because it allowed the disposal of the process raffinate as a low-level waste. The recovered plutonium and uranium were converted to oxide; the recovered americium solution was concentrated by evaporation to approximately 100 ml. The flowsheet and operational procedures were modified to overcome process difficulties. These difficulties included the presence of complexants in the feed, solvent degradation, plutonium precipitation, and inadequate decontamination factors during startup. This paper will discuss details of the experimental effort.

  6. Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relay Devices and Technology for Ultra-Low Energy Digital Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathanael, Rhesa

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology 3.1 Introduction Nano-electro-mechanical (NEM)improvements, a scaled nano-relay technology with optimizedNano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relay Devices and Technology

  7. A sensitivity analysis of the treatment of wind energy in the AEO99 version of NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborn, Julie G.; Wood, Frances; Richey, Cooper; Sanders, Sandy; Short, Walter; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Documentation Report: Wind Energy Submodule (WES). DOE/EIA-The Economic Value of Wind Energy at High Power SystemOF THE TREATMENT OF WIND ENERGY IN THE AEO99 VERSION OF NEMS

  8. Recycling Guide: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Recycling Information Call 301-496-7990 or visit the NEMS Website at http://www.nems.nih.gov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    Recycling Guide: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Recycling Information ­ Call 301-496-7990 or visit the NEMS in COMMINGLED bin Rinse food/beverage containers before recycling No Pyrex or Styrofoam Printer and Copier Toner Cartridges in TONER CARTRIDGE bin Recycle packaging material in appropriate bin NIH charities

  9. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  10. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  11. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigt, James A. (Corrales, NM); Sipola, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuttle, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Mark T. (Woodbury, MN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications.

  12. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications. 4 figs.

  13. Investigation of solution-processed bismuth-niobium-oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: s-inoue@jaist.ac.jp [Green Device Research Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); School of Material Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Ariga, Tomoki [Green Device Research Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); ERATO Shimoda Nano-Liquid Process Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); Matsumoto, Shin [School of Material Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Onoue, Masatoshi; Miyasako, Takaaki [ERATO Shimoda Nano-Liquid Process Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Shimoda, Tatsuya [Green Device Research Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); School of Material Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); ERATO Shimoda Nano-Liquid Process Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 2-13 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1211 (Japan); Chinone, Norimichi; Cho, Yasuo [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of bismuth-niobium-oxide (BNO) films prepared using a solution process were investigated. The BNO film annealed at 550?°C involving three phases: an amorphous phase, Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} fluorite microcrystals, and Nb-rich cubic pyrochlore microcrystals. The cubic pyrochlore structure, which was the main phase in this film, has not previously been reported in BNO films. The relative dielectric constant of the BNO film was approximately 140, which is much higher than that of a corresponding film prepared using a conventional vacuum sputtering process. Notably, the cubic pyrochlore microcrystals disappeared with increasing annealing temperature and were replaced with triclinic ?-BiNbO{sub 4} crystals at 590?°C. The relative dielectric constant also decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Therefore, the high relative dielectric constant of the BNO film annealed at 550?°C is thought to result from the BNO cubic pyrochlore structure. In addition, the BNO films annealed at 500?°C contained approximately 6.5?atm.?% carbon, which was lost at approximately 550?°C. This result suggests that the carbon in the BNO film played an important role in the formation of the cubic pyrochlore structure.

  14. Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes how Learning-by-Doing (LBD) is implemented endogenously in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for generating plants. LBD is experiential learning that correlates to a generating technology's capacity growth. The annual amount of Learning-by-Doing affects the annual overnight cost reduction. Currently, there is no straightforward way to integrate and make sense of all the diffuse information related to the endogenous learning calculation in NEMS. This paper organizes the relevant information from the NEMS documentation, source code, input files, and output files, in order to make the model's logic more accessible. The end results are shown in three ways: in a simple spreadsheet containing all the parameters related to endogenous learning; by an algorithm that traces how the parameters lead to cost reductions; and by examples showing how AEO 2004 forecasts the reduction of overnight costs for generating technologies over time.

  15. Investigation of the effects of soluble boron tracking on coupled CTF / NEM, LWR simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biery, M.; Avramova, M.; Ivanov, K. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, 331 Reber Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of introducing a boron tracking capability to the COBRA-TF / NEM code coupling. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) versions of COBRA-TF - CTF, and Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) codes are utilized. Previous implementations of the CTF / NEM coupled code had no capability to model soluble boron feedback effects due to boron transport. This study builds upon the validation and qualification efforts of the boron tracking model implementation in CTF by modeling the boron feedback calculated by the CTF boron tracking model in NEM. The core model chosen for this study is the Purdue MOX/UO{sub 2} core model used in the 2007 OECD/NRC code benchmark study. Following the implementation of an explicit online coupling scheme and accompanying k-search routine, the newly coupled CTF / NEM code version with boron tracking is compared to prior results of the non-boron tracking CTF / NEM code version at steady-state hot full power and hot zero power conditions. It was found that the boron tracking model exhibited little influence on the hot zero power result as expected due to a smaller heat flux, which does not significantly change the moderator density and boron concentration as the moderator travels up the axial core length. Meanwhile the boron tracking model had a much greater impact on the hot full power results, predicting the critical inlet boron concentration to be 9.9 ppm below the non-boron tracking result due to greater and more rapid changes in boron concentration corresponding to the reduction in moderator density from being more rapidly heated. (authors)

  16. Photoinduced electron transfer processes in homogeneous and microheterogeneous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitten, D.G.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The studies have focused on rapid, efficient bond-fragmentation reactions initiated through photoinduced electron transfer. Electron transfer induced fragmentation of a number of donors have been examined, especially 1,2 diamines and related compounds. Two of the amines fragment with rate constants of 3 [times] 10[sup 8] to 2 [times] 10[sup 9] M[sup [minus]1]sec[sup [minus]1]. A series of amino-substituted pinacols and related compounds have also been examined; they undergo similar but slower fragmentation processes when converted to their cation radicals by photoinduced electron transfer. The studies with linked and polymeric electron donor- electron acceptor coupled molecules have also progressed. Several polymers containing diamine repeat units and anthraquinone or nitroaromatic acceptors have also been prepared that can be photoactivated by visible irradiation; they fragment efficiently in solution and photodegrade even in the solid state. The studies of singlet oxygen initiated fragmentation reactions of diamines, amino alcohols, and aminoketones have nearly been completed. Attention have been turned to fragmentable electron acceptors such as p- cyanobenzyl bromide; irradiation of electron donors such as methyl- or methoxy-naphthalenes can initiate efficient fragmentation of the electron deficient bromide.

  17. Overview of NEMS-H2, Version 1.0 Frances Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ConsumptionForm/Place Transformations Electricity Generation and Transmission Hydrogen Oil and Gas ProductionOverview of NEMS-H2, Version 1.0 Frances Wood OnLocation, Inc., Energy Systems Consulting (fwood markets ­ Focus is on economic, not engineering, aspects of hydrogen production, delivery, and consumption

  18. H Loop shaping control for PLL-based mechanical resonance tracking in NEMS resonant mass sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    problem that rejects the disturbance described by the resonance frequency shift, attenuates the phase the measurement scheme to a disturbance rejection control issue which considers the resonance frequency variation--A simple dynamic detection of the resonance frequency shift in NEMS resonant mass sensors is described

  19. A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF THE TREATMENT OF WIND ENERGY IN THE AEO99 VERSION OF NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-44070 TP-28529 A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF THE TREATMENT OF WIND ENERGY IN THE AEO99 VERSION Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National OF NEMS Julie Osborn, Frances Wood, Cooper Richey, Sandy Sanders, Walter Short, and Jonathan Koomey Energy

  20. Air stable all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Geier, Michael L.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bube, Fundamentals of Solar Cells (Academic Press, New York,of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirinorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution

  1. SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    MA 162 - Quiz 5 (20 minutes). SOLUTIONS. The solutions I present are not necessarily the only solutions. As long as you give a correct method of solving a ...

  2. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    films. Photovoltaic devices with power conversion efficiencyhigh efficiency fully solution-deposited CISS photovoltaic

  3. Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cochran, Jr., Henry D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

  4. Separation processes using expulsion from dilute supercritical solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cochran, H.D. Jr.

    1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for separating isotopes as well as other mixtures by utilizing the behavior of dilute repulsive or weakly attractive elements of the mixtures as the critical point of the solvent is approached.

  5. Comparison of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Forecasts: Vision Industry Energy Forecasts with ITEMS and NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roop, J. M.; Dahowski, R. T

    Comparisons are made of energy forecasts using results from the Industrial module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and an industrial economic-engineering model called the Industrial Technology and Energy Modeling System (ITEMS), a model...

  6. Uniqueness of Solutions to Single-Stage Isobaric Flash Processes Involving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia, Angelo

    of material stability, the Gibbs-Duhem equation, and the Cauchy interlace theorem. Results for the other solutions. Solution curves for the energy balance equation (for the QP case) and the vapor specification. The question of uniqueness arises because the set of model equations that describeseparation processes

  7. Metallocene/carbon hybrids prepared by a solution process for supercapacitor applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Xianwen

    Efficient and scalable solution-based processes are not generally available to integrate well-studied pseudocapacitive materials (i.e., metal oxides and conducting polymers) with other components such as porous carbon, ...

  8. Development of low-temperature solution-processed colloidal quantum dot-based solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Liang-Yi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solution-processed solar cells incorporating organic semiconductors and inorganic colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are potential alternatives to conventional solar cells fabricated via vacuum or high-temperature sintering ...

  9. Solvent extraction and recovery of the transuranic elements from waste solutions using the TRUEX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Schulz, W.W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level liquid waste is produced during the processing of irradiated nuclear fuel by the PUREX process. In some cases the treatment of metallurgical scrap to recover the plutonium values also generates a nitric acid waste solution. Both waste solutions contain sufficient concentrations of transuranic elements (mostly /sup 241/Am) to require handling and disposal as a TRU waste. This paper describes a recently developed solvent extraction/recovery process called TRUEX (transuranium extraction) which is designed to reduce the TRU concentration in nitric waste solutions to <100 nCi/g of disposed form (1,2). (In the USA, non-TRU waste is defined as <100 nCi of TRU/g of disposed form.) The process utilizes PUREX process solvent (TBP in a normal paraffinic hydrocarbon or carbon tetrachloride) modified by a small concentration of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (abbrev. CMPO). The presence of CMPO enables the modified PUREX process solvent to extract trivalent actinides as well as tetra- and hexavalent actinides. A major feature of the TRUEX process is that is is applicable to waste solutions containing a wide range of nitric acid, salt, and fission product concentrations and at the same time is very compatible with existing liquid-liquid extraction technology as usually practiced in a fuel reprocessing plant. To date the process has been tested on two different types of synthetic waste solutions. The first solution is a typical high-level nitric acid waste and the second a typical waste solution generated in metallurgical scrap processing. Results are discussed. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, E.S.; Trudeau, J.; Cleary, B.; Hackett, M.; Greene, W.A.

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20?25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  11. Appendix E: Other NEMS-MP results for the base case and scenarios.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Singh, M. K.; Energy Systems

    2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The NEMS-MP model generates numerous results for each run of a scenario. (This model is the integrated National Energy Modeling System [NEMS] version used for the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study [MP].) This appendix examines additional findings beyond the primary results reported in the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study: Vehicle Characterization and Scenario Analyses (Reference 1). These additional results are provided in order to help further illuminate some of the primary results. Specifically discussed in this appendix are: (1) Energy use results for light vehicles (LVs), including details about the underlying total vehicle miles traveled (VMT), the average vehicle fuel economy, and the volumes of the different fuels used; (2) Resource fuels and their use in the production of ethanol, hydrogen (H{sub 2}), and electricity; (3) Ethanol use in the scenarios (i.e., the ethanol consumption in E85 vs. other blends, the percent of travel by flex fuel vehicles on E85, etc.); (4) Relative availability of E85 and H2 stations; (5) Fuel prices; (6) Vehicle prices; and (7) Consumer savings. These results are discussed as follows: (1) The three scenarios (Mixed, (P)HEV & Ethanol, and H2 Success) when assuming vehicle prices developed through literature review; (2) The three scenarios with vehicle prices that incorporate the achievement of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program vehicle cost goals; (3) The three scenarios with 'literature review' vehicle prices, plus vehicle subsidies; and (4) The three scenarios with 'program goals' vehicle prices, plus vehicle subsidies. The four versions or cases of each scenario are referred to as: Literature Review No Subsidies, Program Goals No Subsidies, Literature Review with Subsidies, and Program Goals with Subsidies. Two additional points must be made here. First, none of the results presented for LVs in this section include Class 2B trucks. Results for this class are included occasionally in Reference 1. They represent a small, though noticeable, segment of the 'LV plus 2B' market (e.g., a little more than 3% of today's energy use in that market). We generally do not include them in this discussion, simply because it requires additional effort to combine the NEMS-MP results for them with the results for the other LVs. (Where there is an exception, we will indicate so.) Second, where reference is made to E85, the ethanol content is actually 74%. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) assumes that, to address cold-starting issues, the percent of ethanol in E85 will vary seasonally. The EIA uses an annual average ethanol content of 74% in its forecasts. That assumption is maintained in the NEMS-MP scenario runs.

  12. A sensitivity analysis of the treatment of wind energy in the AEO99 version of NEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborn, Julie G; Wood, Frances; Richey, Cooper; Sanders, Sandy; Short, Walter; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes a forecast of the domestic energy economy in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO). During the forecast period of the AEO (currently through 2020), renewable energy technologies have typically not achieved significant growth. The contribution of renewable technologies as electric generators becomes more important, however, in scenarios analyzing greenhouse gas emissions reductions or significant technological advancements. We examined the economic assumptions about wind power used for producing forecasts with the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to determine their influence on the projected capacity expansion of this technology. This analysis should help illustrate to policymakers what types of issues may affect wind development, and improve the general understanding of the NEMS model itself. Figure 1 illustrates the model structure and factors relevant to wind deployment. We found that NEMS uses various cost multipliers and constraints to represent potential physical and economic limitations to growth in wind capacity, such as resource depletion, costs associated with rapid manufacturing expansion, and grid stability with high levels of capacity from intermittent resources. The model's flexibility allows the user to make alternative assumptions about the magnitude of these factors. While these assumptions have little effect on the Reference Case forecast for the 1999 edition of the AEO, they can make a dramatic difference when wind is more attractive, such as under a carbon permit trading system. With $100/ton carbon permits, the wind capacity projection for 2020 ranges from 15 GW in the unaltered model (AEO99 Reference Case) to 168 GW in the extreme case when all the multipliers and constraints examined in this study are removed. Furthermore, if modifications are made to the model allowing inter-regional transmission of electricity, wind capacity is forecast to reach 214 GW when all limitations are removed. The figures in the upper end of these ranges are not intended to be viewed as reasonable projections, but their magnitude illustrates the importance of the parameters governing the growth of wind capacity and resource availability in forecasts using NEMS. In addition, many uncertainties exist regarding these assumptions that potentially affect the growth of wind power. We suggest several areas in which to focus future research in order to better model the potential development of this resource. Because many of the assumptions related to wind in the model are also used for other renewable technologies, these suggestions could be applied to other renewable resources as well.

  13. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CuInS x Se 2-x solar cells and its effect on defectabundant Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 solar cells”, submitted 5. B. K.Visibly transparent polymer solar cells produced by solution

  14. Solution Synthesis and Processing of PZT Materials for Neutron Generator Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.A.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Montoya, T.V.; Moore, R.H.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new solution synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of lead-based ferroelectric materials (patent filed). The process produces controlled stoichiometry precursor powders by non-aqueous precipitation. For a given ferroelectric material to be prepared, a metal acetate/alkoxide solution containing constituent metal species in the appropriate ratio is mixed with an oxalic acid/n-propanol precipitant solution. An oxalate coprecipitate is instantly fonned upon mixing that quantitatively removes the metals from solution. Most of the process development was focused on the synthesis and processing of niobium-substituted lead zirconate titanate with a Zr-to-Ti ratio of 95:5 (PNZT 95/5) that has an application in neutron generator power supplies. The process was scaled to produce 1.6 kg of the PNZT 95/5 powder using either a sen-ii-batch or a continuous precipitation scheme. Several of the PNZT 95/5 powder lots were processed into ceramic slug form. The slugs in turn were processed into components and characterized. The physical properties and electrical performance (including explosive functional testing of the components met the requirements set for the neutron generator application. Also, it has been demonstrated that the process is highly reproducible with respect to the properties of the powders it produces and the properties of the ceramics prepared from its powders. The work described in this report was funded by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  15. Surfactant based imbibition and induced solution gas drive process: investigation by nuclear magnetic resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, James Calvin

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    drive mechanism. This imbibition and induced solution gas drive study employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques to monitor and characterize the progress of oil recovery inside the rock sample core. A specially designed core...SURFACTANT BASED IMBIBITION AND INDUCED SOLUTION GAS DRIVE PROCESS: INVESTIGATION BY NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE A Thesis by JAMES CALVIN COX Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  16. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  17. Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Solution: We're looking for the presale cost of the shirt, so let x be the price of ... The sale price is $10 and we've called the presale price x, so we need to solve.

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL 2002 923 Adaptive Solution for Blind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolova, Mila

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 50, NO. 4, APRIL 2002 923 Adaptive Solution for Blind, and Mila Nikolova Abstract--A deterministic maximum likelihood (DML) ap- proach is presented for the blind of the recursive and adap- tive algorithm are presented. Index Terms--Adaptive algorithm, blind equalization, deter

  19. A UNIFIED HARDWARE/SOFTWARE CO-SYNTHESIS SOLUTION FOR SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A UNIFIED HARDWARE/SOFTWARE CO-SYNTHESIS SOLUTION FOR SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS Endri Bezati1.lastname}@insa-rennes.fr ABSTRACT This paper presents a methodology to specify from a high- level data-flow description the co-synthesis tools and then an analysis of the generated hardware and soft- ware results are given

  20. Solution-processed infrared photovoltaic devices with >10% monochromatic internal quantum efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    photovolta- ics are limited to about 3%. This arises partly from the lim- ited efficiency with which carriers applications emit predominantly in the 1­3 m range; these require efficient infrared photovoltaicsSolution-processed infrared photovoltaic devices with >10% monochromatic internal quantum

  1. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

  2. Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark L. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX); Barrans, Jr., Richard E. (Downers Grove, IL); Rausch, David (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

  3. Enhancing performing characteristics of organic semiconducting films by improved solution processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazan, Guillermo C; Moses, Daniel; Peet, Jeffrey; Heeger, Alan J

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved processing methods for enhanced properties of conjugated polymer films are disclosed, as well as the enhanced conjugated polymer films produced thereby. Addition of low molecular weight alkyl-containing molecules to solutions used to form conjugated polymer films leads to improved photoconductivity and improvements in other electronic properties. The enhanced conjugated polymer films can be used in a variety of electronic devices, such as solar cells and photodiodes.

  4. Enhancing performance characteristics of organic semiconducting films by improved solution processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazan, Guillermo C. (Santa Barbara, CA); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Moses, Daniel (Santa Barbara, CA); Peet, Jeffrey (Goleta, CA)

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved processing methods for enhanced properties of conjugated polymer films are disclosed, as well as the enhanced conjugated polymer films produced thereby. Addition of low molecular weight alkyl-containing molecules to solutions used to form conjugated polymer films leads to improved photoconductivity and improvements in other electronic properties. The enhanced conjugated polymer films can be used in a variety of electronic devices, such as solar cells and photodiodes.

  5. Enhancing performance characteristics of organic semiconducting films by improved solution processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazan, Guillermo C; Mikhailovsky, Alexander; Moses, Daniel; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Peet, Jeffrey; Soci, Cesare

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved processing methods for enhanced properties of conjugated polymer films are disclosed, as well as the enhanced conjugated polymer films produced thereby. Addition of low molecular weight alkyl-containing molecules to solutions used to form conjugated polymer films leads to improved photoconductivity and improvements in other electronic properties. The enhanced conjugated polymer films can be used in a variety of electronic devices, such as solar cells and photodiodes.

  6. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  7. Solution-processed high-performance colloidal quantum dot tandem photodetectors on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Zhenyu; You, Guanjun; Wang, Li; Liu, Jie; Xu, Jian, E-mail: jianxu@engr.psu.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Hu, Wenjia [China Tianchen Engineering Corporation, Tianjin 300400 (China); Zhang, Yu [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a high-performance colloidal quantum dot (CQD)-based near-infrared tandem photodetector fabricated on flexible substrates via solution-processed method. The tandem photodetector on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates exhibited low dark current and high detectivities over ?8.8?×?10{sup 11} Jones at near infrared range at ?0.5?V bias and over ?10{sup 13} Jones near 0 bias. The critical bend radii of ?8?mm and ?3?mm have been demonstrated for tensile and compressive bending, respectively. The performance of photodetectors remains stable under mechanical stress, making PbSe CQD material a promise candidate for flexible infrared sensing applications.

  8. Solution of relativistic quantum optics problems using clusters of graphical processing units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, D.F., E-mail: daviel.gordon@nrl.navy.mil; Hafizi, B.; Helle, M.H.

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical solution of relativistic quantum optics problems requires high performance computing due to the rapid oscillations in a relativistic wavefunction. Clusters of graphical processing units are used to accelerate the computation of a time dependent relativistic wavefunction in an arbitrary external potential. The stationary states in a Coulomb potential and uniform magnetic field are determined analytically and numerically, so that they can used as initial conditions in fully time dependent calculations. Relativistic energy levels in extreme magnetic fields are recovered as a means of validation. The relativistic ionization rate is computed for an ion illuminated by a laser field near the usual barrier suppression threshold, and the ionizing wavefunction is displayed.

  9. Studies of solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes and their materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellerich, Emily [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A hitherto unexplored approach is presented in which a small molecule is used as a host to polymer guests in solution-processed OLEDs. We find that the small molecule host results in much more efficient devices than the often-used alternative polymer host when used for the guests presented. It is likely that nano- and microstructural differences between the hosts contribute to the improvements, which highlights some interesting characteristics that can help to better understand the nature of these mixtures. A number of the guests used in this study were newly synthesized benzobisoxazole-based copolymers. New organic copolymers are presented that are based on the chemical structure of benzobisoxazoles, which have been shown in the past to have good electron transporting properties. The novel concept in this publication pertains to a change in the direction of polymerization, also known as the conjugation pathway, which we show increases the emission efficiency. This work highlights a unique and useful property of organic semiconducting materials in that they can be synthesized to create the desired characteristics. Earlier work is described that kick-started in our research group the use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs. Originally these devices were to be used in magnetoresistance studies, but the project took a different path when the devices were more efficient than expected. The efficient use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs is highlighted, which at the time was not often the case. Also, the important observation of the effect of solvent choice on the resultant film is emphasized, with discussion of the likely cause of these effects. Microcavity OLEDs are introduced in which the transparent anode ITO is replaced with semi-transparent thin silver, which creates an optical cavity within the devices. The goal was to expand a previous work that created an on-chip spectrometer covering wavelengths 493 to 639 nm. In this case, a spin-coated mixed emitting layer (EML) is used, consisting of a polymer and a small molecule that both emit in the near UV and blue. The resulting combined spectra gives a wide band that can be used to create narrow microcavity emission peaks of 373 to 469 nm, depending on the device thickness (i.e. the cavity’s optical length). In the process of this effort, the mixed EML presented interesting complexities that we attempt to explain via simulation and morphology study.

  10. Low-Temperature, Solution-Processed Molybdenum Oxide Hole-Collection Layer for Organic Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, S. R.; Meyer, J.; Widjonarko, N. E.; Ndione, P. F.; Sigdel, A. K.; Garcia, A.; Miedaner, A.; Lloyd, M. T.; Kahn, A.; Ginley, D. S.; Berry, J. J.; Olson, D. C.

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We have utilized a commercially available metal-organic precursor to develop a new, low-temperature, solution-processed molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub x}) hole-collection layer (HCL) for organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices that is compatible with high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates complete decomposition of the metal-organic precursor by 115 C in air. Acetonitrile solutions spin-cast in a N{sub 2} atmosphere and annealed in air yield continuous thin films of MoO{sub x}. Ultraviolet, inverse, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopies confirm the formation of MoO{sub x} and, along with Kelvin probe measurements, provide detailed information about the energetics of the MoO{sub x} thin films. Incorporation of these films into conventional architecture bulk heterojunction OPV devices with poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester afford comparable power conversion efficiencies to those obtained with the industry-standard material for hole injection and collection: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The MoO{sub x} HCL devices exhibit slightly reduced open circuit voltages and short circuit current densities with respect to the PEDOT:PSS HCL devices, likely due in part to charge recombination at Mo{sup 5+} gap states in the MoO{sub x} HCL, and demonstrate enhanced fill factors due to reduced series resistance in the MoO{sub x} HCL.

  11. A water-processable organic electron-selective layer for solution-processed inverted organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dongcheng; Zhou, Hu; Cai, Ping; Sun, Shi; Ye, Hua; Su, Shi-Jian, E-mail: mssjsu@scut.edu.cn; Cao, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices (South China University of Technology) and Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A triazine- and pyridinium-containing water-soluble material of 1,1?,1?-(4,4?,4?-(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(benzene-4,1-diyl)) tris(methylene)tripyridinium bromide (TzPyBr) was developed as an organic electron-selective layer in solution-processed inverted organic solar cells due to its strong anti-erosion capacity against non-polar organic solvents commonly used for the active layer. Ohmic-like contact with the adjacent active materials like fullerene derivatives is speculated to be formed, as confirmed by the work-function measurements with scanning Kelvin probe and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. Besides, considering the deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of TzPyBr, excellent hole-blocking property of the electron-selective layer is also anticipated. The inverted organic photovoltaic devices based on the TzPyBr/ITO (indium tin oxide) bilayer cathode exhibit dramatically enhanced performance compared to the control devices with bare ITO as the cathode and even higher efficiency than the conventional type devices with ITO and Al as the electrodes.

  12. ParaText : scalable solutions for processing and searching very large document collections : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.

  13. Efficient solution-processed small molecule: Cadmium selenide quantum dot bulk heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drvinaygupta@netscape.net [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India) [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Upreti, Tanvi; Chand, Suresh [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India)] [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report bulk heterojunction solar cells based on blends of solution-processed small molecule [7,7?-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b?]dithiophene-2,6-diyl) bis(6-fluoro-4-(5?-hexyl-[2,2?-bithiophen]-5yl)benzo[c] [1,2,5] thiadiazole)] p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) (70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 40:60) in the device configuration: Indium Tin Oxide /poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}: CdSe/Ca/Al. The optimized ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe::60:40 leads to a short circuit current density (J{sub sc})?=?5.45?mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub oc})?=?0.727?V, and fill factor (FF)?=?51%, and a power conversion efficiency?=?2.02% at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} under AM1.5G illumination. The J{sub sc} and FF are sensitive to the ratio of p-DTS(FBTTh{sub 2}){sub 2}:CdSe, which is a crucial factor for the device performance.

  14. Vacuum-free lamination of low work function cathode for efficient solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Hsin-Fei

    -coated organic light-emitting diode is transferred from a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold by lamination, or blade coating [1,2] for organic light emitting diode (OLED) as well as solar cell. The top electrodeVacuum-free lamination of low work function cathode for efficient solution-processed organic light-emitting

  15. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Printing and Low Temperature Laser Processing”, Sensor andCo. , Inc B Bäuerle, D. , Laser Processing and Chemistry (Conductor Microstructures by Laser Curing of Printed Gold

  16. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    annealing. Laser processing of DSSC has been reported [Kimparticle sizes Table 5.1 The DSSC processing parametersdeposition to realize DSSC on glass and plastic substrates

  17. Guiding Cooperative Stakeholders to Compromise Solutions Using an Interactive Tradespace Exploration Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, Matthew E.

    Engineering projects frequently involve the cooperation of multiple stakeholders with varying objectives and preferences for the resulting system. Finding a mutually agreeable solution is of paramount importance in order ...

  18. Solution-Processable Transparent Conductive Hole Injection Electrode for OLED SSL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An interconnected network of silver nanowires has been used as transparent anode in OLED devices. This layer was deposited by spin-coating and slot-die coating from an aqueous nanowire suspension. The sheet resistance of the film was 10ohms/sq with a transmission (including the glass substrate) of higher than 85%. The first phase of the project focused on the implementation of this nanowire layer with a hole-injection-layer (HIL) which has been developed at Plextronics and has been shown to provide good stability and efficiency in conventional OLED devices. We modified the HIL solution such that it coated reasonably well with suitable surface morphology so that actual devices can be manufactured. During the second phase we investigated the hole-injection and stability of hole-onlydevices. We determined that the use of the nanowire network as anode does not introduce an additional degradation mechanism since the observed device characteristics did not differ from those made with ITO anode. We then proceeded to make actual OLED devices with this nanowire / HIL stack and achieved device characteristics similar state-of-the-art OLED devices with a single junction. In order to gain traction with potential OLED manufacturers, we decided to contract Novaled to prepare large-area demonstrators for us. For these devices, we used an allevaporated stack, i.e. we did use Novaledâ??s HIL material instead of Plextronicsâ??. We successfully fabricated demonstrators with an area of 25cm2 with a double or triple junction stack. Minor stack optimizations were necessary to achieve efficacies and lifetime equivalent with ITO devices made with the same devices stack. Due to the reduced microcavity effect, the color of the emitted light is significantly more stable with respect to the viewing angle compared to ITO devices. This fact in conjunction with the promise of lower production cost due to the elimination of the ITO sputtering process and the direct patterning of the anode layer are the obvious advantages of this technology. The project has shown that this nanowire technology is a viable option to achieve OLED devices with good lifetime and efficiency and we are currently working with manufacturers to utilize this technology in a production setting.

  19. Microsecond relaxation processes in shear and extensional flows of weakly elastic polymer solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadillo, D.C.; Mathues, W.; Clasen, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and polymer solution properties are summarised in Table 1. The surface tension was measured using a Wilhelmy plate (NIMA DST 9005, NIMA Technology, England) and a “SITA, pro-line t15” bubble pressure tensiometer (Messtechnik GmbH, Germany). A constant... value of 37 mN/m was obtained for both the pure DEP and the PS in DEP solutions up to 5 wt% (PS110 in DEP). The intrinsic viscosity [K], the critical overlap concentration of entanglement c*, and the radius of gyration of the carbon-carbon bonds Rg...

  20. MODELING OF A NOVEL SOLUTION POTASH MINING PROCESS Sergio Almada, Harvey Haugen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by drilling followed by a number of steps to develop a solution mining cavern. Water is injected to dissolve of Technology 2 Beechy Industries, Saskatchewan, Canada 3 Software development, Center of Investigations drilled through a high grade potash zone that should eventually dissolve out all the potash in the zone

  1. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

    2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

  2. Precipitation of jarosite-type double salts from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, G.

    1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The precipitation of jarosite compounds to remove Na, K, Fe, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} impurities from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process was studied. Simple heating of model solutions containing Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} caused jarosite (KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}). Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} could be precipitated from those solutions at 95{degree}C, while little or no Na was removed. However, simple heating of model solutions containing only Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} up to 95{degree}C for {le}12 hours produced low yields of jarosite compounds, and the Fe concentration in the solution had to be increased to avoid the formation of undesirable Fe compounds. Precipitate yields could be increased dramatically in model solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} containing excess Fe by using either CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, or ZnO to neutralize H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} released during hydrolysis of the Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and during the precipitation reactions. Results obtained from the studies with model solutions were applied to spent acids produced during laboratory countercurrent washing of coal which had been leached with a molten NaOH/KOH mixture. Results indicated that jarosite compounds can be precipitated effectively from spent acid solutions by heating for 6 hours at 80{degree}C while maintaining a pH of about 1.5 using CaCO{sub 3}.

  3. The Role of Advanced Process Control in Your Energy Management Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, K.; Van Wyk, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "According to Aberdeen Group, Operational Excellence in the Process Industries - Driving Performance Through Real-time Visibility, the most striking advantage Best-in-Class companies have is being able to compare performance across a portfolio...

  4. The Role of Advanced Process Control in Your Energy Management Solution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, K.; Van Wyk, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "According to Aberdeen Group, Operational Excellence in the Process Industries - Driving Performance Through Real-time Visibility, the most striking advantage Best-in-Class companies have is being able to compare performance ...

  5. Process for preparing chemically modified micas for removal of cesium salts from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Stephen Frederic (1539 S. Kennicott Dr., Arlington Heights, IL 60005); DeFilippi, Irene (208 E. Edgewood La., Palatine, IL 60067); Gaita, Romulus (6646 Davis Rd., Morton Grove, IL 60053); Clearfield, Abraham (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Lyudmila (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Anatoly (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843)

    2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemically modified mica composite formed by heating a trioctahedral mica in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride having a concentration of at least 1 mole/liter at a temperature greater than 180 degrees Centigrade for at least 20 hours, thereby replacing exchangeable ions in the mica with sodium. Formation is accomplished at temperatures and pressures which are easily accessed by industrial equipment. The reagent employed is inexpensive and non-hazardous, and generates a precipitate which is readily separated from the modified mica.

  6. High-Performance Solution-Processed Amorphous-Oxide-Semiconductor TFTs with Organic Polymeric Gate Dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pecunia, Vincenzo; Banger, Kulbinder; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    energy offsets (? 1 eV) between the conduction/valence bands of the semiconductor and the gate dielectric are needed to confine the charge carriers at the active interface and minimize undesirable charge injection from the semiconductor into the gate... in solution, all the other polymers came in the form of pellets or powder and were dissolved in suitable anhydrous organic solvents: P?MS was dissolved in xylene at a concentration of 60 mg mL-1; SAN in butyronitrile at 40 mg mL-1; PC in 1,2-dichlorobenzene...

  7. Large area ceramic thin films on plastics: A versatile route via solution processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozuka, H.; Yamano, A.; Uchiyama, H.; Takahashi, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, 564-8680 (Japan); Fukui, T.; Yoki, M.; Akase, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, 564-8680 (Japan)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new general route for large area, submicron thick ceramic thin films (crystalline metal oxide thin films) on plastic substrates is presented, where the crystallization of films is guaranteed by a firing process. Gel films are deposited on silicon substrates with a release layer and fired to be ceramic films, followed by transferring onto plastic substrates using adhesives. The ceramic films thus fabricated on plastics exhibit a certain degree of flexibility, implying the possibility of the technique to be applied to high-throughput roll-to-roll processes. Using this technique, we successfully realized transparent anatase thin films that provide high optical reflectance and transparent indium tin oxide thin films that exhibit electrical conductivity on polycarbonate and acrylic resin substrates, respectively. Crystallographically oriented zinc oxide films and patterned zinc oxide films are also demonstrated to be realized on acrylic resin substrates.

  8. Coupled modeling of groundwater flow solute transport, chemical reactions and microbial processes in the 'SP' island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samper, Javier; Molinero, Jorg; Changbing, Yang; Zhang, Guoxiang

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Redox Zone Experiment was carried out at the Aespoe HRL in order to study the redox behavior and the hydrochemistry of an isolated vertical fracture zone disturbed by the excavation of an access tunnel. Overall results and interpretation of the Redox Zone Project were reported by /Banwart et al, 1995/. Later, /Banwart et al, 1999/ presented a summary of the hydrochemistry of the Redox Zone Experiment. Coupled groundwater flow and reactive transport models of this experiment were carried out by /Molinero, 2000/ who proposed a revised conceptual model for the hydrogeology of the Redox Zone Experiment which could explain simultaneously measured drawdown and salinity data. The numerical model was found useful to understand the natural system. Several conclusions were drawn about the redox conditions of recharge waters, cation exchange capacity of the fracture zone and the role of mineral phases such as pyrite, calcite, hematite and goethite. This model could reproduce the measured trends of dissolved species, except for bicarbonate and sulfate which are affected by microbially-mediated processes. In order to explore the role of microbial processes, a coupled numerical model has been constructed which accounts for water flow, reactive transport and microbial processes. The results of this model is presented in this report. This model accounts for groundwater flow and reactive transport in a manner similar to that of /Molinero, 2000/ and extends the preliminary microbial model of /Zhang, 2001/ by accounting for microbially-driven organic matter fermentation and organic matter oxidation. This updated microbial model considers simultaneously the fermentation of particulate organic matter by yeast and the oxidation of dissolved organic matter, a product of fermentation. Dissolved organic matter is produced by yeast and serves also as a substrate for iron-reducing bacteria. Model results reproduce the observed increase in bicarbonate and sulfate concentration, thus adding additional evidence for the possibility of organic matter oxidation as the main source of bicarbonate. Model results indicate that pH and Eh are relatively stable. The dissolution-precipitation trends of hematite, pyrite and calcite also coincide with those indicated by the conceptual model. A thorough sensitivity analysis has been performed for the most relevant microbial parameters as well as for initial and boundary POC and DOC concentrations. The results of such analysis indicate that computed concentrations of bicarbonate, sulfate and DOC are sensitive to most of the microbial parameters, including specific growth rates, half-saturation constants, proportionality coefficients and yield coefficients. Model results, however, are less sensitive to the yield coefficient of DOC to iron-reducer bacteria. The sensitivity analysis indicates that changes in fermentation microbial parameters affect the growth of the iron-reducer, thus confirming the interconnection of both microbial processes. Computed concentrations of bicarbonate and sulfate are found to be sensitive to changes in the initial concentration of POC and the boundary concentration of DOC, but they lack sensitivity to the initial concentration of DOC and the boundary concentration of POC. The explanation for such result is related to the fact that POC has a low mobility due to its large molecular weight. DOC, however, can migrate downwards. Although a coupled hydro-bio-geochemical 1-D model can reproduce the observed ''unexpected'' increase of concentrations of bicarbonate and sulfate at a depth of 70 m, further modeling work is required in order to obtain a similar conclusion under the more realistic two dimensional conditions of the fracture zone.

  9. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Oyenekan, Babatunde A. (Katy, TX)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  10. Roll-to-Roll Solution-Processible Small-Molecule OLEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jie Jerry

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to develop key knowledge and make critical connections between technologies needed to enable low-cost manufacturing of OLED lighting products. In particular, the program was intended to demonstrate the feasibility of making high performance Small-Molecule OLEDs (SM-OLED) using a roll-to-roll (R2R) wet-coating technique by addressing the following technical risks (1) Whether the wet-coating technique can provide high performance OLEDs, (2) Whether SM-OLED can be made in a R2R manner, (3) What are the requirements for coating equipment, and (4) Whether R2R OLEDs can have the same performance as the lab controls. The program has been managed and executed according to the Program Management Plan (PMP) that was first developed at the beginning of the program and further revised accordingly as the program progressed. Significant progress and risk reductions have been accomplished by the end of the program. Specific achievements include: (1) Demonstrated that wet-coating can provide OLEDs with high LPW and long lifetime; (2) Demonstrated R2R OLEDs can be as efficient as batch controls (Figure 1) (3) Developed & validated basic designs for key equipment necessary for R2R SM-OLEDs; (4) Developed know-hows & specifications on materials & ink formulations critical to wetcoating; (5) Developed key R2R processes for each OLED layer (6) Identified key materials and components such as flexible barrier substrates necessary for R2R OLEDs.

  11. Oxidation-resistant, solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaobai; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Zhang, Qinglin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 F. Paul Anderson Tower, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States); Li, Juchuan [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxidation at high temperatures has long been a challenge in cermet solar thermal absorbers, which impedes the development of atmospherically stable, high-temperature, high-performance concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. In this work, we demonstrate solution-processed Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?processed by low-cost solution-chemical methods for future generations of CSP systems.

  12. Photoinduced electron transfer processes in homogeneous and microheterogeneous solutions. Progress report, April 16, 1992--December 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitten, D.G.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The studies have focused on rapid, efficient bond-fragmentation reactions initiated through photoinduced electron transfer. Electron transfer induced fragmentation of a number of donors have been examined, especially 1,2 diamines and related compounds. Two of the amines fragment with rate constants of 3 {times} 10{sup 8} to 2 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1}sec{sup {minus}1}. A series of amino-substituted pinacols and related compounds have also been examined; they undergo similar but slower fragmentation processes when converted to their cation radicals by photoinduced electron transfer. The studies with linked and polymeric electron donor- electron acceptor coupled molecules have also progressed. Several polymers containing diamine repeat units and anthraquinone or nitroaromatic acceptors have also been prepared that can be photoactivated by visible irradiation; they fragment efficiently in solution and photodegrade even in the solid state. The studies of singlet oxygen initiated fragmentation reactions of diamines, amino alcohols, and aminoketones have nearly been completed. Attention have been turned to fragmentable electron acceptors such as p- cyanobenzyl bromide; irradiation of electron donors such as methyl- or methoxy-naphthalenes can initiate efficient fragmentation of the electron deficient bromide.

  13. Modulation of physical and photocatalytic properties of (Cr, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} nanorods using soft solution processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wen-Chung [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Nguyen, Hoang-Diem; Wu, Chun-Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kao-Shuo, E-mail: kschang@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Yoshimura, Masahiro [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Promotion Center for Global Materials Research (PCGMR), National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Facile polymerized complex reactions together with a hydrothermal reaction were implemented to make single crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanorods for the first time. Chromium (Cr) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) co-doping was performed to tailor the physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction study illustrated that highly reactive facets of (101), (111), and (001) dominated rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorods. A growth model, based on formation of complex species, was proposed to elucidate effectiveness of the soft solution processing in making TiO{sub 2} nanorods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and consideration of fundamentals of charge neutrality showed N{sub 2} doping could inhibit formation of Cr{sup 6+} and oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}{sup 2+}). An investigation of the photocatalytic properties exhibited high efficiency of photodegradation of methylene blue in 15?min under pH?=?10, using a nanocomposite of (7% Cr, 0.0021% N) codoped and 3% Cr doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods.

  14. Process for production of solution-derived (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O.sub.3 thin films and powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and rapid process for synthesizing (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O.sub.3 precursor solutions and subsequent ferroelectric thin films and powders of the perovskite phase of these materials has been developed. This process offers advantages over standard methods, including: rapid solution synthesis (<10 minutes), use of commercially available materials, film production under ambient conditions, ease of lanthanum dissolution at high concentrations, and no heating requirements during solution synthesis. For lanthanum-doped ferroelectric materials, the lanthanum source can be added with total synthesis time less than 10 minutes. Films and powders are crystallized at approximately 650.degree. C. and exhibit ferroelectric properties comparable to films and powders produced by other techniques which require higher crystallization temperatures.

  15. Process for production of solution-derived (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin films and powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, T.J.

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and rapid process for synthesizing (Pb,La)(Nb,Sn,Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} precursor solutions and subsequent ferroelectric thin films and powders of the perovskite phase of these materials has been developed. This process offers advantages over standard methods, including: rapid solution synthesis (<10 minutes), use of commercially available materials, film production under ambient conditions, ease of lanthanum dissolution at high concentrations, and no heating requirements during solution synthesis. For lanthanum-doped ferroelectric materials, the lanthanum source can be added with total synthesis time less than 10 minutes. Films and powders are crystallized at approximately 650 C and exhibit ferroelectric properties comparable to films and powders produced by other techniques which require higher crystallization temperatures. 2 figs.

  16. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

  17. An evaluation of membrane materials for the treatment of highly concentrated suspended salt solutions in reverse osmosis and nanofiltration processes for desalination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Trenton Whiting

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2006 Major Subject: Civil Engineering AN EVALUATION OF MEMBRANE MATERIALS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HIGHLY... CONCENTRATED SUSPENDED SALT SOLUTIONS IN REVERSE OSMOSIS AND NANOFILTRATION PROCESSES FOR DESALINATION A Thesis by TRENTON WHITING HUGHES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  18. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  19. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  20. Cooling process for inelastic Boltzmann equations for hard spheres, Part II: Self-similar solutions and tail behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stéphane Mischler; Clément Mouhot

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation for inelastic hard spheres, in the framework of so-called constant normal restitution coefficients. We prove the existence of self-similar solutions, and we give pointwise estimates on their tail. We also give general estimates on the tail and the regularity of generic solutions. In particular we prove Haff 's law on the rate of decay of temperature, as well as the algebraic decay of singularities. The proofs are based on the regularity study of a rescaled problem, with the help of the regularity properties of the gain part of the Boltzmann collision integral, well-known in the elastic case, and which are extended here in the context of granular gases.

  1. Transverse transport of solutes between co-flowing pressure-driven streams for microfluidic studies of diffusion/reaction processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Baptiste Salmon; Armand Ajdari

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a situation commonly encountered in microfluidics: two streams of miscible liquids are brought at a junction to flow side by side within a microchannel, allowing solutes to diffuse from one stream to the other and possibly react. We focus on two model problems: (i) the transverse transport of a single solute from a stream into the adjacent one, (ii) the transport of the product of a diffusion-controlled chemical reaction between solutes originating from the two streams. Our description is made general through a non-dimensionalized formulation that incorporates both the parabolic Poiseuille velocity profile along the channel and thermal diffusion in the transverse direction. Numerical analysis over a wide range of the streamwise coordinate $x$ reveal different regimes. Close to the top and the bottom walls of the microchannel, the extent of the diffusive zone follows three distinct power law regimes as $x$ is increased, characterized respectively by the exponents 1/2, 1/3 and 1/2. Simple analytical arguments are proposed to account for these results.

  2. Reduced cycle time and work in process in a medical device factory : the problem and a proposed solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Yi, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many manufacturing firms have improved their operations by implementing a work-in-process (WIP) limiting control strategy. This project explores the application of this concept to limit WIP and reduce cycle time for the ...

  3. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, Sivaraman (Deep River, CA); Wong, Chi F. (Pembroke, CA); Buckley, Leo P. (Deep River, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

  4. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  5. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  6. Solution Processed MoS2-PVA Composite for Sub-Bandgap Mode-Locking of a Wideband Tunable Ultrafast Er:Fiber Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Meng; Howe, Richard C. T.; Woodward, Robert I.; Kelleher, Edmund J. R.; Torrisi, Felice; Hu, Guohua; Popov, Sergei V.; Taylor, J. Roy; Hasan, Tawfique

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    with stable, picosecond pulses, tunable from 1535 nm to 1565 nm 2 Solution Processed MoS2-PVA Composite for Sub-Bandgap Mode-Locking of a Wideband Tunable Ultrafast Er:Fiber Laser Meng Zhang1, Richard C. T. Howe2, Robert I. Woodward1... ! to! relaxation! of! thermalized! electron! and!phonon! distribution! [3].! This! combination! of!properties!makes!MoS2!a!suitable!saturable!absorber!(SA)! for! ultrafast! mode+locked! pulsed! lasers,! with!the! potential! for! pulse! generation! at...

  7. In situ retreival of contaminants or other substances using a barrier system and leaching solutions and components, processes and methods relating thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Walsh, Stephanie; Richardson, John G.; Dick, John R.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes and methods relating to treating contaminants and collecting desired substances from a zone of interest using subterranean collection and containment barriers. Tubular casings having interlock structures are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The subterranean barrier includes an effluent collection system. Treatment solutions provided to the zone of interest pass therethrough and are collected by the barrier and treated or recovered, allowing on-site remediation. Barrier components may be used to in the treatment by collecting or removing contaminants or other materials from the zone of interest.

  8. Calcium niobate nanosheets as a novel electron transport material for solution-processed multi-junction polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterloh, Frank

    from a common solvent. Nanoscale interpenetrating networks are formed as the donor and acceptor phase-junction polymer solar cells Lilian Chang,a Michael A. Holmes,b Mollie Waller,b Frank E. Osterlohb and Adam J-processed tandem polymer solar cells are demonstrated using stacked perovskite, (TBA,H) Ca2Nb3O10 (CNO

  9. Interfacial degradation effects of aqueous solution-processed molybdenum trioxides on the stability of organic solar cells evaluated by a differential method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lou, Yan-Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Graduate School of Science and Technology, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku Toyama (Japan); Wang, Zhao-Kui, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Yuan, Da-Xing; Liao, Liang-Sheng, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Okada, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku Toyama (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors investigate the influence of two hole interfacial materials poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and aqueous solution-processed MoO{sub 3} (sMoO{sub 3}) on cell stability. sMoO{sub 3}-based device demonstrated obviously improved stability compared to PEDOT:PSS-based one. Current-voltage characteristics analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of the hole interfacial layers on the cell stability. The formation of additional trap states at the interfaces between the hole interfacial layer and the active layer in degraded devices is verified by a differential method. Improved cell stability is attributed to a relatively stable sMoO{sub 3} interfacial layer compared to PEDOT:PSS by comparing their different trap states distributions.

  10. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nano Letters,diodes (OLEDs), dye- sensitized solar cells, as well as

  11. SOLUTION-PROCESSED INORGANIC ELECTRONICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhishev, Teymur

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene Conductors .. 41 Fabrication .. 44 Printing Conditions Optimization 44 ii Experimental Setup and Sample Preparation

  12. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashbrook, A.W. , Process Metallurgy I , Solvent Extraction,and Applications to Process Metallurgy, Elsevier ScienceAshbrook, A.W. , Process Metallurgy 1, Solvent Extraction:

  13. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A thin LiF layer serves typically as the electron injection layer in OLEDs and electron collection interlayer in the OSCs. However, several reports showed that it can also assist in holeinjection in OLEDs. Here we first demonstrate that it assists hole-collection in OSCs, which is more obvious after air-plasma treatment, and explore this intriguing dual role. For OLEDs, we focus on solution processing methods to fabricate highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. First, we investigated OLEDs with a polymer host matrix, and enhanced charge injection by adding hole- and electron-transport materials into the system. We also applied a hole-blocking and electron-transport material to prevent luminescence quenching by the cathode. Finally, we substituted the polymer host by a small molecule, to achieve more efficient solution processed small molecular OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is cost-effective in comparison to the more common vacuum thermal evaporation. All these studies help us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OSCs and OLEDs’ performance and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiencies of OSCs and OLEDs. With better efficiency and longer lifetime, the OSCs and OLEDs will be competitive with their inorganic counterparts.

  14. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production of citric acid by fermentation, recovery of theof Citric Acid from Aqueous Fermentation Solutions byof citric acid was 1.1.1 Lactic Acid Currently, fermentation

  15. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and other Gases for Coal-Gasification Processes", Chemicalof Liquid Effluents from Coal Gasification Plants", Economicand other Gases for Coal-Gasification Processes", Chemical

  16. Final Closeout report for grant FG36-08GO18018, titled: Functional Multi-Layer Solution Processable Polymer Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam J. Moule

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The original objectives were: (1) Develop a method to deposit multiple conjugated polymer film layers and avoid the problem of dissolution from mutually solubility; (2) Use this deposition method to develop multi-layer polymer based solar cells with layers that are function specific; (3) characterize these layers and devices; (4) develop electrical and optical models that describe and predict the properties of the multi-layers; and (5) Ultimate efficiency goals are {approx}6.75% with J{sub sc} = 12 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.75, and V{sub oc} = 0.75. The question of whether photovoltaic (PV) cells will ever be able to replace fossil fuels as the main provider of electrical power is not just a question of device efficiency; it is a question of how much power can be provided for what price. It has been well documented that PV devices at 10% power efficiency can provide for all of the world's power needs without covering too much of the earth's surface. Assuming desert like cloud coverage, an area equivalent to the land area of Texas would have to be covered. However, it has also been shown that using the current state-of-the-art silicon devices, the price-per-Watt will never be low enough to be economically feasible for large-scale development. Solution-processable PV devices based on polymers are a very attractive alternative to traditional Silicon PV because this technology is much lower in materials cost and in environmentally toxic waste production. Solution-based polymers can be rapidly deposited using printing technologies and are compatible with light-weight flexible substrates that can increase the range of available PV applications. In the past ten years, the efficiency of polymer based PV devices has increased from {approx}1% to over 10%. The highest efficiency organic solar cells are based upon a single layer than consists of a mixture of donor and acceptor moieties. This one layer has multiple optical and electrical functions, so the design of a single heterojunction layer is based upon the idea of balancing good and bad properties within a single film. This proposal addresses the idea that the use of multiple layers that have differing electrical and optical functions could lead to greater efficiency because fewer materials compromises must be made. This idea is not new, multiple functional layer have been successfully used in cross-linked OLED's and organic small molecule evaporated PV devices. The main reason that multiple layers of polymers are not commonly deposited is that most conjugated polymers are mutually soluble in the same solvents. The work outlined in the proposal was intended to develop a new deposition strategy that would allow multiple organic layers to be deposited from solution using spin coating. The deposition method that we proposed was successful, sometimes, but ultimately not reliable. Instead we focused on more reliable methods to implement doping along the interface between layers. This work has been very successful. We found that using PEDOT:PSS, the PSS would form a surface layer of {approx}2-3 nm thickness that would mix with and electrochemically react with P3HT upon heating. This mechanism is also a crosslinking reaction in that H{sub 2} is released and permanent new bonds are formed. Using the Plextronics Inc. replacement to PEDOT:PSS, for which there are no mobile dopants, we were able to show that a second and different mechanism can be used to p-type dope organic materials. We are currently working with Plextronics to develop a new product. Finally we produced n-type doping of a thin fullerene layer near the cathode also using a self-assembly method. Low work function metals will diffuse into the BHJ layer and dope the fullerene upon heating. This doping also affects the vertical segregation of BHJ materials in a predictable way. We accomplished all of the scientific goals that we set out in the proposal written in May 2007. Some of the methods we proposed were not fully successful, but we did come up with better methods to achieve the same goal. We did not achieve the efficiency g

  17. Solvent wash solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  18. Solvent wash solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neace, James C. (Blackville, SC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  19. Misfit layered Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} as a high figure of merit p-type transparent conducting oxide film through solution processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksit, M.; Kolli, S. K.; Slauch, I. M.; Robinson, R. D., E-mail: rdr82@cornell.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films synthesized through solution processing are shown to be high-performing, p-type transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). The synthesis method is a cost-effective and scalable process that consists of sol-gel chemistry, spin coating, and heat treatments. The process parameters can be varied to produce TCO thin films with sheet resistance as low as 5.7?k?/sq (????57 m? cm) or with average visible range transparency as high as 67%. The most conductive Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} TCO thin film has near infrared region optical transmission as high as 85%. The figure of merit (FOM) for the top-performing Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin film (151 M?{sup ?1}) is higher than FOM values reported in the literature for all other solution processed, p-type TCO thin films and higher than most others prepared by physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition. Transparent conductivity in misfit layered oxides presents new opportunities for TCO compositions.

  20. Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

    1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

  1. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Economic Materials from Oil Shale Retort Water by anDerived from In Situ Oil Shale Processing", Proceedings, 2ndWastewaters Sour Waters from Oil Shale Retorting Sour Waters

  2. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Third quarterly report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

    1993-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents research objectives, discusses activities, and presents technical progress for the period April 1, 1993 through June 31, 1993 on Contract No. DE-FC21-86LC11084 with the Department of Energy, Laramie Project Office. The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  3. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Fourth quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1993-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  4. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  5. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    19,20). In the coking step, coal is heated III the absencethe "coking" process in In the second step the which coal isCoal Liquefaction Wastewaters Sour Waters from Oil Shale Retorting Sour Waters from Petroleum Refining Sour Waters from Coking

  6. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hryn, John N. (Naperville, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Orland Park, IL); Krumdick, Greg K. (Crete, IL)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  7. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Final report, November 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study is described on the hydrological and geotechnical behavior of an oil shale solid waste. The objective was to obtain information which can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil shale solid waste disposal in the Green River Basin. The spent shale used in this study was combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. Laboratory bench-scale testing included index properties, such as grain size distribution and Atterberg limits, and tests for engineering properties including hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Large-scale tests were conducted on model spent shale waste embankments to evaluate hydrological response, including infiltration, runoff, and seepage. Large-scale tests were conducted at a field site in western Colorado and in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL)at the University of Wyoming. The ESL tests allowed the investigators to control rainfall and temperature, providing information on the hydrological response of spent shale under simulated severe climatic conditions. All experimental methods, materials, facilities, and instrumentation are described in detail, and results are given and discussed. 34 refs.

  8. Improvement of bias-stability in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by using solution-processed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Sungjin; Mativenga, Mallory; Kim, Youngoo; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr [Advanced Display Research Center, Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate back channel improvement of back-channel-etch amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors by using solution-processed yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) passivation. Two different solvents, which are acetonitrile (35%)?+?ethylene glycol (65%), solvent A and deionized water, solvent B are investigated for the spin-on process of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation—performed after patterning source/drain (S/D) Mo electrodes by a conventional HNO{sub 3}-based wet-etch process. Both solvents yield devices with good performance but those passivated by using solvent B exhibit better light and bias stability. Presence of yttrium at the a-IGZO back interface, where it occupies metal vacancy sites, is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The passivation effect of yttrium is more significant when solvent A is used because of the existence of more metal vacancies, given that the alcohol (65% ethylene glycol) in solvent A may dissolve the metal oxide (a-IGZO) through the formation of alkoxides and water.

  9. Enhanced safeguards via solution monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burr, T.; Wangen, L.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solution monitoring is defined as the essentially continuous monitoring of solution level, density, and temperature in all tanks in the process that contain, or could contain, safeguards-significant quantities of nuclear material. This report describes some of the enhancements that solution monitoring could make to international safeguards. The focus is on the quantifiable benefits of solution monitoring, but qualitatively, solution monitoring can be viewed as a form of surveillance. Quantitatively, solution monitoring can in some cases improve diversion detection probability. For example, the authors show that under certain assumptions, solution monitoring can be used to reduce the standard deviation of the annual material balance, {sigma}{sub MB}, from approximately 17 kg to approximately 4 kg. Such reduction in {sigma}{sub MB} will not always be possible, as they discuss. However, in all cases, solution monitoring would provide assurance that the measurement error models are adequate so that one has confidence in his estimate of {sigma}{sub MB}. Some of the results in this report were generated using data that were simulated with prototype solution monitoring software that they are developing. An accompanying document describes that software.

  10. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, No. 2 South Taibai Road, Xi'an 710071 (China)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150?°C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100?°C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  11. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  12. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    itpsuccesses.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Technology Solutions ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges...

  13. Nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Gur, Ilan; Milliron, Delia

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic device having a first electrode layer, a high resistivity transparent film disposed on the first electrode, a second electrode layer, and an inorganic photoactive layer disposed between the first and second electrode layers, wherein the inorganic photoactive layer is disposed in at least partial electrical contact with the high resistivity transparent film, and in at least partial electrical contact with the second electrode. The photoactive layer has a first inorganic material and a second inorganic material different from the first inorganic material, wherein the first and second inorganic materials exhibit a type II band offset energy profile, and wherein the photoactive layer has a first population of nanostructures of a first inorganic material and a second population of nanostructures of a second inorganic material.

  14. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  15. Robotic Efficiency Solutions for Ductwork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, F.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New Technologies That Work Robotic Efficiency Solutions for ductwork Frank Forrest Electrical Energy Consumption in Office Buildings Building Energy Upgrades ? Lighting upgrade ? Supplemental load reduction ? Air distribution system... based or ? Solvent based and ? Brushed or ? Sprayed ? Rolled Sealant Sprayable ? Lower viscosity than other methods ? Substantially better elasticity ? Sprays at a continuous pressure Robotic Spray Application Process ? Duct interior...

  16. Purification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, A.

    1981-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from gases or liquid hydrocarbons, comprises contacting the gas or liquid hydrocarbon with an aqueous alkaline solution, preferably having a pH value of 8 to 10, comprising (A) an anthraquinone disulphonic acid or a water-soluble sulphonamide thereof (B) a compound of a metal which can exist in at least two valency states and (C) a sequestering agent.

  17. EIS-0219: F-Canyon Plutonium Solutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of processing the plutonium solutions to metal form using the F-Canyon and FB-Line facilities at the Savannah River Site.

  18. Project Management Plan Solution Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SATO, P.K.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Solutions Stabilization subproject. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Solution Stabilization subproject. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Solution Stabilization subproject. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process.

  19. Pervaporation process and assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P. (Redwood City, CA); Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  20. alkyl carbonate solution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R. 13 Solution-processed single walled carbon nanotube electrodes for organic thin-film transistors Physics Websites Summary: t Airbrushed single walled carbon nanotube...

  1. Information processing by a controlled coupling process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. W. Wei; Shan Zhao

    2001-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This Letter proposes a controlled coupling process for information processing. The net effect of conventional coupling is isolated from the dynamical system and is analyzed in depth. The stability of the process is studied. We show that the proposed process can locally minimize the smoothness and the fidelity of dynamical data. A digital filter expression of the controlled coupling process is derived and the connection is made to the Hanning filter. The utility and robustness of proposed approach is demonstrated by both the restoration of the contaminated solution of the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation and the estimation of the trend of a time series.

  2. Method for removing metals from a cleaning solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deacon, Lewis E. (Waverly, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing accumulated metals from a cleaning solution is provided. After removal of the metals, the cleaning solution can be discharged or recycled. The process manipulates the pH levels of the solution as a means of precipitating solids. Preferably a dual phase separation at two different pH levels is utilized.

  3. Reducing the consumption of anthraquinone disulfonate in stretford solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenton, D.M.; Vaell, R.P.

    1982-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a hydrogen sulfide-containing hydrogenated claus process tail gas to convert the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in which said gas is contacted with an aqueous alkaline solution containing a water-soluble metal vanadate, a water-soluble anthraquinone disulfonate, and a watersoluble, inorganic fluoride, borate, or phosphate complexing agent to yield an effluent gas to reduced sulfur content. The solution is thereafter regenerated by contact with an oxygencontaining gas, elemental sulfur is recovered from the solution, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the gas-contacting step. The complexing agent contained in the solution reduces the chemical consumption of the anthraquinone disulfonate.

  4. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenmann, Erhard T. (5423 Vista Sandia, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  5. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  6. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  7. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  8. Solution deposition assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  9. Solution to Quiz 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    jeffb_000

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 19, 2013 ... Calculate the total transaction costs incurred by Patrick and Eric combined. Solution: Ask Price = 30. Bid Ask Spread = 0.50 = Ask Price - Bid ...

  10. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  11. Method for preparing salt solutions having desired properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ally, Moonis R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braunstein, Jerry (Clinton, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specification discloses a method for preparing salt solutions which exhibit desired thermodynamic properties. The method enables prediction of the value of the thermodynamic properties for single and multiple salt solutions over a wide range of conditions from activity data and constants which are independent of concentration and temperature. A particular application of the invention is in the control of salt solutions in a process to provide a salt solution which exhibits the desired properties.

  12. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  13. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, O.K.; Crouse, D.J.; Mailen, J.C.

    1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

  14. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  15. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  16. Commercial Lighting Solutions Webtool Peer Review Report, Office Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, Tracy A.; Jones, Carol C.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the CLS webtool for offices. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed for the release of version 2.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in Las Vegas in May 2010. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 2.0 as well as appendices containing the comments and short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 2.0 are listed as long-term recommendations.

  17. Anatomy of bubbling solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostas Skenderis; Marika Taylor

    2008-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a comprehensive analysis of holography for the bubbling solutions of Lin-Lunin-Maldacena. These solutions are uniquely determined by a coloring of a 2-plane, which was argued to correspond to the phase space of free fermions. We show that in general this phase space distribution does not determine fully the 1/2 BPS state of N=4 SYM that the gravitational solution is dual to, but it does determine it enough so that vevs of all single trace 1/2 BPS operators in that state are uniquely determined to leading order in the large N limit. These are precisely the vevs encoded in the asymptotics of the LLM solutions. We extract these vevs for operators up to dimension 4 using holographic renormalization and KK holography and show exact agreement with the field theory expressions.

  18. Quiz 5 Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apr 25, 2015 ... Math 373. Spring 2015. Quiz 5. April 16, 2015. 1. In a short sale of a stock, there is credit risk. Define credit risk. Solution: Credit risk is the risk ...

  19. Strategic Biomass Solutions (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Strategic Biomass Solutions (SBS) was formed by the Mississippi Technology Alliance in June 2009. The purpose of the SBS is to provide assistance to existing and potential companies, investors...

  20. Solution to Quiz 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    jeffb_000

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 5, 2013 ... over the next four years: Cash Flow at End of Year Amount of Cash Flow. 1. 1 Million. 2 ... project is 8%. Calculate X . Solution: By definition, the ...

  1. Gas treating process and composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, D.L.

    1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for the removal of H/sub 2/S from a sour gaseous stream. The process consists of: (a) contacting the sour gaseous stream in a contacting zone with an aqueous reaction solution, at a temperature not greater than about 160{sup 0}C, the reaction solution comprising an effective amount of vanadium V-containing ions to oxidize H/sub 2/S to elemental sulfur and being substantially free of anthraquinone disulfonate, and producing a sweet gas stream and an aqueous solution having a pH of 8-11 and containing sulfur and vanadium IV-containing ions, the reaction solution further comprising an amount of phosphate ions sufficient to provide a molar ratio of phosphate ions to vanadium IV-containing ions produced in solution of at least 0.1; (b) removing sulfur from the aqueous solution, producing an aqueous solution having reduced sulfur content; (c) regenerating aqueous solution having reduced sulfur content in a regenerating zone and producing regenerated reactant in the solution; and (d) returning regenerated solution from step (c) to the contacting zone for use as aqueous reaction solution therein.

  2. Solutions of Penrose's Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. N. Glass; Jonathan Kress

    1998-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The computational use of Killing potentials which satisfy Penrose's equation is discussed. Penrose's equation is presented as a conformal Killing-Yano equation and the class of possible solutions is analyzed. It is shown that solutions exist in spacetimes of Petrov type O, D or N. In the particular case of the Kerr background, it is shown that there can be no Killing potential for the axial Killing vector.

  3. Automated MAD and MIR structure solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Berendzen, Joel [Biophysics Group, Mail Stop D454, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully automated procedure for solving MIR and MAD structures has been developed using a scoring scheme to convert the structure-solution process into an optimization problem. Obtaining an electron-density map from X-ray diffraction data can be difficult and time-consuming even after the data have been collected, largely because MIR and MAD structure determinations currently require many subjective evaluations of the qualities of trial heavy-atom partial structures before a correct heavy-atom solution is obtained. A set of criteria for evaluating the quality of heavy-atom partial solutions in macromolecular crystallography have been developed. These have allowed the conversion of the crystal structure-solution process into an optimization problem and have allowed its automation. The SOLVE software has been used to solve MAD data sets with as many as 52 selenium sites in the asymmetric unit. The automated structure-solution process developed is a major step towards the fully automated structure-determination, model-building and refinement procedure which is needed for genomic scale structure determinations.

  4. Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

  5. Frequency stabilization in nonlinear MEMS and NEMS oscillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, Omar Daniel; Antonio, Dario

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An illustrative system includes an amplifier operably connected to a phase shifter. The amplifier is configured to amplify a voltage from an oscillator. The phase shifter is operably connected to a driving amplitude control, wherein the phase shifter is configured to phase shift the amplified voltage and is configured to set an amplitude of the phase shifted voltage. The oscillator is operably connected to the driving amplitude control. The phase shifted voltage drives the oscillator. The oscillator is at an internal resonance condition, based at least on the amplitude of the phase shifted voltage, that stabilizes frequency oscillations in the oscillator.

  6. NEM Interpolant for Fourth-Order PDEs Internal Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukumar, N.

    Sibson's coordinate in the Bernstein-B#19;ezier representation of a cubic simplex, a C 1( interpolant and in the #12;eld of computer-aided geometric design [10]. A review article on triangular Bernstein- B#19;ezier of a simplex Ã? 2 R n 1 . A Bernstein-B#19;ezier surface of degree m over the simplex Ã? can be written

  7. U.S. Regional Demand Forecasts Using NEMS and GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Jesse A.; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Administration. 2004a. Annual Energy Outlook 2004. U.S.Assumptions of the Annual Energy Outlook 2004. DOE/EIA-0554(and Definitions AEO – Annual Energy Outlook ArcGIS - ESRI

  8. EIA Buildings Analysis of Consumer Behavior in NEMS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 PV Wind Natural gas Other For more information 15 Behavioral Economics Experts Meeting,...

  9. Appendix C: Map of NEMS Electricity Market Module Regions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469Appendix E44 Reference4

  10. Analysis and Representation of Miscellaneous Electric Loads in NEMS -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S. OffshoreOil andEnergy

  11. Overview of NEMS-H2, Version 1.0

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreach toTransmissionProgramTechnologies

  12. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study - Energy Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate - Events - Fermilab

  13. Fissile solution measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, T.W.; Collinsworth, P.R.

    1984-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the content of a fissile material within a solution by detecting delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material after it is temporarily irradiated by a neutron source. The apparatus comprises a container holding the solution and having a portion defining a neutron source cavity centrally disposed within the container. The neutron source cavity temporarily receives the neutron source. The container has portions defining a plurality of neutron detector ports that form an annular pattern and surround the neutron source cavity. A plurality of neutron detectors count delayed fission neutrons emitted by the fissile material. Each neutron detector is located in a separate one of the neutron detector ports.

  14. Actinide recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muscatello, Anthony C. (Arvada, CO); Navratil, James D. (Arvada, CO); Saba, Mark T. (Arvada, CO)

    1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

  15. Offshore Renewable Energy Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and sustainable energy supply. The UK is uniquely placed to harness its natural resources ­ wind, wave and tidal power ­ to meet its target of achieving 15% of energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. CefasOffshore Renewable Energy Solutions #12;Cefas: meeting complex requirements The Centre

  16. 1.2 Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In other words, the graph of the ... coef?cient p0 — (k/r) of the exponential term in Eq. (19). 1f p0 > Mr ..... be other solutions, then perhaps we should continue to search for them. .... Then the tensile force in the rod does not enter the equation.

  17. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Taylor, W.A.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. 1 fig.

  18. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed.

  19. Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center Demonstration...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center Demonstration Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center Demonstration Better Buildings Residential Program Solution...

  20. Plutonium recovery from carbonate wash solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.H.; Reif, D.J.; Chostner, D.F.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Periodically higher than expected levels of plutonium are found in carbonate solutions used to wash second plutonium cycle solvent. The recent accumulation of plutonium in carbonate wash solutions has led to studies to determine the cause of that plutonium accumulation, to evaluate the quality of all canyon solvents, and to develop additional criteria needed to establish when solvent quality is acceptable. Solvent from three canyon solvent extraction cycles was used to evaluate technology required to measure tributyl phosphate (TBP) degradation products and was used to evaluate solvent quality criteria during the development of plutonium recovery processes. 1 fig.

  1. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates National Grid Northeast Utilities PA Office of Consumer Advocates Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission PJM Interconnection The Electricity Consumers Resource Council U.S. Department of Energy US Department of the Interior Van Ness Feldman Western Interstate Energy Board Wind on the Wires Wisconsin Public Service Commission Xcel Energy

  2. Solution to Exam 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 1 .... Solution Letting what is under the square root be u, i.e., u = x3 + 2x2 + 1, we get du. 3x2 + 4x. = dx. Also remeber to ... about the city named Lafayette in Contra Costa County in California after t seconds from now (t = 0) .... (b) (6 points) Find the consumers' surplus at equilibrium (DON'T approximate the an- swer!).

  3. Reducing the consumption of anthraquinone disulfonate in Stretford solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenton, D.M.; Vaell, R.P.

    1980-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a hydrogen sulfide-containing hydrogenated Claus process tail gas to convert the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in which said gas is contacted with an aqueous alkaline solution containing a water-soluble metal vanadate, a water-soluble anthraquinone disulfonate, and a water soluble phenolic complexing agent or a water-soluble carboxylic complexing agent, to yield an effluent gas of reduced sulfur content. The solution is thereafter regenerated by contact with an oxygen-containing gas, elemental sulfur is recovered from the solution, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the gascontacting step. The complexing agent contained in the solution reduces the chemical consumption of the anthraquinone disulfonate.

  4. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  5. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, Rommel (Westminster, CO); Chen, Yih-Wen (Omaha, NE)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  6. Review: Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton-Smith, Elery

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solutions with Sustainable Energy By Mark DiesendorfSolutions with Sustainable Energy. Sydney, NSW: University

  7. Bearwall Energy Efficient Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sovero,M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CATEE Conference November 20, 2014 ENERGY EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Brief History of Bearwall… Who We Are: ? Manuel Sovero ? Luis Osorio Energy Conservation... Experience: ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Energy Programs… ESL-KT-14-11-06 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Bearwall Methodology… Introduction...

  8. Building America Solution Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Future ofHydronic Heating inOctober 2011 | DepartmentSolution

  9. Sandia Energy - SCADA Engineering Solutions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Solutions Home Stationary Power Safety, Security & Resilience of Energy Infrastructure Grid Modernization Cyber Security for Electric Infrastructure National...

  10. Solution-processed photovoltaics with advanced characterization and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Hsin-Sheng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at the 37th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference (D. B. Mitzi, Prog. Photovoltaics 2011, 20, 6. [23] S. Bag,R. Noufi, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 2012, T. Todorov, J. Tang,

  11. Photoinduced electron transfer processes in homogeneous and microheterogeneous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitten, D.G.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the work described in this report is on single electron transfer reactions of excited states which culminate in the formation of stable or metastable even electron species. For the most part the studies have involved even electron organic substrates which are thus converted photochemically to odd electron species and then at some stage reconvert to even electron products. These reactions generally fall into two rather different categories. In one set of studies we have examined reactions in which the metastable reagents generated by single electron transfer quenching of an excited state undergo novel fragmentation reactions, chiefly involving C-C bond cleavage. These reactions often culminate in novel and potentially useful chemical reactions and frequently have the potential for leading to new chemical products otherwise unaffordable by conventional reaction paths. In a rather different investigation we have also studied reactions in which single electron transfer quenching of an excited state is followed by subsequent reactions which lead reversibly to metastable two electron products which, often stable in themselves, can nonetheless be reacted with each other or with other reagents to regenerate the starting materials with release of energy. 66 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Characterization of Solution-Processed Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ounaies, Zoubeida

    ductility was retained.[4] Po¨tschke et al. reported a significant increase in the conductivity and the dielectric constant of a polycarbonate composite by adding multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs).[5 it is conductive, was calculated to be 1.0 wt.-% for the MWNTs. Ounaies Full Paper Dispersion of CNTs in polymers

  13. Design and process solutions for decreasing vendor defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Michael (Michael Sagar)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Why do some new initiatives fail while others succeed? This thesis attempts to answer this complex question by investigating the failure of a defect tracking initiative at Amazon and examining how a reintroduction of the ...

  14. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3-6,3-7] Chalcopyrite CIGS solar cells, without introducingperformance CISS and CIGS solar cells with efficiencies uptellurium might impede CIGS/CdTe solar cells from reaching

  15. Solution processed nickel oxide anodes for organic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mustafa, Bestoon; Griffin, Jonathan; Alsulami, Abdullah S.; Lidzey, David G.; Buckley, Alastair R., E-mail: alastair.buckley@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel oxide thin films have been prepared from a nickel acetylacetonate (Ni(acac)) precursor for use in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices. The conversion of Ni(acac) to NiO{sub x} has been investigated. Oxygen plasma treatment of the NiO layer after annealing at 400?°C affords solar cell efficiencies of 5.2%. Photoelectron spectroscopy shows that high temperature annealing converts the Ni(acac) to a reduced form of nickel oxide. Additional oxygen plasma treatment further oxidizes the surface layers and deepens the NiO work function from 4.7?eV for the annealed film, to 5.0?eV allowing for efficient hole extraction at the organic interface.

  16. Solution-Processed Solar Cells using Colloidal Quantum Dots ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    27, 2012 at 3pm36-428 Ted Sargent Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering - Canada Research Chair in Nanotechnology, University of Toronto, Canada sargent001000...

  17. 24 SOLUTIONS! for People, Processes and Paper COATING TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul D. "Dan"

    of thickness L is described by the Darcy's (9) equation, 1 Here Q is the mass of permeate trans- ferred of the layer, and t is time (see Figure 1). In use of equation 1 in the barrier appli- cation, (Q/t) can

  18. Small Molecule Solution-Processed Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candea, George

    , Laboratory of Polymer and Composite Technology, Lausanne A large source of interest in organic photovoltaics to lateral structures with sizes of about 300 nm. The UV-Vis absorbance spectra of a SQ:PCBM blend film:PCBM blends with varying composition and indicate an eutectic system. This might provide a strategy to obtain

  19. Solution Processed Silver Sulfide Thin Films for Filament Memory Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Shong

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TGA) with Mixed Conductivity (EIS) o Understanding effect ofModified Circuit Simulated EIS data of the brick-layer modelimpedance spectroscopy (EIS). Nanoparticle Synthesis 4.1.1:

  20. Molecular and Hybrid Solution Processable Thermoelectrics | MIT-Harvard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1 SECTION A.ModelAlyssaReceptorinCenter for

  1. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

  2. Actinide recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Saba, M.T.

    1985-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrene-divinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like. 2 tabs.

  3. Corporate Energy Management Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geiger, T.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . May 21-24, 2013 Corporate Energy Management Process 2 ?Brief introduction to BASF ? BASF Corporate Energy Management ? Management Support ? Goals ? Continuous Improvement ? Best Practices ? Recognition ?Summary ESL-IE-13-05-25 Proceedings...-value products ? Intelligent, sustainable system solutions ? 2012 Sales: ?72.1 Billion ? Employees: 110,000 Company overview BASF ? The Chemical Company ESL-IE-13-05-25 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA...

  4. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  5. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  6. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  7. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  8. Processing Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processing Science Related to the Electron Beam Melting Additive Manufacturing Process October 14 th , 2014 Ryan Dehoff Metal Additive Manufacturing Thrust Lead Manufacturing...

  9. Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Selection Process Fellowships will be awarded based on academic excellence, relevance of candidate's research to the laboratory mission in fundamental nuclear...

  10. Proposal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposal Process Network R&D Overview Experimental Network Testbeds 100G SDN Testbed Testbed Description Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Proposal Process Terms and...

  11. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

    1984-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

  12. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Ly, Jennifer (San Jose, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  13. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  14. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  15. Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Raymond

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

  16. Is Nuclear Energy the Solution?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saier, Milton H.; Trevors, Jack T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    009-0270-y Is Nuclear Energy the Solution? Milton H. Saier &in the last 50 years, nuclear energy subsidies have totaledadministration, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)

  17. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Shockley, William E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  18. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

  19. Process Modeling for Process Improvement A Process Conformance Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Process Modeling for Process Improvement - A Process Conformance Approach Sigurd Thunem September processes. In order to improve these processes, knowledge about them is necessary. To support process improve- ment the organization should collect process data, transform process data into knowledge

  20. Presentation: Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Presentation: Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center Presentation: Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center Presentation: Better Buildings Residential...

  1. Conference Agenda: Residential Energy Efficiency Solutions 2012...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Conference Agenda: Residential Energy Efficiency Solutions 2012 Conference Agenda: Residential Energy Efficiency Solutions 2012 Presents conference agenda including a general...

  2. Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application...

  3. For discussion only Phase Two Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    For discussion only 1 Phase Two Process 1 Revised per Advisory Committee 10/20/11Advisory Reviews Input on Select Opportunities and Charges AE to Begin Solution Development Process Organizes Work, Identifies Business Process Owners and Affected Constituent, and Refines Data Analysis #12;For discussion

  4. Thermal Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

  5. Photolytic Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photolytic processes use the energy in sunlight to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen. These processes are in the very early stages of research but offer long-term potential for sustainable...

  6. Statistical static timing analysis considering process variations and crosstalk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veluswami, Senthilkumar

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .................................................................................................. 9 D. Testable Paths .......................................................................................... 15 III. SOLUTION METHODOLOGY...................................................................... 17 A. Delay Model................................................................................................ 17 B. Process Variations.................................................................................... 17 C. Crosstalk .................................................................................................. 23 D. Statistical Timing...

  7. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satkowiak, Lawrence [Director, Nonproliferation, Safeguards and Security Programs, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  8. Institute for Environmental Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel JumpCounty,Jump7OpenInnovative SolutionsInsource EnergyInstitute for

  9. Freedom Energy Solutions LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865°, -86.0529604° Show MapFredericksburg Place: Barcelona,Solutions

  10. Mistake #3: Digitally controlled analog processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maher, Robert C.

    -digital solution and puts your machine in the junk heap. LESSON LEARNED: Design the processor and its programming- out the intervention of the accountants. LESSON LEARNED: Make sure there's enough processing power that the resources will be suffi- cient to solve it. LESSON LEARNED: Don't mess with hybrid solutions if a digital

  11. Process for decomposing lignin in biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rector, Kirk Davin; Lucas, Marcel; Wagner, Gregory Lawrence; Kimball, David Bryan; Hanson, Susan Kloek

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A mild inexpensive process for treating lignocellulosic biomass involves oxidative delignification of wood using an aqueous solution prepared by dissolving a catalytic amount of manganese (III) acetate into water and adding hydrogen peroxide. Within 4 days and without agitation, the solution was used to convert poplar wood sections into a fine powder-like delignified, cellulose rich materials that included individual wood cells.

  12. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Kalina, Dale G. (Naperville, IL); Kaplan, Louis (Lombard, IL); Mason, George W. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  13. Microfluidic-Based Robotic Sampling System for Radioactive Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack D. Law; Julia L. Tripp; Tara E. Smith; Veronica J. Rutledge; Troy G. Garn; John Svoboda; Larry Macaluso

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel microfluidic based robotic sampling system has been developed for sampling and analysis of liquid solutions in nuclear processes. This system couples the use of a microfluidic sample chip with a robotic system designed to allow remote, automated sampling of process solutions in-cell and facilitates direct coupling of the microfluidic sample chip with analytical instrumentation. This system provides the capability for near real time analysis, reduces analytical waste, and minimizes the potential for personnel exposure associated with traditional sampling methods. A prototype sampling system was designed, built and tested. System testing demonstrated operability of the microfluidic based sample system and identified system modifications to optimize performance.

  14. A process for creating Celtic knot work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parks, Hunter Guymin

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Celtic art contains mysterious and fascinating aesthetic elements including complex knot work motifs. The problem is that creating and exploring these motifs require substantial human effort. One solution to this problem is to create a process...

  15. Studsvik Processing Facility Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

  16. Mask fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardinale, Gregory F. (Oakland, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

  17. Is Nuclear Energy the Solution?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saier, Milton H.; Trevors, Jack T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10.1007/s11270-009-0270-y Is Nuclear Energy the Solution?MHS) attended a lecture on “Nuclear Responsibility” on theof the Alliance for Nuclear Responsibility. The information

  18. Microfluidic System for Solution Array Based Bioassays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, G M; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Rose, K A

    2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate new enabling technology for multiplex biodetection systems that are flexible, miniaturizable, highly automated, low cost, and high performance. It builds on prior successes at LLNL with particle-based solution arrays, such as those used in the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) successfully field deployed to multiple locations nationwide. We report the development of a multiplex solution array immunoassay based upon engineered metallic nanorod particles. Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} particles are fabricated by sequential electrodeposition of dissimilar metals within porous alumina templates, yielding optically encoded striping patterns that can be read using standard laboratory microscope optics and PC-based image processing software. The addition of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coatings and target-specific antibodies allows each encoded class of nanorod particles to be directed against a different antigen target. A prototype assay panel directed against bacterial, viral, and soluble protein targets demonstrates simultaneous detection at sensitivities comparable to state of the art immunoassays, with minimal cross-reactivity. Studies have been performed to characterize the colloidal properties (zeta potential) of the suspended nanorod particles as a function of pH, the ionic strength of the suspending solution, and surface functionalization state. Additional studies have produced means for the non-contact manipulation of the particles, including the insertion of magnetic nickel stripes within the encoding pattern, and control via externally applied electromagnetic fields. Using the results of these studies, the novel Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} based assay was implemented in a prototype automated system with the sample processing functions and optical readout performed on a microfluidic card. The unique physical properties of the nanorod particles enable the development of integrated microfluidic systems for biodefense, protein expression studies, and other applications.

  19. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheitlin, Frank M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  20. SciTech Connect: A Solution for Solution-Produced [beta]-FeSe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Solution for Solution-Produced beta-FeSe: Elucidating and Overcoming Factors that Prevent Superconductivity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Solution for...

  1. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cm 2 ) efficiency CIGS solar cells taken from reference [and 20.3% efficiency CIGS solar cells [6] through the use ofcm 2 ) efficiency CIGS solar cells taken from reference [6].

  2. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    63 5.3 Photovoltaic performance……….64 5.4 Laterally resolvedaffect the photovoltaic performance of any resulting device.5.3 Photovoltaic performance Transmittance (%) (a) Sputtered

  3. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    due to a reduced short circuit current density and fillor even higher short circuit current density and fill factorof 11.1% with a short circuit current density of 29.9 mA/cm

  4. Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, D.O.; Buxton, S.R.

    1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M; (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound; (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete; and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

  5. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Eckert, C.A. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  6. Evaporation of iodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  7. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  8. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  9. Commercial Lighting Solutions, Webtool Peer Review Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Carol C.; Meyer, Tracy A.

    2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the beta version of the CLS webtool, which contains retail box lighting solutions. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed about which feedback should be addressed for the release of version 1.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in New York City in May 2009. Due to the volume of data (~500 comments) the methodology for addressing the peer review comments was central to the success of the ultimate goal of improving the tool. The comments were first imported into a master spreadsheet, and then grouped and organized in several layers. Solutions to each comment were then rated by importance and feasibility to determine the practicality of resolving the concerns of the commenter in the short-term or long-term. The rating system was used as an analytical tool, but the results were viewed thoughtfully to ensure that they were not the sole the factor in determining which comments were recommended for near-term resolution. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 1.0 as well as appendices containing the short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 1.0 are listed as long-term recommendations.

  10. Webinar Presentation: Energy Storage Solutions for Microgrids...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Presentation: Energy Storage Solutions for Microgrids (November 2012) Webinar Presentation: Energy Storage Solutions for Microgrids (November 2012) On November 7, 2012, Clean...

  11. Blueprint for Sustainability - Sustainable Solutions for Every...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blueprint for Sustainability - Sustainable Solutions for Every Consumer Blueprint for Sustainability - Sustainable Solutions for Every Consumer Highlights of Ford's near, mid, and...

  12. Independent Activity Report, Washington River Protection Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC - October 2011 October 2011 Industrial Hygiene Surveillance of the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC Industrial Hygiene...

  13. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World alumvision.pdf More Documents...

  14. Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center Demonstration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Demonstration webinar slides for Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center, November 19, 2014. Solution Center Demonstration Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications...

  15. Ozone decomposition in water solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewes, Cecil Grayson

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF LITERATUR 1V Vi ~ V111 III ~ EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM AND ITS OPERATION 14 IV. DISCUSS10N OF RESULTS AND COiJCLUSION. . . 24 i~JOMENCLATUHE. BIBLIOGRAPIFY APPENDIX I. WASTE WATER REGENERATION BY OZONATION. II. AMINE REMOVAL BY OZONATION...ATER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIII. REACTION RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE D'COMPOSITION OF OZONE IN INTER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIV COD REMOVAL BY OZONE XV. OZONIZATION OF MATER CONTAINIiNG RESIDUAL AMINE. 57 60 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. FIOW DIAGRAM OF THZ...

  16. Gravitational duality and rotating solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argurio, Riccardo; Dehouck, Francois [Physique Theorique et Mathematique and International Solvay Institutes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study how gravitational duality acts on rotating solutions, using the Kerr-NUT black hole as an example. After properly reconsidering how to take into account both electric (i.e. masslike) and magnetic (i.e. NUT-like) sources in the equations of general relativity, we propose a set of definitions for the dual Lorentz charges. We then show that the Kerr-NUT solution has nontrivial such charges. Further, we clarify in which respect Kerr's source can be seen as a mass M with a dipole of NUT charges.

  17. Development of U and Pu Co-Recovery Process (Co-Processing) for Future Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, K.; Yanagibashi, F.; Fujimoto, I.; Sato, T.; Ohbu, T.; Taki, K.; Hayashi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-processing process, which is the modified Purex process focused on co-recovery of Pu and U, has been studied at Operation Testing Laboratory, Tokai Reprocessing Plant in JAEA. The set up of the process was performed with flow-sheets study by process calculation to avoid Pu isolation in the whole process and to co-recover Pu/U product solution with a suitable Pu/U ratio (0.5< Pu/U <2). The initial Pu/U ratios of the feed solutions were taken as 1%, 3% and 20% considering the composition of the future spent fuels. The verification of the flow-sheets for each feed solutions were carried out with mixer-setters and active Pu/U feed solutions, focusing on the partitioning unit, and favorable back extraction performances of Pu accompanied by U were observed at all cases of the given feed solutions. According to these results, the co-processing process showed a good prospect to treat all kinds of future fuels from LWR, LWR-MOX and FBR, and a good prospect to be simplified by omitting the Pu/U purification cycle.

  18. Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 30, 2015 ... The base of an aquarium with given volume V is made of slate and the sides are made of glass. If slate costs. 5 times as much (per unit area) as ...

  19. Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    (d) Show that Hölder's inequality is also true for the “improper” integrals described ... substitution ˜u = up > 0 and ˜v = vq > 0 the inequality that we want to show is ...

  20. Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feb 16, 2012 ... Calculate the accumulated value of this annuity at the end of 5 years .... The Net Present Value of this project at 10% interest is 280,026.06 .

  1. Quadratic control of quantum processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luigi Accardi; Andreas Boukas

    2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the framework of the Accardi-Fagnola-Quaegebeur (AFQ) representation free calculus of \\cite{b}, we consider the problem of controlling the size of a quantum stochastic flow generated by a unitary stochastic evolution affected by quantum noise. In the case when the evolution is driven by first order white noise (which includes quantum Brownian motion) the control is shown to be given in terms of the solution of an algebraic Riccati equation. This is done by first solving the problem of controlling (by minimizing an associated quadratic performance criterion) a stochastic process whose evolution is described by a stochastic differential equation of the type considerd in \\cite{b}. The solution is given as a feedback control law in terms of the solution of a stochastic Riccati equation.

  2. Effective Collaboration and Consistency Management in Business Process Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    Effective Collaboration and Consistency Management in Business Process Modeling Co-Chairs: Moises they are lost. Business Process Modeling (BPM) is a promising approach to enable agility in business process of experts. Business analysts gather requirements and create high-level process models. Solution architects

  3. Kampung Capacity Local Solutions for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    utility customers. Using a hybrid energy resource optimization framework, we explore optimal configurationKampung Capacity Local Solutions for Sustainable Rural Energy in the Baram River Basin, Sarawak Energy Laboratory (RAEL) & Energy and Resources Group and Goldman School of Public Policy Release Date

  4. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Occhionero, A.J. (American Gas Cooling Center, Arlington, VA (United States)); Hughes, P.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Reid, E.A. (Columbia Gas Distribution Co., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dodson, Karen E. (Knoxville, TN); Mailen, James C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear fuel processing solution containing (1) hydrocarbon diluent, (2) tri-n-butyl phosphate or tri-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, and (3) monobutyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, or a complex formed by plutonium, uranium, or a fission product thereof with monobutyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, or di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate is contacted with silica gel having alkali ions absorbed thereon to remove any one of the degradation products named in section (3) above from said solution.

  6. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  7. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  8. Energy solutions?Director Eric Isaacs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Eric ISaacs

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne's Director Eric Isaacs talks about the laboratory's efforts for creating new, clean energy solutions.

  9. REST-Style Architecture and the Development of Mobile Health Care Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andry, François

    describes the motivations and technical solutions chosen to build a REST API that can be easily integrated, RHIO, Lab Results, CCD, HL7, REST API, Web Services, JAX-RS, Security, Software Development Process. 1REST-Style Architecture and the Development of Mobile Health Care Solutions François Andry1 Daren

  10. The ATPase Domain of SecA Can Form a Tetramer in Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economou, Tassos

    The ATPase Domain of SecA Can Form a Tetramer in Solution Brian R. Dempsey1 , Anastassios Economou2-associates to form a tetramer in solution, indicating that removal of the C-terminal domain facilitates the formation of a higher-order SecA structure. The associative process is best modelled as a monomer-tetramer equilibrium

  11. Isothermal dehydration of thin films of water and sugar solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyd, R. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)] [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Rampino, A. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France) [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Bellich, B.; Elisei, E. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy)] [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Cesàro, A. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy) [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Saboungi, M.-L. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France) [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux, et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Sorbonne Univ-UPMC, Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of quasi-isothermal dehydration of thin films of pure water and aqueous sugar solutions is investigated with a dual experimental and theoretical approach. A nanoporous paper disk with a homogeneous internal structure was used as a substrate. This experimental set-up makes it possible to gather thermodynamic data under well-defined conditions, develop a numerical model, and extract needed information about the dehydration process, in particular the water activity. It is found that the temperature evolution of the pure water film is not strictly isothermal during the drying process, possibly due to the influence of water diffusion through the cellulose web of the substrate. The role of sugar is clearly detectable and its influence on the dehydration process can be identified. At the end of the drying process, trehalose molecules slow down the diffusion of water molecules through the substrate in a more pronounced way than do the glucose molecules.

  12. Process for separation and preconcentration of radium from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, M.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preconcentrating and separating radium from a contaminated solution containing at least water and radium includes the steps of adding a quantity of a water-soluble macrocyclic polyether to the contaminated solution to form a combined solution. An acid is added to the combined solution to form an acidic combined solution having an [H{sup +}] concentration of about 0.5M. The acidic combined solution is contacted with a sulfonic acid-based strong acid cation exchange medium or a organophilic sulfonic acid medium having a plurality of binding sites thereon to bind the radium thereto and to form a radium-depleted solution. The radium-depleted solution is separated from the strong acid cation exchange medium or organophilic sulfonic acid medium. The radium remaining bound to the exchange medium or organophilic reagent is then stripped from the exchange medium or organophilic medium and the activity of the radium is measured. 24 figs.

  13. Process for separation and preconcentration of radium from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Elmhurst, IL); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preconcentrating and separating radium from a contaminated solution containing at least water and radium includes the steps of adding a quantity of a water-soluble macrocyclic polyether to the contaminated solution to form a combined solution. An acid is added to the combined solution to form an acidic combined solution having an ›H.sup.+ ! concentration of about 0.5M. The acidic combined solution is contacted with a sulfonic acid-based strong acid cation exchange medium or a organophilic sulfonic acid medium having a plurality of binding sites thereon to bind the radium thereto and to form a radium-depleted solution. The radium-depleted solution is separated from the strong acid cation exchange medium or organophilic sulfonic acid medium. The radium remaining bound to the exchange medium or organophilic reagent is then stripped from the exchange medium or organophilic medium and the activity of the radium is measured.

  14. Fissile solution dynamics: Student research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.

  15. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  16. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  17. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  18. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

    1980-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  19. Iterative solutions of simultaneous equations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laycock, Guyron Brantley

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ITERATIVE SOLUTIONS OP SIKJLTANEOUS EQUATIONS G~cn Hrantlep I aycock Approved. as to style snd, content by& (Chairman of Committee) E. c. (Head. of Department August 1/62 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes to thank Dr. Hi A. Luther for his time sn4.... . . . ~ ~ . . ~ III. JACOBI AND 6AUSS-SEIDEL METHODS I V ~ C ONCLUS I GN ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 9 ~ . ~ 18 V BIBLIOGRAPHY ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ VI ~ APPENDIX ~ ~ o ~ ~ e ~ o ~ ~ o o ~ ~ ~ . 22 Px'ogl am Lisliiixlgs...

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  1. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  2. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  3. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  4. Hydropyrolysis process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ullman, Alan Z. (Northridge, CA); Silverman, Jacob (Woodland Hills, CA); Friedman, Joseph (Huntington Beach, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for producing a methane-enriched gas wherein a hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure to produce a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The improvement comprises passing the product gas mixture sequentially through a water-gas shift reaction zone and a gas separation zone to provide separate gas streams of methane and of a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane for recycle to the process. A controlled amount of steam also is provided which when combined with the recycle gas provides a pyrolysis gas for treatment of additional hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material. The amount of steam used and the conditions within the water-gas shift reaction zone and gas separation zone are controlled to obtain a steady-state composition of pyrolysis gas which will comprise hydrogen as the principal constituent and a minor amount of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to supply the hydrogen requirements of the process. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment, conditions are controlled such that there also is produced a significant quantity of benzene as a valuable coproduct.

  5. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Eakin, David E. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  6. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment.

  7. Hoffmann-Infeld Black Hole Solutions in Lovelock Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matias Aiello; Rafael Ferraro; Gaston Giribet

    2005-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Five-dimensional black holes are studied in Lovelock gravity coupled to Hoffmann-Infeld non-linear electrodynamics. It is shown that some of these solutions present a double peak behavior of the temperature as a function of the horizon radius. This feature implies that the evaporation process, though drastic for a period, leads to an eternal black hole remnant. Moreover, the form of the caloric curve corresponds to the existence of a plateau in the evaporation rate, which implies that black holes of intermediate scales turn out to be unstable. The geometrical aspects, such as the absence of conical singularity, the structure of horizons, etc. are also discussed. In particular, solutions that are asymptotically AdS arise for special choices of the parameters, corresponding to charged solutions of five-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity.

  8. Thin film superconductors and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the preparation of oxide superconductors from high-viscosity non-aqueous solution is described. Solutions of lanthanide nitrates, alkaline earth nitrates and copper nitrates in a 1:2:3 stoichiometric ratio, when added to ethylene glycol containing citric acid solutions, have been used to prepare highly viscous non-aqueous solutions of metal mixed nitrates-citrates. Thin films of these compositions are produced when a layer of the viscous solution is formed on a substrate and subjected to thermal decomposition.

  9. Functionalized polymers for binding to solutes in aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. The polymer has a backbone polymer to which one or more functional groups are covalently linked. The backbone polymer can be such polymers as polyethylenimine, polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, and polypropylamine. These polymers are generally water-soluble, but can be insoluble when cross-linked. The functional group can be for example diol derivatives, polyol derivatives, thiol and dithiol derivatives, guest-host groups, affinity groups, beta-diphosphonic acids, and beta-diamides

  10. Reforming process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.

    1987-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A reforming process is described comprising: (a) contacting a hydrocarbon feed with a first reforming catalyst at conditions which favor reforming to form a product stream. The first reforming catalyst is bifunctional and comprises a metallic oxide support which contains acidic sites having disposed therein a Group VIII metal; and (b) contacting the product stream with a second reforming catalyst at conditions which favor reforming. The second reforming catalyst is a monofunctional, non-acidic catalyst comprising a large-pore zeolite containing at least one Group VIII metal.

  11. Proposal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 HgPromising Magnesium BatteryProposal Process Network

  12. Multiple solutions of CCD equations for PPP model of benzene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podeszwa, R; Jankowski, K; Rubiniec, K; Podeszwa, Rafa{\\l}; Stolarczyk, Leszek Z.; Jankowski, Karol; Rubiniec, Krzysztof

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To gain some insight into the structure and physical significance of the multiple solutions to the coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) equations corresponding to the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model of cyclic polyenes, complete solutions to the CCD equations for the A^{-}_{1g} states of benzene are obtained by means of the homotopy method. By varying the value of the resonance integral beta from -5.0 eV to -0.5 eV, we cover the so-called weakly, moderately, and strongly correlated regimes of the model. For each value of beta 230 CCD solutions are obtained. It turned out, however, that only for a few solutions a correspondence with some physical states can be established. It has also been demonstrated that, unlike for the standard methods of solving CCD equations, some of the multiple solutions to the CCD equations can be attained by means of the iterative process based on Pulay's direct inversion in the iterative subspace (DIIS) approach.

  13. Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 Advisor Center Navigation: Login #12;Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training

  14. Singlet exciton fission in solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Brian J.; Musser, Andrew J.; Beljonne, David; Friend, Richard H.

    2013-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Physics 135, 214508 (2011). 25. Sheraw, C. D., Jackson, T. N., Eaton, D. L. & Anthony, J. E. Functionalized Pentacene Active Layer Organic Thin-Film Transistors. Advanced Materials 15, 2009–2011 (2003). 26. Giri, G. et al. Tuning charge transport... in solution-sheared organic semiconductors using lattice strain. Nature 480, 504–8 (2011). 27. Gundlach, D. J. et al. Contact-induced crystallinity for high-performance soluble acene-based transistors and circuits. Nature Materials 7, 216–21 (2008). 28...

  15. Powerit Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to: navigation,Power Rental Market Place:Powerit Solutions

  16. Sunflower Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <Maintained By Fault PropagationSummersideSolutions Place: Cleveland,

  17. DEVELOPMENT Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew|CoreCpWingCushing,DADEVELOPMENT Solutions Place:

  18. SBY Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to:RoscommonSBY Solutions Jump to: navigation, search Name: SBY

  19. The solution combustion synthesis of nanophosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tornga, Stephanie C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanophosphors are defined as nano-sized (1-100mn), insulating, inorganic materials that emit light under particle or electromagnetic excitation. Their unique luminescence properties provide an excellent potential for applications in radiation detection and imaging. Herein, solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is presented as a method to prepare nanophosphor powders, while X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), photoluminescence excitation (PLE), and other techniques were used to characterize their structural and optical properties. The goal of this work is to synthesize bright, high-quality powders of nanophosphors, consolidate them into bulk materials and study their structural and optical properties using XRD, TEM, PL, and PLE. SCS is of interest because it is a robust, inexpensive, and facile technique, which yields a significant amount of a wide variety of oxide materials, in a short amount of time. Several practical nanophosphors were synthesized and investigated in this work, including simple oxides such as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Bi, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, complex oxides such as Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn, and Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce. Results demonstrate that altering the processing parameters such as water content of the precursor solution, ignition temperature, fuel type and amount, and post-synthesis annealing can significantly improve light output, and that it is possible to optimize the luminescence output of oxyorthosilicates by reducing the amount of silica in the precursor mixture.

  20. Oligomerization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  1. Etherification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  2. Etherification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

  3. Oligomerization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

  4. Presentation: Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    bbrpscdemopresentation061814.pdf More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center Demonstration Webinar Presentation: Better Buildings...

  5. White paper IBM Global Services Government Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White paper IBM Global Services Government Solutions IBM Smarter City Solutions on Cloud #12;2 IBM Smarter City Solutions on Cloud Contents 2 Disclaimer 2 Executive summary 3 Challenges faced by governments today 4 Cloud: How city managers can lower costs and improve services 9 Defining a smarter city 10

  6. Internship -Fall 2011 Search Solutions Digital Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    Internship - Fall 2011 Search Solutions Digital Media SSdigitalmedia.com About us: Search Solutions Search Solutions Digital Media 1500 N. Stephenson HWY Royal Oak, MI 48067 Amanda are a full service digital advertising agency. We build custom web packages to meet our clients' exact needs

  7. IBM Software Solution Brief Safeguarding the cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IBM Software Solution Brief Safeguarding the cloud with IBM Security solutions Maintain visibility and control with proven security solutions for public, private and hybrid clouds Highlights Address cloud internal and external users, data, applications and workloads as they move to and from the cloud Regain

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  9. Semi-analytical solutions for multilayer reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lolon, Elyezer Pabibak

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , we develop, validate, and present five new approximate solutions for the case of a multilayer reservoir system - these solutions are: [ Solution p[wDj(tD)] Description 1 a[j] Constant p[wDj(tD)] Case 2 a[j tD] Linear p[wDj(tD)] Zero...

  10. Ultrafast studies of solution dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, W.H.; Dyer, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Callender, R.H. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Fast chemical dynamics generally must be initiated photochemically. This limits the applicability of modern laser methods for following the structural changes that occur during chemical and biological reactions to those systems that have an electronic chromophore that has a significant yield of photoproduct when excited. This project has developed a new and entirely general approach to ultrafast initiation of reactions in solution: laser-induced temperature jump (T-jump). The results open entire new fields of study of ultrafast molecular dynamics in solution. The authors have demonstrated the T-jump technique on time scales of 50 ps and longer, and have applied it to study of the fast events in protein folding. They find that a general lifetime of alpha-helix formation is ca 100 ns, and that tertiary folds (in apomyoglobin) form in ca 100 {mu}s.

  11. Semianalytical Solutions of Radioactive or Reactive Tracer Transport in Layered Fractured Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.J. Moridis; G. S. Bodvarsson

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, semianalytical solutions are developed for the problem of transport of radioactive or reactive tracers (solutes or colloids) through a layered system of heterogeneous fractured media with misaligned fractures. The tracer transport equations in the matrix account for (a) diffusion, (b) surface diffusion (for solutes only), (c) mass transfer between the mobile and immobile water fractions, (d) linear kinetic or equilibrium physical, chemical, or combined solute sorption or colloid filtration, and (e) radioactive decay or first order chemical reactions. Any number of radioactive decay daughter products (or products of a linear, first-order reaction chain) can be tracked. The tracer-transport equations in the fractures account for the same processes, in addition to advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. Additionally, the colloid transport equations account for straining and velocity adjustments related to the colloidal size. The solutions, which are analytical in the Laplace space, are numerically inverted to provide the solution in time and can accommodate any number of fractured and/or porous layers. The solutions are verified using analytical solutions for limiting cases of solute and colloid transport through fractured and porous media. The effect of important parameters on the transport of {sup 3}H, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu (and its daughters) is investigated in several test problems involving layered geological systems of varying complexity. {sup 239}Pu colloid transport problems in multilayered systems indicate significant colloid accumulations at straining interfaces but much faster transport of the colloid than the corresponding strongly sorbing solute species.

  12. Process for preparing energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA; , Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Swansiger, Rosalind W. (Livermore, CA); Fox, Glenn A. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  13. aqueous sol-gel process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with silylating agents, processed into coating solutions, and characterized properties of aerogel thin films were characterized. vi 12;Table of Contents Abstract Brinker, C....

  14. Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pulley, Howard (West Paducah, KY); Seltzer, Steven F. (Paducah, KY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

  15. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  16. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken. S.C., 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  17. Vacuum structure around identity based solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isao Kishimoto; Tomohiko Takahashi

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore vacuum structure in bosonic open string field theory expanded around an identity based solution parameterized by $a$ (>= -1/2). Analyzing the expanded theory by using level truncation approximation up to level 14, we find that the theory has a stable vacuum solution for $a$>-1/2. The vacuum energy and the gauge invariant overlap numerically approach those of the tachyon vacuum solution with increasing truncation level. Also we find that, at $a$=-1/2, there exists an unstable vacuum solution in the expanded theory and it rapidly becomes the trivial zero configuration just above $a$=-1/2. The numerical behavior of the two gauge invariants suggests that the unstable solution corresponds to the perturbative open string vacuum. These results reasonably support the expectation that the identity based solution is a trivial pure gauge configuration for $a$>-1/2, but it can be regarded as the tachyon vacuum solution at $a$=-1/2.

  18. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

    1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

  19. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Roger W. (Farragut, TN); Neff, Wayne A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  20. Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerung, Henry (Albuquerque, NM); Boyle, Timothy J. (Kensington, MD); Bunge, Scott D. (Cuyahoga Falls, OH)

    2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.

  1. In-line measurement of plutonium and americium in mixed solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T.K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and installed in the plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument is designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and Am/Pu ratios. For a 25-mL sample, the assay precision is < 1%, both for plutonium and for americium having concentrations >5 g/L within a 2000-s count time.

  2. Process for desulfurizing petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for upgrading an oil feedstock includes reacting the oil feedstock with a quantity of an alkali metal, wherein the reaction produces solid materials and liquid materials. The solid materials are separated from the liquid materials. The solid materials may be washed and heat treated by heating the materials to a temperature above 400.degree. C. The heat treating occurs in an atmosphere that has low oxygen and water content. Once heat treated, the solid materials are added to a solution comprising a polar solvent, where sulfide, hydrogen sulfide or polysulfide anions dissolve. The solution comprising polar solvent is then added to an electrolytic cell, which during operation, produces alkali metal and sulfur.

  3. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  4. Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline and articles therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline. In order to process high quality fibers and other articles possessing good mechanical properties, it is known that solution concentrations of the chosen polymer should be in the range from 15-30% (w/w). Moreover, it is desirable to use the highest molecular weight consistent with the solubility properties of the polymer. However, such solutions are inherently unstable, forming gels before processing can be achieved. The present invention describes the addition gel inhibitors (GIs) to the polymer solution, thereby permitting high concentrations (between 15% and 30% (w/w)) of high molecular weight ((M.sub.w)>120,000, and (M.sub.n)>30,000) emeraldine base (EB) polyaniline to be dissolved. Secondary amines have been used for this purpose in concentrations which are small compared to those which might otherwise be used in a cosolvent role therefor. The resulting solutions are useful for generating excellent fibers, films, coatings and other objects, since the solutions are stable for significant time periods, and the GIs are present in too small concentrations to cause polymer deterioration. It is demonstrated that the GIs found to be useful do not act as cosolvents, and that gelation times of the solutions are directly proportional to the concentration of GI. In particular, there is a preferred concentration of GI, which if exceeded causes structural and electrical conductivity degradation of resulting articles. Heating of the solutions significantly improves solubility.

  5. Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline and articles therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, Benjamin R. (Sante Fe, NM); Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline. In order to process high quality fibers and other articles possessing good mechanical properties, it is known that solution concentrations of the chosen polymer should be in the range from 15-30% (w/w). Moreover, it is desirable to use the highest molecular weight consistent with the solubility properties of the polymer. However, such solutions are inherently unstable, forming gels before processing can be achieved. The present invention describes the addition gel inhibitors (GIs) to the polymer solution, thereby permitting high concentrations (>15% (w/w)) of high molecular weight ((M.sub.w)>120,000, and (M.sub.n)>30,000) emeraldine base (EB) polyaniline to be dissolved. Secondary amines have been used for this purpose in concentrations which are small compared to those which might otherwise be used in a cosolvent role therefor. The resulting solutions are useful for generating excellent fibers, films, coatings and other objects, since the solutions are stable for significant time periods, and the GIs are present in too small concentrations to cause polymer deterioration. It is demonstrated that the GIs found to be useful do not act as cosolvents, and that gelation times of the solutions are directly proportional to the concentration of GI. In particular, there is a preferred concentration of GI, which if exceeded causes structural and electrical conductivity degradation of resulting articles. Heating of the solutions significantly improves solubility.

  6. Controlling microstructure of nanocrystalline thermoelectrics through powder processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphry-Baker, Samuel A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bismuth Telluride and its solid solutions are currently front running thermoelectric materials because of their high figure of merit. When processed via mechanical alloying to obtain nanocrystalline structures, their ...

  7. Hydraulic Fracture: multiscale processes and moving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peirce, Anthony

    Hydraulic Fracture: multiscale processes and moving interfaces Anthony Peirce Department Siebrits (SLB, Houston) #12;2 Outline · What is a hydraulic fracture? · Mathematical models of hydraulic fracture · Scaling and special solutions for 1-2D models · Numerical modeling for 2-3D problems

  8. 3D Hydrogels Substrate Rationale Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Characterization Swelling, Mechanical Evaluation Matrix Production qPCR, Histology (Day 7, 21) Poly(Ethylene glycol Orthopedics for her help in processing histology samples. FECs Viability/Cytotoxicity Matrix Production Day7Day21 Cell Pellet 5'000'000 cell/mL Polymer solution · PEGDM · PBS · Photoinitiator Mold 10 min UV

  9. Process for the production of hydrogen peroxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, R.; Randhava, S.S.; Tsai, S.P.

    1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated membrane-based process method for producing hydrogen peroxide is provided comprising oxidizing hydrogenated anthraquinones with air bubbles which were created with a porous membrane, and then contacting the oxidized solution with a hydrophilic membrane to produce an organics free, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} laden permeate. 1 fig.

  10. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Solutions for New Manufactured Homes - Washington, Oregon, and Idaho Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Technology Solutions for New...

  11. Differential Wiener process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    Stochastic Processes Will Penny Stochastic Differential Equations Wiener process Sample Paths OU Process Stochastic Chain Rule Change of variables Time-varying functions Multivariate SDE Expectations Wiener Process OU Process Neural Population Fitzhugh Nagumo Gaussian approximation FN Population Fokker

  12. Spatially localized solutions of shear flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, J F

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present several new spatially localized equilibrium and traveling-wave solutions of plane Couette and channel flows. The solutions exhibit strikingly concentrated regions of vorticity that are flanked on either side by high-speed streaks. For several traveling-wave solutions of channel flow, the concentrated vortex structures are confined to the near-wall region and form particularly isolated and elemental coherent structures in the near-wall region of shear flows. The solutions are constructed by a variety of methods: application of windowing functions to previously known spatially periodic solutions, continuation from plane Couette to channel flow conditions, and from initial guesses obtained from turbulent simulation data. We show how the symmetries of localized solutions derive from the symmetries of their periodic counterparts, analyze the exponential decay of their tails, examine the scale separation and scaling of their streamwise Fourier modes, and show that they develop critical layers for large R...

  13. Markov Process of Muscle Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. Kondratiev; E. Pechersky; S. Pirogov

    2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a Markov random process describing a muscle molecular motor behavior. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spend an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at its velocity proportional to average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays at the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a non-linear equation appearing in the limit of infinite number of the motors.

  14. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F. (Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey))

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  15. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F. [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)] [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  16. Robinson-Trautman solution with scalar hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Tahamtan; O. Svitek

    2015-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Explicit Robinson-Trautman solution with minimally coupled free scalar field is derived and analyzed. It is shown that this solution contains curvature singularity which is initially naked but later the horizon envelopes it. We use quasilocal horizon definition and prove its existence in later retarded times using sub- and supersolution method combined with growth estimates. We show that the solution is generally of algebraic type II but reduces to type D in spherical symmetry.

  17. Robinson-Trautman solution with scalar hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tahamtan, T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Explicit Robinson-Trautman solution with minimally coupled free scalar field is derived and analyzed. It is shown that this solution contains curvature singularity which is initially naked but later the horizon envelopes it. We use quasilocal horizon definition and prove its existence in later retarded times using sub- and supersolution method combined with growth estimates. We show that the solution is generally of algebraic type II but reduces to type D in spherical symmetry.

  18. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc [Institute for Process Engineering (IPE), Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 21a, A8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail: utemvnn2003@yahoo.com; Schnitzer, Hans [Institute for Process Engineering (IPE), Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 21a, A8010 Graz (Austria)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  19. Waste Minimization Study on Pyrochemical Reprocessing Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boussier, H.; Conocar, O.; Lacquement, J. [CEA/DEN Valrho Marcoule/DRCP/SCPS/Pyrochemical Processes Laboratory, BP 17171 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ideally a new pyro-process should not generate more waste, and should be at least as safe and cost effective as the hydrometallurgical processes currently implemented at industrial scale. This paper describes the thought process, the methodology and some results obtained by process integration studies to devise potential pyro-processes and to assess their capability of achieving this challenging objective. As example the assessment of a process based on salt/metal reductive extraction, designed for the reprocessing of Generation IV carbide spent fuels, is developed. Salt/metal reductive extraction uses the capability of some metals, aluminum in this case, to selectively reduce actinide fluorides previously dissolved in a fluoride salt bath. The reduced actinides enter the metal phase from which they are subsequently recovered; the fission products remain in the salt phase. In fact, the process is not so simple, as it requires upstream and downstream subsidiary steps. All these process steps generate secondary waste flows representing sources of actinide leakage and/or FP discharge. In aqueous processes the main solvent (nitric acid solution) has a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation, thereby leaving limited flow containing the dissolved substance behind to be incorporated in a confinement matrix. From the point of view of waste generation, one main handicap of molten salt processes, is that the saline phase (fluoride in our case) used as solvent is of same nature than the solutes (radionuclides fluorides) and has a quite high boiling point. So it is not so easy, than it is with aqueous solutions, to separate solvent and solutes in order to confine only radioactive material and limit the final waste flows. Starting from the initial block diagram devised two years ago, the paper shows how process integration studies were able to propose process fittings which lead to a reduction of the waste variety and flows leading at an 'ideal' new block diagram allowing internal solvent recycling, and self eliminating reactants. This new flowsheet minimizes the quantity of inactive inlet flows that would have inevitably to be incorporated in a final waste form. The study identifies all knowledge gaps to be filled and suggest some possible R and D issues to confirm or infirm the feasibility of the proposed process fittings. (authors)

  20. Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ace066yilmaz2013o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency Light Duty Vehicles Vehicle...

  1. AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy Feedstocks—From Field to Fuel AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Glenn Farris, Marketing Manager Biomass, AGCO Corporation

  2. NFWF Environmental Solutions for Communities Grant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wells Fargo and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) are accepting applications for approximately $2.5 million in Environmental Solutions for Communities grants.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Transformational Solutions for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. water supply and demand and explored potential "transformational" solutions from the perspectives of technology and policy (or both) and discussed ... Last Updated: October...

  4. Optimization Online - Solution Analysis for the Pseudomonotone ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang Wei Hong

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 18, 2014 ... Solution Analysis for the Pseudomonotone Second-order Cone Linear Complementarity Problem. Yang Wei Hong(whyang ***at*** ...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: radioactive waste solution cleanup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solution cleanup ECIS and UOP (a Honewell Company): CSTs Clean Radioactive Waste in Fukushima and Worldwide On February 14, 2013, in Energy, Materials Science, Nuclear Energy,...

  6. Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency Light Duty Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  7. Presentation: Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solution Center Overview Purpose: No More Starting from Scratch 5 Help residential energy efficiency programs minimize trial and error to achieve success. Help programs and...

  8. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Electronic Safeguards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    System (E3S) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Electronic Safeguards Security System (E3S) More Documents & Publications PIA - 10th International Nuclear Graphite...

  9. El Paso Electric Company- Residential Solutions Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''The El Paso Electric Residential Solutions Program funding has been expended in Texas for 2012. New funding will be available January 1, 2013. '''

  10. Supersymmetric Ito equation: Bosonization and exact solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren Bo; Yu Jun [Institute of Nonlinear Science, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Lin Ji [Institute of Nonlinear Physics, ZheJiang Normal University, Jinhua, 321004 (China)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the bosonization approach, the N=1 supersymmetric Ito (sIto) system is changed to a system of coupled bosonic equations. The approach can effectively avoid difficulties caused by intractable fermionic fields which are anticommuting. By solving the coupled bosonic equations, the traveling wave solutions of the sIto system are obtained with the mapping and deformation method. Some novel types of exact solutions for the supersymmetric system are constructed with the solutions and symmetries of the usual Ito equation. In the meanwhile, the similarity reduction solutions of the model are also studied with the Lie point symmetry theory.

  11. Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center Demonstration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center is a robust online collection of nearly 1,000 examples, strategies, and resources from Better Buildings Neighborhood...

  12. Home Energy Solutions for Existing Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Trust of Oregon offers a variety of incentives and services through their Home Energy Solutions program. All equipment eligible for incentives needs to meet the efficiency requirements...

  13. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  14. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY)

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  15. Summary of Tests to Determine Effectiveness of Gelatin Strike on SS{ampersand}C Dissolver Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, A.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Karraker, D.G.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solutions from the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS&C) material are sufficiently different from previous solutions processed via the F-Canyon Purex process that the effectiveness of individual process steps needed to be ascertained. In this study, the effectiveness of gelatin strike was tested under a variety of conditions. Specifically, several concentrations of silica, fluoride, nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), and aluminium nitrate nonahydrate (ANN) were studied. The disengagement times of surrogate and plant SS&C dissolver solutions from plant solvent also were measured. The results of the tests indicate that gelatin strike does not coagulate the silica at the low concentration of silica ({tilde 30} ppm) expected in the SS&C dissolver solutions because the silicon is complexed with fluoride ions (e.g., SiF{sub 6}{sup -2}). The silicon fluoride complex is expected to remain with the aqueous phase during solvent extraction. The disengagement times of the dissolver solutions from the plant solvent were not affected by the presence of low concentrations of silica and no third phase formation was observed in the disengagement phase with the low silica concentrations. Tests of surrogate SS&C dissolver solutions with higher concentration of silica (less than 150 ppm) did show that gelatin strike followed by centrifugation resulted in good phase disengagement of the surrogate SS{ampersand}C dissolver solution from the plant dissolver solution. At the higher silica concentrations, there is not sufficient fluoride to complex with the silica, and the silica must be entrained by the gelatin and removed from the dissolver solution prior to solvent extraction.

  16. Heinsight Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG|Information OpenEIHasInformation JiansanjiangHeinsight

  17. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

  18. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 21, 24472457 (2007)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitsma, Femke E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 21, 2447­2457 (2007) Published online 18 May 2007 in Wiley for simulating watershed runoff. This data model, called nen, allows users to visualize and analyse the processes, such as raster, that do not give direct insight into the spatial dynamics and distribution of the processes

  19. Extensible packet processing architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  20. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  1. GE Lighting Solutions: Order (2013-SE-4901)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered General Electric Lighting Solutions, LLC to pay a $5,360 civil penalty after finding GE Lighting Solutions had manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. 30 units of basic model DR4-RTFB-23B and 177 units (of which 85 units remain in inventory) of basic model DR4-RTFB-77A-002, noncompliant traffic signal modules.

  2. The general double-dust solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The gravitational field of two identical rotating and counter-moving dust beams is found in full generality. The solution depends on an arbitrary function and a parameter. Some of its properties are studied. Previous particular solutions are derived as subcases.

  3. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 6, 369-395 (1992) STOCHASTIC MODELLING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modelling Groundwater flow Solute transport INTRODUCTION Predicting any natural process is a very difficultHYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 6, 369-395 (1992) STOCHASTIC MODELLING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW AND SOLUTE MODELLING Scales of heterogeneity, REV, dispersion and measurement scale groundwater flow and convection

  4. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  5. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hancher, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hackett, Gail D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a flocculating agent, separating precipitate-containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions.

  6. Analytical solution for two-phase flow in a wellbore using the drift-flux model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, L.; Webb, S.W.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents analytical solutions for steady-state, compressible two-phase flow through a wellbore under isothermal conditions using the drift flux conceptual model. Although only applicable to highly idealized systems, the analytical solutions are useful for verifying numerical simulation capabilities that can handle much more complicated systems, and can be used in their own right for gaining insight about two-phase flow processes in wells. The analytical solutions are obtained by solving the mixture momentum equation of steady-state, two-phase flow with an assumption that the two phases are immiscible. These analytical solutions describe the steady-state behavior of two-phase flow in the wellbore, including profiles of phase saturation, phase velocities, and pressure gradients, as affected by the total mass flow rate, phase mass fraction, and drift velocity (i.e., the slip between two phases). Close matching between the analytical solutions and numerical solutions for a hypothetical CO{sub 2} leakage problem as well as to field data from a CO{sub 2} production well indicates that the analytical solution is capable of capturing the major features of steady-state two-phase flow through an open wellbore, and that the related assumptions and simplifications are justified for many actual systems. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the analytical solution to evaluate how the bottomhole pressure in a well in which CO{sub 2} is leaking upward responds to the mass flow rate of CO{sub 2}-water mixture.

  7. Exact Solutions of Einstein's Field Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Negi

    2004-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine various well known exact solutions available in the literature to investigate the recent criterion obtained in ref. [20] which should be fulfilled by any static and spherically symmetric solution in the state of hydrostatic equilibrium. It is seen that this criterion is fulfilled only by (i) the regular solutions having a vanishing surface density together with the pressure, and (ii) the singular solutions corresponding to a non-vanishing density at the surface of the configuration . On the other hand, the regular solutions corresponding to a non-vanishing surface density do not fulfill this criterion. Based upon this investigation, we point out that the exterior Schwarzschild solution itself provides necessary conditions for the types of the density distributions to be considered inside the mass, in order to obtain exact solutions or equations of state compatible with the structure of general relativity. The regular solutions with finite centre and non-zero surface densities which do not fulfill the criterion [20], in fact, can not meet the requirement of the `actual mass' set up by exterior Schwarzschild solution. The only regular solution which could be possible in this regard is represented by uniform (homogeneous) density distribution. The criterion [20] provides a necessary and sufficient condition for any static and spherical configuration (including core-envelope models) to be compatible with the structure of general relativity. Thus, it may find application to construct the appropriate core-envelope models of stellar objects like neutron stars and may be used to test various equations of state for dense nuclear matter and the models of relativistic stellar structures like star clusters.

  8. Solution of the Roth-Marques-Durian Rotational Abrasion Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Gin-ge Chen

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We solve the rotational abrasion model of Roth, Marques and Durian (arXiv:1009.3492), a one-dimensional quasilinear partial differential equation resembling the inviscid Burgers equation with the unusual feature of a step function factor as a coefficient. The complexity of the solution is primarily in keeping track of the cases in the piecewise function that results from certain amputation and interpolation processes, so we also extract from it a model of an evolving planar tree graph that tracks the evolution of the coarse features of the contour.

  9. Innovative Solutions Unlimited, LLC (InSolves) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel JumpCounty,Jump7OpenInnovative Solutions Unlimited, LLC (InSolves)

  10. Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 DegreeWorks 4.09 Student Manual Degree is the same account you used when applying to Queens College. #12;Training & Technology Solutions Queens

  11. Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 CUNYfirst Faculty Center Navigation;Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology

  12. Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 How To Navigate the Finance Section the payment history) · Pending Financial Aid #12;Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office

  13. Energy Materials & Processes | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Materials & Processes Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems Energy Materials &...

  14. Accelerating the Fourier split operator method via graphics processing units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heiko Bauke; Christoph H. Keitel

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Current generations of graphics processing units have turned into highly parallel devices with general computing capabilities. Thus, graphics processing units may be utilized, for example, to solve time dependent partial differential equations by the Fourier split operator method. In this contribution, we demonstrate that graphics processing units are capable to calculate fast Fourier transforms much more efficiently than traditional central processing units. Thus, graphics processing units render efficient implementations of the Fourier split operator method possible. Performance gains of more than an order of magnitude as compared to implementations for traditional central processing units are reached in the solution of the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and the time dependent Dirac equation.

  15. Intermodal entanglement in Raman processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biswajit Sen; Sandip Kumar Giri; Swapan Mandal; C. H. Raymond Ooi; Anirban Pathak

    2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The operator solution of a completely quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of the Raman processes is used here to investigate the possibility of obtaining intermodal entanglement between different modes involved in the Raman processes (e.g. pump mode, Stokes mode, vibration (phonon) mode and anti-Stokes mode). Intermodal entanglement is reported between a) pump mode and anti-Stokes mode, b) pump mode and vibration (phonon) mode c) Stokes mode and vibration phonon mode, d) Stokes mode and anti-stokes mode in the stimulated Raman processes for the variation of the phase angle of complex eigenvalue $\\alpha_{1}$ of pump mode $a$. Some incidents of intermodal entanglement in the spontaneous and the partially spontaneous Raman processes are also reported. Further it is shown that the specific choice of coupling constants may produce genuine entanglement among Stokes mode, anti-Stokes mode and vibration-phonon mode. It is also shown that the two mode entanglement not identified by Duan's criterion may be identified by Hillery-Zubairy criteria. It is further shown that intermodal entanglement, intermodal antibunching and intermodal squeezing are independent phenomena.

  16. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  17. Robust Controller Design and PID Tuning for Multivariable Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Robust Controller Design and PID Tuning for Multivariable Processes Wen Tan Department approach, which gives a sub-optimal solution. Then a PID approximation method is proposed to reduce a high it serves as a PID tuning method for multivariable processes. Examples show that the method is easy to use

  18. Environmental impact of offshore operation reduced using innovative engineering solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, C.J.; Wensel, E.A.; Edelblum, L.S.; Beal, D.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The North Dauphin Island Tract 73 platform is located in eleven feet (3.4 m) of water and one mile (1.6 km) from shore in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The platform is designed to dehydrate and compress up to 70 MMSCFD (1.98 x 10{sup 6} SM{sup 3}) from five remote gas production wells. Located near the city of Mobile, Alabama, the surrounding metropolitan and coastal areas has multiple uses including manufacturing, tourism, commercial and sport fishing, and wetlands and wildlife conservation. The multiple and interdependent economic uses of the area required that the platform be designed to minimize any adverse environmental impact. A cost-effective environmental engineering solution was desired at the design phase of the project. A water catchment, containment and disposal system was designed to meet the zero discharge requirement. Pollution from air emissions was reduced by the installation of lean burning engines. A floatover installation process was used to prevent dredging of the bay, thus protecting the bay water quality. An aesthetically concealing paint and lighting scheme was chosen and applied to the entire structure. These cost-effective engineering solutions during the design phase of the project saved time and money over the life of the project. All regulatory permits were obtained in a timely manner, with little or no opposition. The operator of the North Dauphin Island Development won several environmental awards due to the implementation of innovative solutions and their commitment to conservation of the natural environment.

  19. Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Protein Solutions: Structural and Dynamical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mereghetti, Paolo; Gabdoulline, Razif; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of solutions of biomacromolecules provides an important basis for understanding the behavior of many fundamental cellular processes, such as protein folding, self-assembly, biochemical reactions, and signal transduction. Here, we describe a Brownian dynamics simulation procedure and its validation for the study of the dynamic and structural properties of protein solutions. In the model used, the proteins are treated as atomically detailed rigid bodies moving in a continuum solvent. The protein-protein interaction forces are described by the sum of electrostatic interaction, electrostatic desolvation, nonpolar desolvation, and soft-core repulsion terms. The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation is solved to compute electrostatic terms. Simulations of homogeneous solutions of three different proteins with varying concentrations, pH, and ionic strength were performed. The results were compared to experimental data and theoretical values in terms of long-time self-diffusion coefficients, second virial coefficients, and structure factors. The results agree with the experimental trends and, in many cases, experimental values are reproduced quantitatively. There are no parameters specific to certain protein types in the interaction model, and hence the model should be applicable to the simulation of the behavior of mixtures of macromolecules in cell-like crowded environments.

  20. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H.L.; Ratcliff, M.A.; Palasz, P.D.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a wood pulp processing system of the type producing both pulp and a stream of lactic acid-containing black liquor solution, the processor for production of peracid bleaching agents from hydroxy acid contained in the black liquor solution, comprising: adjusting the pH of the black liquor solution to the range of about 8-9 by exposing the solution to CO/sub 2/ carbon dioxide to form an alkaline precipitate; separating solids from the black liquor solution to produce a residual solution containing lower aliphatic hydroxy acids selected from the group consisting of lactic acid, glycolic acid, 2-hydroxybutanoic acid, xyloisosaccharinic acid, and glucoisosaccharinic acid; decarboxylating the lower aliphatic hydroxy acids to corresponding gaseous aliphatic aldehydes by admixing a powdered semiconductor with the residual solution to form a slurry; removing the gaseous aldehydes from the residual solution by sweeping gas flow as soon as they are generated to prevent further oxidation to carboxylic acids; reacting the gaseous aldehydes with oxygen to form corresponding peracids; and applying the peracids as bleaching agents to the pulp produced in the pulp processing system.

  1. Energy Distribution of Black Plane Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Halpern

    2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the Einstein energy-momentum complex to calculate the energy distribution of static plane-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in 3+1 dimensions with asymptotic anti-de Sitter behavior. This solution is expressed in terms of three parameters: the mass, electric charge and cosmological constant. We compare the energy distribution to that of the Reissner-Nordstrom-anti-de Sitter solution, pointing to qualitative differences between the models. Finally, we examine these results within the context of the Cooperstock hypothesis.

  2. Properties of lead-lithium solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Darnell, A.; Blink, J.A.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-lithium solutions are of interest to liquid metal wall ICF reactor designers because Pb may be present to some extent in both heavy ion beam and laser-driven ICF targets; therefore, Pb will be present as an impurity in a flowing lithium wall. In addition, Pb-Li solutions containing approx. 80 a/o Pb are a strong candidate for a heavy ion beam driven HYLIFE converter and a viable alternative to a pure Li wall for a laser driven converter. The properties of Pb-Li solutions including the effect of hydrogen impurities are reviewed, and the reactor design implications are discussed.

  3. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution. 4 figs.

  4. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to bout 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution.

  5. Pervaporation separation of aqueous alcohol solution through asymmetric polycarbonate membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.R.; Liu, M.J.; Lai, J.Y. (Chung Yuan Univ., Chung Li (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work the separation of aqueous alcohol mixtures through wet-phase inversion prepared polycarbonate membranes was studied by using the pervaporation process. The formation of asymmetric pervaporation membranes was discussed in terms of the presence of a nonsolvent in the casting solution, the polycarbonate concentration, and the kinds of coagulation media. The effects of feed composition, swelling degree, and the size of the alcohols on the pervaporation performances were investigated. The rate of liquid-liquid demixing increases with a decreasing number of carbon atoms of the alcohol coagulation medium. The permeation rate of the pervaporation process for the nonsolvent-added membrane was much higher than that of the membrane without nonsolvent additive. In binary alcohol mixtures, the permselectivities of small-sized alcohols through the asymmetric membrane are decided by two factors: preferential solubility of larger-sized alcohol and predominant diffusivity of small-sized alcohol. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Electrochemical Processes for Removing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    ) concentrates or brine solutions produced from ion exchange, are generally discharged to the sanitary sewer of ion exchange media produces large quantities of brine. For example, a single regeneration cycle can produce anywhere from 80 to 320 kg of concentrated brine solution per cubic meter of ion exchange media

  7. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Dohee (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  8. A sensitivity analysis of the treatment of wind energy in the AEO99 version of NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborn, Julie G.; Wood, Frances; Richey, Cooper; Sanders, Sandy; Short, Walter; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Documentation Report: Wind Energy Submodule (WES). DOE/EIA-The Economic Value of Wind Energy at High Power Systemthe characterization of wind energy in the model as used for

  9. A sensitivity analysis of the treatment of wind energy in the AEO99 version of NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborn, Julie G.; Wood, Frances; Richey, Cooper; Sanders, Sandy; Short, Walter; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Administration. 1998. Annual Energy Outlook 1999: WithDepartment of Energy’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) forecastDepartment of Energy’s Annual Energy Outlook 1999 (AEO99)

  10. Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2001. Report#:DOE/ENDOGENOUS LEARNING IN THE ANNUAL ENERGY OUTLOOK REFERENCEDepartment of Energy’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), which is

  11. Ženski pari moških poimenovanj v slovenskem knjižnem jeziku 16. stoletja

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merše, Majda

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , inu Neverni zhlovik dobre priatele smoti (DB 1584: II, 164a) – Denn ein zorniger Mensch zündet hadder an / vnd der Gottlose verwirret gute Freunde (LB 1545: 1791). 1.1.4 Med parnimi izsamostalniškimi tvorjenkami so tudi take, ki ozna?u- jejo...

  12. A sensitivity analysis of the treatment of wind energy in the AEO99 version of NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborn, Julie G.; Wood, Frances; Richey, Cooper; Sanders, Sandy; Short, Walter; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (

  13. Review: Besedotvorni tematski blok na petnajstem mednarodnem slvisti?nem kongresu v Minsku (2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vorši?, Ines; Breznik, Irena Stramlji?

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    — #20;#19;#28; — 2FHQH#15;#3;]DSLVNL#15;#3;SRURþLOD#3;±#3;5HYLHZV#15;#3;1RWHV#15;#3;5HSRUWV Y#3; HNVSUHVLRQLVWLþQR#3; VWLOQR#3; SDUDGLJPR#3; #11;#20;#28;#20;#23;±#20;#28;#21;#22;#12;#3;RSUDYLOD#3;L]MHPQR#3;]DKWHYQR#3; LQ#3; REVHåQR#3;GHOR#17;#3...;8VSHOR#3; ML#3; MH#3; ]DSROQLWL#3; YU]HO#3;PHG#3;HNVSUHVLRQLVWLþQR#3;SRH]LMR#3; LQ#3; GUDPDWLNR#15;#3; GR#3; VHGDM#3; EROM#3; UD]LVNDQLPD#3; SRGURþMHPD#17;#3; âWXGLMH#3; V#3; SRGURþMD#3;PHWD-­ IRULNH#3;]JRGQMH#3;HNVSUHVLRQLVWLþQH#3;NUDWNH#3; SUR]H#3;XYUãþ...

  14. Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of International Learning on Technology Cost. In Issues ofbetween initial new technology cost estimates and actualthe revolutionary technologies have cost reductions beyond

  15. Frequency Stabilization in Non-linear MEMS and NEMS Oscillators (IN-11-087)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof Energy Forrestal NT oFF DepaPhysics Lab- Energy

  16. National Energy Modeling System with Hydrogen Model (NEMS-H2)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIRE BUILDS OFFNanolens WindowDepartmentRFI |Energy

  17. Phase behavior and mesoscale solubilization in aqueous solutions of hydrotropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepa Subramanian; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrotropes are amphiphilic molecules that are too small to spontaneously form equilibrium structures in aqueous solutions, but form dynamic, noncovalent assemblies, referred to as clusters. In the presence of a hydrophobic compound, these clusters seem to get stabilized leading to the formation of long-lived, highly stable mesoscopic droplets, a phenomenon that we call mesoscale solubilization. In this work, we focus on the unusual mesoscopic properties of aqueous solutions of a nonionic hydrotrope, namely tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), on addition of various hydrophobic compounds. Aqueous TBA solutions, in about 3 to 8 mol percent TBA concentration range and about 0 to 25 deg. C temperature range, show the presence of short-ranged (0.5 nm), short-lived (tens of picoseconds) molecular clusters which result in anomalies of the thermodynamic properties. These clusters are transient but do not relax by diffusion, thus distinctly different from conventional concentration fluctuations. In this concentration and temperature range, upon the addition of a third (more hydrophobic) component to TBA-water solutions, long-lived mesoscopic droplets of about 100 nm size are observed. In this work, we clarify the ambiguity behind the definition of solubility and elucidate the phenomenon of mesoscale solubilization. A systematic study of the macro and meso phase behavior of three ternary systems TBA-water-propylene oxide, TBA-water-isobutyl alcohol, and TBA-water-cyclohexane has been carried out. We differentiate between molecular solubility, mesoscale solubilization, and macroscopic phase separation. We have confirmed that practically stable aqueous colloids can be created from small molecules, without addition of surfactants or polymers. Such kind of novel materials may find applications in the design of various processes and products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics and agrochemicals.

  18. Asymptotically radial solutions in expanding annular domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clapp, Mónica

    Asymptotically radial solutions in expanding annular domains Thomas Bartsch M´onica Clapp Massimo- mail: Thomas.Bartsch@math.uni-giessen.de Instituto de Matem´aticas, Universidad Nacional Aut´onoma de M

  19. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho [Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, 699, Gumho-dong, Gwangyang-si, Jeonnam, 545-090 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  20. Solution to the quantum Zermelo navigation problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorje C. Brody; David Meier

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The solution to the problem of finding a time-optimal control Hamiltonian to generate a given unitary gate, in an environment in which there exists an uncontrollable ambient Hamiltonian (e.g., a background field), is obtained. In the classical context, finding the time-optimal way to steer a ship in the presence of a background wind or current is known as the Zermelo navigation problem, whose solution can be obtained by working out geodesic curves on a space equipped with a Randers metric. The solution to the quantum Zermelo problem, which is shown here to take a remarkably simple form, is likewise obtained by finding explicit solutions to the geodesic equations of motion associated with a Randers metric on the space of unitary operators. The result reveals that the optimal control in a sense `goes along with the wind'.

  1. Storage management solutions Buyer's guide: purchasing criteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storage management solutions Buyer's guide: purchasing criteria Manage your storage to meet service storage environment cohesively As new guidelines or regulations surface, storage administrators receive increasing numbers of requests for change (RFCs) in storage provisioning. Simultaneously, routine changes

  2. Glass bead micromodel study of solute transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedirchuk, Paula Diane

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the quantification of glass bead micromodel experiments through a combination of computational modeling and experimental analysis. The computational model simulates two-dimensional solute flow through porous media using a finite...

  3. IID Energy- PV Solutions Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''IID accepted applications for the 2013 PV Solutions Program from Jan. 2, 2013 – Jan. 31, 2013. Winners were determined via lottery. The program is now closed for the remainder of 2013, but...

  4. STAT 416 Fall 2014 Homework 6 Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 3, 2014 ... STAT 416 Fall 2014. Homework 6 Solutions ... 4.35 Let X denote the winnings. P (X = 1.1) = P (both marbles red) + P (both marbles blue) = 2. (5.

  5. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (both Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (both Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  6. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  7. Office Buildings: Developer's Requirements- Consultant's Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forster, P.; Arndt, J.

    sound knowledge with technical solution such as geothermal energy systems or developments following comprehensive sustainability criteria from the scheme design through to fit-out. Vivico was also involved in pilot certifications for the German En...

  8. "Clean solutions; in research and in education."

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    waves in fluid that are coupled to bending waves in the elastic cover. At low frequencies, the lateral GRANTS · ONR ­ Composite Solutions to the Thermal Buckling of Plates Subjected to Localized

  9. Solution dewatering with concomitant ion removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Eric S.; Marshall, Douglas W.; Stone, Mark L.

    2003-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the biggest needs in the separations and waste handling and reduction area is a method for dewatering ion-containing solutions. Unexpectedly, it has been found that phosphazene polymers can discriminate between water and metal ions, allowing water to pass through the membrane while retaining the ions. This unexpected result, along with the inherent chemical and thermal stability of the phosphazene polymers, yields a powerful tool for separating and dewatering metal-ion-containing solutions.

  10. Axisymmetric stationary solutions with arbitrary multipole moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Bäckdahl

    2006-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the problem of finding an axisymmetric stationary spacetime from a specified set of multipole moments, is studied. The condition on the multipole moments, for existence of a solution, is formulated as a convergence condition on a power series formed from the multipole moments. The methods in this paper can also be used to give approximate solutions to any order as well as estimates on each term of the resulting power series.

  11. Missing solution in a Cornell potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, L.B., E-mail: luis.castro@pgfsc.ufsc.br [Departamento de Física, CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianópolis - SC (Brazil); Castro, A.S. de, E-mail: castro@pq.cnpq.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Campus de Guaratinguetá, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 12516-410, Guaratinguetá - SP (Brazil)] [Departamento de Física e Química, Campus de Guaratinguetá, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 12516-410, Guaratinguetá - SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Missing bound-state solutions for fermions in the background of a Cornell potential consisting of a mixed scalar–vector–pseudoscalar coupling is examined. Charge-conjugation operation, degeneracy and localization are discussed. -- Highlights: •The Dirac equation with scalar–vector–pseudoscalar Cornell potential is investigated. •The isolated solution from the Sturm–Liouville problem is found. •Charge-conjugation operation, degeneracy and localization are discussed.

  12. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 20, 25272547 (2006)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggs, Trent

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil Abstract: A conceptual model of water and solute transport November 2004; Accepted 5 November 2005 INTRODUCTION Agriculture in Brazil often involves the establishment use pattern of colonization projects (Hecht, 1982; Walker et al., 2000). Deforestation for agriculture

  13. Particlelike solutions to classical noncommutative gauge theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, A. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct perturbative static solutions to the classical field equations of noncommutative U(1) gauge theory for the three cases: (a) space-time noncommutativity, (b) space-space noncommutativity, and (c) both (a) and (b). The solutions tend to the Coulomb solution at spatial infinity and are valid for intermediate values of the radial coordinate r. They yield a self-charge inside a sphere of radius r centered about the origin which increases with decreasing r for case (a), and decreases with decreasing r for case (b). For case (a) this may mean that the exact solution screens an infinite charge at the origin, while for case (b) it is plausible that the charge density is well behaved at the origin, as happens in Born-Infeld electrodynamics. For both cases (a) and (b) the self-energy in the intermediate region grows faster as r tends to the origin than that of the Coulomb solution. It then appears that the divergence of the classical self-energy is more severe in the noncommutative theory than it is in the corresponding commutative theory. We compute the lowest order effects of these solutions on the hydrogen atom spectrum and use them to put experimental bounds on the space-time and space-space noncommutative scales. For the former we get a significant improvement over previous bounds. We find that cases (a) and (b) have different experimental signatures.

  14. Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank wastes: Process modeling and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currier, R.P. [comp.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) hydrothermal process, waste streams are first pressurized and heated as they pass through a continuous flow tubular reactor vessel. The waste is maintained at reaction temperature of 300--550 C where organic destruction and sludge reformation occur. This report documents LANL activities in process modeling and control undertaken in FY94 to support hydrothermal process development. Key issues discussed include non-ideal flow patterns (e.g. axial dispersion) and their effect on reactor performance, the use and interpretation of inert tracer experiments, and the use of computational fluid mechanics to evaluate novel hydrothermal reactor designs. In addition, the effects of axial dispersion (and simplifications to rate expressions) on the estimated kinetic parameters are explored by non-linear regression to experimental data. Safety-related calculations are reported which estimate the explosion limits of effluent gases and the fate of hydrogen as it passes through the reactor. Development and numerical solution of a generalized one-dimensional mathematical model is also summarized. The difficulties encountered in using commercially available software to correlate the behavior of high temperature, high pressure aqueous electrolyte mixtures are summarized. Finally, details of the control system and experiments conducted to empirically determine the system response are reported.

  15. Fourth-order split monopole perturbation solutions to the Blandford-Znajek mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Zhen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism describes a physical process for the energy extraction from a spinning black hole (BH), which is believed to power a great variety of astrophysical sources, such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and Gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The only known analytic solution to the BZ mechanism is a split monopole perturbation solution up to $O(a^2)$, where $a$ is the spin parameter of a Kerr black hole. In this paper, we extend the monopole solution to higher order $\\sim O(a^4)$. We carefully investigate the structure of the BH magnetosphere, including the angular velocity of magnetic field lines $\\Omega$, the toroidal magnetic field $B^\\phi$ as well as the poloidal electric current $I$. In addition, the relevant energy extraction rate $\\dot E$ and the stability of this high-order monopole perturbation solution are also examined.

  16. Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Measurements of the Distribution of Solutes between Liquid Water and Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, D.A.; Simonson, J.M.; Ho, P.C.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct measurements of the concentration of solutes in both liquid and steam phases in equilibrium with each other have been made in a static mode utilizing a platinum-lined autoclave to a maximum of 350 deg C. Partitioning constants were derived from these measurements based on existing experimental or estimated values of the stoichiometric mean activity coefficients for the solutes in the liquid phase. Independent measurements of the conductance of some of the solutes in dilute aqueous solutions to 600 deg C and 300MPa were also made. The combined results are discussed in terms of a speciated model and the implications of these results to industrial and natural hydrothermal processes are presented. PARTITIONING CONSTANT, ION-ASSOCIATION, CONDUCTIVITY, SPECIATION, CORROSION.

  19. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of purex solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Kalina, Dale G. (Naperville, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  20. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1986-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula as shown in a diagram where [phi] is phenyl, R[sup 1] is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R[sup 2] is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions. 6 figs.

  1. UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Toward process-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Toward process- ^ based modeling of geochemical soil formation across diverse 2 that integrates geochemical and geomorphic processes responsible for 11 soils' elemental and mineralogical). The model considers processes including the production of PDZ, weathering 15 front propagation, mineral

  2. Process of making solar cell module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Packer, M.; Coyle, P.J.

    1981-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is presented for the manufacture of solar cell modules. A solution comprising a highly plasticized polyvinyl butyral is applied to a solar cell array. The coated array is dried and sandwiched between at last two sheets of polyvinyl butyral and at least two sheets of a rigid transparent member. The sandwich is laminated by the application of heat and pressure to cause fusion and bonding of the solar cell array with the rigid transparent members to produce a solar cell module.

  3. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  4. Oligomerization and Phase Transitions in Aqueous Solutions of Native and Truncated Human B1-Crystallin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benedek, George B.

    Oligomerization and Phase Transitions in Aqueous Solutions of Native and Truncated Human B1 Processing Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, and Department that undergoes in vivo truncation at the N-terminus with aging. By studying native B1 and truncated B1N41, which

  5. WiSARDNET: A SYSTEM SOLUTION FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE IN SITU ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WiSARDNET: A SYSTEM SOLUTION FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE IN SITU ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Zijiang Yang-temporal monitoring of environmental and ecosystems processes. WiSARDNet is a complete distributed sensing system, as well as careful energy management in a weatherproof package, allow high-performance data collection

  6. Mercuric iodate precipitation from radioiodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA); Bosuego, Gail P. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  7. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF RESERVOIR FLOW MODELS BASED ON LARGE TIME STEP OPERATOR SPLITTING ALGORITHMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    processes. A black-oil model is commonly used to describe water injection. This model works well. Special focus is posed on the numerical solution algorithms for the saturation equation, which is a convection dominated, degenerate convection-di#11;usion equation. Both theory and applications are discussed

  8. A computerized graphical approach to the solution of the machining economics problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirksharian, Aron

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Comparison of Recommended Cutting Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Comparison of Suggested Cutting Parameters With Respect To Different Economic Criteria. 4. Sensitivity Study of Tool Load Capacity. 55 56 57 62 INTRODUCTION... the difficulties involved in performing sensitivity studies associated with this stochastic process. This paper then documents the development of a software tool which provides the computerized graphical solution of the static machining economics problem...

  9. Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Palmai; Miklos Horvath; Barnabas Apagyi

    2011-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse quantum scattering method at fixed energy are derived if a finite number of partial waves with only even or odd angular momenta contribute to the scattering process. Based on new formulae various approximate methods are introduced which also prove applicable to the generic scattering events.

  10. Scientific Solutions to Nuclear Waste Environmental Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bradley R.

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hidden Cost of Nuclear Weapons The Cold War arms race drove an intense plutonium production program in the U.S. This campaign produced approximately 100 tons of plutonium over 40 years. The epicenter of plutonium production in the United States was the Hanford site, a 586 square mile reservation owned by the Department of Energy and located on the Colombia River in Southeastern Washington. Plutonium synthesis relied on nuclear reactors to convert uranium to plutonium within the reactor fuel rods. After a sufficient amount of conversion occurred, the rods were removed from the reactor and allowed to cool. They were then dissolved in an acid bath and chemically processed to separate and purify plutonium from the rest of the constituents in the used reactor fuel. The acidic waste was then neutralized using sodium hydroxide and the resulting mixture of liquids and precipitates (small insoluble particles) was stored in huge underground waste tanks. The byproducts of the U.S. plutonium production campaign include over 53 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground tanks at Hanford and another 34 million gallons stored at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This legacy nuclear waste represents one of the largest environmental clean-up challenges facing the world today. The nuclear waste in the Hanford tanks is a mixture of liquids and precipitates that have settled into sludge. Some of these tanks are now over 60 years old and a small number of them are leaking radioactive waste into the ground and contaminating the environment. The solution to this nuclear waste challenge is to convert the mixture of solids and liquids into a durable material that won't disperse into the environment and create hazards to the biosphere. What makes this difficult is the fact that the radioactive half-lives of some of the radionuclides in the waste are thousands to millions of years long. (The half-life of a radioactive substance is the amount of time it takes for one-half of the material to undergo radioactive decay.) In general, the ideal material would need to be durable for approximately 10 half-lives to allow the activity to decay to negligible levels. However, the potential health effects of each radionuclide vary depending on what type of radiation is emitted, the energy of that emission, and the susceptibility for the human body to accumulate and concentrate that particular element. Consequently, actual standards tend to be based on limiting the dose (energy deposited per unit mass) that is introduced into the environment. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the responsibility to establish standards for nuclear waste disposal to protect the health and safety of the public. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed the EPA to establish radiation protection standards for the Yucca Mountain geologic repository for nuclear wastes. The standards for Yucca Mountain were promulgated in 2008, and limit the dose to 15 millirem per year for the first 10,000 years, and 100 milirem per year between 10,000 years and 1 million years (40 CFR Part 197; http://www.epa.gov/radiation/yucca/2008factsheet.html). So, the challenge is two-fold: (1) develop a material (a waste form) that is capable of immobilizing the waste over geologic time scales, and (2) develop a process to convert the radioactive sludge in the tanks into this durable waste form material. Glass: Hard, durable, inert, and with infinite chemical versatility Molten glass is a powerful solvent liquid, which can be designed to dissolve almost anything. When solidified, it can be one of the most chemically inert substances known to man. Nature's most famous analogue to glass is obsidian, a vitreous product of volcanic activity; formations over 17 million years old have been found. Archaeologists have found man-made glass specimens that are five thousand years old.

  11. Separation Processes, Second Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Styrene Process Distillation Column Design, in "Professors'in Styrene Process Distillation Column Design, in "Profes-considered an easy distillation column design problem, but

  12. Salt Waste Processing Initiatives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives...

  13. process.h

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /* process.h Symbols and structures for process management. Copyright (c) Borland International 1987 All Rights Reserved. */ #if __STDC__ #define _Cdecl

  14. Postdoc Application Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Application Process Postdoc Application Process Point your career towards LANL: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in...

  15. Approximation of Stochastic Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alois Pichler

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    May 8, 2012 ... The approximation of stochastic processes by trees is an important topic in ... process ? is replaced by a finitely valued stochastic scenario ...

  16. SAGE Application Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application Process SAGE Application Process A National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates program Contacts Institute Director Harald Dogliani-Los Alamos...

  17. Multiple System Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savisngs Under...

  18. Process Limits on Euclid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process Limits Process Limits Limit Hard Soft core file size (blocks) 0 unlimited data seg size (kbytes) unlimited unlimited scheduling priority 0 0 file size (blocks) unlimited...

  19. Undergraduate Program Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Undergraduate Program Selection Process Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich...

  20. Statistical mechanics solution sheet 1 1. The solar system is open, as it transfers energy and particles to the environment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dettmann, Carl

    of the second law is "A process whose only effect is the conversion of heat into work cannot occur." An example of an irreversible process is conduction of heat from a hot to a cold body. My favourite perpetual motionStatistical mechanics solution sheet 1 1. The solar system is open, as it transfers energy

  1. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  2. New etherification process commercialized in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase-out of leaded fuels in Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa and Latin America is increasing demand for octane and octane-bearing fuel components such as ethers. Early solutions to the problem of increasing octane while reducing tailpipe emissions involved use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). According to Neste, using both tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) and MTBE can give refiners increased blending flexibility for volatility control. But the economics associated with TAME production often make TAME units difficult to justify. The paper discusses the NExTAME process, the unit at the Porvoo refinery and process improvements.

  3. Process for measuring low cadmium levels in blood and other biological specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, David P. (Orland Park, IL); Huff, Edmund A. (Lemont, IL); Bhattacharyya, Maryka H. (Naperville, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for measuring low levels of cadmium in blood and other biological specimens is provided without interference from high levels of alkali metal contaminants by forming an aqueous solution and without contamination by environmental cadmium absent the proteins from the specimen, selectively removing cadmium from the aqueous solution on an anion exchange resin, thereby removing the alkali metal contaminants, resolubilizing cadmium from the resin to form a second solution and analyzing the second solution for cadmium, the process being carried out in a cadmium-free environment.

  4. Process for measuring low cadmium levels in blood and other biological specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, David P.; Huff, Edmund A.; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for measuring low levels of cadmium in blood and other biological specimens is provided without interference from high levels of alkali metal contaminants by forming an aqueous solution and without contamination by environmental cadmium absent the proteins from the specimen, selectively removing cadmium from the aqueous solution on an anion exchange resin, thereby removing the alkali metal contaminants, resolubilizing cadmium from the resin to form a second solution and analyzing the second solution for cadmium, the process being carried out in a cadmium-free environment.

  5. Solution generating theorems: perfect fluid spheres and the TOV equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petarpa Boonserm; Matt Visser; Silke Weinfurtner

    2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We report several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. In addition, we report new ``solution generating'' theorems for the TOV, whereby any given solution can be ``deformed'' to a new solution.

  6. alkaline nitrate solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    apply to uranyl nitrate solutions. This can be achieved either by transforming the uranyl nitrate solution to a uranyl fluoride solution prior to the deposition on the filaments or...

  7. NDMAS System and Process Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Hull

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental data generated by the Very High Temperature Reactor Program need to be more available to users in the form of data tables on Web pages that can be downloaded to Excel or in delimited text formats that can be used directly for input to analysis and simulation codes, statistical packages, and graphics software. One solution that can provide current and future researchers with direct access to the data they need, while complying with records management requirements, is the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). This report describes the NDMAS system and its components, defines roles and responsibilities, describes the functions the system performs, describes the internal processes the NDMAS team uses to carry out the mission, and describes the hardware and software used to meet Very High Temperature Reactor Program needs.

  8. Surface Plasmon Mediated Chemical Solution Deposition of Gold...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasmon Mediated Chemical Solution Deposition of Gold Nanoparticles on a Nanostructured Silver Surface. Surface Plasmon Mediated Chemical Solution Deposition of Gold Nanoparticles...

  9. Project Profile: CSP Energy Storage Solutions - Multiple Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Storage Solutions - Multiple Technologies Compared Project Profile: CSP Energy Storage Solutions - Multiple Technologies Compared US Solar Holdings logo US Solar Holdings,...

  10. Investigating the Synthesis of Ligated Metal Clusters in Solution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cluster formation in solution at well-defined conditions. Employing this technique methanol solutions of a chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold precursor, 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)bu...

  11. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Affordable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: EcoVillage: A Net Zero Energy Ready Community, Ithaca, New York Building America Technology Solutions...

  12. Preliminary Notice of Violation,Savannah River Nuclear Solutions...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Preliminary Notice of Violation, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC - WEA-2012-04 Preliminary Notice of Violation, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC - WEA-2010-05...

  13. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution IBARS Srs Site Apps. Accreditati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IBARS Srs Site Apps. Accreditation Boundary PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution IBARS Srs Site Apps. Accreditation Boundary PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution IBARS Srs Site...

  14. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SRNS ProRad Environment Management PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution SRNS ProRad Environment Management...

  15. Energy Storage Solutions Industrial Symposium | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Solutions Industrial Symposium Sep 04 2013 09:00 AM - 05:30 PM Energy Storage Solutions Industrial Symposium - Wednesday September 4, 2013 CONTACT : Email: Phone:...

  16. Winning the Future: Chaninik Wind Group Pursues Innovative Solutions...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Winning the Future: Chaninik Wind Group Pursues Innovative Solutions to Native Alaska Energy Challenges Winning the Future: Chaninik Wind Group Pursues Innovative Solutions to...

  17. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes Building America Technology Solutions...

  18. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of Methanol and Ethanol. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of...

  19. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Training Records and Informatio...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nuclear Solutions Training Records and Information Network (TRAIN) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Training Records and Information Network (TRAIN) PIA - Savannah River...

  20. Apply: Funding Opportunity - Advancing Solutions to Improve Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Apply: Funding Opportunity - Advancing Solutions to Improve Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings Apply: Funding Opportunity - Advancing Solutions to Improve Energy Efficiency...

  1. Breakout Session: Bringing Solutions to the Solar Industry: Startups...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bringing Solutions to the Solar Industry: Startups, Technology Development and Market Entry Breakout Session: Bringing Solutions to the Solar Industry: Startups, Technology...

  2. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...

  3. SciTech Connect: Solar Energy Education. Solar solutions: Reader...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar solutions: Reader, Part III Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Solar solutions: Reader, Part III You are accessing a document from the...

  4. Electrodeposition From Acidic Solutions of Nickel Bis(benzenedithiolat...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From Acidic Solutions of Nickel Bis(benzenedithiolate) Produces a Hydrogen-Evolving Ni-S Film on Glassy Carbon Electrodeposition From Acidic Solutions of Nickel...

  5. Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Free Energy Coordination and Hydrolysis of Plutonium Ions in Aqueous Solution using...

  6. United States Department of Energy Solution Center for Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solution Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: United States Department of Energy Solution Center for...

  7. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida (Fact Sheet) Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes:...

  8. Cost Effectiveness of Technology Solutions for Future Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Effectiveness of Technology Solutions for Future Vehicle Systems Cost Effectiveness of Technology Solutions for Future Vehicle Systems Explores the economics of CO2 emission...

  9. A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual Progress Report Cathode Synthesis and Voltage Fade: Designed Solutions Based on Theory Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Synthetic Solutions for Correcting...

  10. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Badge Request and Site...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solutions Badge Request and Site Personnel Roster Systems PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Badge Request and Site Personnel Roster Systems PIA - Savannah River Nuclear...

  11. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Hydronic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Hydronic...

  12. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast (Fact Sheet) Building America Technology Solutions for New...

  13. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 23, 29022914 (2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kienzle, Stefan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    modelling effort indicate that hyporheic and dead zone heat fluxes are important, whereas solar radiationHYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 23, 2902­2914 (2009) Published online 24 July 2009 in Wiley the significance of individual heat fluxes within streams with an emphasis on testing (i.e. identification

  14. Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland Department of Computer Science P.O. Box 7534 North Carolina State York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400 USA April 7, 1999 Abstract Process algebra represents a mathematically rigorous framework for modeling con- current systems of interacting processes. The process-algebraic

  15. Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    Training & Technology Solutions Queens College ~ Office of Converging Technologies ~ Training & Technology Solutions 718-997-4875 ~ training@qc.cuny.edu ~ I-Bldg 214 How to Pay Your Tuition Using E be navigated to your Student Center page. John Smith 23145678 John's Student Center #12;Training & Technology

  16. Solution softening in molybdenum-rhenium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Ohriner, E.K.; Tuominen, S.M.; Whelan, E.P.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study has clearly demonstrated the solution softening phenomenon in Mo-Re alloys that contain 5.8 to 8.2 at. % Re. The intrinsic nature of the phenomenon tends to be supported by this work; however, the addition of rhenium to molybdenum appears to cause a redistribution of interstitials that affects the fracture behavior in worked alloys. Much more fundamental research is needed to clearly establish the mechanisms that cause this phenomenon. The fabrication of these alloys seems to be no more difficult than any molybdenum alloys produced commercially today. Even the control of rhenium content in the maximum solution softening range does not appear to be difficult.

  17. Analytical solutions to matrix diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kekäläinen, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.kekalainen@helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an analytical method to solve in a few cases of practical interest the equations which have traditionally been proposed for the matrix diffusion problem. In matrix diffusion, elements dissolved in ground water can penetrate the porous rock surronuding the advective flow paths. In the context of radioactive waste repositories this phenomenon provides a mechanism by which the area of rock surface in contact with advecting elements is greatly enhanced, and can thus be an important delay mechanism. The cases solved are relevant for laboratory as well for in situ experiments. Solutions are given as integral representations well suited for easy numerical solution.

  18. Elements of fractal generalization of dual-porosity model for solute transport in unsaturated fractured rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Matveev, L.; Pruess, K.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, new elements were developed to generalize the dual-porosity model for moisture infiltration on and solute transport in unsaturated rocks, taking into account fractal aspects of the percolation process. Random advection was considered as a basic mechanism of solute transport in self-similar fracture systems. In addition to spatial variations in the infiltration velocity field, temporal fluctuations were also taken into account. The rock matrix, a low-permeability component of the heterogeneous geologic medium, acts as a trap for solute particles and moisture. Scaling relations were derived for the moisture infiltration flux, the velocity correlation length, the average velocity of infiltration, and the velocity correlation function. The effect of temporal variations in precipitation intensity on the infiltration processes was analyzed. It showed that the mode of solute transport is determined by the power exponent in the advection velocity correlation function and the dimensionality of the trapping system, both of which may change with time. Therefore, depending on time, various transport regimes may be realized: superdiffusion, subdiffusion, or classical diffusion. The complex structure of breakthrough curves from changes in the transport regimes was also examined. A renormalization of the solute source strength due to characteristic fluctuations of highly disordered media was established.

  19. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  20. A Business Process Explorer: Recovering Business Processes from Business Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Ying

    processes, and visualizing business processes using commercial business process modeling tools, such as IBM WebSphere Business Modeler (WBM) [4]. Traceability between business processes and business1 A Business Process Explorer: Recovering Business Processes from Business Applications Jin Guo

  1. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions: Ion network versus ion cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng, E-mail: mcho@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The critical aggregation phenomena are ubiquitous in many self-assembling systems. Ions in high salt solutions could also spontaneously form larger ion aggregates, but their effects on hydrogen-bond structures in water have long been controversial. Here, carrying out molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of high salt solutions and comparing the MD simulation results with infrared absorption and pump-probe spectroscopy of O–D stretch mode of HDO in highly concentrated salt solutions and {sup 13}C-NMR chemical shift of S{sup 13}CN{sup ?} in KSCN solutions, we find evidence on the onset of ion aggregate and large-scale ion-ion network formation that concomitantly breaks water hydrogen-bond structure in certain salt solutions. Despite that these experimental results cannot provide direct evidence on the three-dimensional morphological structures of ion aggregates, they serve as reference data for verifying MD simulation methods. The MD results suggest that disrupted water hydrogen-bond network is intricately intertwined with ion-ion network. This further shows morphological variation of ion aggregate structures from ion cluster to ion network in high salt solutions that are interrelated to the onset of macroscopic aggregate formation and the water hydrogen-bond structure making and breaking processes induced by Hofmeister ions.

  2. Certifying Solutions to Permutation Group Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorge, Volker

    the integration of permutation group algorithms with proof planning. We consider eight basic questions arising planning. We consider eight basic questions arising in computational permutation group theory, for whichCertifying Solutions to Permutation Group Problems Arjeh Cohen 1 , Scott H. Murray 1#3; , Martin

  3. Certifying Solutions to Permutation Group Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Scott H.

    of permutation group algorithms with proof planning. We consider eight basic questions arising in com- putational the integration of permutation group algorithms from computer algebra with proof planning. We consider eight basicCertifying Solutions to Permutation Group Problems Arjeh Cohen1 , Scott H. Murray1, , Martin Pollet

  4. Storage Solutions for Hawaii's Smart Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storage Solutions for Hawaii's Smart Energy Future Presented to CMRU August 12, 2012 University of Hawaii at Manoa Hawaii Natural Energy Institute #12;Current Energy Storage Projects in Hawaii · 15 (2) · Spinning reserve/reserve support (2) #12;· Select and deploy Grid-scale energy storage systems

  5. Annual Inventory Troubleshooting Checklist Problem Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annual Inventory Troubleshooting Checklist Problem Solutions Duplicate tag number Send email to am-4608 showing date and why returned. If equipment was replaced, has it been inventoried? If so, please notate and property coordinator. If item is listed for another department: 1) If the item should be in your inventory

  6. Internship Description Title: Stellar Solutions Engineering Internship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Internship Description Title: Stellar Solutions ­ Engineering Internship Job Description: The internship will be held at the Stellar National Reconnaissance Office in Washington, DC. Tasks will require a background in intelligence, and familiar with all-source analysis. This internship is flexible throughout

  7. ANNUAL REPORT Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    for Climate Solutions gratefully acknowledges the generous endowment provided by the Province of British Columbia through the Ministry of Environment in 2008.This funding is enabling ongoing independent research achieving a vibrant low carbon economy. Mission To partner with governments, the private sector, other

  8. Solution generating theorems for perfect fluid spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petarpa Boonserm; Matt Visser; Silke Weinfurtner

    2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The first static spherically symmetric perfect fluid solution with constant density was found by Schwarzschild in 1918. Generically, perfect fluid spheres are interesting because they are first approximations to any attempt at building a realistic model for a general relativistic star. Over the past 90 years a confusing tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres. In addition, we develop new ``solution generating'' theorems for the TOV, whereby any given solution can be ``deformed'' to a new solution. Because these TOV-based theorems work directly in terms of the pressure profile and density profile it is relatively easy to impose regularity conditions at the centre of the fluid sphere.

  9. Solution generating theorems for the TOV equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petarpa Boonserm; Matt Visser; Silke Weinfurtner

    2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov [TOV] equation constrains the internal structure of general relativistic static perfect fluid spheres. We develop several "solution generating" theorems for the TOV, whereby any given solution can be "deformed" to a new solution. Because the theorems we develop work directly in terms of the physical observables -- pressure profile and density profile -- it is relatively easy to check the density and pressure profiles for physical reasonableness. This work complements our previous article [Phys. Rev. D71 (2005) 124307; gr-qc/0503007] wherein a similar "algorithmic" analysis of the general relativistic static perfect fluid sphere was presented in terms of the spacetime geometry -- in the present analysis the pressure and density are primary and the spacetime geometry is secondary. In particular, our "deformed" solutions to the TOV equation are conveniently parameterized in terms of delta rho_c and delta p_c, the finite shift in the central density and central pressure. We conclude by presenting a new physical and mathematical interpretation of the TOV equation -- as an integrability condition on the density and pressure profiles.

  10. EPSILON AURIGAE: AN IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC ORBITAL SOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanik, Robert P.

    A rare eclipse of the mysterious object ? Aurigae will occur in 2009-2011. We report an updated single-lined spectroscopic solution for the orbit of the primary star based on 20 years of monitoring at the CfA, combined ...

  11. Schwarzschild solution in extended teleparallel gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nashed, G G L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tetrad field, with two unknown functions of radial coordinate and an angle $\\Phi$ which is the polar angle $\\phi$ times a function of the redial coordinate, is applied to the field equation of modified theory of gravity. Exact vacuum solution is derived whose scalar torsion, $T ={T^\\alpha}_{\\mu \

  12. Kampung Capacity Local Solutions for Sustainable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Kampung Capacity Local Solutions for Sustainable Rural Energy in the Baram River Basin, Sarawak and social opportunities of up to 1.5 billion people worldwide. As a critical case in point, most rural of service provision based on large-scale regional electrification. A range of different renewable energy

  13. Phase behavior of DODAB aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronov, V. P.; Kuryakov, V. N.; Muratov, A. R., E-mail: muratov@ogri.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Oil and Gas Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase behavior of DODAB aqueous solution, prepared without sonication, was studied by adiabatic scanning calorimetry. Measurements revealed four phase transitions with the temperatures 35.2, 39.6, 44.6, and 52.4 Degree-Sign C at heating and one transition at the temperature 40.4 Degree-Sign C at cooling. The first three transitions at heating occur in unilamellar vesicles. The first and third transitions correspond to the subgel-gel and gelliquid phase transitions, corresponding enthalpy jumps are equal to 33 and 49 kJ/mol. The second transition appears after some aging and is similar to gel-ripple phase transition in a DPPC solution, with the enthalpy jump under the transition exceeding 7.4 kJ/mol. The transition occurs in unilamellar vesicles. The transition at the temperature 52.4 Degree-Sign C occurs in another subsystem of the solution, which we believe to be multilamellar vesicles. The enthalpy jump at this transition is equal to 97 kJ/mol, and data analysis suggests that this is a subgel-liquid transition. The phase transition at cooling is the liquid-gel transition in unilamellar vesicles. During the measurements, a slow evolution of the solution occurs, consisting in a change of concentrations of unilamellar and multilamellar vesicles. This transformation mainly occurs at low temperatures.

  14. Finding Acceptable Solutions Faster Using Inadmissible Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruml, Wheeler

    explicit estimation search (EES), a bounded suboptimal search algorithm that uses unbiased cost(n)+h(n) becomes f (n) = g(n)+w·h(n). The weight, w, increases the importance of h (estimated cost of reaching attempt to find a solution quickly while guaranteeing that its cost does not exceed optimal by more than

  15. Energy and Society Week 4 Section Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    was the largest source of primary energy consumption for the world in 2013: A. Coal B. Natural gas C. Nuclear D of world energy. Oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, and renewable contributed to the world's 20131 9/17/2014 Energy and Society Week 4 Section Solution TOPIC 1: Energy & Development: [iClicker]-1

  16. Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions Lalit Chordia, PhD, Marc Portnoff 150.thargeo.com Thar Geothermal, LLC © 2013 All Rights Reserved CO2MFORT ADVANTAGE Nature's Talk Outline · Introduction to Thar Geothermal · Carbon Dioxide (R744) the Environmentally Exceptional Refrigerant · Thar

  17. Workshop to Assess Innovative Solutions to Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Workshop to Assess Innovative Solutions to Transportation Needs in the Colonias Workshop Summary SWUTC/04/167151-1 Texas Transportation Institute Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas 77843-3135 Center for HUD's Colonias Program Southwest Region University Transportation Center #12

  18. Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Codes and Standards DGS Metallurgical Solutions (OR) Steel consulting University of Illinois (IL) Basic with selected coatings Task 5: Perform economic analyses and incorporate knowledge into codes and standards #12 Calc. Eng. Calc. Unif. YS/UTS All API Plate Samples (ksi) UTS Ductility Ratio (ksi) (%) API X70, A-1 82

  19. Schwarzschild solution in extended teleparallel gravity

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    G. G. L. Nashed

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Tetrad field, with two unknown functions of radial coordinate and an angle $\\Phi$ which is the polar angle $\\phi$ times a function of the redial coordinate, is applied to the field equation of modified theory of gravity. Exact vacuum solution is derived whose scalar torsion, $T ={T^\\alpha}_{\\mu \

  20. Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janée, Greg

    Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications Linda L. Hill and Greg Jane´ e Alexandria Digital Library Project, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1205 Girvetz, Santa Barbara, CA a digital library, collections may range from an ad hoc set of objects that serve a temporary purpose