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Sample records for nems balances energy

  1. International Energy Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Summarizes the overall structure of the International Energy Model and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods.

  2. National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. through 2030. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. NEMS was designed and implemented by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). NEMS can be used to analyze the effects of existing and proposed government laws and regulations related to energy production and use; the potential impact of new and advanced energy production, conversion, and consumption technologies; the impact and cost of greenhouse gas control; the impact of increased use of renewable energy sources; and the potential savings from increased efficiency of energy use; and the impact of regulations on the use of alternative or reformulated fuels. NEMS has also been used for a number of special analyses at the request of the Administration, U.S. Congress, other offices of DOE and other government agencies, who specify the scenarios and assumptions for the analysis. Modules allow analyses to be conducted in energy topic areas such as residential demand, industrial demand, electricity market, oil and gas supply, renewable fuels, etc.

  3. NEMS International Energy Module

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,Decade Year-03.82 (MillionandIndustrialYear137

  4. How to obtain the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) NEMS is used by the modelers at the U. S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) who understand its structure and programming. NEMS has only been used by a few organizations outside of the EIA, because most people that requested NEMS found out that it was too difficult or rigid to use. NEMS is not typically used for state-level analysis and is poorly suited for application to other countries. However, many do obtain the model simply to use the data in its input files or to examine the source code.

  5. The Practical Applications of Net Energy Metering (NEM) By: Ken Linder and Katie Noland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Applications of Net Energy Metering (NEM) By: Ken Linder and Katie Noland Recommendations: Currently the Net Energy Metering (NEM) law in accordance to Montana state policy caps the amount of energy reimbursable by utility companies for personal production of energy. The goal of the capstone class policy group is to put

  6. A sensitivity analysis of the treatment of wind energy in the AEO99 version of NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborn, Julie G.; Wood, Frances; Richey, Cooper; Sanders, Sandy; Short, Walter; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Documentation Report: Wind Energy Submodule (WES). DOE/EIA-The Economic Value of Wind Energy at High Power SystemOF THE TREATMENT OF WIND ENERGY IN THE AEO99 VERSION OF NEMS

  7. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  8. Comparison of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Forecasts: Vision Industry Energy Forecasts with ITEMS and NEMS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roop, J. M.; Dahowski, R. T

    2000-01-01

    Comparisons are made of energy forecasts using results from the Industrial module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and an industrial economic-engineering model called the Industrial Technology and Energy Modeling System (ITEMS), a model...

  9. A sensitivity analysis of the treatment of wind energy in the AEO99 version of NEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborn, Julie G; Wood, Frances; Richey, Cooper; Sanders, Sandy; Short, Walter; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes a forecast of the domestic energy economy in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO). During the forecast period of the AEO (currently through 2020), renewable energy technologies have typically not achieved significant growth. The contribution of renewable technologies as electric generators becomes more important, however, in scenarios analyzing greenhouse gas emissions reductions or significant technological advancements. We examined the economic assumptions about wind power used for producing forecasts with the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to determine their influence on the projected capacity expansion of this technology. This analysis should help illustrate to policymakers what types of issues may affect wind development, and improve the general understanding of the NEMS model itself. Figure 1 illustrates the model structure and factors relevant to wind deployment. We found that NEMS uses various cost multipliers and constraints to represent potential physical and economic limitations to growth in wind capacity, such as resource depletion, costs associated with rapid manufacturing expansion, and grid stability with high levels of capacity from intermittent resources. The model's flexibility allows the user to make alternative assumptions about the magnitude of these factors. While these assumptions have little effect on the Reference Case forecast for the 1999 edition of the AEO, they can make a dramatic difference when wind is more attractive, such as under a carbon permit trading system. With $100/ton carbon permits, the wind capacity projection for 2020 ranges from 15 GW in the unaltered model (AEO99 Reference Case) to 168 GW in the extreme case when all the multipliers and constraints examined in this study are removed. Furthermore, if modifications are made to the model allowing inter-regional transmission of electricity, wind capacity is forecast to reach 214 GW when all limitations are removed. The figures in the upper end of these ranges are not intended to be viewed as reasonable projections, but their magnitude illustrates the importance of the parameters governing the growth of wind capacity and resource availability in forecasts using NEMS. In addition, many uncertainties exist regarding these assumptions that potentially affect the growth of wind power. We suggest several areas in which to focus future research in order to better model the potential development of this resource. Because many of the assumptions related to wind in the model are also used for other renewable technologies, these suggestions could be applied to other renewable resources as well.

  10. NEMS International Energy Module, model documentation report: World Oil Market, Petroleum Products Supply and Oxygenates Supply components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is developing the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to enhance its energy forecasting capabilities and to provide the Department of Energy with a comprehensive framework for analyzing alternative energy` futures. NEMS is designed with a multi-level modular structure that represents specific energy supply activities, conversion processes, and demand sectors as a series of self-contained units which are linked by an integrating mechanism. The NEMS International Energy Module (IEM) computes world oil prices and the resulting patterns of international trade in crude oil and refined products. This report is a reference document for energy analysts, model users, and the public that is intended to meet EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation for all statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Its purpose is to describe the structure of the IEM. Actual operation of the model is not discussed here. The report contains four sections summarizing the overall structure of the IEM and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods. Following a general description of the function and rationale of its key components, system and equation level information sufficient to permit independent evaluation of the model`s technical details is presented.

  11. Renewable Fuels Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook forecasts.

  12. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  13. Macroeconomic Activity Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 2014 (AEO2014). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code

  14. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  15. Balance Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex AAustriaBiofuels Brasil JumpGeorgia: EnergyBaker,BalBalance

  16. A sensitivity analysis of the treatment of wind energy in the AEO99 version of NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborn, Julie G.; Wood, Frances; Richey, Cooper; Sanders, Sandy; Short, Walter; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Documentation Report: Wind Energy Submodule (WES). DOE/EIA-The Economic Value of Wind Energy at High Power SystemReference Case, 0.8 GW of wind energy are added between 2000

  17. A sensitivity analysis of the treatment of wind energy in the AEO99 version of NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborn, Julie G.; Wood, Frances; Richey, Cooper; Sanders, Sandy; Short, Walter; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Documentation Report: Wind Energy Submodule (WES). DOE/EIA-The Economic Value of Wind Energy at High Power Systemthe characterization of wind energy in the model as used for

  18. A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF THE TREATMENT OF WIND ENERGY IN THE AEO99 VERSION OF NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and market penetration on the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) forecast for wind technologies. The AEO's annual report of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2020 is based on resultsLBNL-44070 TP-28529 A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF THE TREATMENT OF WIND ENERGY IN THE AEO99 VERSION

  19. U.S. Energy Information Administration NEMS Residential Demand Module Documentation Report 2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the NationalSales (Million Barrels)New

  20. Net Energy Metering (NEM)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    facilities on the military installation does not exceed 50% of the highest daily peak demand for electricity at that military installation over the course of the preceding...

  1. Assessment and Suggestions to Improve the Commercial Building Module of EIA-NEMS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Reddy, T. A.; Sucher, B.

    1996-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a comprehensive, computer-based, energy-economy modeling system developed and maintained by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS forecasts the national production...

  2. The energy balancing parameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton R. Gutierrez

    2011-05-10

    A parameter method is introduced in order to estimate the relationship among the various variables of a system in equilibrium, where the potential energy functions are incompletely known or the quantum mechanical calculations very difficult. No formal proof of the method is given; instead, a sufficient number of valuable examples are shown to make the case for the method's usefulness in classical and quantum systems. The mathematical methods required are quite elementary: basic algebra and minimization of power functions. This method blends advantageously with a simple but powerful approximate method for quantum mechanics, sidestepping entirely formal operators and differential equations. It is applied to the derivation of various well-known results involving centrally symmetric potentials for a quantum particle such as the hydrogen-like atom, the elastic potential and other cases of interest. The same formulas provide estimates for previously unsolved cases. PACS: 03.65.-w 30.00.00

  3. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    The International Urban Energy Balance Models ComparisonT. Williamson, Urban surface energy balance models: modelof the international urban energy balance model comparison,

  4. Multiscale modeling of spatially variable water and energy balance processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Famiglietti, J. S; Wood, E. F

    1994-01-01

    MULTISCALE WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELING Wood, E. F. ,spatially variable water and energy balance processes J. S.modeling. Water and energy balance models are developed at

  5. Multiscale modeling of spatially variable water and energy balance processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Famiglietti, JS; Wood, EF

    1994-01-01

    MULTISCALE WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELING Wood, E. F. ,MULTISCALE WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELING cess runoff,models of water and energy balance, Ph.D. dissertation,

  6. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    The International Urban Energy Balance Models ComparisonT. Williamson, Urban surface energy balance models: modelthree-dimensional urban energy balance model for studying

  7. Multiscale modeling of spatially variable water and energy balance processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Famiglietti, J. S; Wood, E. F

    1994-01-01

    AND WOOD: MULTISCALE WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELING Wood,of spatially variable water and energy balance processes J.hydrological modeling. Water and energy balance models are

  8. The Science of Global Warming Energy Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    The Science of Global Warming ·Energy Balance ·Feedback Loops Global Warming can be understood complexities ·Introduce a Simple Model of Energy Balance ·Understand the Vocabulary ·Point out some units of energy input from the Sun = Temperature: 5.3 oC Greenhouse Effect 101: A Balance is Achieved

  9. Energy Balanced Chain in Distributed Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howitt, Ivan

    Energy Balanced Chain in Distributed Sensor Networks Ivan Howitt Electrical & Computer Engineering because of their higher traffic. This paper suggests an energy balanced chain (EBC) which can efficiently the energy balance optimization problem in terms of the segmentation space. By adjusting the transmission

  10. Floating-point unit (FPU) designs with nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Sumit, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are an alternative to CMOS transistors as the fabric of digital circuits. Circuits with NEM relays offer energy-efficiency benefits over CMOS since they have zero leakage power and are ...

  11. Development of Energy Balances for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Sahtaye, Jayant

    2005-01-01

    Energy Agency, 2003a. Energy Balances of OECD Countries.Energy Agency, 2003b. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries.phase for the California energy balance for 2000 (

  12. Development of Energy Balances for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Sahtaye, Jayant

    2005-01-01

    Energy Agency, 2003a. Energy Balances of OECD Countries.Energy Agency, 2003b. Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries.for constructing the energy balance flow chart (Figure 1).

  13. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiencyachieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may1.2 Sustainable Energy Balance as the Goal of Energy Policy

  14. Surface Energy Balance of the Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bliss, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    G. L. Dana. Surface energy balance and meltwater productionice sheet: a comparison of energy-balance and a degree-dayvariations in the surface energy balance of haut glacier d’

  15. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  16. 3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    1/124 3. Energy conversion, balances, efficiency, equilibrium (Introduction to Thermodynamics) Ron and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland 2/124 3.1: Energy Åbo Akademi University | Thermal and Flow Engineering | 20500 Turku | Finland #12;3/124 What is energy? /1 "Energy is any quantity that changes

  17. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeffrey; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-01-01

    WP 171 Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: ProgressiveTowards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiencyin order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the

  18. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiencyin order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along theconsumer desires. 1.2 Sustainable Energy Balance as the Goal

  19. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeffrey; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-01-01

    Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive EfficiencyTowards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiencyachieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may

  20. Part 1. Energy and Mass Energy Balance and Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Youmin

    Part 1. Energy and Mass Chapter 3. Energy Balance and Temperature #12;Introduction Solar radiation Gases also scatter energy The global energy budget A balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing terrestrial radiation #12;Atmospheric Influences on Insolation Radiant energy is absorbed

  1. Lithium Balance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressedList ofBalance Jump to: navigation,

  2. Energy Balance and Emissions Associated with Biochar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    emissions of optimizing a slow pyrolysis-based bioenergy system for biochar and energy production rather pyrolysis systems produce some char as a product. In this paper we refer to this material as biochar (whichEnergy Balance and Emissions Associated with Biochar Sequestration and Pyrolysis Bioenergy

  3. Price Responsiveness in the AEO2003 NEMS Residential and Commercial Buildings Sector Models

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the demand responses to changes in energy prices in the Annual Energy Outlook 2003 versions of the Residential and Commercial Demand Modules of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). It updates a similar paper completed for the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 version of the NEMS.

  4. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas NuclearElectronic StructureElyElectroEnergyAdvancedEnergyAudits Energy0

  5. Nuclear Dynamics at the Balance Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aman D. Sood; Rajeev K. Puri

    2003-11-05

    We study the mass dependence of various quantities (like the average and maximum density, collision rate, participant-spectator matter, temperature as well as time zones for higher density) by simulating the reactions at the energy of vanishing flow. This study is carried out within the framework of Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. Our findings clearly indicate an existence of a power law in all the above quantities calculated at the balance energy. The only significant mass dependence was obtained for the temperature reached in the central sphere. All other quantities are rather either insensitive or depend weakly on the system size at balance energy. The time zone for higher density as well as the time of maximal density and collision rate follow a power law inverse to the energy of vanishing flow.

  6. Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems July 2, 2012 - 8:21pm Addthis Both...

  7. First law energy balance as a data screening tool 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Xiaojie

    2006-08-16

    This thesis defines the Energy Balance Load ( BL E ) as the difference between the heating requirements plus the electric gains in the building and the cooling coil loads. It then applies a first law energy balance in ...

  8. Energy-momentum balance in quantum dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulf Leonhardt

    2005-12-21

    We calculate the energy-momentum balance in quantum dielectrics such as Bose-Einstein condensates. In agreement with the experiment [G. K. Campbell et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 170403 (2005)] variations of the Minkowski momentum are imprinted onto the phase, whereas the Abraham tensor drives the flow of the dielectric. Our analysis indicates that the Abraham-Minkowski controversy has its root in the Roentgen interaction of the electromagnetic field in dielectric media.

  9. Multiobjective calibration and sensitivity of a distributed land surface water and energy balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houser, Paul R; Gupta, Hoshin V; Shuttleworth, W. James; Famiglietti, James S

    2001-01-01

    identification and energy balance models on a tallgrassdata for surface energy balance evaluation of a semiaridWatershed. We are energy balance components over a semiarid

  10. Surface Energy Balance Measurements Above an Exurban Residential Neighbourhood of Kansas City, Missouri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balogun, Ahmed A.; Adegoke, Jimmy O.; Vezhapparambu, Sajith; Mauder, Matthias; McFadden, Joseph P.; Gallo, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    ARTICLE Surface Energy Balance Measurements Above an Exurbanmeasurements of urban energy balances generally have beenuxes · Urban surface energy balance 1 Introduction Rapid

  11. Surface Energy Balance Measurements Above an Exurban Residential Neighbourhood of Kansas City, Missouri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balogun, Ahmed A.; Adegoke, Jimmy O.; Vezhapparambu, Sajith; Mauder, Matthias; McFadden, Joseph P.; Gallo, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    9421-3 ARTICLE Surface Energy Balance Measurements Above anmeasurements of urban energy balances generally have beenuxes · Urban surface energy balance 1 Introduction Rapid

  12. Application of multiscale water and energy balance models on a tallgrass prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Famiglietti, J. S; Wood, E. F

    1994-01-01

    Application of multiscale water and energy balance models onAPPLICATION OF MULTISCALE WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELSand macroscale models of water and energy balance, Ph.D.

  13. Multiobjective calibration and sensitivity of a distributed land surface water and energy balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houser, Paul R; Gupta, Hoshin V; Shuttleworth, W. James; Famiglietti, James S

    2001-01-01

    distributed land surface water and energy balance model Pauldistributed land surface water and energy balance model (because models of water and energy balance, Ph.D.

  14. Fluctuations and Energy Balance in Solar and Stellar Dynamos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ossendrijver, Mathieu

    Fluctuations and Energy Balance in Solar and Stellar Dynamos #12;How countless are your works HAAG Ossendrijver, Antonius Joannes Hendrikus Fluctuations and energy balance in solar and stellar-393-1345-8 #12;Fluctuations and Energy Balance in Solar and Stellar Dynamos Fluctuaties en energiebalans in zonne

  15. U.S. Regional Demand Forecasts Using NEMS and GIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Jesse A.; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-07-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a multi-sector, integrated model of the U.S. energy system put out by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration. NEMS is used to produce the annual 20-year forecast of U.S. energy use aggregated to the nine-region census division level. The research objective was to disaggregate this regional energy forecast to the county level for select forecast years, for use in a more detailed and accurate regional analysis of energy usage across the U.S. The process of disaggregation using a geographic information system (GIS) was researched and a model was created utilizing available population forecasts and climate zone data. The model's primary purpose was to generate an energy demand forecast with greater spatial resolution than what is currently produced by NEMS, and to produce a flexible model that can be used repeatedly as an add-on to NEMS in which detailed analysis can be executed exogenously with results fed back into the NEMS data flow. The methods developed were then applied to the study data to obtain residential and commercial electricity demand forecasts. The model was subjected to comparative and statistical testing to assess predictive accuracy. Forecasts using this model were robust and accurate in slow-growing, temperate regions such as the Midwest and Mountain regions. Interestingly, however, the model performed with less accuracy in the Pacific and Northwest regions of the country where population growth was more active. In the future more refined methods will be necessary to improve the accuracy of these forecasts. The disaggregation method was written into a flexible tool within the ArcGIS environment which enables the user to output the results in five year intervals over the period 2000-2025. In addition, the outputs of this tool were used to develop a time-series simulation showing the temporal changes in electricity forecasts in terms of absolute, per capita, and density of demand.

  16. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-23

    The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  17. Canopy radiation transmission for an energy balance snowmelt model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    January 2012. [1] To better estimate the radiation energy within and beneath the forest canopy for energy the energy balance and snowmelt beneath the forest canopy. Parsimony in terms of model complexity and dataCanopy radiation transmission for an energy balance snowmelt model Vinod Mahat1 and David G

  18. EPLA: Energy-balancing Packets Scheduling for Airborne Relaying Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). We propose an energy-efficient relaying scheme which is able to overcomeEPLA: Energy-balancing Packets Scheduling for Airborne Relaying Networks Kai Li1 Wei Ni2 Xin Wang3 then schedules UAVs' forwarding with guaranteed success rates and balanced energy consumption. Such scheduling

  19. Net Balanced Floorplanning Based on Elastic Energy Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    Net Balanced Floorplanning Based on Elastic Energy Model Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli Dept variations can introduce extra signal skew, it is desirable to have floorplans with balanced net delays based on the elastic energy model. The B*-tree, which is based on an ordered binary tree, is used

  20. Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Both grid-connected and off-grid home renewable energy systems require additional balance-of-system equipment. Both grid-connected and off-grid home renewable energy...

  1. Relative efficiency of land surface energy balance components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateni, S. M.

    [1] The partitioning of available energy into dissipative fluxes over land surfaces is dependent on the state variable of the surface energy balance (land surface temperature) and the state variable of the surface water ...

  2. Balanced homodyne detectors and Casimir energy densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Marecki

    2008-03-22

    We recall and generalize the analysis of the output of the so-called balanced homodyne detectors. The most important feature of these detectors is their ability to quantify the vacuum fluctuations of the electric field, that is expectation values of products of (quantum-) electric-field operators. More precisely, the output of BHDs provides information on the one- and two-point functions of arbitrary states of quantum fields. We generalize the analysis of the response of BHDs to the case of quantum fields under influence of static external conditions such as cavities or polarizable media. By recalling the expressions for two-point functions of quantum fields in Casimir geometries we show, that a rich, position- and frequency-dependent pattern of BHD responses is predicted for ground states. This points to a potentially new characterization of quantum fields in Casimir setups which would not only complement the current global methods (Casimir forces), but also improve understanding of sub-vacuum energy densities present in some regions in these geometries.

  3. Author's personal copy Energy and water balance of two contrasting loblolly pine plantations on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noormets, Asko

    forest managements and land conversions on ecosystem services including energy partitioning (Gholz are more interested in water and carbon balances, quantifying forest energy balance offers insights to how Accepted 9 September 2009 Keywords: Energy balance Evapotranspiration Forest albedo Forest hydrology

  4. Application of multiscale water and energy balance models on a tallgrass prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Famiglietti, J. S; Wood, E. F

    1994-01-01

    of multiscale water and energy balance models on a tallgrassOF MULTISCALE WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELS I •l I •. [models of water and energy balance, Ph.D. dissertation,

  5. The effect of post-fire stand age on the boreal forest energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    R. , Lee, X. , 1997. Energy balance and canopy conductanceon the boreal forest energy balance B.D. Amiro a,b, *, A.L.reserved. Keywords: Energy balance; Forest fire; Boreal

  6. The effect of post-fire stand age on the boreal forest energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Lee, X. , 1997. Energy balance and canopy conductance of aon the boreal forest energy balance B.D. Amiro a,b, *, A.L.further alter the radiation balance and energy partitioning,

  7. The effect of post-fire stand age on the boreal forest energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    R. , Lee, X. , 1997. Energy balance and canopy conductancereserved. Keywords: Energy balance; Forest fire; Borealon the boreal forest energy balance B.D. Amiro a,b, *, A.L.

  8. Energy balance and partition in Inner Mongolia steppe ecosystems with different land use types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Energy balance and partition in Inner Mongolia steppe ecosystems with different land use types surface, including radiation balance, energy partitioning, aerodynamic characteristics, leaf area index records of the surface energy balance are currently available for grassland ecosystems, especially

  9. Application of multiscale water and energy balance models on a tallgrass prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Famiglietti, J. S; Wood, E. F

    1994-01-01

    models of water and energy balance, Ph.D. dissertation,variable water and energy balance processes, Water Resour.OF MULTISCALE WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELS sented at the

  10. The energy balance in polars revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavin Ramsay; Mark Cropper

    2003-09-19

    In the EXOSAT and ROSAT eras a significant number of polars were found to show a soft/hard X-ray ratio much greater than that expected from the standard accretion shock model. This was known as the `soft X-ray excess'. We have made an snapshot survey of polars using XMM-Newton and determined their soft/hard ratios. We find that less than one in five of systems show a significant soft X-ray excess, while the rest show ratios consistent with that predicted by the standard model. We have investigated the discrepancy between this and the previous investigations by re-examining all the available ROSAT PSPC pointed observations of polars using more recent calibrations than in the original studies. We find that these data show an energy balance ratio which is broadly consistent with that of our XMM-Newton results. We conclude that the previous studies were affected by the data being less well calibrated. We discuss which physical mechanisms might give rise to a high soft X-ray excess and whether systems with high ratios show more variation in soft X-rays. Surprisingly, we find that 6 out of 21 systems found in a high accretion state did not show a distinct soft X-ray component. Two systems showed one pole with such a component and one which did not. Based on the ratio of the observed soft X-ray to UV flux measurements (which were obtained simultaneously using the Optical Monitor) we suggest that this is because the reprocessed component in these systems is cool enough to have moved out of the soft X-ray band and into the EUV or UV band.

  11. Differential flow in heavy-ion collisions at balance energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao-An Li; Andrew T. Sustich

    1999-05-18

    A strong differential transverse collective flow is predicted for the first time to occur in heavy-ion collisions at balance energies. We also give a novel explanation for the disappearance of the total transverse collective flow at the balance energies. It is further shown that the differential flow especially at high transverse momenta is a useful microscope capable of resolving the balance energy's dual sensitivity to both the nuclear equation of state and in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections in the reaction dynamics.

  12. Microsoft Word - Energy balancing rate settlement signals commitment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELEASE Thursday, May 16, 2013 CONTACT: Doug Johnson, 503-230-5840 or 503-230-5131 Energy balancing rate settlement signals commitment to work on broader solutions Portland,...

  13. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program FINAL PROJECT REPORT California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    2005. Development of Energy Balances for the State ofIEA). 2010. World Energy Balance, 1971 to 2008. Paris: IEA.thermal unit California Energy Balance California Energy

  14. U.S. Regional Demand Forecasts Using NEMS and GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Jesse A.; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Forecasts Using NEMS and GIS National Climatic Data Center.with Changing Boundaries." Use of GIS to Understand Socio-Forecasts Using NEMS and GIS Appendix A. Map Results Gallery

  15. New Directions: A facelift for the picture of the global energy balance Earth's climate is largely regulated by the global energy balance,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    New Directions: A facelift for the picture of the global energy balance Earth's climate is largely regulated by the global energy balance, which considers the energy flows within the climate system a perturbation of this energy balance, through a modification of the energy flows in the polluted atmosphere

  16. Energy Efficient Geographical Load Balancing via Dynamic Deferral of Workload

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rajesh

    Energy Efficient Geographical Load Balancing via Dynamic Deferral of Workload Muhammad Abdullah to enhancements of the electrical grid raise the possibility of utilizing "cloud computing" for energy efficient computing. Energy efficiency in the cloud has been explored recently in [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. While

  17. 12. Energy balance of particles 12.1 General solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

    12. Energy balance of particles 12.1 General solutions In this chapter we want to study only of the Leaky Box model, in which we now also consider a continuous change of energy. A general solution the total particle spectrum, i.e. only the energy distribu- tion of the particles regardless

  18. Integrated NEMS and optoelectronics for sensor applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czaplewski, David A.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Olsson, Roy H., III; Bogart, Gregory R. (Symphony Acoustics, Rio Rancho, NM); Krishnamoorthy, Uma; Warren, Mial E.; Carr, Dustin Wade (Symphony Acoustics, Rio Rancho, NM); Okandan, Murat; Peterson, Kenneth Allen

    2008-01-01

    This work utilized advanced engineering in several fields to find solutions to the challenges presented by the integration of MEMS/NEMS with optoelectronics to realize a compact sensor system, comprised of a microfabricated sensor, VCSEL, and photodiode. By utilizing microfabrication techniques in the realization of the MEMS/NEMS component, the VCSEL and the photodiode, the system would be small in size and require less power than a macro-sized component. The work focused on two technologies, accelerometers and microphones, leveraged from other LDRD programs. The first technology was the nano-g accelerometer using a nanophotonic motion detection system (67023). This accelerometer had measured sensitivity of approximately 10 nano-g. The Integrated NEMS and optoelectronics LDRD supported the nano-g accelerometer LDRD by providing advanced designs for the accelerometers, packaging, and a detection scheme to encapsulate the accelerometer, furthering the testing capabilities beyond bench-top tests. A fully packaged and tested die was never realized, but significant packaging issues were addressed and many resolved. The second technology supported by this work was the ultrasensitive directional microphone arrays for military operations in urban terrain and future combat systems (93518). This application utilized a diffraction-based sensing technique with different optical component placement and a different detection scheme from the nano-g accelerometer. The Integrated NEMS LDRD supported the microphone array LDRD by providing custom designs, VCSELs, and measurement techniques to accelerometers that were fabricated from the same operational principles as the microphones, but contain proof masses for acceleration transduction. These devices were packaged at the end of the work.

  19. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program FINAL PROJECT REPORT California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    REPORT California Energy Balance Update and DecompositionCalifornia Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis2011. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition

  20. Isospin effects on the mass dependence of balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam; Aman D. Sood

    2010-07-09

    We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom on balance energy throughout the mass range between 50 and 350 for two sets of isotopic systems with N/Z = 1.16 and 1.33 as well as isobaric systems with N/Z = 1.0 and 1.4. Our findings indicate that different values of balance energy for two isobaric systems may be mainly due to the Coulomb repulsion. We also demonstrate clearly the dominance of Coulomb repulsion over symmetry energy.

  1. Parton Energy Loss with Detailed Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enke Wang; Xin-Nian Wang

    2001-06-28

    Stimulated gluon emission and thermal absorption in addition to induced radiation are considered for an energetic parton propagating inside a quark- gluon plasma. In the presence of thermal gluons, stimulated emission reduces while absorption increases the parton's energy. The net effect is a reduction of the parton energy loss. Though decreasing asymptotically as $T/E$ with the parton energy, the relative reduction is found to be important for intermediate energies. The modified energy dependence of the energy loss will affect the shape of suppression of moderately high $p_T$ hadrons due to jet quenching in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  2. PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutter, Jared

    PAS kinase is required for normal cellular energy balance Huai-Xiang Hao*, Caleb M. Cardon*, Wojtek in a cell-autonomous manner to maintain cellular energy homeostasis and is a potential therapeutic target). The World Health Organization estimates that the current decade will witness a 46% increase in diabetes

  3. California Energy Balance ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consumption for about 25 energy products. Due to inconsistencies between the total data. CALEB v2 manages data from 1990 to 2008 on energy supply, transformation, and enduse consumption). CALEB manages data collected from 1990 to 2003 on energy supply, transformation, and enduse

  4. Energy Balance in Wireless Networks Using Connection Segmentation and Range Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simha, Rahul

    Energy Balance in Wireless Networks Using Connection Segmentation and Range Control Nitin Kumar are optimized to balance energy consumption across the network. This paper formulates an en­ ergy balance­ nalized for their important role in network operation. While route selection to balance energy [13], [31

  5. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar AprThousand Cubic Feet) DecadeYear2CubicfromCubicNEMS

  6. NEMS Buildings Sector Working Group Meeting

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYear Jan Feb Mar AprCubic Feet)Rowe:NEMS

  7. The effect of post-fire stand age on the boreal forest energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    reserved. Keywords: Energy balance; Forest fire; Borealstand age on the boreal forest energy balance B.D. Amiro a,energy and water fluxes at mature and disturbed forest

  8. Development of Data Quality Control Limits for Data Screening through the "Energy Balance" Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masuda, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Ji, J.; Claridge, D.

    2008-01-01

    screening using “Energy Balance” methodology (Shao and Claridge, 2005). Energy Balance (EBL) parameter represents quasi-steady state thermal energy storage in a building and indicates a predominant linear behavior when it is plotted versus the outside air...

  9. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-01-01

    the likely cost of renewable energy in the longer term. ItBalancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable EnergyBalancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy

  10. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [Institute for Energy Research, Joanneum Research, Graz, (Austria)

    1994-12-31

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues.

  11. INTRODUCTION The ability to balance the acquisition and storage of energy is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolowski, Marla

    3160 INTRODUCTION The ability to balance the acquisition and storage of energy is essential energy balance and storage (Stubbs and Tolkamp, 2006). Despite tight regulation of energy homeostasis, 2004). Energy acquisition, use and storage all contribute to energy balance. The foraging (for) gene

  12. Aalborg Universitet Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    ., & Guerrero, J. M. (2014). Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC Microgrids," in Proc. IEEE International Energy Conference (EnergyCon'14), 2014. Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of- Charge Balance of Distributed Energy

  13. Material Balance Report | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof Energy ThisSites |andofMassachusettscorrect

  14. Balancing the vacuum energy in heterotic $M$-theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasr Ahmed; Ian G. Moss

    2010-01-22

    Moduli stabilisation is explored in the context of low-energy heterotic $M$-theory to show that a small value of the cosmological constant can result from a balance between the negative potential energy left over from stabilising the moduli and a positive Casimir energy from the higher dimensions. Supersymmetry breaking is induced by the fermion boundary conditions on the two branes in the theory. An explicit calculation of the Casimir energy for the gravitino reveals that the energy has the correct sign, although the size of the contribution is close to the edge of the parameter range for which the calculation is valid.

  15. Isospin dependence of balance energy in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varinderjit Kaur; Dolly Sood; Suneel Kumar

    2011-09-30

    Based on the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) picture, we attempt to understand the nature of transverse flow in $_{28}Ni^{58}+_{28}Ni^{58}$ and $_{26}Fe^{58}+_{26}Fe^{58}$ systems at wide range of energies and impact parameters. The isospin dependence of balance energy in transverse flow is clearly visible. The results are compared with the experimental data available.

  16. Dynamical Horizons: Energy, Angular Momentum, Fluxes and Balance Laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhay Ashtekar; Badri Krishnan

    2002-11-03

    Dynamical horizons are considered in full, non-linear general relativity. Expressions of fluxes of energy and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves across these horizons are obtained. Fluxes are local, the energy flux is positive and change in the horizon area is related to these fluxes. The flux formulae also give rise to balance laws analogous to the ones obtained by Bondi and Sachs at null infinity and provide generalizations of the first and second laws of black hole mechanics.

  17. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-01-01

    of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

  18. Co2balance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company) JumpIowa: Energy Resources JumpCloverly,Hill,Mo Electric

  19. Annual Uncosted Balances Reports | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchers atDay 12:wasProjectsreguarly reportsSite2307 of the

  20. N/Z dependence of balance energy throughout the colliding geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam; Rajeev K. Puri

    2011-07-28

    We study the N/Z dependence of balance energy throughout the mass range for colliding geometry varying from central to peripheral ones. Our results indicate that balance energy decreases linearly with increase in N/Z ratio for all the masses throughout the colliding geometry range. Also, the N/Z dependence of balance energy is sensitive to symmetry energy.

  1. ESTIMATING DAMPING PARAMETERS IN MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM VIBRATION SYSTEMS BY BALANCING ENERGY0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeny, Brian

    ESTIMATING DAMPING PARAMETERS IN MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM VIBRATION SYSTEMS BY BALANCING ENERGY0 B is outlined, involving a balance of dissipated and supplied energies over a cycle of pe- riodic vibration a damping estimation method based on the balance of energy. The idea is to compute the energy input per

  2. Non-native grasses alter evapotranspiration and energy balance in Great Basin sagebrush communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Non-native grasses alter evapotranspiration and energy balance in Great Basin sagebrush communities key ecosystem processes in the Great Basin, including hydrology and energy balance. To determine how) and energy fluxes using the Bowen ratio-energy balance method with measurements of normalized difference

  3. Energy-momentum balance in particle - domain wall perforating collision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Gal'tsov; E. Yu. Melkumova; P. A. Spirin

    2015-02-10

    We investigate the energy-momentum balance in the perforating collision of a point particle with an infinitely thin planar domain wall within the linearized gravity in arbitrary dimensions. Since the metric of the wall increases with distance, the wall and the particle are never free, and their energy-momentum balance involves not only the instantaneous kinetic momenta, but also the non-local contribution of gravitational stresses. However, careful analysis shows that the stresses can be unambiguously divided between the colliding objects leading to definition of the gravitationally dressed momenta. These take into account for gravity in the same way as the potential energy does in the non-relativistic theory, but our treatment is fully relativistic. Another unusual feature of our problem is the non-vanishing flux of the total energy-momentum tensor through the lateral surface of the world tube. In this case the zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor does not imply conservation of the total momentum defined as the integral over the space-like section of the tube. But one can still define the conservation low infinitesimally, passing to time derivatives of the momenta. Using this definition we establish the momentum balance in terms of the dressed particle and wall momenta.

  4. Sandia Energy - Upgrades to SNL-EFDC: A Tool to Balance Marine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upgrades to SNL-EFDC: A Tool to Balance Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Generation Efficiency with Environmental Response Home Renewable Energy Energy Water Power News News & Events...

  5. Temperature dynamics of a proglacial stream: Identifying dominant energy balance components and inferring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Temperature dynamics of a proglacial stream: Identifying dominant energy balance components. Kirchner (2012), Temperature dynamics of a proglacial stream: Identifying dominant energy balance forefield (Switzerland), we examined how longitudinal stream temperature changes can be used to infer reach

  6. Integrated simulation of snow and glacier melt in water and energy balance-based, distributed hydrological modeling framework at Hunza River Basin of Pakistan Karakoram region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    in the surface energy balance of Haut Glacier d’Arolla,2008), Distributed energy balance modeling of South CascadeA distributed energy balance model for complex topography

  7. Integrated simulation of snow and glacier melt in water and energy balance-based, distributed hydrological modeling framework at Hunza River Basin of Pakistan Karakoram region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    variations in the surface energy balance of Haut Glacier d’2005), A distributed energy balance model for complexat Fraser using a energy balance based snowmelt model (WEB-

  8. Integrated simulation of snow and glacier melt in water and energy balance-based, distributed hydrological modeling framework at Hunza River Basin of Pakistan Karakoram region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    variations in the surface energy balance of Haut Glacier d’Clark (2008), Distributed energy balance modeling of South2005), A distributed energy balance model for complex

  9. INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVESTIGATING THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE IN URBAN AREAS ­ RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE NEEDS M of the surface energy balance of urban areas, based on both experimental investigations and numerical models effects in meso-scale mod- els are reviewed. Given that neither the surface energy balance, nor its

  10. AN OPERATIONAL WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ALGORITHM FOR PUERTO RICO Eric Harmsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    AN OPERATIONAL WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ALGORITHM FOR PUERTO RICO Eric Harmsen Department.com In this study an operational water and energy balance algorithm for Puerto Rico (GOES- PRWEB) was developed. In the algorithm, an energy balance approach is used to estimate actual evapotranspiration, which

  11. Glacier Changes and Regional Climate: A Mass and Energy Balance Approach* SUMMER RUPPER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Gerard

    Glacier Changes and Regional Climate: A Mass and Energy Balance Approach* SUMMER RUPPER Department­climate relationship. Here, a full surface energy and mass balance (SEMB) model is developed to explore the pattern in ELAs well; the seasonal cycle in energy balance terms are comparable to studies on individual

  12. Change in surface energy balance in Alaska due to fire and spring warming, based on upscaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Change in surface energy balance in Alaska due to fire and spring warming, based on upscaling eddy in northern high latitudes has changed the energy balance between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere larger than the change in the energy forcing associated with CO2 balance for the Alaska region. Spring

  13. Improving the Energy Balance of Field-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheuermann, Peter

    Improving the Energy Balance of Field-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Goce Trajcevski of the network merge into a single path. These path merging effects decrease significantly the energy balance deployments. When multiple sources transmit infor- mation simultaneously, together with energy balancing

  14. Energy-Balanced Cooperative Routing in Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    Energy-Balanced Cooperative Routing in Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Siyuan Chen Minsu Huang. In this paper, we aim to study the impact of cooperative routing on balancing the energy distribution among their transmission power, our cooperative routing method can balance the energy among neighboring nodes and maximize

  15. Complementary relationship of evaporation and the mean annual water-energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    Complementary relationship of evaporation and the mean annual water-energy balance Jozsef Szilagyi1 and the mean annual water-energy balance, Water Resour. Res., 45, W09201, doi:10.1029/2009WR008129. [2] Gerrits balance necessarily operates at the catchment scale, plus E0 depends predominantly on the available energy

  16. A Finite Element Algorithm of a Nonlinear Diffusive Climate Energy Balance Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Díaz, Jesús Ildefonso

    A Finite Element Algorithm of a Nonlinear Diffusive Climate Energy Balance Model R. BERMEJO,1 J. This model belongs to the category of energy balance models introduced independently by the climatologists M climate. The energy balance model we are dealing with consists of a two-dimensional nonlinear parabolic

  17. A Scalable Model for Energy Load Balancing in Large-scale Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Veciana, Gustavo

    A Scalable Model for Energy Load Balancing in Large-scale Sensor Networks Seung Jun Baek we consider how one might achieve more balanced energy burdens across the network by spreading sinks change their locations to balance the energy burdens incurred accross the network nodes [1

  18. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 (2002) 223243 Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 (2002) 223­243 Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites Kell Abstract A comprehensive evaluation of energy balance closure is performed across 22 sites and 50 site ecosystems and climates. En- ergy balance closure was evaluated by statistical regression of turbulent energy

  19. Load-Balanced Routing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    Load-Balanced Routing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks Fatma Bouabdallah, Nizar. In this paper, we investigate the potential energy conservation achieved by balancing the traffic throughout, load balancing, performance analysis. I. INTRODUCTION In order to minimize the energy consumption

  20. Effects of Isospin Asymmetry and In-Medium Corrections on Balance Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Daffin; Wolfgang Bauer

    1998-09-09

    The effects of an isospin asymmetry and in-medium corrections to the nucleon collision cross section on the balance energy are explored. The BUU model for intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions is used with isospin-dependent mean fields to calculate the balance energies of 58Fe + 58Fe and 58Ni + 58Ni for a range of impact parameters. We find that we are able to reproduce the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy, and the sign (but not the magnitude) of the shift in balance balance energy as a function of isospin asymmetry.

  1. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program FINAL PROJECT REPORT California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    2005. Development of Energy Balances for the State ofIEA). 2010. World Energy Balance, 1971 to 2008. Paris: IEA.of energy within an energy balance. Although the supply flow

  2. Energy and water balance measurements for water productivity analysis in irrigated mango trees,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy and water balance measurements for water productivity analysis in irrigated mango trees of rural communities. Mango is important for export markets. Its fruit has the advantage of being juicy 2008 Accepted 7 May 2008 Keywords: Mango orchard Energy balance Water balance Evapotranspiration

  3. Elliptic flow in heavy ion collisions near the balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Ming Zheng; C. M. Ko; Bao-An Li; Bin Zhang

    1999-06-24

    The proton elliptic flow in collisions of Ca on Ca at energies from 30 to 100 MeV/nucleon is studied in an isospin-dependent transport model. With increasing incident energy, the elliptic flow shows a transition from positive to negative flow. Its magnitude depends on both the nuclear equation of state (EOS) and the nucleon-nucleon scattering cross section. Different elliptic flows are obtained for a stiff EOS with free nucleon-nucleon cross sections and a soft EOS with reduced nucleon-nucleon cross sections, although both lead to vanishing in-plane transverse flow at the same balance energy. The study of both in-plane and elliptic flows at intermediate energies thus provides a means to extract simultaneously the information on the nuclear equation of state and the nucleon-nucleon scattering cross section in medium.

  4. BalancedScorecardPerfAndMeth.pdf | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1.2 - Balanced Scorecard Performance Assessment Program - (March 2004) Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.3 - Balanced Scorecard Assessment Program - (March 2004) DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. Evolution Effects on Parton Energy Loss with Detailed Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luan cheng; Enke Wang

    2010-04-30

    The initial conditions in the chemical non-equilibrated medium and Bjorken expanding medium at RHIC are determined. With a set of rate equations describing the chemical equilibration of quarks and gluons based on perturbative QCD, we investigate the consequence for parton evolution at RHIC. With considering parton evolution, it is shown that the Debye screening mass and the inverse mean free-path of gluons reduce with increasing proper time in the QGP medium. The parton evolution affects the parton energy loss with detailed balance, both parton energy loss from stimulated emission in the chemical non-equilibrated expanding medium and in Bjorken expanding medium are linear dependent on the propagating distance rather than square dependent in the static medium. The energy absorption can not be neglected at intermediate jet energies and small propagating distance of the energetic parton in contrast with that it is important only at intermediate jet energy in the static medium. This will increase the energy and propagating distance dependence of the parton energy loss and will affect the shape of suppression of moderately high P_T hadron spectra.

  6. DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2430-z The energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    1 3 DOI 10.1007/s00382-014-2430-z Clim Dyn The energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment ocean to land transports), and revisit the global mean energy balance. Keywords Global energy balance The energy balance of the Earth is a fundamental determinant of the climatic conditions on our planet. Thanks

  7. Integration of an Energy Balance Snowmelt Model into an Open Source Modeling Framework A. Sen Gupta1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    1 Integration of an Energy Balance Snowmelt Model into an Open Source Modeling Framework A. Sen model for organizing the inputs and outputs of an energy balance snowmelt model (the Utah Energy Balance; data model; energy balance; snow melt; glacier melt #12;3 Software Availability Name of software: Utah

  8. The global energy balance from a surface perspective Martin Wild Doris Folini Christoph Schar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    of the global energy balance, the radiative energy exchanges between Sun, Earth and space are now accuratelyThe global energy balance from a surface perspective Martin Wild · Doris Folini · Christoph Scha quantified from new satellite missions. Much less is known about the magnitude of the energy flows within

  9. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Calculated time integrated energy balance term in the 5 thCalculated time integrated energy balance term in the 5 thcurve. Figure 18. Energy balance terms for the tight lining

  10. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    time integrated energy balance term in the 5 th cycle oftime integrated energy balance term in the 5 th cycle ofof air tightness and energy balance Hyung-Mok Kim 1 , Jonny

  11. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Calculated time integrated energy balance term in the 5 thCalculated time integrated energy balance term in the 5 thof air tightness and energy balance Hyung-Mok Kim 1 , Jonny

  12. Horizontal displacements contribution to tsunami wave energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutykh, Denys; Chubarov, Leonid; Shokin, Yuriy

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the generation of tsunamis is the deformation of the bottom of the ocean caused by an underwater earthquake. Usually, only the vertical bottom motion is taken into accound while the horizontal displacements are neglected. In the present paper we study both the vertical and the horizontal bottom motion while we propose a novel methodology for reconstructing the bottom coseismic displacements field which is transmitted to the free surface using a new three-dimensional Weakly Nonlinear (WN) approach. We pay a special attention to the evolution of kinetic and potential energies of the resulting wave while the contribution of horizontal displacements into wave energy balance is also quantified. Approaches proposed in this study are illustrated on the July 17, 2006 Java tsunami.

  13. WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ESTIMATION IN PUERTO RICO USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ESTIMATION IN PUERTO RICO USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING Eric. W Management of water resources relies on estimates of the hydrologic water balance within defined and/or similar land use. Components of the water balance include precipitation, actual

  14. Flow Effects on Jet Energy Loss with Detailed Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luan Cheng; Jia Liu; Enke Wang

    2014-06-03

    In the presence of collective flow a new model potential describing the interaction of the hard jet with scattering centers is derived based on the static color-screened Yukawa potential. The flow effect on jet quenching with detailed balance is investigated in pQCD. It turns out, considering the collective flow with velocity $v_z$ along the jet direction, the collective flow decreases the LPM destructive interference comparing to that in the static medium. The gluon absorption plays a more important role in the moving medium. The collective flow increases the energy gain from gluon absorption, however, decreases the energy loss from gluon radiation, which is $(1 - v_z )$ times as that in the static medium to the first order of opacity. In the presence of collective flow, the second order in opacity correction is relatively small compared to the first order. So that the total effective energy loss is decreased. The flow dependence of the energy loss will affect the suppression of high $p_T$ hadron spectrum and anisotropy parameter $v_2$ in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  15. Relationship Between Wind Generation and Balancing Energy Market Prices in ERCOT: 2007-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, E.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-11-01

    This paper attempts to measure the average marginal effects of wind generation on the balancing-energy market price in ERCOT with the help of econometric analysis.

  16. Experimental balance energies and isospin-dependent nucleon-nucleon cross-sections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanjeev Kumar; Rajni; Suneel Kumar

    2010-09-28

    The effect of different isospin-dependent cross-section on directed flow is studied for variety of systems(for which experimental balance energies are available) using an isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamic (IQMD) model. We show that balance energies are sensitive towards isospin-dependent cross-sections for light systems, while nearly no effect exist for heavier nuclei. A reduced cross-section $\\sigma = 0.9\\sigma_{NN}$ with stiff equation of state is able to explain experimental balance energies in most of systems. A power law behaviour is also given for the mass dependence of balance energy, which also follow N/Z dependence.

  17. Abstract--In this paper, we study the tradeoff between two important traffic engineering objectives: load balance and energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    : load balance and energy efficiency. Although traditional commonly used multi-objective optimization-objective optimization problems. Index Terms--Traffic Engineering; Load Balance; Energy Efficiency; Nash Bargaining between two important traffic engineering objectives: load balance and energy efficiency. Load balance

  18. Conceptual understanding of climate change with a globally resolved energy balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dommenget, Dietmar

    on the surface energy balance by very simple repre- sentations of solar and thermal radiation, the atmosphericConceptual understanding of climate change with a globally resolved energy balance model Dietmar will introduce a very simple, globally resolved energy bal- ance (GREB) model, which is capable of simulating

  19. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Directs POMC Gene to Mediate Hypothalamic Glucose Sensing and Energy Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayar, Abdallah

    nutrient sensing in regulation of energy and body weight balance. Citation: Zhang H, Zhang G, Gonzalez FJ Sensing and Energy Balance Regulation. PLoS Biol 9(7): e1001112. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001112 AcademicHypoxia-Inducible Factor Directs POMC Gene to Mediate Hypothalamic Glucose Sensing and Energy

  20. Energy Efficiency of Load Balancing in MANET Routing Protocols Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale, Alex Zelikovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelikovsky, Alexander

    Energy Efficiency of Load Balancing in MANET Routing Protocols Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale, Alex Zelikovsky Abstract This paper considers energy constrained routing pro- tocols and workload balancing techniques for improving MANET routing protocols and energy efficiency. We give new routing protocol

  1. Energy balance and water use in a subtropical karst woodland on the Edwards Plateau, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwinning, Susan - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    Energy balance and water use in a subtropical karst woodland on the Edwards Plateau, Texas J, and sensitivity of the energy balance and evapotranspiration (ET) to rainfall and water deficits should be dampened. We evaluated responses of energy and water vapor fluxes to rainfall and water deficits in a live

  2. Multifragmentation at the balance energy of mass asymmetric colliding nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supriya Goyal

    2011-06-20

    Using the quantum molecular dynamics model, we study the role of mass asymmetry of colliding nuclei on the fragmentation at the balance energy and on its mass dependence. The study is done by keeping the total mass of the system fixed as 40, 80, 160, and 240 and by varying the mass asymmetry of the ($\\eta$ = $\\frac{A_{T}-A_{P}}{A_{T}+A_{P}}$; where $A_{T}$ and $A_{P}$ are the masses of the target and projectile, respectively) reaction from 0.1 to 0.7. Our results clearly indicate a sizeable effect of the mass asymmetry on the multiplicity of various fragments. The mass asymmetry dependence of various fragments is found to increase with increase in total system mass (except for heavy mass fragments). Similar to symmetric reactions, a power law system mass dependence of various fragment multiplicities is also found to exit for large asymmetries.

  3. Correlation between balance energy and transition energy for symmetric colliding nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajni; Suneel Kumar; Rajeev K. Puri

    2011-10-04

    We study the correlation between balance energy and transition energy of fragment in heavy-ion collisions for different systems at incident energies between 40 and 1200 MeV/nucleon using an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. With increasing incident energy, the elliptic flow shows a transition from positive (in-plane) to negative (out-of-plane) flow. This transition energy is found to depend on the size of fragments, composite mass of reacting system, and the impact parameter of reaction. It has been observed that reduced cross-section can explain the experimental data. There is a correlation between transition energy and balance energy as their difference decreases with increase in the total mass of colliding nuclei.

  4. ABSTRACT: RANZI R., GROSSI G., GITTI A. & TASCHNER S., Energy and mass balance of the Mandrone glacier (Adamello, Central Alps). (IT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mm for the 2002/03 year. KEY WORDS: Glacier retreat, Mass balance, Energy balance, Man- drone Glacier

  5. Measurements of sideward flow around the balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INDRA collaboration; D. Cussol; T. Lefort; J. Péter

    2001-11-13

    Sideward flow values have been determined with the INDRA multidetector for Ar+Ni, Ni+Ni and Xe+Sn systems studied at GANIL in the 30 to 100 A.MeV incident energy range. The balance energies found for Ar+Ni and Ni+Ni systems are in agreement with previous experimental results and theoretical calculations. Negative sideward flow values have been measured. The possible origins of such negative values are discussed. They could result from a more important contribution of evaporated particles with respect to the contribution of promptly emitted particles at mid-rapidity. But effects induced by the methods used to reconstruct the reaction plane cannot be totally excluded. Complete tests of these methods are presented and the origins of the ``auto-correlation'' effect have been traced back. For heavy fragments, the observed negative flow values seem to be mainly due to the reaction plane reconstruction methods. For light charged particles, these negative values could result from the dynamics of the collisions and from the reaction plane reconstruction methods as well. These effects have to be taken into account when comparisons with theoretical calculations are done.

  6. Non-Blocking, Localized Routing Algorithm for Balanced Energy Consumption in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Chansu

    relevant nodes but also to balance individual battery levels. Unbalanced energy usage will result1 Non-Blocking, Localized Routing Algorithm for Balanced Energy Consumption in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Kyungtae Woo, Chansu Yu, and Dongman Lee Hee Yong Youn Ben Lee School of Engineering Information

  7. The energetics of immunity: a neuroendocrine link between energy balance and immune function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demas, Greg

    The energetics of immunity: a neuroendocrine link between energy balance and immune function November 2003; accepted 13 November 2003 Keywords: Immune function; Energy balance; Neuroendocrine link to be buffered, to a large extent, from the external world in that few if any environmental perturbations were

  8. Effect of mass asymmetry on the mass dependence of balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supriya Goyal

    2011-02-19

    We demonstrate the role of the mass asymmetry on the balance energy (Ebal) by studying asymmetric reactions throughout the periodic table and over entire colliding geometry. Our results, which are almost independent of the system size and as well as of the colliding geometries indicate a sizeable effect of the asymmetry of the reaction on the balance energy.

  9. An Analysis of Energy Balance in a Helicon Plasma Source for Space Propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Analysis of Energy Balance in a Helicon Plasma Source for Space Propulsion by Justin Matthew;An Analysis of Energy Balance in a Helicon Plasma Source for Space Propulsion by Justin Matthew Pucci are optical radiation emission, wall losses due to poor magnetic confinement, and poor antenna-plasma coupling

  10. New Energy Frontier: Balancing Energy Development on Federal Lands | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures LtdNeville, Ohio: Energy ResourcesCorporation Jump to:

  11. System size effects and N/Z dependence of balance energy for different isotopic series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aman D. Sood; Sakshi Gautam

    2011-12-13

    We study the N/Z dependence of energy of vanishing flow or balance energy for different isotopic series of various system masses like Ca+Ca, Ni+Ni, Zr+Zr, Sn+Sn and Xe+Xe. We find that balance energy decreases with N/Z of the system and follows a linear behaviour. The slope of N/Z dependence is steeper for lighter systems like Ca+Ca and less for heavier ones like Xe+Xe.

  12. Isospin effects on the system size dependence of balance energy in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam; Aman D. Sood

    2010-09-24

    We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom on balance energy throughout the mass range between 50 and 350 for two sets of isobaric systems with N/A = 0.5 and 0.58. Our fndings indicate that different values of balance energy for two isobaric systems may be mainly due to the Coulomb repulsion. We also demonstrate clearly the dominance of Coulomb repulsion over symmetry energy.

  13. Consequences of incomplete surface energy balance closure for CO2 fluxes from open-path CO2/H2O infrared gas analysers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, H; Liu, H; Randerson, JT; Lindfors, J; Massman, WJ; Foken, T

    2006-01-01

    Verma, S. : 2002, ‘Energy Balance Closure at FLUXNET Sites’,J. H. C. : 2004, ‘The Energy Balance Closure Problem’, inTest of Density and Energy-Balance Corrections on Carbon

  14. Isolation of the nuclear compressibility with the balance energy D. J. Magestro, W. Bauer, and G. D. Westfall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    Isolation of the nuclear compressibility with the balance energy D. J. Magestro, W. Bauer, and G. D- lations have demonstrated that the balance energy, while sen- sitive to the nuclear compressibility K on the equation of state EOS and the in-medium cross section ( nn) for light systems. Also, the balance energy

  15. Testing above-and below-canopy representations of turbulent fluxes in an energy balance snowmelt model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    Testing above- and below-canopy representations of turbulent fluxes in an energy balance snowmelt and latent heat are important processes in the surface energy balance that drives snowmelt. Modeling in an energy balance snowmelt model, Water Resour. Res., 49, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20073. 1. Introduction [2

  16. 1-Jin-Wei Liang and B. F. Feeny, April 2005 TITLE: BALANCING ENERGY TO ESTIMATE DAMPING PARAMETERS IN FORCED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeny, Brian

    ., East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. feeny@egr.msu.edu ABSTRACT This study makes use of an energy balance1- Jin-Wei Liang and B. F. Feeny, April 2005 TITLE: BALANCING ENERGY TO ESTIMATE DAMPING PARAMETERS to identify damping parameters in mechanical vibration systems. By balancing the energy input as registered

  17. Role of colliding geometry on the N/Z dependence of balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam; Aman D. Sood; Rajeev K. Puri

    2011-08-01

    We study the role of colliding geometry on the N/Z dependence of balance energy using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. Our study reveals that the N/Z dependence of balance energy becomes much steeper for peripheral collisions as compared to the central collisions. We also study the effect of system mass on the impact parameter dependence of N/Z dependence of balance energy. The study shows that lighter systems shows greater sensitivity to colliding geometry towards the N/Z dependence.

  18. Appendix E: Other NEMS-MP results for the base case and scenarios.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Singh, M. K.; Energy Systems

    2009-12-03

    The NEMS-MP model generates numerous results for each run of a scenario. (This model is the integrated National Energy Modeling System [NEMS] version used for the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study [MP].) This appendix examines additional findings beyond the primary results reported in the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study: Vehicle Characterization and Scenario Analyses (Reference 1). These additional results are provided in order to help further illuminate some of the primary results. Specifically discussed in this appendix are: (1) Energy use results for light vehicles (LVs), including details about the underlying total vehicle miles traveled (VMT), the average vehicle fuel economy, and the volumes of the different fuels used; (2) Resource fuels and their use in the production of ethanol, hydrogen (H{sub 2}), and electricity; (3) Ethanol use in the scenarios (i.e., the ethanol consumption in E85 vs. other blends, the percent of travel by flex fuel vehicles on E85, etc.); (4) Relative availability of E85 and H2 stations; (5) Fuel prices; (6) Vehicle prices; and (7) Consumer savings. These results are discussed as follows: (1) The three scenarios (Mixed, (P)HEV & Ethanol, and H2 Success) when assuming vehicle prices developed through literature review; (2) The three scenarios with vehicle prices that incorporate the achievement of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program vehicle cost goals; (3) The three scenarios with 'literature review' vehicle prices, plus vehicle subsidies; and (4) The three scenarios with 'program goals' vehicle prices, plus vehicle subsidies. The four versions or cases of each scenario are referred to as: Literature Review No Subsidies, Program Goals No Subsidies, Literature Review with Subsidies, and Program Goals with Subsidies. Two additional points must be made here. First, none of the results presented for LVs in this section include Class 2B trucks. Results for this class are included occasionally in Reference 1. They represent a small, though noticeable, segment of the 'LV plus 2B' market (e.g., a little more than 3% of today's energy use in that market). We generally do not include them in this discussion, simply because it requires additional effort to combine the NEMS-MP results for them with the results for the other LVs. (Where there is an exception, we will indicate so.) Second, where reference is made to E85, the ethanol content is actually 74%. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) assumes that, to address cold-starting issues, the percent of ethanol in E85 will vary seasonally. The EIA uses an annual average ethanol content of 74% in its forecasts. That assumption is maintained in the NEMS-MP scenario runs.

  19. Analysis of Sub-Hourly Ramping Impacts of Wind Energy and Balancing Area Size (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2008-06-01

    WindPower 2008 conference sponsored by AWEA held in Houston, TX on June 1-4 2008. This poster illustrates the data collected for an analysis of sub-hourly ramping impacts of wind energy and balancing area size.

  20. Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005 Scientists gun' that we have been looking for" according to Jim Hansen, a climatologist who directs the NASA

  1. Quantifying the system balancing cost when wind energy is incorporated into electricity generation system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Issaeva, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of wind energy into the electricity generation system requires a detailed analysis of wind speed in order to minimize system balancing cost and avoid a significant mismatch between supply and demand. Power ...

  2. Role of isospin degree of freedom on the mass dependence of balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam; Aman D. Sood

    2010-09-24

    The effect of isospin degree of freedom on balance energy and its mass dependence has been studied for the mass range between 50 and 350. Our results shows the dominance of Coulomb potential in isospin effects.

  3. Estimation of land surface water and energy balance flux components and closure relation using conditional sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farhadi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Models of terrestrial water and energy balance include numerical treatment of heat and moisture diffusion in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. These two diffusion and exchange processes are linked only at a few ...

  4. Parameter estimation of coupled water and energy balance models based on stationary constraints of surface states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jian

    [1] We use a conditional averaging approach to estimate the parameters of a land surface water and energy balance model and then use the estimated parameters to partition net radiation into latent, sensible, and ground ...

  5. Impact parameter dependence of isospin effects on the mass dependence of balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam; Aman D Sood

    2010-09-24

    We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom on the balance energy as well as its mass dependence throughout the mass range 48-270 for two sets of isobaric systems with N/Z = 1 and 1.4 using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. Our fndings reveal the dominance of Coulomb repulsion in isospin effects on balance energy as well as its mass dependence throughout the range of the colliding geometry.

  6. Energy Balance Partitioning and Net Radiation Controls on Soil Moisture – Precipitation Feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Aubrey R.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.

    2009-01-14

    stream_size 63174 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Brunsell_2009_Energy-balance-partitioning.pdf.txt stream_source_info Brunsell_2009_Energy-balance-partitioning.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text... turbulence, with coarser resolutions unable to capture turbulent motions, which are necessary for convective processes. The ability of the model to capture boundary layer turbulence will alter the dynamics of soil moisture–precipitation feedback...

  7. Electrolysis for Energy Storage & Grid Balancing in West Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this capacity before 2010, to about 2,700 MW. High wind power output often occurs out of phase with demand and often unpredictably. Wind power output also ramps up and down continuously, sometimes by large amounts, there is an excellent match between wind and fast responding hydro, from an overall operating and grid balancing point

  8. Global estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    -relative-humidity-based two-source (ARTS) E model that simulates the surface energy balance, soil water balanceGlobal estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model H. Yan a, , S.Q. Wang b , D. Billesbach c , W. Oechel d , J.H. Zhang e , T. Meyers f , T

  9. Beam-Energy Dependence of Charge Balance Functions from Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STAR Collaboration

    2015-07-13

    Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity ($\\Delta \\eta$) for charged particle pairs at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) from Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions become more central and as the beam energy is increased. In contrast, the widths of the balance functions calculated using shuffled events show little dependence on centrality or beam energy and are larger than the observed widths. Balance function widths calculated using events generated by UrQMD are wider than the measured widths in central collisions and show little centrality dependence. The measured widths of the balance functions in central collisions are consistent with the delayed hadronization of a deconfined quark gluon plasma (QGP). The narrowing of the balance function in central collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV implies that a QGP is still being created at this relatively low energy.

  10. Investigating the possibilities of energy balance modelling with more moderate input data. Development and testing, Griesgletscher, Switzerland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Sarah

    A distributed surface energy balance model has been developed to simulate mass balance at an hourly resolution. The model is applied to a 25 m resolution digital elevation model of a valley glacier in Switzerland. The ...

  11. Reaction Plane and Beam Energy Dependence Of The Balance Function at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui Wang; for the STAR collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The balance function, which measures the correlation between opposite sign charge pairs, is sensitive to the mechanisms of charge formation and the subsequent relative diffusion of the balancing charges. The study of the balance function can provide information about charge creation time as well as the subsequent collective behavior of particles. In this paper, we present a reaction-plane-dependent balance function study for Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 200 GeV and compare with results from recent three particle correlation measurements. We also report balance functions for relative pseudorapidity ($\\Delta \\eta$), relative rapidity ($\\Delta y$), and relative azimuthal angle ($\\Delta \\phi$) from the recent RHIC beam energy scan data.

  12. Sensor Network Lifetime Maximization Via Sensor Energy Balancing: Construction and Optimal Scheduling of Sensor Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    in such a way that the total energy usage of the active sensor nodes in the tree is minimized. However whenSensor Network Lifetime Maximization Via Sensor Energy Balancing: Construction and Optimal, node energy, etc), the collected data are transmitted to their final destination, usually a fusion

  13. A Cluster-based Energy Balancing Scheme in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bölöni, Ladislau L

    A Cluster-based Energy Balancing Scheme in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Jing Ai, Damla Unbalanced energy consumption is an inherent problem in wireless sensor networks, and it is largely of energy reserve and wireless communication ability. We transform the flat communication in- frastructure

  14. A Multi-objective Approach to Balance Buildings Construction Cost and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamadi, Yousseff

    A Multi-objective Approach to Balance Buildings Construction Cost and Energy Efficiency ´Alvaro Fialho 1 and Youssef Hamadi 2 and Marc Schoenauer 3 Abstract. The issue of energy efficiency of buildings energy-efficient the building, the more expensive it is to be built. One must thus find a compromise be

  15. The Overall Energy Balance of the Hydrogen Bus in Berkeley, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    The Overall Energy Balance of the Hydrogen Bus in Berkeley, CA T. W. Patzek1 , K. Kappler, A. F Energy Roadmap (8), tabulates the planned hydrogen production capacity in the U.S., shown here as Table 1 with an extra column to specify the main energy/hydrogen sources for a hydrogen economy. As one can see, almost

  16. JouleSort: A Balanced Energy-Efficiency Benchmark Suzanne Rivoire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivoire, Suzanne

    , and the wireless subsystems in isolation [20, 29, 31]. To drive energy-efficiency improvements, we need benchJouleSort: A Balanced Energy-Efficiency Benchmark Suzanne Rivoire Stanford University Mehul A. ShahSort, an external sort benchmark, for evaluat- ing the energy efficiency of a wide range of computer systems from

  17. Balancing Energy and Water Consumption in an Urban Desert Environment: A Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    at the Census block group level for 2005 3. Energy consumption data from 2005 Census Mesic Landscaping XericBalancing Energy and Water Consumption in an Urban Desert Environment: A Case Study on Phoenix, AZ effect, water scarcity, and energy consumption. The transformation of native landscapes into built

  18. Modulation-Aware Energy Balancing in Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Modulation-Aware Energy Balancing in Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks1 Maryam Soltan, Inkwon becoming critical design concerns, a significant amount of research has focused on energy-aware design physical layer characteristics at the system deployment stage and analyzing the effects on spatial energy

  19. Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System J. Cai and J energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient condition, in a supermarket refrigeration for energy savings without extra loss of food quality. We also show that by utilizing the relatively slow

  20. Energy-Based Control of Coronal Biped Balance and Stepping Benjamin J. Stephens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy-Based Control of Coronal Biped Balance and Stepping Benjamin J. Stephens Carnegie Mellon University Abstract Linear Biped Model Coronal Energy Control Coronal Stepping Control LR L ww Dy Dy D y, an energy controller that regulates periodic motion of the system, and a foot placement controller for push

  1. National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to: navigation,Naples,Development and

  2. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    utility programs, updates, Energy and Buildings 22 (1995)utility programs, updates. Energy Buildings 22, 255–265. [4]Update [Available online at http://www.waterplan.water.ca.gov/previous/cwpu2005/index.cfm] [31] Energy

  3. Off-Balance Sheet Financing for Industrial Energy Efficiency Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, energy efficiency projects have been financed by energy service companies (ESCOs) under a shared savings arrangement known as performance contracting. Essentially, performance contracting packages engineering, ...

  4. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    2551. Cardin, Energy-Efficient Cool Roof Jobs Act. http://roof coatings, solar panels) to improve the existing building stock and planning for energy efficient

  5. Overview of NEMS-H2, Version 1.0

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT OFER-B-00-020 DOEProgramNEMS-H2, Version 1.0

  6. Original article Energy balance storage terms and big-leaf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for the determination of big leaf forest evapotranspiration are not of the utmost importance. energy storage / deciduous. The available energy is defined as the net radiation (Rn), from which the net change in energy storage within), biomass heat storage (Sv) and photosynthetic energy storage (Sp). Soil heat storage Sg can be further

  7. Your Project Title: Research Project on Obesity: a Problem of Energy Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VandeVord, Pamela

    and unique properties to represent a new approach for precise measurements of energy status and metabolic. · Projects focused on biosensors, including intra- and extra-cellular systems, for measuring calorie expenditure does not keep up with intake. The ability to measure states of energy balance and its various

  8. Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy balance within a coupled soilvegetationatmosphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy balance within a coupled propagation of the harmonics in order to differentiate between the response of the system to forcing, P., J. Polcher, and D. Entekhabi (2011), Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy

  9. Heterogeneous Modulation for Trading-off Energy Balancing with Bandwidth Efficiency in Hierarchical Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Heterogeneous Modulation for Trading-off Energy Balancing with Bandwidth Efficiency in Hierarchical modulation scheme and report its impact on the spatial distribution of energy dissipation and the resulting due to inherent trade-offs in power efficiency and bandwidth efficiency of the different modulation

  10. Balance of Power: Energy Management for Server Clusters Jeffrey S. Chase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ ties have typical power densities of 100 watts per square foot for servers, storage, switches, and coolBalance of Power: Energy Management for Server Clusters Jeffrey S. Chase Department of Computer of the Internet is increased energy usage by servers and the infras­ tructure supporting them. This paper promotes

  11. Balance of Power: Energy Management for Server Clusters Je rey S. Chase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power densities of 100 watts per square foot for servers, storage, switches, and cool- ing. ThusBalance of Power: Energy Management for Server Clusters Je rey S. Chase Department of Computer is increased energy usage by servers and the infras- tructure supporting them. This paper promotes a research

  12. Striking a Balance Between Energy and the Environment in the Columbia River Basin Sockeye surprise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Striking a Balance Between Energy and the Environment in the Columbia River Basin Sockeye surprise G & T Chair, Bill Drummond 5 Future Energy Savings Should Come From Innovations 8 Award Honors, final statistics had not been compiled but it appeared 90 percent of the sock- eye were Okanogan fish

  13. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-08-13

    We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.

  14. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    of outdoor urban spaces, The role of materials, Solar Energyof outdoor urban spaces, The role of materials, Sol. Energy.outdoor urban spaces, the role of materials. Sol. Energy 77,

  15. A Boiler Plant Energy Efficiency and Load Balancing Survey 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nutter, D. W.; Murphy, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Daily energy use data was used to perform an energy efficiency survey of a medium-sized university boiler plant. The physical plant operates centralized mechanical plants to provide both chilled water and steam for building conditioning. Steam...

  16. Beam-Energy Dependence of Charge Balance Functions from Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity ($\\Delta \\eta$) for charged particle pairs at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) from Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions become more central and as the beam energy is increased. In contrast, the widths of the balance functions calculated using shuffled events show little dependence on centrality or beam energy and are larger than the observed widths. Balance function widths calculated using events generated by UrQMD are wider than the measured widths in central collisions and show little centrality dependence. The measured widths of the balance functions in central collisions are consistent with the delayed hadronization of a deconfined quark g...

  17. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    daylight and passive solar gains, Energ. Buildings. 43 (solar reflectance and cooling energy use: field research results from Florida, Energ.

  18. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Urban Environment, California Water Report Update [Available online at http://www.waterplan.water.ca.gov/previous/cwpu2005/index.cfm] [31] Energy Efficiencyurban mitigation measures; with often surprising outcomes. xx Introduction Motivation Increasing energy efficiencyurban canopy. If the choice of a ground surface material is motivated by building energy efficiency

  19. On the balance energy and nuclear dynamics in peripheral heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajiv Chugh; Rajeev K. Puri

    2010-03-16

    We present here the system size dependence of balance energy for semi-central and peripheral collisions using quantum molecular dynamics model. For this study, the reactions of $Ne^{20}+Ne^{20}$, $Ca^{40}+Ca^{40}$, $Ni^{58}+Ni^{58}$, $Nb^{93}+Nb^{93}$, $Xe^{131}+Xe^{131}$ and $Au^{197}+Au^{197}$ are simulated at different incident energies and impact parameters. A hard equation of state along with nucleon-nucleon cross-sections between 40 - 55 mb explains the data nicely. Interestingly, balance energy follows a power law $\\propto{A^{\\tau}}$ for the mass dependence at all colliding geometries. The power factor $\\tau$ is close to -1/3 in central collisions whereas it is -2/3 for peripheral collisions suggesting stronger system size dependence at peripheral geometries. This also suggests that in the absence of momentum dependent interactions, Coulomb's interaction plays an exceedingly significant role. These results are further analyzed for nuclear dynamics at the balance point.

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. XX, NO. X, DECEMBER 2007 1 Spatial Model for Energy Burden Balancing and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Veciana, Gustavo

    this problem we consider how one might achieve a more balanced energy burden across the network by spreading their locations to balance the energy burdens incurred across the network nodes [1]. As shown in Fig. 1IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. XX, NO. X, DECEMBER 2007 1 Spatial Model for Energy

  1. Water, salt, and energy balances of the Dead Sea N. G. Lensky, Y. Dvorkin, and V. Lyakhovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    Water, salt, and energy balances of the Dead Sea N. G. Lensky, Y. Dvorkin, and V. Lyakhovsky, and energy balances of the Dead Sea, Water Resour. Res., 41, W12418, doi:10.1029/2005WR004084. 1 is less than that from a freshwater surface because the dissolved salts lower the free energy of the water

  2. Verification Of Energy Balance In The Ansys V5.4 Thermal Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Marr; M.J. Anderson

    2001-02-08

    The objective of this calculation is to verify the energy balance of the thermal calculations analyzed by ANSYS Version (V) 5.4 solver (see Section 4). The scope of this calculation is limited to calculating the energy balance of a two-dimensional repository thermal representation using the temperatures obtained from ANSYS V5.4. The procedure, AP-3.124, Calculations (Ref. 3), and the Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA (Ref. 2) are used to develop this calculation. The associated activity is the development of engineering evaluations to support the Licensing Application design activities.

  3. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  4. National Assessment of Energy Storage for Grid Balancing and Arbitrage: Phase 1, WECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Balducci, Patrick J.; Colella, Whitney G.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Nguyen, Tony B.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    To examine the role that energy storage could play in mitigating the impacts of the stochastic variability of wind generation on regional grid operation, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) examined a hypothetical 2020 grid scenario in which additional wind generation capacity is built to meet renewable portfolio standard targets in the Western Interconnection. PNNL developed a stochastic model for estimating the balancing requirements using historical wind statistics and forecasting error, a detailed engineering model to analyze the dispatch of energy storage and fast-ramping generation devices for estimating size requirements of energy storage and generation systems for meeting new balancing requirements, and financial models for estimating the life-cycle cost of storage and generation systems in addressing the future balancing requirements for sub-regions in the Western Interconnection. Evaluated technologies include combustion turbines, sodium sulfur (Na-S) batteries, lithium ion batteries, pumped-hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, redox flow batteries, and demand response. Distinct power and energy capacity requirements were estimated for each technology option, and battery size was optimized to minimize costs. Modeling results indicate that in a future power grid with high-penetration of renewables, the most cost competitive technologies for meeting balancing requirements include Na-S batteries and flywheels.

  5. Development of Energy Balances for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Sahtaye, Jayant

    2005-01-01

    oil/statistics/crude_oil_receipts.html. California Energyoil/statistics/crude_oil_receipts.html. California Energy2004f. Foreign Sources of Crude Oil Imports to California

  6. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    and heating load validations against an intermediate floorand heating load validations against an intermediate floorcanopy floor surface impacts building energy use for heating

  7. Control and Size Energy Storage for Managing Energy balance of Variable Generation Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ke, Xinda; Lu, Ning; Jin, Chunlian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents control algorithms and sizing strategies for using energy storage to manage energy balance for variable generation resources. The control objective is to minimize the hourly generation imbalance between the actual and the scheduled generation of the wind farm. Three control algorithms are compared: tracking power imbalance, post-compensation, and pre-compensation. Measurement data from a wind farm located in South-central Washington State are used in the study. The results show that tracking power imbalance yields the best performance by keeping the hourly energy imbalances zero. However, the energy storage system (ESS) will be significantly oversized. Post-compensation reduces power rating of the ESS but the hourly imbalance may not be kept as zero when large and long-lasting energy imbalances occur. A linear regression forecasting algorithm is developed for the pre-compensation algorithm to pre-charge or pre-discharge the ESS based on predicted energy imbalances. The performance comparison shows that the pre-compensation method significantly reduces the size of the ESS while maintaining satisfactory performance.

  8. Smart Meters Help Balance Energy Consumption at Solar Decathlon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clouds, rain, thunderstorms… at Solar Decathlon Village? Oh my, you may say. But less-than-ideal weather conditions are no match for this year's teams, thanks to smart grid technology that is helping them monitor their energy consumption.

  9. Spatial Energy Balancing in Large-scale Wireless Multihop Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Veciana, Gustavo

    communications systems and/or distributed sensing ap- plications, where energy storage and availability may be quite limited. There are many levels at which one can address this problem. Advances in silicon

  10. ENTROPY-ENERGY BALANCE IN NOISY QUANTUM COMPUTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raginsky, Maxim

    . The atoms are pumped to the level |2 , and then decay nonradiatively to |1 . This results in a relatively will address these two issues using entropy-energy arguments,2 a standard technique in statistical physics. Due

  11. Development of Energy Balances for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Sahtaye, Jayant

    2005-01-01

    Energy Commission, 2001. California Power Plants Database.for either of California’s two nuclear power plants and isout-of-state power plants controlled by California utilities

  12. Entropy-energy balance in noisy quantum computers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Raginsky

    2002-09-26

    We use entropy-energy arguments to assess the limitations on the running time and on the system size, as measured in qubits, of noisy macroscopic circuit-based quantum computers.

  13. FY 2007 Annual Uncosted Balances Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14, 20111, 2015EnergyEnergyTechnologies

  14. Integrated simulation of snow and glacier melt in water and energy balance-based, distributed hydrological modeling framework at Hunza River Basin of Pakistan Karakoram region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    model of land surface water and energy ?uxes for GSMs, J.glacier melt in water and energy balance-based, distributedglacier melt in water and energy balance-based, distributed

  15. Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    and Global Warming Brian Blais Science and Technology Department Bryant College bblais@bryant.edu August 29, 2003 Abstract The idea of energy balance used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming analysis, but is much more intuitive for students. 1 Introduction The topic of global warming is of current

  16. Sub-grid parameterization of snow distribution for an energy and mass balance snow cover model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sub-grid parameterization of snow distribution for an energy and mass balance snow cover model-element scale variability in snow accumulation and ablation is increasingly recognized as important spatial variability in snow accumulation and melt. Model state variables are snow-covered area average

  17. SUBGRID PARAMETERIZATION OF SNOW DISTRIBUTION FOR AN ENERGY AND MASS BALANCE SNOW COVER MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    SUBGRID PARAMETERIZATION OF SNOW DISTRIBUTION FOR AN ENERGY AND MASS BALANCE SNOW COVER MODEL., Plaza 4, Suite 105, Boise, Idaho 83712-7716 Paper presented at the International Conference on SNOW in Hydrological Processes, 13(12-13): 1921-1933, special issue from International Conference on Snow Hydrology

  18. Aalborg Universitet Stored Energy Balance for Distributed PV-Based Active Generators in an AC Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Microgrid Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez). Stored Energy Balance for Distributed PV-Based Active Generators in an AC Microgrid. In Proceedings Microgrid Nelson L. Diaz, Dan Wu, Tomislav Dragicevic, Juan C. Vasquez, and Josep M. Guerrero Abstract

  19. Monitoring Soil Moisture and Drought Using a Thermal TwoSource Energy Balance Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuligowski, Bob

    Monitoring Soil Moisture and Drought Using a Thermal TwoSource Energy Balance Model Christopher. In general, dry soil or stressed vegetation heats up more rapidly than wet soil or unstressed vegetation, using one dual polarized channel (either Cband or Xband) for the retrieval of soil moisture

  20. Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO Quiz - InteractiveDepartment of Energy

  1. THE 2001 NET ENERGY BALANCE OF CORN-ETHANOL (PRELIMINARY)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    used on farms, such as gasoline, diesel, LP gas (LPG), natural gas, and electricity, for the production plants. The major objectives of this report are to improve the quality of data and methodology used on the latest data on corn production and corn yield, (2) improving the quality of estimates for energy used

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 58, NO. 6, JULY 2009 2909 On Balancing Energy Consumption in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 58, NO. 6, JULY 2009 2909 On Balancing Energy--Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require protocols that make judicious use of the limited energy capacity of the sensor nodes. In this paper, the potential performance improve- ment gained by balancing the traffic

  3. Dependence of balance energy on isospin degrees of freedom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Gautam; Aman D. Sood; Rajeev K. Puri; Ch. Hartnack; J. Aichelin

    2010-09-24

    Using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model we study the isospin effects on the disappearance of flow for the reactions of 58Ni+58Ni and 58Fe+58Fe as a function of impact parameter. We found good agreement between our calculations and experimentally measured energy of vanishing flow at all colliding geometries. Our calculations reproduce the experimental data within 5%(10%) at central (peripheral) colliding geometries.

  4. Use of First Law Energy Balance as a Screening Tool for Building Energy Use Data: Experiences on the Inclusion of Outside Air Enthalpy Variable 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masuda, H.; Ji, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

    2009-01-01

    Quality controlled energy-use data is the foundation of energy performance evaluation for a building. The “Energy Balance Load” (EBL), a parameter derived from the first law of thermodynamics based on a whole-building energy analysis, has been...

  5. Balance-of-System Equipment Required for Renewable Energy Systems |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobsMotionHeat & Cool » WaterOAI-M-16-03 AuditDepartment of Energy

  6. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study - Energy Information

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYear Jan Feb Mar AprCubic

  7. Energy Information Administration NEMS Macroeconomic Activity Module Documentation Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun2003 Detailed Tablesof1998 and 2002

  8. Energy Information Administration NEMS Petroleum Market Model Documentation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun2003 Detailed Tablesof1998 and 20027)

  9. A 2D/1D coupling neutron transport method based on the matrix MOC and NEM methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H.; Zheng, Y.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2013-07-01

    A new 2D/1D coupling method based on the matrix MOC method (MMOC) and nodal expansion method (NEM) is proposed for solving the three-dimensional heterogeneous neutron transport problem. The MMOC method, used for radial two-dimensional calculation, constructs a response matrix between source and flux with only one sweep and then solves the linear system by using the restarted GMRES algorithm instead of the traditional trajectory sweeping process during within-group iteration for angular flux update. Long characteristics are generated by using the customization of commercial software AutoCAD. A one-dimensional diffusion calculation is carried out in the axial direction by employing the NEM method. The 2D and ID solutions are coupled through the transverse leakage items. The 3D CMFD method is used to ensure the global neutron balance and adjust the different convergence properties of the radial and axial solvers. A computational code is developed based on these theories. Two benchmarks are calculated to verify the coupling method and the code. It is observed that the corresponding numerical results agree well with references, which indicates that the new method is capable of solving the 3D heterogeneous neutron transport problem directly. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of the evaporative fraction for parameterization of the surface energy balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, W.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cuenca, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio of latent heat flux to the sum of latent and sensible heat fluxes. It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on midday remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. Data from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed to study the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the midday evaporative fraction and the daylight evaporative fraction. Statistical tests, however, rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. Relations between the evaporative fraction and surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture over the complete root zone were explored, but no correlation was identified. 33 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Average balance equations, scale dependence, and energy cascade for granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Artoni; Patrick Richard

    2015-03-09

    A new averaging method linking discrete to continuum variables of granular materials is developed and used to derive average balance equations. Its novelty lies in the choice of the decomposition between mean values and fluctuations of properties which takes into account the effect of gradients. Thanks to a local homogeneity hypothesis, whose validity is discussed, simplified balance equations are obtained. This original approach solves the problem of dependence of some variables on the size of the averaging domain obtained in previous approaches which can lead to huge relative errors (several hundred percentages). It also clearly separates affine and nonaffine fields in the balance equations. The resulting energy cascade picture is discussed, with a particular focus on unidirectional steady and fully developed flows for which it appears that the contact terms are dissipated locally unlike the kinetic terms which contribute to a nonlocal balance. Application of the method is demonstrated in the determination of the macroscopic properties such as volume fraction, velocity, stress, and energy of a simple shear flow, where the discrete results are generated by means of discrete particle simulation.

  12. System size effects in the N/Z dependence of balance energy for isotopic series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam; Aman Deep Sood

    2011-07-25

    We study the system size effects in the N/Z dependence of balance energy for the isotopic series. We find drastic effect of symmetry energy on the N/Z dependence of E$_{bal}$ throughout the mass range. We also find that the N/Z dependence of E$_{bal}$ for isotopic series of lighter system is slightly more sensitive to symmetry energy as compared to that of heavier systems. We also study the mass dependence of E$_{bal}$ for the N/Z range from 1.0-2.0. We find that the mass dependence of E$_{bal}$ varies with the N/Z ratio.

  13. Impact parameter dependence of the isospin effects and mass dependence of balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam

    2011-02-22

    We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom on the balance energy (E$_{bal}$) as well as its mass dependence throughout the mass range for two different sets of isobaric systems with N/Z = 1 and 1.4 at different colliding geometries ranging from the central to peripheral ones. Our findings reveal the dominance of Coulomb repulsion in isospin effects on E$_{bal}$ as well as its mass dependence throughout the range of the colliding geometry. Our results also indicate that the effect of symmetry energy on the energy of vanishing flow is uniform throughout the mass range and throughout the colliding geometry.

  14. Role of colliding geometry on the balance energy of mass-asymmetric systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supriya Goyal

    2011-04-16

    We study the role of colliding geometry on the balance energy (Ebal) of mass-asymmetric systems by varying the mass asymmetry ({\\eta} = AT - Ap/AT + AP, where AT and AP are the masses of the target and projectile, respectively) from 0.1 to 0.7, over the mass range 40-240 and on the mass dependence of the balance energy. Our findings reveal that colliding geometry has a significant effect on the Ebal of asymmetric systems. We find that, as we go from central collisions to peripheral ones, the effect of mass asymmetry on Ebal increases throughout the mass range. Interestingly, we find that for every fixed system mass (Atot) the effect of the impact parameter variation is almost uniform throughout the mass-asymmetry range. For each {\\eta}, Ebal follows a power-law behavior (\\propto A{\\tau}) at all colliding geometries

  15. Energy Balance in the Solar Transition Region. IV. Hydrogen and Helium Mass Flows With Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Fontenla; E. H. Avrett; R. Loeser

    2001-09-24

    In this paper we have extended our previous modeling of energy balance in the chromosphere-corona transition region to cases with particle and mass flows. The cases considered here are quasi-steady, and satisfy the momentum and energy balance equations in the transition region. We include in all equations the flow velocity terms and neglect the partial derivatives with respect to time. We present a complete and physically consistent formulation and method for solving the non-LTE and energy balance equations in these situations, including both particle diffusion and flows of H and He. Our results show quantitatively how mass flows affect the ionization and radiative losses of H and He, thereby affecting the structure and extent of the transition region. Also, our computations show that the H and He line profiles are greatly affected by flows. We find that line shifts are much less important than the changes in line intensity and central reversal due to the effects of flows. In this paper we use fixed conditions at the base of the transition region and in the chromosphere because our intent is to show the physical effects of flows and not to match any particular observations. However, we note that the profiles we compute can explain the range of observed high spectral and spatial resolution Lyman alpha profiles from the quiet Sun. We suggest that dedicated modeling of specific sequences of observations based on physically consistent methods like those presented here will substantially improve our understanding of the energy balance in the chromosphere and corona.

  16. Improving snow albedo processes in WRF/SSiB regional climate model to assess impact of dust and black carbon in snow on surface energy balance and hydrology over western U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    in snow, and surface water and energy balances in of?inesnow and surface/soil water and energy balances (Figure 1).albedo can affect the water and energy balance, snowcover

  17. A new diagram of the global energy balance Martin Wild, Doris Folini, Christoph Schr, Norman Loeb, Ellsworth G. Dutton et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    A new diagram of the global energy balance Martin Wild, Doris Folini, Christoph Schär, Norman Loeb://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions #12;A New Diagram of the Global Energy Balance Martin Wilda , Doris Folinia , Christoph Schära of the global mean energy balance, adapted from the study by Wild et al. (2013) [1] with two slight

  18. Multihadron production dynamics exploring energy balance in hadronic to nuclear collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkisyan, Edward K G; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sakharov, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    The multihadron production in nucleus-nucleus collisions and its interrelation with that in (anti)proton-proton interactions are studied by exploring the charged particle mean multiplicity collision-energy and centrality dependencies in the measurements to date. The study is performed in the framework of the recently proposed effective-energy approach which, under the proper scaling of the collision energy, combines the constituent quark picture with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics counting for the centrality-defined effective energy of participants and relating different types of collisions. Within this approach, the multiplicity energy dependence and the pseudorapidity spectra from the most central nuclear collisions are well reproduced. The study of the multiplicity centrality dependence reveals a new scaling between the measured pseudorapidity spectra and the calculations. By means of this scaling, called the energy balanced limiting fragmentation scaling, one reproduces the pseudorapidity spectra for a...

  19. N/Z dependence of balance energy as the probe of symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam; Aman D. Sood; Rajeev K. Puri

    2011-02-22

    We study the N/Z dependence of balance energy (E$_{bal}$) for isotopic series of Ca having N/Z varying from 1.0 to 2.0. We show that the N/Z dependence of E$_{bal}$ is sensitive to symmetry energy and its density dependence at densities higher than saturation density and is insensitive towards the isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon cross section

  20. Standard Practice for Measuring Plasma Arc Gas Enthalpy by Energy Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the measurement of total gas enthalpy of an electric-arc-heated gas stream by means of an overall system energy balance. This is sometimes referred to as a bulk enthalpy and represents an average energy content of the test stream which may differ from local values in the test stream. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Effects of climatic chance on surface water and energy balances of sorghum and cotton in West Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Wen

    1994-01-01

    Global climatic change may be occurring due to the increase of carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse" gases in the atmosphere. Effects of climatic change on surface water and energy balances of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. ...

  2. CNT-based MEMS/NEMS gas ionizers for portable mass spectrometry applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velasquez-Heller, Luis Fernand

    We report the fabrication and experimental characterization of a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based MEMS/NEMS electron impact gas ionizer with an integrated extractor gate for portable mass spectrometry. The ionizer achieves ...

  3. 844 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 34, NO. 3, JUNE 2006 Energy Balance and Plasma Potential in Low-Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaganovich, Igor

    ARECENT model for particle balance and energy balance in low-density, hot-filament discharges [1] gives844 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 34, NO. 3, JUNE 2006 Energy Balance and Plasma Potential in Low-Density Hot-Filament Discharges Scott Robertson, Senior Member, IEEE, Scott Knappmiller

  4. Detailed Balance Condition and Effective Free Energy in the Primitive Chain Network Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Uneyama; Yuichi Masubuchi

    2011-10-18

    We consider statistical mechanical properties of the primitive chain network (PCN) model for entangled polymers from its dynamic equations. We show that the dynamic equation for the segment number of the PCN model does not reduce to the standard Langevin equation which satisfies the detailed balance condition. We propose heuristic modifications for the PCN dynamic equation for the segment number, to make it reduce to the standard Langevin equation. We analyse some equilibrium statistical properties of the modified PCN model, by using the effective free energy obtained from the modified PCN dynamic equations. The PCN effective free energy can be interpreted as the sum of the ideal Gaussian chain free energy and the repulsive interaction energy between slip-links. By using the single chain approximation, we calculate several distribution functions of the PCN model. The obtained distribution functions are qualitatively different from ones for the simple slip-link model without any direct interactions between slip-links.

  5. A Failure Self-recovery Strategy with Balanced Energy Consumption for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Tie; Xia, Feng; Wu, Guowei; Zhou, Yu

    2012-01-01

    In energy constrained wireless sensor networks, it is significant to make full use of the limited energy and maximize the network lifetime even when facing some unexpected situation. In this paper, all sensor nodes are grouped into clusters, and for each cluster, it has a mobile cluster head to manage the whole cluster. We consider an emergent situation that one of the mobile cluster heads is broken down, and hence the whole cluster is consequently out of work. An efficient approach is proposed for recovering the failure cluster by selecting multiple static sensor nodes as the cluster heads to collect packets and transmit them to the sink node. Improved simulated annealing algorithm is utilized to achieve the uniform deployment of the cluster heads. The new cluster heads are dynamically changed in order to keep balanced energy consumption. Among the new cluster heads, packets are transmitted through multi-hop forwarding path which is cost-lowest path found by Dijkstra's algorithm. A balanced energy consumptio...

  6. Modeling Interregional Transmission Congestion in the National Energy Modeling System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Lesieutre, Bernard; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Central Area Reliability Coordination Council EMM region Electricity Capacity Planning submodule of NEMS Energy Efficiency and Renewable

  7. IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 15, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 93 Spatial Energy Balancing Through Proactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Veciana, Gustavo

    and storage capabilities. We propose a parameterized family of energy balancing strategies and study depends on the relative values of the energy reserves/storage, replenishing rates, and network load queue, sensor networks, shot-noise process, stochastic geometry. I. INTRODUCTION ENERGY-EFFICIENT design

  8. ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cook, David

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  9. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeffrey; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-01-01

    and plug loads, total primary energy use has increased oversystem losses). Tracking primary energy, not site energy, isand affordability. Figure 1. Primary Energy Use in U.S.

  10. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    and plug loads, total primary energy use has increased oversystem losses). Tracking primary energy, not site energy, isand affordability. Figure 1. Primary Energy Use in U.S.

  11. Multihadron production dynamics exploring energy balance in hadronic to nuclear collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward K. G. Sarkisyan; Aditya Nath Mishra; Raghunath Sahoo; Alexander S. Sakharov

    2015-06-30

    The multihadron production in nucleus-nucleus collisions and its interrelation with that in (anti)proton-proton interactions are studied by exploring the charged particle mean multiplicity collision-energy and centrality dependencies in the measurements to date. The study is performed in the framework of the recently proposed effective-energy approach which, under the proper scaling of the collision energy, combines the constituent quark picture with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics counting for the centrality-defined effective energy of participants and relating different types of collisions. Within this approach, the multiplicity energy dependence and the pseudorapidity spectra from the most central nuclear collisions are well reproduced. The study of the multiplicity centrality dependence reveals a new scaling between the measured pseudorapidity spectra and the calculations. By means of this scaling, called the energy balanced limiting fragmentation scaling, one reproduces the pseudorapidity spectra for all centralities. The scaling elucidates some differences in the multiplicity and midrapidity density centrality dependence obtained at RHIC and LHC. These findings reveal an inherent similarity in the multiplicity energy dependence from the most central collisions and centrality data. A new regime in heavy-ion collisions to occur at about a TeV energy is indicated, similar to that observed in the earlier studies of the midrapidity densities. Predictions are made for the mean multiplicities to be measured in proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC.

  12. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    C.. (2000). "Energy efficiency and consumption—the rebounddevelopment and the rebound effect." Energy Policy. 28 (

  13. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeffrey; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-01-01

    00017.pdf Energy Design Update. March 2003. “Green Standards. ” Energy Design Update 23 (3). Herring,

  14. Global existence for a hydrogen storage model with full energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonetti, Elena; Laurençot, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    A thermo-mechanical model describing hydrogen storage by use of metal hydrides has been recently proposed in a paper by Bonetti, Fr\\'emond and Lexcellent. It describes the formation of hydrides using the phase transition approach. By virtue of the laws of continuum thermo-mechanics, the model leads to a phase transition problem in terms of three state variables: the temperature, the phase parameter representing the fraction of one solid phase, and the pressure, and is derived within a generalization of the principle of virtual powers proposed by Fr\\'emond accounting for micro-forces, responsible for the phase transition, in the whole energy balance of the system. Three coupled nonlinear partial differential equations combined with initial and boundary conditions have to be solved. The main difficulty in investigating the resulting system of partial differential equations relies on the presence of the squared time derivative of the order parameter in the energy balance equation. Here, the global existence of a...

  15. Influence of momentum-dependent interactions on balance energy and mass dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aman D. Sood; Rajeev K. Puri

    2010-04-28

    We aim to study the role of momentum-dependent interactions in transverse flow as well as in its disappearance. For the present study, central collisions involving mass between 24 and 394 are considered. We find that momentum-dependent interactions have different impact in lighter colliding nuclei compared to heavier colliding nuclei. In lighter nuclei, the contribution of mean field towards the flow is smaller compared to heavier nuclei where binary nucleon-nucleon collisions dominate the scene. The inclusion of momentum-dependent interactions also explains the energy of vanishing flow in $^{12}C+^{12}C$ reaction which was not possible with the static equation of state. An excellent agreement of our theoretical attempt is found for balance energy with experimental data throughout the periodic table.

  16. Role of Isospin Degree of freedom on the impact parameter dependence of balance energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolly Sood; Sanjeev Kumar; Suneel Kumar; Rajeev K. Puri

    2010-09-27

    For this study we have simulated the 28Ni58+28Ni58 and 26Fe58+26Fe58 systems at incident energies ranging from 45 MeV/nucleon to 105 MeV/nucleon by using soft equation of state. The geometry of reactions chosen are = b/bmax = 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7.The Px/A is becoming more positive for neutron - rich system 26Fi58 as compared to neutron-poor system 28Ni58. This point towards the higher value of balance energy for 26Fi58 system. Further study in this direction is ongoing.

  17. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeffrey; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-01-01

    Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. WashingtonSummer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. WashingtonSummer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Washington

  18. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    E Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. WashingtonE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. WashingtonStudy on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council

  19. Role of asymmetry of the reaction and momentum dependent interactions on the balance energy for neutron rich nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aman D. Sood

    2011-09-28

    We present a systematic study of disappearance of flow i.e. balance energy $E_{bal}$ for an isotopic series of Ca with N/Z varying from 1 to 2 for different density dependences of symmetry energies. We also extend this study for asymmetric reactions having radioactive projectile and stable target.

  20. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    and the rebound effect." Energy Policy. 28 (6/7), 425-432.rebound effect—a survey," Energy Policy, 2000. Meier, A . (A self-deception in energy policy." Energy & Environment,

  1. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    green standards." Energy Design Update 23 (3). Herring,DC, August, 2004. Energy Design Update. (March 2003). "

  2. The fluctuation energy balance in non-suspended fluid-mediated particle transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Pähtz; Orencio Durán; Tuan-Duc Ho; Alexandre Valance; Jasper F. Kok

    2015-01-16

    Here we compare two extreme regimes of non-suspended fluid-mediated particle transport, transport in light and heavy fluids ("saltation" and "bedload", respectively), regarding their particle fluctuation energy balance. From direct numerical simulations, we surprisingly find that the ratio between collisional and fluid drag dissipation of fluctuation energy is significantly larger in saltation than in bedload, even though the contribution of interparticle collisions to transport of momentum and energy is much smaller in saltation due to the low concentration of particles in the transport layer. We conclude that the much higher frequency of high-energy particle-bed impacts ("splash") in saltation is the cause for this counter-intuitive behavior. Moreover, from a comparison of these simulations to Particle Tracking Velocimetry measurements which we performed in a wind tunnel under steady transport of fine and coarse sand, we find that turbulent fluctuations of the flow produce particle fluctuation energy at an unexpectedly high rate in saltation even under conditions for which the effects of turbulence are usually believed to be small.

  3. Investigation of the effects of soluble boron tracking on coupled CTF / NEM, LWR simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biery, M.; Avramova, M.; Ivanov, K.

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of introducing a boron tracking capability to the COBRA-TF / NEM code coupling. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) versions of COBRA-TF - CTF, and Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) codes are utilized. Previous implementations of the CTF / NEM coupled code had no capability to model soluble boron feedback effects due to boron transport. This study builds upon the validation and qualification efforts of the boron tracking model implementation in CTF by modeling the boron feedback calculated by the CTF boron tracking model in NEM. The core model chosen for this study is the Purdue MOX/UO{sub 2} core model used in the 2007 OECD/NRC code benchmark study. Following the implementation of an explicit online coupling scheme and accompanying k-search routine, the newly coupled CTF / NEM code version with boron tracking is compared to prior results of the non-boron tracking CTF / NEM code version at steady-state hot full power and hot zero power conditions. It was found that the boron tracking model exhibited little influence on the hot zero power result as expected due to a smaller heat flux, which does not significantly change the moderator density and boron concentration as the moderator travels up the axial core length. Meanwhile the boron tracking model had a much greater impact on the hot full power results, predicting the critical inlet boron concentration to be 9.9 ppm below the non-boron tracking result due to greater and more rapid changes in boron concentration corresponding to the reduction in moderator density from being more rapidly heated. (authors)

  4. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeffrey; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-01-01

    2000. “Energy Efficiency and Consumption—the Rebound Effect—development and the rebound effect. ” Energy Policy. 28 (rebound effect? Ecological Economics 36 (1), 119-132. California Energy

  5. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeffrey; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-01-01

    and the rebound effect. ” Energy Policy. 28 (6/7), 425-432.Effect—a survey,” Energy Policy, 2000. Moezzi, Mithra M.building consensus on energy policies that recognize the

  6. Aalborg Universitet Fuzzy droop control loops adjustment for stored energy balance in distributed energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    clean and re- newable energy instead of traditional coal, oil and other non-renewable energy resources. Guerrero Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. Faculty of Engineering

  7. Genome-scale estimate of the metabolic turnover of E. Coli from the energy balance analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Martino, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In this article the notion of metabolic turnover is revisited in the light of recent results of out-of-equilibrium thermodynamics. By means of Monte Carlo methods we perform an exact uniform sampling of the steady state fluxes in a genome scale metabolic network of E Coli from which we infer the metabolites turnover times. However the latter are inferred from net fluxes, and we argue that this approximation is not valid for enzymes working nearby thermodynamic equilibrium. We recalculate turnover times from total fluxes by performing an energy balance analysis of the network and recurring to the fluctuation theorem. We find in many cases values one of order of magnitude lower, implying a faster picture of intermediate metabolism.

  8. Nuclear dynamics at the balance energy of mass asymmetric colliding nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supriya Goyal

    2011-12-18

    Using the quantum molecular dynamics model, we study the nuclear dynamics at the balance energy of mass asymmetric colliding nuclei by keeping the total mass of the system fixed as 40, 80, 160, and 240. The calculations are performed by varying the mass asymmetry ($\\eta$ = $\\frac{A_{T}-A_{P}}{A_{T}+A_{P}}$; where $A_{T}$ and $A_{P}$ are the masses of the target and projectile, respectively) of the reaction from 0.1 to 0.7. In particular, we study the various quantities like average and maximum density, collision rate, participant-spectator matter, anisotropic ratio, relative momentum as well as their mass asymmetry and mass dependence. We find sizeable effects of mass asymmetry on these quantities. Our results indicate that the mass dependence of various quantities increases slightly with increase in $\\eta$.

  9. H Loop shaping control for PLL-based mechanical resonance tracking in NEMS resonant mass sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    problem that rejects the disturbance described by the resonance frequency shift, attenuates the phase the measurement scheme to a disturbance rejection control issue which considers the resonance frequency variation--A simple dynamic detection of the resonance frequency shift in NEMS resonant mass sensors is described

  10. MEMS/NEMS Design Automation and Synthesis Annual Report for NSF Grant # CCR-DES/CC-0306557

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agogino, Alice M.

    1 MEMS/NEMS Design Automation and Synthesis Annual Report for NSF Grant # CCR-DES/CC-0306557 (2004: The goal of the project is to extend the existing SUGAR MEMS simulator into a design synthesis tool that supports the early stages of MEMS/NEMS conceptual design. We are developing a broad base of MEMS building

  11. MEMS/NEMS Design Automation and Synthesis Annual Report for NSF Grant # CCR-DES/CC-0306557

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agogino, Alice M.

    1 MEMS/NEMS Design Automation and Synthesis Annual Report for NSF Grant # CCR-DES/CC-0306557 (2005: The goal of the project is to extend the existing SUGAR MEMS simulator into a design synthesis tool that supports the early stages of MEMS/NEMS conceptual design. We are developing a broad base of MEMS building

  12. Improving snow albedo processes in WRF/SSiB regional climate model to assess impact of dust and black carbon in snow on surface energy balance and hydrology over western U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, andorganic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850–carbon in snow on surface energy balance and hydrology over

  13. USING THE UTAH ENERGY BALANCE SNOW MELT MODEL TO QUANTIFY SNOW AND GLACIER MELT IN THE HIMALAYAN REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    USING THE UTAH ENERGY BALANCE SNOW MELT MODEL TO QUANTIFY SNOW AND GLACIER MELT IN THE HIMALAYAN of glacier ice as a substrate and generation of melt from the ice substrate when seasonal snow has melted for the entire domain. Therefore, regional variability in snow and glacier melting is computed. Outflow can

  14. Inclusion of a Drag Approach in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) Scheme: Offline 1D Evaluation in a Street Canyon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -scale urban surface energy balance for use in mesoscale meteorological models. Previous offline evaluations show that this urban module is able to simulate in good behavior road, wall, and roof temperatures urban canopy by introducing a drag force approach to account for the vertical effects of buildings

  15. Modeling Distributed Electricity Generation in the NEMS Buildings Models

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling methodology, projected market penetration, and impact of distributed generation with respect to offsetting future electricity needs and carbon dioxide emissions in the residential and commercial buildings sector in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) reference case.

  16. Analysis of Sub-Hourly Ramping Impacts of Wind Energy and Balancing Area Size: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze sub-hourly ramping requirements and the benefit of combining Balancing Authority operations with significant wind penetrations.

  17. MNRAS 451, 62466257 (2015) doi:10.1093/mnras/stv1104 Dust energy balance study of two edge-on spiral galaxies in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baes, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    MNRAS 451, 6246­6257 (2015) doi:10.1093/mnras/stv1104 Dust energy balance study of two edge Dye,9 Steve A. Eales,10 Jacopo Fritz,1,11 Cristina Furlanetto,9,12 Gianfranco Gentile,1,13 Thomas M- eral nearby edge-on galaxies have found an apparent inconsistency in the dust energy balance

  18. Analysis & Projections - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (CDM), which are major components of NEMS that project energy consumption for marketed energy sources plus distributed solar and geothermal energy. Both the RDM and CDM include...

  19. Global energy and water balance: Characteristics from finite-volume atmospheric model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Linjiong; Bao, Qing; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Wang, Xiaocong; He, Bian; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Jiandong

    2015-03-01

    This paper documents version 1 of the Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1), which has a flexible horizontal resolution up to a quarter of 1°. The model, currently running on the ‘‘Tianhe 1A’’ supercomputer, is the atmospheric component of the third-generation Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land climate System model (FGOALS3) which will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). In addition to describing the dynamical core and physical parameterizations of FAMIL1, this paper describes the simulated characteristics of energy and water balances and compares them with observational/reanalysis data. The comparisons indicate that the model simulates well the seasonalmore »and geographical distributions of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface, as well as the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes. A major weakness in the energy balance is identified in the regions where extensive and persistent marine stratocumulus is present. Analysis of the global water balance also indicates realistic seasonal and geographical distributions with the global annual mean of evaporation minus precipitation being approximately 10?? mm d?¹. We also examine the connections between the global energy and water balance and discuss the possible link between the two within the context of the findings from the reanalysis data. Finally, the model biases as well as possible solutions are discussed.« less

  20. Energy conservation business opportunities in multifamily housing: Feasibility analysis/business plan for proposed residential balancing venture: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-24

    The City of Chicago's Department of Planning and the Center for Neighborhood Technology (CNT) engaged Charles Rial and Associates (CRA) to assess the initial feasibility of an independent residential balancing service as a venture opportunity for a community-based organization (cbo). This document represents CRA's final report on the feasibility of the proposed venture. To assess the feasibility of a residential balancing venture, CRA determined the market potential for such a service, reviewed the efforts of the Chicago Energy Savers Fund, and interviewed engineering firms and heating and boiler contractors. It was determined that a stand-alone venture that offers balancing as its service will not reach a broad enough market to support a break-even operation and therefore, does not represent a feasible venture opportunity. A more feasible approach would involve a joint-venture between an established heating/boiler contractor and a cbo. A summary of the findings that led to this conclusion is provided.

  1. Analysis and Representation of Miscellaneous Electric Loads in NEMS -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotesShaleOil andEnergy Information

  2. Seasonal contrast in the surface energy balance of the Sahel R. L. Miller,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at thermal wavelengths. At the surface of the planet, however, solar heating is offset mainly through] To maintain thermal equilibrium, Earth must balance absorbed solar radiation with an equal outward flux Africa, soil moisture is often so depleted that solar heating is balanced mainly by longwave radiation

  3. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article, which is based on a longer report from Berkeley Lab, examines how twelve western utilities - Avista, Idaho Power, NorthWestern Energy (NorthWestern or NWE), Portland General Electric (PGE), Puget Sound Energy (PSE), PacifiCorp, Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), Nevada Power, Sierra Pacific, Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) - treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. In reviewing these plans, our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. This article begins with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities in our sample, followed by an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  4. Estimation of Building Parameters Using Simplified Energy Balance Model and Metered Whole Building Energy Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masuda, H.; Claridge, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates an indirect data-driven method to estimate influential building parameters: air exchange rates and overall heat transfer coefficients of building envelopes from the separately metered energy use for electricity...

  5. Post-Tanner stages of droplet spreading: the energy balance approach revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serguei Mechkov; Anne-Marie Cazabat; Gleb Oshanin

    2009-09-10

    The spreading of a circular liquid drop on a solid substrate can be described by the time evolution of its base radius R(t). In complete wetting the quasistationary regime (far away from initial and final transients) typically obeys the so-called Tanner law, with R t^alpha_T, alpha_T=1/10. Late-time spreading may differ significantly from the Tanner law: in some cases the drop does not thin down to a molecular film and instead reaches an equilibrium pancake-like shape; in other situations, as revealed by recent experiments with spontaneously spreading nematic crystals, the growth of the base radius accelerates after the Tanner stage. Here we demonstrate that these two seemingly conflicting trends can be reconciled within a suitably revisited energy balance approach, by taking into account the line tension contribution to the driving force of spreading: a positive line tension is responsible for the formation of pancake-like structures, whereas a negative line tension tends to lengthen the contact line and induces an accelerated spreading (a transition to a faster power law for R(t) than in the Tanner stage).

  6. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorog, John Peter; Hemrick, James Gordon; Walker, Harold; Leary, William R; Ellis, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some thermal efficiency for increased uptime and capacity seems reasonable. This paper considers a number of refractory linings in an effort to develop optimized operating strategies that balance these factors. In addition to considering a range of refractory materials, the paper examines other factors such as the chain area, discharge dams and other operating variables that impact the service life of the refractory lining. The paper provides recommendations that will help mill personnel develop a strategy to select a refractory lining that is optimized for their specific situation.

  7. Numerical power balance and free energy loss analysis for solar cells including optical, thermodynamic, and electrical aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greulich, Johannes Höffler, Hannes; Würfel, Uli; Rein, Stefan

    2013-11-28

    A method for analyzing the power losses of solar cells is presented, supplying a complete balance of the incident power, the optical, thermodynamic, and electrical power losses and the electrical output power. The involved quantities have the dimension of a power density (units: W/m{sup 2}), which permits their direct comparison. In order to avoid the over-representation of losses arising from the ultraviolet part of the solar spectrum, a method for the analysis of the electrical free energy losses is extended to include optical losses. This extended analysis does not focus on the incident solar power of, e.g., 1000?W/m{sup 2} and does not explicitly include the thermalization losses and losses due to the generation of entropy. Instead, the usable power, i.e., the free energy or electro-chemical potential of the electron-hole pairs is set as reference value, thereby, overcoming the ambiguities of the power balance. Both methods, the power balance and the free energy loss analysis, are carried out exemplarily for a monocrystalline p-type silicon metal wrap through solar cell with passivated emitter and rear (MWT-PERC) based on optical and electrical measurements and numerical modeling. The methods give interesting insights in photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion, provide quantitative analyses of all loss mechanisms, and supply the basis for the systematic technological improvement of the device.

  8. Ultrananocrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond thin films for NEMS/MEMS applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.; Carpick, R. W.; Srinivasan, S.; Butler, J. E. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); ( PSC-USR)

    2010-04-01

    There has been a tireless quest by the designers of micro- and nanoelectro mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) to find a suitable material alternative to conventional silicon. This is needed to develop robust, reliable, and long-endurance MEMS/NEMS with capabilities for working under demanding conditions, including harsh environments, high stresses, or with contacting and sliding surfaces. Diamond is one of the most promising candidates for this because of its superior physical, chemical, and tribomechanical properties. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films, the two most studied forms of diamond films in the last decade, have distinct growth processes and nanostructures but complementary properties. This article reviews the fundamental and applied science performed to understand key aspects of UNCD and NCD films, including the nucleation and growth, tribomechanical properties, electronic properties, and applied studies on integration with piezoelectric materials and CMOS technology. Several emerging diamond-based MEMS/NEMS applications, including high-frequency resonators, radio frequency MEMS and photonic switches, and the first commercial diamond MEMS product - monolithic diamond atomic force microscopy probes - are discussed.

  9. Can the post-Newtonian gravitational waveform of an inspiraling binary be improved by solving the energy balance equation numerically?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Tichy; Eanna E. Flanagan; Eric Poisson

    1999-12-17

    The detection of gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries using matched filtering depends crucially on the availability of accurate template waveforms. We determine whether the accuracy of the templates' phasing can be improved by solving the post-Newtonian energy balance equation numerically, rather than (as is normally done) analytically within the post-Newtonian perturbative expansion. By specializing to the limit of a small mass ratio, we find evidence that there is no gain in accuracy.

  10. Robust energy transfer mechanism and critically balanced turbulence via non-resonant triads in nonlinear wave systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miguel D. Bustamante; Brenda Quinn

    2013-09-02

    A robust energy transfer mechanism is found in nonlinear wave systems, which favours transfers towards modes interacting via non-resonant triads, applicable in meteorology, nonlinear optics and plasma wave turbulence. Transfer efficiency is maximal when the frequency mismatch of the non-resonant triad balances the system's nonlinear frequency: at intermediate levels of oscillation amplitudes an instability is triggered that explores unstable manifolds of periodic orbits, so turbulent cascades are most efficient at intermediate nonlinearity. Numerical simulations confirm analytical predictions.

  11. Deriving star formation histories from photometry using energy balance spectral energy distribution modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Daniel J B

    2015-01-01

    Panchromatic spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting is a critical tool for determining the physical properties of distant galaxies, such as their stellar mass and star formation rate. One widely used method is the publicly available MAGPHYS code. We build on our previous analysis (Hayward & Smith 2015) by presenting some modifications which enable MAGPHYS to automatically estimate galaxy star formation histories (SFHs), including uncertainties, based on ultra-violet to far-infrared photometry. We use state-of-the art synthetic photometry derived by performing three-dimensional dust radiative transfer on hydrodynamic simulations of isolated disc and merging galaxies to test how well the modified MAGPHYS is able to recover SFHs under idealised conditions, where the true SFH is known. We find that while the SFH of the model with the best fit to the synthetic photometry is a poor representation of the true SFH (showing large variations with the line-of-sight to the galaxy and spurious bursts of star forma...

  12. Modeling of battery energy storage in the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, S.; Flynn, W.T.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-12-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Information Administration is a well-recognized model that is used to project the potential impact of new electric generation technologies. The NEMS model does not presently have the capability to model energy storage on the national grid. The scope of this study was to assess the feasibility of, and make recommendations for, the modeling of battery energy storage systems in the Electricity Market of the NEMS. Incorporating storage within the NEMS will allow the national benefits of storage technologies to be evaluated.

  13. Application of energy and angular momentum balance to gravitational radiation reaction for binary systems with spin-orbit coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing Zeng; Clifford M. Will

    2007-04-20

    We study gravitational radiation reaction in the equations of motion for binary systems with spin-orbit coupling, at order (v/c)^7 beyond Newtonian gravity, or O(v/c)^2 beyond the leading radiation reaction effects for non-spinning bodies. We use expressions for the energy and angular momentum flux at infinity that include spin-orbit corrections, together with an assumption of energy and angular momentum balance, to derive equations of motion that are valid for general orbits and for a class of coordinate gauges. We show that the equations of motion are compatible with those derived earlier by a direct calculation.

  14. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    customer needs. Renewable energy cost reductions, combinedthe likely cost of renewable energy in the longer term.Renewable Energy Credits (RECs)38 5.2 Geothermal Cost

  15. Projected Benefits of Federal Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Programs - FY 2004 – FY2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2004-04-01

    This report features results and data based on the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model, as well as EERE's benefits and Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) guidance.

  16. On the stability of the Earth's radiative energy balance: Response to the Mt. Pinatubo eruption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    short wave energy into the outgoing long wave energy stream, it is of interest to understand how and why

  17. Dense Z-pinch (DZP) as a fusion power reactor: preliminary scaling calculations and sysems energy balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Moses, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual DT fusion reactor concept is described that is based upon the dense Z-pinch (DZP). This study emphasizes plasma modeling and the parametric assessment of the reactor energy balance. To this end simple analytic and numerical models have been developed and evaluated. The resulting optimal reactor operating point promises a high-Q, low-yield system of a scale that may allow the use of conventional high-voltage Marx/water-line technology to drive a potentially very small reactor system.

  18. Dust energy balance study of two edge-on spiral galaxies in the Herschel-ATLAS survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Geyter, Gert; De Looze, Ilse; Bendo, George J; Bourne, Nathan; Camps, Peter; Cooray, Asantha; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Eales, Steve A; Fritz, Jacopo; Furlanetto, Cristina; Gentile, Gianfranco; Hughes, Thomas M; Ivison, Rob J; Maddox, Steve J; Micha?owski, Micha? J; Smith, Matthew W L; Valiante, Elisabetta; Viaene, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar dust in galaxies can be traced either through its extinction effects on the star light, or through its thermal emission at infrared wavelengths. Recent radiative transfer studies of several nearby edge-on galaxies have found an apparent inconsistency in the dust energy balance: the radiative transfer models that successfully explain the optical extinction underestimate the observed fluxes by an average factor of three. We investigate the dust energy balance for IC4225 and NGC5166, two edge-on spiral galaxies observed by the Herschel Space Observatory in the frame of the H-ATLAS survey. We start from models which were constrained from optical data and extend them to construct the entire spectral energy distribution of our galaxies. These predicted values are subsequently compared to the observed far-infrared fluxes. We find that including a young stellar population in the modelling is necessary as it plays a non-negligible part in the heating of the dust grains. While the modelling approach for bo...

  19. Fundamentals and application of materials integration for low-power piezoelectrically actuated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond MEMS/NEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Srinivasan, S.; Hiller, J.; Kabius, B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD)

    2009-01-01

    Most current micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) are based on silicon. However, silicon exhibits relatively poor mechanical/tribological properties, compromising applications to several projected MEMS/NEMS devices, particularly those that require materials with high Young's modulus for MEMS resonators or low surface adhesion forces for MEMS/NEMS working in conditions with extensive surface contact. Diamond films with superior mechanical/tribological properties provide an excellent alternative platform material. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD{cflx W}) in film form with 2-5 nm grains exhibits excellent properties for high-performance MEMS/NEMS devices. Concurrently, piezoelectric Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) films provide high sensitivity/low electrical noise for sensing/high-force actuation at relatively low voltages. Therefore, integration of PZT and UNCD films provides a high-performance platform for advanced MEMS/NEMS devices. This paper describes the bases of such integration and demonstration of low voltage piezoactuated hybrid PZT/UNCD cantilevers.

  20. Absorption of a single 500 fs laser pulse at the surface of fused silica: Energy balance and ablation efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varkentina, N.; Sanner, N.; Lebugle, M.; Sentis, M.; Utéza, O. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LP3 UMR 7341, 13288 Marseille (France)] [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LP3 UMR 7341, 13288 Marseille (France)

    2013-11-07

    Ablation of fused silica by a single femtosecond laser pulse of 500 fs pulse duration is investigated from the perspective of efficiency of incident photons to remove matter. We measure the reflected and transmitted fractions of the incident pulse energy as a function of fluence, allowing us to recover the evolution of absorption at the material surface. At the ablation threshold fluence, 25% of incident energy is absorbed. At high fluences, this ratio saturates around 70% due to the appearance of a self-triggered plasma mirror (or shielding) effect. By using the energy balance retrieved experimentally and measurements of the ablated volume, we show that the amount of absorbed energy is far above the bonding energy of fused silica at rest and also above the energy barrier to ablate the material under non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions. Our results emphasize the crucial role of transient plasma properties during the laser pulse and suggest that the major part of the absorbed energy has been used to heat the plasma formed at the surface of the material. A fluence range yielding an efficient and high quality ablation is also defined, which makes the results relevant for femtosecond micromachining processes.

  1. NV Energy Solar Integration Study: Cycling and Movements of Conventional Generators for Balancing Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin

    2011-07-01

    With an increasing penetration level of solar power in the southern Nevada system, the impact of solar on system operations needs to be carefully studied from various perspectives. Qualitatively, it is expected that the balancing requirements to compensate for solar power variability will be larger in magnitude; meanwhile, generators providing load following and regulation services will be moved up or down more frequently. One of the most important tasks is to quantitatively evaluate the cycling and movements of conventional generators with solar power at different penetration levels. This study is focused on developing effective methodologies for this goal and providing a basis for evaluating the wear and tear of the conventional generators

  2. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  3. John L Gaunt and Johannes Lehmann Energy balance and emissions associated with biochar sequestration and pyrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    sequestration and pyrolysis bioenergy production Summary of tables Data are provided energy inputs (Mj ha-1

  4. The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update. By Hosein Shapouri, James A. Duffield, and Michael Wang. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    #12;The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update. By Hosein Shapouri, James A. Duffield estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among variation and develops a more consistent estimate. We conclude that the NEV of corn ethanol has been rising

  5. A method based on transverse energy balance of jets for selection of direct photons and fragmentation photons in high energy pp collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mriganka Mouli Mondal; Subhasis Chattopadhyay

    2009-03-17

    Direct photons are important probes in high energy collisions. They play an important role in determining the parton distribution function directly inside a proton as well as the nature of the matter formed in heavy ion collisions. However fragmentation photons play the role of prominent background in identifying the direct photons. In the present work we developed a new method based on the transverse energy balance of jets for enrichment of direct photon candidates in pp collisions. This method can reject 35% of the background photons (fragmentation) which can not be suppressed by isolation. Efficiency of detection of direct photon decrease by 10% in the method.

  6. Energy Balancing Routing Schemes for Low-Power Wireless Networks Eun-Sook Sung, Miodrag Potkonjak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potkonjak, Miodrag

    , and thus, the estimated energy for packet delivery must include this potential retransmission cost. Also, because links aren't symmetric, the estimated energy costs of forward and backward transmissions have predict the expected energy cost based on our novel link cost estimation technique via the expected number

  7. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure progress over time in the State of California.

  8. Water and Energy Sustainability: A Balance of Government Action and Industry Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Grunewald

    2009-12-31

    By completing the tasks and subtasks of the project, the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) through its state regulatory agency members and oil and gas industry partners, will bring attention to water quality and quantity issues and make progress toward water and energy sustainability though enhanced water protection and conservation thus enhancing the viability of the domestic fossil fuel industry. The project contains 4 major independent Tasks. Task 1 - Work Plan: Water-Energy Sustainability: A Symposium on Resource Viability. Task 2 - Work Plan: A Regional Assessment of Water and Energy Sustainability. Task 3 - Work Plan: Risk Based Data Management System-Water Water and Energy Module. Task 4 - Work Plan: Identification and Assessment of States Regulatory Programs Regarding Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems. Each task has a specific scope (details given).

  9. The Effects of Great Plains Irrigation on the Surface Energy Balance, Regional Circulation, and Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huber, David B.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Mechem, David B.

    2014-05-05

    Irrigation provides a needed source of water in regions of low precipitation. Adding water to a region that would otherwise see little natural precipitation alters the partitioning of surface energy fluxes, the evolution ...

  10. Cooperation Among Balancing Authorities Offers Greater Use of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooperation Among Balancing Authorities Offers Greater Use of Renewable Energy with Lower Integration Costs Cooperation Among Balancing Authorities Offers Greater Use of Renewable...

  11. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  12. A sensitivity study of climate and energy balance simulations with use of satellite-derived emissivity data over Northern Africa and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Liming

    -derived emissivity data over Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula L. Zhou,1 R. E. Dickinson,1 Y. Tian,1 M. Jin,2 and energy balance to changes in soil emissivity over Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and considers how this information may be used to improve emissivity parameterizations in climate models. Analysis

  13. On balance of information in bipartite quantum communication systems: entanglement-energy analogy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryszard Horodecki; Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki

    2000-06-20

    We adopt the view according to which information is the primary physical entity that posseses objective meaning. Basing on two postulates that (i) entanglement is a form of quantum information corresponding to internal energy (ii) sending qubits corresponds to work, we show that in the closed bipartite quantum communication systems the information is conserved. We also discuss entanglement-energy analogy in context of the Gibbs-Hemholtz-like equation connecting the entanglement of formation, distillable entanglement and bound entanglement. Then we show that in the deterministic protocols of distillation the information is conserved. We also discuss the objectivity of quantum information in context of information interpretation of quantum states and alghoritmic complexity.

  14. With respect to energy balance in mobile ad hoc networks, there have been active researches proposing energy-aware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Chansu

    hoc communication, because nodes work both as host and as router, nodes can easily consume much energy consume more energy than others and deplete its energy early [5]. This can cause an unbalanced nodes easily consume more energy than others. Even if the route path is too stable to be changed

  15. Three Dimensional Structure and Energy Balance of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -Y. Lee; J. C. Raymond; Y. -K. Ko; K. -S. Kim

    2008-10-27

    The Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) observed Doppler shifted material of a partial Halo Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) on December 13 2001. The observed ratio of [O V]/O V] is a reliable density diagnostic important for assessing the state of the plasma. Earlier UVCS observations of CMEs found evidence that the ejected plasma is heated long after the eruption. We have investigated the heating rates, which represent a significant fraction of the CME energy budget. The parameterized heating and radiative and adiabatic cooling have been used to evaluate the temperature evolution of the CME material with a time dependent ionization state model. The functional form of a flux rope model for interplanetary magnetic clouds was also used to parameterize the heating. We find that continuous heating is required to match the UVCS observations. To match the O VI-bright knots, a higher heating rate is required such that the heating energy is greater than the kinetic energy. The temperatures for the knots bright in Ly$\\alpha$ and C III emission indicate that smaller heating rates are required for those regions. In the context of the flux rope model, about 75% of the magnetic energy must go into heat in order to match the O VI observations. We derive tighter constraints on the heating than earlier analyses, and we show that thermal conduction with the Spitzer conductivity is not sufficient to account for the heating at large heights.

  16. Transport, energy balance, and stability of a large field-reversed configuration*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    . L. Hoffman, R. D. Milroy, R. Maqueda, and L. C Steinhauer University of Washington, Redmond Plasma-reversedthetapinch, whereplasmasconfinedin a field-reversedconfiguration(FRC) have exhibited record energy,particle, and configuration,quiescentFRCswith s values(thenumberof ion gyroradii from thefield null to theseparatrixof theFRC) aslargeas5. LSX

  17. Analytical study of the energy rate balance equation for the magnetospheric storm-ring current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The energization of the ring current is usually described by a ®rst order dierential equation, known as the energy is the disturbed-day ram pressure of the solar wind, q 2 (q and are respectively the solar wind density time) is proportional to the input power for the energization of the ring current, and s is the ring

  18. Energy balances in the production and end-use of methanol derived from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-12-10

    Analysis is performed for three combinations of fuels, specifically: net petroleum gain (petroleum only); net premium fuel gain (natural gas and petroleum); and net energy gain (includes all fuels; does not include free energy from sun). The base case selected for evaluation was that of an energy-efficient coal-to-methanol plant located in Montana/Wyoming and using the Lurgi conversion process. The following variations of the base coal-methanol case are also analyzed: gasoline from coal with methanol as an intermediate step (Mobil-M); and methanol from coal (Texaco gasification process). For each process, computations are made for the product methanol as a replacement for unleaded gasoline in a conventional spark ignition engine and as a chemical feedstock. For the purpose of the energy analysis, computations are made for three situations regarding mileage of methanol/ gasoline compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline: mileage of the two fuels equal, mileage 4 percent better with gasohol, and mileage 4 percent worse with gasohol. The standard methodology described for the base case applies to all of the variations.

  19. Natural Resources Research, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 2003 ( C 2003) Ethanol Fuels: Energy Balance, Economics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    and natural environment and contribute to water pollution and air pollution. Increasing the cost of food production and use con- tributes to air pollution and global warming (Sparks 1 College of Agriculture.S. corn is not a renewable energy source. KEY WORDS: Ethanol; costs; environment; food; pollution

  20. Nuclear dynamics at balance energy for the neutron-rich systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakshi Gautam

    2011-12-13

    We study the system size dependence of the participant and spectator matter at the energy of vanishing flow for systems having N/Z ratios as 1.0, 1.6 and 2.0. We see a nearly mass independent behaviour of the participant/spectator matter for all the N/Z ratios.

  1. Galaxy Formation and Evolution. II. Energy Balance, Star Formation and Feed-back

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulvio Buonomo; Giovanni Carraro; Cesare Chiosi; Cesario Lia

    1999-09-13

    In this paper we present a critical discussion of the algorithms commonly used in N-body simulations of Galaxy Formation to deal with the energy equation governing heating and cooling, to model star formation and the star formation rate, and to account for energy feed-back from stars. First, we propose our technique for solving the energy equation in presence of heating and cooling, which includes some difference with respect to the standard semi-implicit technique. Second, we examine the current criteria for the onset of the star formation activity. We suggest a new approach, in which star formaiton is let depend on the total mass density - baryonic (gas and stars) and dark matter - of the system and on the metal-dependent cooling efficiency. Third, we check and discuss the separate effects of energy (and mass) feed-back from several sources - namely supernovae, stellar winds from massive stars, and UV flux from the same objects. All the simulations are performed in the framework of the formation and evolution of a disk galaxy. We show that the inclusion of these physical phenomena has a signigicant impact on the evolution of the galaxy model.

  2. Renormalized energy equidistribution and local charge balance in 2D Coulomb systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simona Rota Nodari; Sylvia Serfaty

    2014-02-12

    We consider two related problems: the first is the minimization of the "Coulomb renormalized energy" of Sandier-Serfaty, which corresponds to the total Coulomb interaction of point charges in a uniform neutralizing background (or rather variants of it). The second corresponds to the minimization of the Hamiltonian of a two-dimensional "Coulomb gas" or "one-component plasma", a system of n point charges with Coulomb pair interaction, in a confining potential (minimizers of this energy also correspond to "weighted Fekete sets"). In both cases we investigate the microscopic structure of minimizers, i.e. at the scale corresponding to the interparticle distance. We show that in any large enough microscopic set, the value of the energy and the number of points are "rigid" and completely determined by the macroscopic density of points. In other words, points and energy are "equidistributed" in space (modulo appropriate scalings). The number of points in a ball is in particular known up to an error proportional to the radius of the ball. We also prove a result on the maximal and minimal distances between points. Our approach involves fully exploiting the minimality by reducing to minimization problems with fixed boundary conditions posed on smaller subsets.

  3. Ion-Kinetic-Energy Measurements and Energy Balance in a Z-Pinch Plasma at Stagnation E. Kroupp, D. Osin, A. Starobinets, V. Fisher, V. Bernshtam, and Y. Maron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroupp, Eyal

    Ion-Kinetic-Energy Measurements and Energy Balance in a Z-Pinch Plasma at Stagnation E. Kroupp, D of Physics, Technion-Israeli Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel C. Deeney Sandia National Laboratories with simultaneous imaging along the pinch, was employed. Over the emission period, a drop of the ion-kinetic energy

  4. Striking a Balance Between Energy and the Environment in the Columbia River Basin California's Renewable Energy Policies and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's Renewable Energy Policies and Their Impact on the Northwest (Continued on page 2) Northwest Power. California's renewable energy policies are some of the most aggressive in the nation, and the state has utilities have to look outside the state to satisfy their renewable portfolio goals. Renewable energy

  5. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report to CongressAprilDepartmentTransmission andDepartment

  6. Microsoft Word - Energy balancing rate settlement signals commitment to work on broader solutions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OF PAGESpersonal MarchBoardJune 1, 2015 1SimulationsENERGY0

  7. Ex Ante Appraisal Carbon-Balance Tool (EX-ACT) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpA JumpGmbH EFC Jump to:GariniEverCoEvolveEnergiesEx

  8. N/Z and N/A dependence of balance energy as a probe of symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aman D. Sood

    2011-07-21

    We study the N/Z and N/A dependence of balance energy (E$_{bal}$) for isotopic series of Ca having N/Z (N/A) varying from 1.0 to 2.0 (0.5 to 0.67). We show that the N/Z (N/A) dependence of E$_{bal}$ is sensitive to symmetry energy and its density dependence at densities higher than saturation density and is insensitive towards the isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross section and Coulomb repulsion. We also study the effect of momentum dependent interactions (MDI) on the N/Z (N/A) dependence of E$_{bal}$. We find that although MDI influences the E$_{bal}$ drastically, the N/Z (N/A) dependence of E$_{bal}$ remains unchanged on inclusion of MDI.

  9. Energy balance in two phase models for temperature fluctuations in HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Giammanco; J. E. Beckman

    2006-02-14

    Aims. The main objective of this article is to provide a simple physical framework with permits a quantitative comparison of measurements of the temperature fluctuations in the ionized interstellar medium with possible mechanisms which can produce them. Methods. We assume a generalized two phase ISM and derive expressions relating the mean amplitude of the temperature fluctuations to the temperatures of the phases and to the energy input, in excess of the basic component due to photoionization, required to maintain them. We apply these expressions to a set of limiting cases for the temperature and density differences between the phases. Finally we compare the most plausible case with the most complete data set available: the temperature fluctuations observed in the Orion Nebula. Results. We first list the cases considered and our general inferences: (a) Very hot tenuous substrate and warm moderately dense clouds; discarded as requiring too much excess energy input. (b) Two phases with equal densities but different temperatures, both warm; feasible but not general. (c) Two warm phases at moderately different temperatures and densities; the most probable case. This case is then used to quantify a specific hypothesis, reconnection of turbulent magnetic fields, as the source of the fluctuations observed in the Orion Nebula. Field strengths of a few hundred microG are required, not out of line with the limited observations available. Time variability on scales of months is a testable prediction of the scenario.

  10. A sensitivity analysis of the treatment of wind energy in the AEO99 version of NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborn, Julie G.; Wood, Frances; Richey, Cooper; Sanders, Sandy; Short, Walter; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    refers to the distance to tranmission lines. Existing 115 kVSTV SPP NWP RA CNV This tranmission extension cost is added

  11. Learning and cost reductions for generating technologies in the national energy modeling system (NEMS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2004-01-01

    of International Learning on Technology Cost. In Issues ofbetween initial new technology cost estimates and actualthe revolutionary technologies have cost reductions beyond

  12. National Energy Modeling System with Hydrogen Model (NEMS-H2)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the BillDepartmentSites KDF SocialAdministratorNSIDCNatModeling System with

  13. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blair, N.

    2010-01-01

    taken from EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), 20% windon Renewable Energy Annual Energy Outlook Argonne NationalNEMS for the 2006 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO). (Note: The

  14. Balancing Area Coordination: Efficiently Integrating Renewable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    integration of variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar, into power systems. This efficiency is achieved by sharing or coordinating balancing resources and...

  15. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 27972811 (2012) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.22045.x The dust energy balance in the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4565

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baes, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    energy balance in the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4565 Ilse De Looze,1 Maarten Baes,1 George J. Bendo,2 Lena Brondeel,1,6 Asantha Cooray,7 Steve Eales,8 Jacopo Fritz,1 Fr´ed´eric Galliano,9 Gianfranco) to analyse its dust energy balance. We fit a radiative transfer model for the stars and dust to the optical

  16. Impacts of Modeled Recommendations of the National Commission on Energy Policy

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    This report provides the Energy Information Administration's analysis of those National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP) energy policy recommendations that could be simulated using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS).

  17. Torsion Balance Search for Lorentz-invariance, Dark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsion Balance Search for Lorentz-invariance, Dark Energy and Dark Matter Claire Cramer AAPT of unpolarized matter another particle's spin #12;Torsion balances Coulomb's torsion balance: A high precision-plated · magnetically shielded · 4 mirrors 2.6 cm #12;#12;The torsion balance apparatus feet pendulum magnetic shielding

  18. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01

    renewable energy technologies, solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies hold significant potentialenergy consumption: Potential savings and environmental impact." Renewable andpotential new value stream from NEM solar is monetization of the renewable energy

  19. Decomposing energy balance contributions for quenched jets in PbPb versus pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The angular distribution of charged particle momenta in relative pseudorapidity ($\\Delta \\eta$) and relative azimuth ($\\Delta \\phi$) with respect to a sample of high transverse momentum dijets is utilized to study the momentum balance of jet fragments in heavy-ion collisions, which is potentially modified due to jet quenching in the Quark Gluon Plasma. This analysis compares the contributions of charged particles of different transverse momenta to study the overall event energy balance in PbPb versus pp collisions using data collected in 2011 and 2013, respectively, at collision energies $\\sqrt{\\rm s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV with integrated luminosities of 166 $\\mu \\rm{b}^{-1}$ and 5.3 pb$^{-1}$. Distributions of momentum with respect to leading and subleading transverse momentum jets are studied individually, and are decomposed into contributions from jet cones and a long range event-wise azimuthal asymmetry in particle momenta. Results are presented as a function of PbPb collision centrality, track transverse mome...

  20. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period through 2020. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavior and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system, followed by a chapter on the overall modeling structure and solution algorithm. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. 21 figs.

  1. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  2. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, Derek E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A beamsplitter assembly that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting.

  3. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  4. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period of 1990 to 2010. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system. The second chapter describes the modeling structure. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. Additional background on the development of the system is provided in Appendix A of this report, which describes the EIA modeling systems that preceded NEMS. More detailed model documentation reports for all the NEMS modules are also available from EIA.

  5. Frequency Stabilization in Non-linear MEMS and NEMS Oscillators (IN-11-087)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)Forthcoming Upgrades toFreezing a Droplet to Stop- Energy

  6. Impacts of Unconventional Gas Technology in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to represent unconventional gas technologies and their impacts on projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000).

  7. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program FINAL PROJECT REPORT California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    Highway Statistics." U.S. Energy Information Administration.Washington, DC: EIA. U.S. Energy Information Administration.2009. 2006 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS).

  8. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Progress in electrical energy storage system: a criticalcurrent and future energy storage technologies for electricwind- diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote

  9. Building America Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels ResearchofDerivative ClassifiersBrookhavenofInsulation AAirBalancing

  10. GENERAL LEDGER OBJECT CODES Fund Balance Fund Balance & Fund Balance-Related Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    GENERAL LEDGER OBJECT CODES ­ Fund Balance Fund Balance & Fund Balance-Related Objects Unrestricted Fund 3000 Unrestricted Fund Balance 4005 INACTIVE ­ Effective 7/1/2002 4009 Other Additions from Controls 3090 Unrestricted Fund Balance Reserved for Inventories 3095 Unrestricted Fund Balance

  11. Massive stars and the energy balance of the ISM. I. The impact of an isolated 60 Msun star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim Freyer; Gerhard Hensler; Harold W. Yorke

    2003-06-25

    We present results of numerical simulations carried out with a 2D radiation hydrodynamics code in order to study the impact of massive stars on their surrounding interstellar medium. This first paper deals with the evolution of the circumstellar gas around an isolated 60 Msun star. The interaction of the photoionized HII region with the stellar wind bubble forms a variety of interesting structures like shells, clouds, fingers, and spokes. These results demonstrate that complex structures found in HII regions are not necessarily relics from the time before the gas became ionized but may result from dynamical processes during the course of the HII region evolution. We have also analyzed the transfer and deposit of the stellar wind and radiation energy into the circumstellar medium until the star explodes as a supernova. Although the total mechanical wind energy supplied by the star is negligible compared to the accumulated energy of the Lyman continuum photons, the kinetic energy imparted to the circumstellar gas over the star's lifetime is 4 times higher than for a comparable windless simulation. Furthermore, the thermal energy of warm photoionized gas is lower by some 55%. Our results document the necessity to consider both ionizing radiation and stellar winds for an appropriate description of the interaction of OB stars with their circumstellar environment.

  12. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  13. Fuzzy-Logic-Based Gain-Scheduling Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    , demand, storage, and power flow between the microgrid and the main grid [1]. Commonly, primary control units. Primary control in a microgrid is responsible for power sharing among units; and droop control generation and additionally add redundancy to the energy storage system [5], [6]. In a microgrid, like

  14. The initial conditions of isolated star formation. V: ISOPHOT imaging and the temperature and energy balance of pre-stellar cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Ward-Thompson; P. Andre; J. M. Kirk

    2001-09-11

    ISO data taken with the long-wavelength imaging photo-polarimeter ISOPHOT are presented of 18 pre-stellar cores at three far-infrared wavelengths - 90, 170 and 200 microns. Most of the cores are detected clearly at 170 and 200 but only one is detected strongly at 90 microns, indicating that mostly they are very cold, with typical temperatures of only 10-20K. Colour temperature images are constructed for each of the cores. Most of the cores are seen to be either isothermal, or to have associated temperature gradients from the core centres to their edges, with all except one being cooler at the centre. We compare the data with previous ISOCAM absorption data and calculate the energy balance for those cores in common between the two samples. We find that the energy radiated by each core in the far-IR is similar to that absorbed at shorter wavelengths. Hence there is no evidence for a central heating source in any of the cores - even those for which previous evidence for core contraction exists. This is all consistent with external heating of the cores by the local interstellar radiation field, confirming their pre-stellar nature.

  15. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program FINAL PROJECT REPORT California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    2009. U. S. Buildings Energy Data Book. prepared by D&R2010d. 2008 State Energy Data System. Washington, DC: EIA. ,several sources of energy data and developed the California

  16. Experiences on the Implementation of the 'Energy Balance' Methodology as a Data Quality Control Tool: Application to the Building Energy Consumption of a Large University Campus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Sakurai, Y.; Masuda, H.; Feinauer, D.; Liu, J.; Ji, J.; Claridge, D. E.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H.

    2007-01-01

    As the energy costs have been increasing the more energy efficient measures have been promoted in the buildings sector, the reliability of energy consumption data has been attracting significant attention. For example, the reliability...

  17. Covariant Balance Laws in Continua with Microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arash Yavari; Jerrold E. Marsden

    2008-11-13

    The purpose of this paper is to extend the Green-Naghdi-Rivlin balance of energy method to continua with microstructure. The key idea is to replace the group of Galilean transformations with the group of diffeomorphisms of the ambient space. A key advantage is that one obtains in a natural way all the needed balance laws on both the macro and micro levels along with two Doyle-Erickson formulas.

  18. Entropy balance in holographic superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hartnoll; Razieh Pourhasan

    2012-05-07

    In systems undergoing second order phase transitions, the temperature integral of the specific heat over temperature from zero to the critical temperature is the same in both the normal and ordered phases. This entropy balance relates the critical temperature to the distribution of degrees of freedom in the normal and ordered states. Quantum criticality and fractionalization can imply an increased number of low energy degrees of freedom in both the normal and ordered states. We explore the role of entropy balance in holographic models of superconductivity, focussing on the interplay between quantum criticality and superconductivity. We consider models with and without a ground state entropy density in the normal phase; the latter models are a new class of holographic superconductors. We explain how a normal phase entropy density manifests itself in the stable superconducting phase.

  19. Two-particle correlations and balance functions in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies with ALICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Weber; for the ALICE Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Recent measurements of two-particle correlations in high-multiplicity p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV revealed a long-range structure (large separation in $\\Delta\\eta$) at the near- ($\\Delta\\varphi\\simeq0$) and away-side ($\\Delta\\varphi\\simeq\\pi$) of the trigger particle. At LHC energies, these ridge-like structures have not only been observed in Pb-Pb collisions, but also in high-multiplicity pp collisions. In the first case, this phenomenon is commonly related to collectivity in hadron production, i.e. hydrodynamic evolution, whereas in the latter, mechanisms like longitudinal color connections and multi-parton interactions might play an important role. To shed light on the particle production mechanisms in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions and answer the question about collectivity, we extend the two-particle correlation analysis for hadrons in two directions: identified particles, which should show a characteristic pattern in case of collective motion in a hydrodynamic medium, and charge-dependent correlations studied with the balance function, which are sensitive to charge-dependent effects like local charge conservation.

  20. Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relay Devices and Technology for Ultra-Low Energy Digital Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathanael, Rhesa

    2012-01-01

    Alon, and T. -J. K. Liu, "Mechanical computing redux: Relaysof integrated micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) switch circuitsof integrated micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) switch circuits

  1. Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relay Devices and Technology for Ultra-Low Energy Digital Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathanael, Rhesa

    2012-01-01

    designing circuits using relays. Test chips were fabricatedwith the test setup cooled with liquid nitrogen show relaystests [15]. Unfortunately, it is not practical to keep testing the relay

  2. Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relay Devices and Technology for Ultra-Low Energy Digital Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathanael, Rhesa

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature atomic layer deposition of titania thin2 O 3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used asSUNALE R150 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) tool provided the

  3. Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relay Devices and Technology for Ultra-Low Energy Digital Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathanael, Rhesa

    2012-01-01

    II,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 12, no.Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 6, no. 2,Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 16, no. 1,

  4. Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) Relay Devices and Technology for Ultra-Low Energy Digital Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathanael, Rhesa

    2012-01-01

    II,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 12, no.structures,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol.Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 16, no. 1,

  5. Spatial Water Balance in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Seann; Maidment, David; Patoux, Jerome

    1994-01-01

    different components of the hydrologic cycle - an atmospheric water balance, a soil-water balance, and a surface water balance. These models were constructed using a geographic information system (GIS). A GIS provides a framework for storing and manipulating...

  6. Balanced Scorecard Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PLEASE NOTE: This page contains links to a great deal of information on the subject of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). It is intended to assist DOE employees, contractors and anyone who is interested...

  7. Detailed balance and entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocco Duvenhage; Machiel Snyman

    2015-03-27

    We study a connection between quantum detailed balance, which is a concept of importance in statistical mechanics, and entanglement. We also explore how this connection fits into thermofield dynamics.

  8. Load Balancing Scientific Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, Olga

    2014-12-08

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced...

  9. An indoorâ??outdoor building energy simulator to study urban modification effects on building energy use â?? Model description and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda; Kleissl, Jan

    2012-01-01

    T.   Williamson, Urban surface energy balance models: model of the international urban energy balance model comparison, threedimensional urban energy balance model for studying 

  10. An indoorâ??outdoor building energy simulator to study urban modification effects on building energy use â?? Model description and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda; Kleissl, Jan

    2012-01-01

    T.   Williamson, Urban surface energy balance models: model of the international urban energy balance model comparison, The International Urban Energy Balance Models  Comparison 

  11. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    for helpful comments. References [1] IEA 2013 Worldenergy balances IEA World Energy Statistics and Balances (

  12. 2. System boundaries; Balance equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    , or cover a certain balance time (sv: balanstid) x,in x,out production of X consumption of X X/t Balance for X Balance volume Streams (amount / time) Production and consumption (amount / time) Åbo Akademi of a chemical reaction is easily added as production or consumption of species, heat, etc. The balance volume

  13. ARM - Measurement - Surface energy balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwellingalbedo ARMenergy

  14. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  15. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types.

  16. Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Topical report on the potential for savings in load-leveling battery and balance of plant costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Binas, G.; Del Monaco, J.L.; Pandya, D.A.; Sharp, T.E.; Consiglio, J.A.

    1985-08-31

    The battery technologies considered in this study are zinc-bromide, lead-acid, zinc-chloride and sodium sulfur. Results of the study are presented in self contained sections in the following order: Balance of Plant, Zinc-Bromide, Lead-Acid, Zinc-chloride, and Sodium-Sulfur. The balance of plant cost estimates are examined first since the results of this section are utilized in the following battery sections to generate cost reductions in the battery plant costs for each of the battery technologies.

  17. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1981-03-05

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  18. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M. (Oak Park, IL); Miyano, Kenjiro (Downers Grove, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  19. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-11-08

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed. 5 figs.

  20. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program FINAL PROJECT REPORT California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    topped crude, cracking stocks, and slop oil (US EIA-810,plus net stock withdrawals. In California, crude oil andCrude Oil Net Imports Primary Supply TBtu Growth Rate Annual Average Growth Rate Share of total Energy Supply Includes Net Stock

  1. Balance functions revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bialas

    2011-02-11

    The idea of glue clusters, i.e. short-range correlations in the quark-gluon plasma close to freeze-out, is used to estimate the width of balance functions in momentum space. A good agreement is found with the recent measurements of STAR collaboration for central $Au-Au$ collisions.

  2. The influence of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P. D.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Hu, J.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-12-15

    Precipitation changes the physical and biological characteristics of an ecosystem. Using a precipitation-based conditional sampling technique and a 14 year data set from a 25 m micrometeorological tower in a high-elevation subalpine forest, we examined how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of wind and turbulence, net radiation Rnet, ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat LE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, and CO2 dry mole fraction ?c). This analysis allowed us to examine how precipitation modified these variables from hourly (i.e., the diel cycle)more »to multi-day time-scales (i.e., typical of a weather-system frontal passage). During mid-day we found the following: (i) even though precipitation caused mean changes on the order of 50–70 % to Rnet, H, and LE, the surface energy balance (SEB) was relatively insensitive to precipitation with mid-day closure values ranging between 90 and 110 %, and (ii) compared to a typical dry day, a day following a rainy day was characterized by increased ecosystem uptake of CO2 (NEE increased by ≈ 10 %), enhanced evaporative cooling (mid-day LE increased by ≈ 30 W m?2), and a smaller amount of sensible heat transfer (mid-day H decreased by ≈ 70 W m?2). Based on the mean diel cycle, the evaporative contribution to total evapotranspiration was, on average, around 6 % in dry conditions and between 15 and 25 % in partially wet conditions. Furthermore, increased LE lasted at least 18 h following a rain event. At night, even though precipitation (and accompanying clouds) reduced the magnitude of Rnet, LE increased from ≈ 10 to over 20 W m?2 due to increased evaporation. Any effect of precipitation on the nocturnal SEB closure and NEE was overshadowed by atmospheric phenomena such as horizontal advection and decoupling that create measurement difficulties. Above-canopy mean ?c during wet conditions was found to be about 2–3 ?mol mol?1 larger than ?c on dry days. This difference was fairly constant over the full diel cycle suggesting that it was due to synoptic weather patterns (different air masses and/or effects of barometric pressure). Finally, the effect of clouds on the timing and magnitude of daytime ecosystem fluxes is described.« less

  3. The effect of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P. D.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-06-16

    Precipitation changes the physical and biological characteristics of an ecosystem. Using a precipitation-based conditional sampling technique and a 14 year dataset from a 25 m micrometeorological tower in a high-elevation subalpine forest, we examined how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of wind and turbulence, net radiation Rnet, ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat LE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, and CO2 dry mole fraction ?c). This analysis allowed us to examine how precipitation modified these variables from hourly (i.e., the diel cycle) tomore »multi-day time-scales (i.e., typical of a weather-system frontal passage). During mid-day we found: (i) even though precipitation caused mean changes on the order of 50–70% to Rnet, H, and LE, the surface energy balance (SEB) was relatively insensitive to precipitation with mid-day closure values ranging between 70–80%, and (ii) compared to a typical dry day, a day following a rainy day was characterized by increased ecosystem uptake of CO2 (NEE increased by ≈ 10%), enhanced evaporative cooling (mid-day LE increased by ≈ 30 W m-2), and a smaller amount of sensible heat transfer (mid-day H decreased by ≈ 70 W m-2). Based on the mean diel cycle, the evaporative contribution to total evapotranspiration was, on average, around 6% in dry conditions and 20% in wet conditions. Furthermore, increased LE lasted at least 18 h following a rain event. At night, precipitation (and accompanying clouds) reduced Rnet and increased LE. Any effect of precipitation on the nocturnal SEB closure and NEE was overshadowed by atmospheric phenomena such as horizontal advection and decoupling that create measurement difficulties. Above-canopy mean ?c during wet conditions was found to be about 2–3 ?mol mol-1 larger than ?c on dry days. This difference was fairly constant over the full diel cycle suggesting that it was due to synoptic weather patterns (different air masses and/or effects of barometric pressure). In the evening hours during wet conditions, weakly stable conditions resulted in smaller vertical ?c differences compared to those in dry conditions. Finally, the effect of clouds on the timing and magnitude of daytime ecosystem fluxes is described.« less

  4. State Energy Efficiency Program Evaluation Inventory

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this inventory, some of which has been placed into a searchable spreadsheet, is to support the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and to research cost information in state-mandated energy efficiency program evaluations – e.g., for use in updating analytic and modeling assumptions used by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  5. An institutional frame to compare alternative market designs in EU electricity balancing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    The so-called "electricity wholesale market" is, in fact, a sequence of several markets. The chain is closed with a provision for "balancing," in which energy from all wholesale markets is balanced under the authority of ...

  6. Seasonal mass balance gradients in Norway L. A. Rasmussen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    16 Aug 05 Seasonal mass balance gradients in Norway L. A. Rasmussen1 and L. M. Andreassen2 1 Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) P. O. Box 5091 Majorstua, N-0301 Oslo, Norway in Norway exists in their profiles of both seasonal balances, winter bw(z) and summer bs(z). Unlike many

  7. FINDING BALANCE: ENHANCING PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FINDING BALANCE: ENHANCING PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL, AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING 3rd Annual Conference for psychologists requesting CE credits TOPICS INCLUDE: How finding "balance" can support our physical, emotional, and social well-being Balance exercises and physical fitness to prevent injuries and cognitive decline

  8. Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with Projections to 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO2009), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), presents long-term projections of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2030, based on results from EIA’s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). EIA published an “early release” version of the AEO2009 reference case in December 2008.

  9. Greening Geographical Load Balancing Zhenhua Liu, Minghong Lin,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    " renew- able energy and reduce use of "brown" fossil fuel energy. We make two contributions. First, we balanc- ing" has been suggested to reduce energy cost by exploiting the electricity price differences that if electricity is dynamically priced in proportion to the instantaneous fraction of the total energy

  10. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01

    Wind Power Industry Dec. 2006 Provisional Regulation on Renewable Energy Surcharge Feb.2007 Balancing

  11. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  12. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  13. Water Balance AnalysisWater Balance Analysis C. P. KumarC. P. Kumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    Water Balance AnalysisWater Balance Analysis C. P. KumarC. P. Kumar Scientist `F'Scientist `FIntroduction ØØ Hydrologic CycleHydrologic Cycle ØØ Basic Concept of Water BalanceBasic Concept of Water Balance ØØ Water Balance of Unsaturated ZoneWater Balance of Unsaturated Zone ØØ Water Balance at Land

  14. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  15. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    International Energy Agency (IEA). 2009. World EnergyIEEJ: July 2007. OECD/IEA. 2010. Energy Balances of OECDParis: OECD Publishing. OECD/IEA. 2010. Energy Balances of

  16. An Oscillating Magnet Watt Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmedov, H

    2015-01-01

    We establish the principles for a new generation of simplified and accurate watt balances in which an oscillating magnet generates Faraday's voltage in a stationary coil. A force measuring system and a mechanism providing vertical movements of the magnet are completely independent in an oscillating magnet watt balance. This remarkable feature allows to establish the link between the Planck constant and a macroscopic mass by a one single experiment. Weak dependence on variations of environmental and experimental conditions, weak sensitivity to ground vibrations and temperature changes, simple force measuring procedure, small sizes and other useful features offered by the novel approach considerably reduce the complexity of the experimental setup. We formulate the oscillating magnet watt balance principle and establish the measurement procedure for the Planck constant. We discuss the nature of oscillating magnet watt balance uncertainties and give a brief description of the National Metrology Institute (UME) wa...

  17. Mechanically balanced tapered plug valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anaya, Jose R. (Coacalco, MX)

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel hermetic tapered plug valve having a spring-like resilient mechanism for providing axial balance to the plug and thereby prevent valve lock up.

  18. MATERIAL BALANCE REPORT

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof Energy This Revision 3 ofMARVIN S. FERTEL742 (08-98)

  19. Mitigating Climate Change with Managed Forests: Balancing Expectations,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Mitigating Climate Change with Managed Forests: Balancing Expectations, Opportunity, and Risk David and biomass energy) and di- rect substitution for more energy-intensive building mate- rials (e.g., concrete effect (but accounting for storage), intensive approaches do not ap- pear to compare favorably with more

  20. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its model. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  1. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, Russell; Ludwig, Peter; Maurer, Tessa

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  2. Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2010 Balance Sheet Audit, OAS-FS-13-11

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electricLaboratoryof Energy ElevenLG

  3. Prediction of Power System Balancing Requirement and Tail Event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.; Brothers, Alan J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Pease, John

    2010-04-30

    This paper presents a methodology for the prediction of power system balancing requirement and the probability of tail event (large imbalance between generation and load). Maintaining sufficient balancing reserves to match the difference between hourly generation schedule and real-time variable load and intermittent resources, becomes more and more challenging with the increasing penetration of intermittent energy sources. The presented methodology uses a yearly distribution and an hourly distribution of balancing requirement and tail events to provide a high level look at the issue and warn system operators of those hours when problems are most likely to occur. For real-time prediction, a Bayes Net model is constructed to model the statistical relationships between system imbalance and forecast errors, generation schedule control errors and other influential factors. The methodology will be able to provide reference information to system operators in determining the sufficiency of system balancing reserve and taking appropriate control actions.

  4. Self-Adaptive Management of The Sleep Depths of Idle Nodes in Large Scale Systems to Balance Between Energy Consumption and Response Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Hong

    U.S. electricity consumption or the output of about 15 typical power plants [2]. In 2007, the electricity consumption of global cloud computing was 623 billion kWh which is larger than the 5th largest Between Energy Consumption and Response Times Yongpeng Liu(1) , Hong Zhu(2) , Kai Lu(1) , Xiaoping Wang(1

  5. Protocol for the modeling the epidemiologic transition study: a longitudinal observational study of energy balance and change in body weight, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luke, Amy; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Schoeller, Dale A; Dugas, Lara R; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Shoham, David; Cooper, Richard S; Brage, Soren; Ekelund, Ulf; Steyn, Nelia

    2011-12-14

    empirical data to support the assertion that low levels of energy expenditure in activity is a causal factor in the current obesity epidemic are very limited. Methods/Design The Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS) is a cohort study designed...

  6. Massive stars and the energy balance of the interstellar medium. II. The 35 solar mass star and a solution to the "missing wind problem"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim Freyer; Gerhard Hensler; Harold W. Yorke

    2005-12-05

    We continue our numerical analysis of the morphological and energetic influence of massive stars on their ambient interstellar medium for a 35 solar mass star that evolves from the main sequence through red supergiant and Wolf-Rayet phases, until it ultimately explodes as a supernova. We find that structure formation in the circumstellar gas during the early main-sequence evolution occurs as in the 60 solar mass case but is much less pronounced because of the lower mechanical wind luminosity of the star. Since on the other hand the shell-like structure of the HII region is largely preserved, effects that rely on this symmetry become more important. At the end of the stellar lifetime 1% of the energy released as Lyman continuum radiation and stellar wind has been transferred to the circumstellar gas. From this fraction 10% is kinetic energy of bulk motion, 36% is thermal energy, and the remaining 54% is ionization energy of hydrogen. The sweeping up of the slow red supergiant wind by the fast Wolf-Rayet wind produces remarkable morphological structures and emission signatures, which are compared with existing observations of the Wolf-Rayet bubble S308. Our model reproduces the correct order of magnitude of observed X-ray luminosity, the temperature of the emitting plasma as well as the limb brightening of the intensity profile. This is remarkable, because current analytical and numerical models of Wolf-Rayet bubbles fail to consistently explain these features. A key result is that almost the entire X-ray emission in this stage comes from the shell of red supergiant wind swept up by the shocked Wolf-Rayet wind rather than from the shocked Wolf-Rayet wind itself as hitherto assumed and modeled. This offers a possible solution to what is called the ``missing wind problem'' of Wolf-Rayet bubbles.

  7. ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON SUCCESSFUL AGING FINDING BALANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON SUCCESSFUL AGING FINDING BALANCE: ENHANCING PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL, and how to improve them. Finding Balance Supports Our Well-Being. Dr. Glisky will talk about how balance in humans; Evolutionary medicine. Balance Exercises and Fitness to Prevent Injuries and Cognitive Decline

  8. Management Letter on the Department of Energy's Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications Program's Fiscal Year 2009 Balance Sheet Audit, OAS-FS-12-09

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED1,400 JobsDepartment5 DOE/IG-0924the University of09

  9. Model documentation, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System`s (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS). CMM provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal for NEMS. In general, the CDS integrates the supply inputs from the CPS to satisfy demands for coal from exogenous demand models. The international area of the CDS forecasts annual world coal trade flows from major supply to major demand regions and provides annual forecasts of US coal exports for input to NEMS. Specifically, the CDS receives minemouth prices produced by the CPS, demand and other exogenous inputs from other NEMS components, and provides delivered coal prices and quantities to the NEMS economic sectors and regions.

  10. Understanding Energy Models and Modeling (ENV 715) Spring 2013 Tuesday/Thursday 10:05-11:20 am

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Silvia

    topics for Congress, and publishes the Annual Energy Outlook. At Duke, NI-NEMS has recently been used1 Understanding Energy Models and Modeling (ENV 715) Spring 2013 Tuesday/Thursday 10:05-11:20 am) Course Description and Learning Objectives Energy models are widely used for policy analysis, scenario

  11. MATERIAL BALANCES AND APPLICATIONS MATERIAL BALANCES AND APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Juhani, Abdulhadi A.

    engineering problems. Material balances are nothing more than the application of the law of conservation Equation Suppose propane is a component of both the input and output streams of a continuous process unit propane/h) qout (kg propane/h) If there are no leaks and the measurements are correct, then the other

  12. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  13. Available Balance Quick Reference Guide How do I find my Available Balance?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Available Balance Quick Reference Guide How do I find my Available Balance? Fund Balance (aka 'Cash Funded') Accounts Internet Native Banner (INB) Form: FGITBSR (see Note 1) e~Print Fund Balance Checkbook Banner (INB) Form: FGIBDST (See Note 2) e~Print CSM Budget Status or Budget Balance Checkbook Detail

  14. L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. L1 Stability for scalar balance laws.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercier, Magali

    L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. Control 2010 Magali Mercier (Institut Camille Jordan, Lyon) L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. Parma, 15th February 2010 1 / 30 #12;L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. Introduction. Introduction Scalar balance

  15. Supplement to the annual energy outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This section of the Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 present the major assumptions of the modeling system used to generate the projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). In this context, assumptions include general features of the model structure, assumptions concerning energy markets, and the key input data and parameters that are most significant in formulating the model results. Detailed documentation of the modeling system is available in a series of documentation reports listed in Appendix B. A synopsis of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), the model components, and the interrelationships of the modules is presented. The NEMS is developed and maintained by the office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide projection of domestic energy-economy markets in the midterm time period and perform policy analyses requested by various government agencies and the private sector.

  16. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  17. Burner balancing Salem Harbor Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sload, A.W.; Dube, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    The traditional method of burner balancing is first to determine the fuel distribution, then to measure the economizer outlet excess oxygen distribution and to adjust the burners accordingly. Fuel distribution is typically measured by clean and dirty air probing. Coal pipe flow can then be adjusted, if necessary, through the use of coal pipe orificing or by other means. Primary air flow must be adjusted to meet the design criteria of the burner. Once coal pipe flow is balanced to within the desired criteria, secondary air flow to individual burners can be changed by adjusting windbox dampers, burner registers, shrouds or other devices in the secondary air stream. This paper discusses problems encountered in measuring excess O{sub 2} at the economizer outlet. It is important to recognize that O{sub 2} measurements at the economizer outlet, by themselves, can be very misleading. If measurement problems are suspected or encountered, an alternate approach similar to that described should be considered. The alternate method is not only useful for burner balancing but also can be used to help in calibrating the plant excess O{sub 2} instruments and provide an on line means of cross-checking excess air measurements. Balanced burners operate closer to their design stoichiometry, providing better NO{sub x} reduction. For Salem Harbor Station, this means a significant saving in urea consumption.

  18. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California: predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    survey results. Energy cost analysis A calculation was made,energy uses are reported in Table 28, along with a calculation of a dollar cost

  19. Model documentation Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    This report documents objectives and conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1996 (AEO96). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s three submodules: Coal Production Submodule, Coal Export Submodule, and Coal Distribution Submodule.

  20. Sandia Energy - EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    added February 15, 2013 Downloaded 49 times Category Balance of SystemsSoft Costs, Energy Security, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Energy, Technical Paper author...

  1. Sandia Energy - EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Balance of SystemsSoft Costs, Energy Security, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Energy, Technical Paper author Joshua S. Stein, Christopher P. Cameron, Ben Bourne,...

  2. Supplementary balance laws and the entropy principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serge Preston

    2010-08-01

    In this work we study the mathematical aspects of the development in the continuum thermodynamics known as the "Entropy Principle". It started with the pioneering works of B.Coleman, W.Noll and I. Muller in 60th of XX cent. and got its further development mostly in the works of G. Boillat, I-Shis Liu and T.Ruggeri. "Entropy Principle" combines in itself the structural requirement on the form of balance laws of the thermodynamical system (denote such system $(\\mathcal{C})$) and on the entropy balance law with the convexity condition of the entropy density. First of these requirements has pure mathematical form defining so called "supplementary balance laws" (shortly SBL) associated with the original balance system. Vector space of SBL can be considered as a kind of natural "closure" of the original balance system. This space includes the original balance laws, the entropy balance, the balance laws corresponding to the symmetries of the balance system and some other balance equations. We consider the case of Rational Extended Thermodynamics where densities, fluxes and sources of the balance equations do not depend on the derivatives of physical fields $y^i$. We present the basic structures of RET: Lagrange-Liu equations,"main fields", and dual formulation of the balance system. We obtain and start studying the defining system of equations for the density $h^0$ of a supplementary balance law. This overdetermined linear system of PDE of second order determines all the densities $h^0$ and with them, due to the formalism of RET, the fluxes and sources of SBL. Solvability conditions of defining system delivers the constitutive restrictions on the balance equations of the original balance system. We illustrate our results by some simple examples of balance system and by describing all the supplementary balance laws and the constitutive restrictions for the Cattaneo heat propagation system.

  3. Revisiting the parameterization of potential evaporation as a driver of long-term water balance trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    /or Runoff. Most regions in the world lie in the continuum between the water and energy limits, reachingRevisiting the parameterization of potential evaporation as a driver of long-term water balance, evaporative flux and runoff simulated by the water balance model underlying the Palmer Drought Severity Index

  4. Dynamics of Social Balance on Networks T. Antal, P.L. Krapivsky, S. Redner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terzi, Evimaria

    ;Real World Example [2] #12;Project Generalization to neutral edges Introduction of an 'energy' UDynamics of Social Balance on Networks T. Antal, P.L. Krapivsky, S. Redner 2010 March 04 Marco Winkler #12;Contents Definition of Social Balance Dynamics Local Triad Dynamics (LTD) Constrained

  5. An Institutional Frame to Compare Alternative Market Designs in EU Electricity Balancing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glachant, Jean-Michel; Saguan, Marcelo

    The so-called â electricity wholesale marketâ is, in fact, a sequence of several markets. The chain is closed with a provision for â balancing,â in which energy from all wholesale markets is balanced under the authority of the Transmission...

  6. Why Do Voters Dismantle Checks and Balances?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2011-07-17

    Voters often dismantle constitutional checks and balances on the executive. If such checks and balances limit presidential abuses of power and rents, why do voters support their removal? We argue that by reducing politician ...

  7. Why Do Voters Dismantle Checks and Balances?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acemoglu, Daron

    Voters often dismantle constitutional checks and balances on the executive. If such checks and balances limit presidential abuses of power and rents, why do voters support their removal? We argue that by reducing politician ...

  8. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  9. Steam Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2012-08-01

    Older heating systems often suffer from mis-investment--multiple contractors upgrading parts of systems in inadequate or inappropriate ways that reduce system functionality and efficiency--or from a lack of proper maintenance. This technical report addresses these barriers to information, contractor resources, and cost-savings. Building off of previous research, CNT Energy conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam; system balancing.

  10. Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests in Britain Research Report #12;#12;Research Report Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests in Britain Forestry., White, M. and Yamulki, S. (2012). Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests

  11. BALANCE IN NON-ISOTERMAL NON-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    WATER MASS BALANCE IN NON- ISOTERMAL NON- SATURATED SOILS Alejandro Blanco #12;ESQUEMA GENERAL desprecio de flujos térmicos. Balance de masa. Ecuación diferencial 1-D Condiciones de contorno superficie. La difusión de vapor debida a gradientes térmicos induce errores en los balances de masa; en

  12. The Balance Constraint Family Christian Bessiere1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Toby

    The Balance Constraint Family Christian Bessiere1 , Emmanuel Hebrard2 , George Katsirelos3 , Zeynep NICTA and University of New South Wales, email: toby.walsh@nicta.com.au Abstract. The BALANCE constraint introduced by Beldiceanu ensures solutions are balanced. This is useful when, for example

  13. A DELICATE BALANCE ELA 4000, SPRING 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Gregory G.

    1 A DELICATE BALANCE ELA 4000, SPRING 2006 MR 11:00 am - 12:15 pm Instructor: Office: Phone: Email Overview: A Delicate Balance is the "capstone" course of your general education program. In Images people in different times and cultures measured nature. In A Delicate Balance, we will examine several

  14. A DELICATE BALANCE ELA 4000, FALL 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Gregory G.

    A DELICATE BALANCE ELA 4000, FALL 2005 MR 11:00 am - 12:15 pm Instructor: Office: Phone: Email-1:45 pm; Thur. 1-3 pm; or by appointment. Course Overview: A Delicate Balance is the capstone course of informing public policy in order to address these pressing environmental concerns. A Delicate Balance

  15. Motivation: Three primary means of bipedal balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    Motivation: · Three primary means of bipedal balance: · 1) Foot placement 2) Ankle torque 3) Body: · Attempt to balance the Cornell Ranger using only hip torque Theoretical Bound: · Find upper bound Bipedal Balance with Small Feet Matthew P. Kelly, Andy Ruina Mechanical Engineering, Cornell Realistic

  16. How is the balance between protein synthesis and degradation achieved?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    as: Rothman, How is the balance between protein synthesisAccess Research How is the balance between protein synthesisstate concentrations. Balance between them is achieved

  17. The Pursuit of Balance in Sequential Randomized Trials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiteras, Raymond P.; Levine, David I.; Polley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    2003). “The pursuit of balance using stratified and dynamicThe Pursuit of Balance in Sequential Randomized Trials ?Mikel (2001). “Randomization, balance, and the validity and

  18. Quantifying mass balance processes on the Southern Patagonia Icefield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    distributed glacier mass balance for the Swiss Alps from re-al. : Quantifying mass balance processes on the SPI Glaciarand future surface mass balance of the Northern Patagonian

  19. Magnetostrophic balance as the optimal state for turbulent magnetoconvection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, EM; Aurnou, JM

    2015-01-01

    that the magnetostrophic balance is no longer attained (Magnetostrophic balance as the optimal state for turbulentLorentz and Coriolis forces balance. One can estimate the

  20. Balanced Scorecard Program | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics »Application for Refund Application for Refund During theB093Business of

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Lifecycle Energy Balance

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender Pump DispensersEmerging Fuelswith ElectricAFDC

  2. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  3. Annual energy outlook 1994: With projections to 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 1994 (AEO94) presents the midterm energy forecasts of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This year`s report presents projects and analyses of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2010, based for the first time on results from the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is the latest in a series of computer-based energy modeling systems used over the past 2 decades by EIA and its predecessor organization, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze and forecast energy consumption and supply in the midterm period (about 20 years). Quarterly forecasts of energy supply and demand for 1994 and 1995 are published in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (February 1994). Forecast tables for 2000, 2005, and 2010 for each of the five scenarios examined in the AEO94 are provided in Appendices A through E. The five scenarios include a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices. Appendix F provides detailed comparisons of the AEO94 forecasts with those of other organizations. Appendix G briefly described the NEMS and the major AEO94 forecast assumptions. Appendix H summarizes the key results for the five scenarios.

  4. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  5. ENERGY CENTER OF WISCONSIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENERGY CENTER OF WISCONSIN Report Summary 210-1 Life-Cycle Energy Costs and Greenhouse Gas report energy center Net energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions from renewable energy storage systems June 2003 223-1 #12;ECW Report Number 223-1 Net energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions from

  6. International energy outlook 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  7. Balance Systems and the Variational Bicomplex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serge Preston

    2011-07-09

    In this work we show that the systems of balance equations (balance systems) of continuum thermodynamics occupy a natural place in the variational bicomplex formalism. We apply the vertical homotopy decomposition to get a local splitting (in a convenient domain) of a general balance system as the sum of a Lagrangian part and a complemental "pure non-Lagrangian" balance system. In the case when derivatives of the dynamical fields do not enter the constitutive relations of the balance system, the "pure non-Lagrangian" systems coincide with the systems introduced by S. Godunov [Soviet Math. Dokl. 2 (1961), 947-948] and, later, asserted as the canonical hyperbolic form of balance systems in [M\\"uller I., Ruggeri T., Rational extended thermodynamics, 2nd ed., Springer Tracts in Natural Philosophy, Vol. 37, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998].

  8. Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jinoh

    2010-01-01

    J. F. Naughton, “On energy management, load balancing andfor Energy Proportionality), for energy management in largeto enable ?exible energy management. Speci?cally, our method

  9. Account Balance $0 to $999.99

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Account Balance $0 to $999.99 $1,000 to $2,499.99 $2,500 to $14,999.99 $15,000 + Deposit Account Rate Schedule Health Savings Account Current Interest Rates - 4 Tier: 0.25% to 1.00% Account balances to those portions of the minimum daily ledger balance within each tier. This results in a blended APY based

  10. Electromagnetic field objects in terms of Balance of Geometric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donev, Stoil

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews our physical motivation for choosing appropriate formal presentation of electromagnetic field objects (EMFO). Our view is based on the understanding that EMFO are spatially finite entities carrying internal dynamical structure, so, their available integral time stability should be represented by appropriate adaptation of their internal dynamical structure to corresponding local stress-energy-momentum balance relations with other physical objects. This adaptation process has two aspects: internal and external. Clearly, finding adequate internal dynamical structure giving appropriate integral characteristics of the object, will bring also appropriate behavior of EMFO as a whole. Therefore, the internal local stress-energy-momentum balance among the subsystems of EMFO should formally be presented by appropriately defined tensor-field quantities, which are meant to suggest a dynamical understanding of the abilities of EMFO to successfully communicate with all the rest physical world.

  11. Electromagnetic field objects in terms of Balance of Geometric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoil Donev; Maria Tashkova

    2015-08-26

    This paper reviews our physical motivation for choosing appropriate formal presentation of electromagnetic field objects (EMFO). Our view is based on the understanding that EMFO are spatially finite entities carrying internal dynamical structure, so, their available integral time stability should be represented by appropriate adaptation of their internal dynamical structure to corresponding local stress-energy-momentum balance relations with other physical objects. This adaptation process has two aspects: internal and external. Clearly, finding adequate internal dynamical structure giving appropriate integral characteristics of the object, will bring also appropriate behavior of EMFO as a whole. Therefore, the internal local stress-energy-momentum balance among the subsystems of EMFO should formally be presented by appropriately defined tensor-field quantities, which are meant to suggest a dynamical understanding of the abilities of EMFO to successfully communicate with all the rest physical world.

  12. A generalized detailed balance relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Ruelle

    2015-10-28

    Given a system $M$ in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio $r=\\pi_\\tau(K\\to J)/\\pi_\\tau(J\\to K)$ of the transition probabilities $M:J\\to K$ and $M:K\\to J$ in time $\\tau$. We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with $M$ and the transition $J\\to K$ occurs through different channels $\\alpha$ involving different reactions with the bath. We find that $r=\\sum p^\\alpha r^\\alpha$, where $p^\\alpha$ is the probability that channel $\\alpha$ occurs, and $r^\\alpha$ depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel $\\alpha$.

  13. Device for balancing parallel strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashikian, Matthew S. (Storrs, CT)

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means in association with each of the battery strings in the battery plant for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings by equalizing the voltage across each of the battery strings. Each of the magnetic circuit means generally comprises means for sensing the electrical current flow through one of the battery strings, and a saturable reactor having a main winding connected electrically in series with the battery string, a bias winding connected to a source of alternating current and a control winding connected to a variable source of direct current controlled by the sensing means. Each of the battery strings is formed by a plurality of batteries connected electrically in series, and these battery strings are connected electrically in parallel across common bus conductors.

  14. Sandia Energy - EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enable: * Unlimited use of renewable energy power sources * Reduced fossil fuel-based power generation * Reduced energy storage requirements * Balanced control of generation,...

  15. Directory of Energy Information Administration Models 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-06

    This directory contains descriptions about each model, including the title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included in this directory are 35 EIA models active as of May 1, 1993. Models that run on personal computers are identified by ``PC`` as part of the acronym. EIA is developing new models, a National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), and is making changes to existing models to include new technologies, environmental issues, conservation, and renewables, as well as extend forecast horizon. Other parts of the Department are involved in this modeling effort. A fully operational model is planned which will integrate completed segments of NEMS for its first official application--preparation of EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1994. Abstracts for the new models will be included in next year`s version of this directory.

  16. Directory of energy information administration models 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-13

    This updated directory has been published annually; after this issue, it will be published only biennially. The Disruption Impact Simulator Model in use by EIA is included. Model descriptions have been updated according to revised documentation approved during the past year. This directory contains descriptions about each model, including title, acronym, purpose, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. Included are 37 EIA models active as of February 1, 1995. The first group is the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models. The second group is all other EIA models that are not part of NEMS. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems. Appendix B is a summary of the `Annual Energy Outlook` Forecasting System.

  17. Aalborg Universitet Multiagent Based Distributed Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    generations, energy storage systems and may operate in both grid-connected and islanded modes [1]. MG concept Energy Storage in DC microgrids Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Garcia Plaza, Manuel; Andrade, Fabio for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC microgrids. In Proceedings of the 40th

  18. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  19. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD/IEA. 2010. Energy Balances of4153. International Energy Agency (IEA). 2009. World Energyrenewable-energy.pdf OECD/IEA. 2010. Energy Balances of OECD

  20. Horava-Lifshitz gravity with detailed balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniele Vernieri; Thomas P. Sotiriou

    2012-12-18

    Horava-Lifshitz gravity with "detailed balance" but without the projectability assumption is discussed. It is shown that detailed balance is quite efficient in limiting the proliferation of couplings in Horava-Lifshitz gravity, and that its implementation without the projectability assumption leads to a theory with sensible dynamics. However, the (bare) cosmological constant is restricted to be large and negative.

  1. Annual energy outlook 1997 with projections to 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 1997 (AEO97) presents midterm forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2015 prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). These projections are based on results of EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This report begins with a summary of the reference case, followed by a discussion of the legislative assumptions and evolving legislative and regulatory issues. ``Issues in Focus`` discusses emerging energy issues and other topics of particular interest. It is followed by the analysis of energy market trends. The analysis in AEO97 focuses primarily on a reference case and four other cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices than in the reference case. Forecast tables for these cases are provided in Appendixes A through C. Appendixes D and E present summaries of the reference case forecasts in units of oil equivalence and household energy expenditures. Twenty-three other cases explore the impacts of varying key assumptions in NEMS--generally, technology penetration, with the major results shown in Appendix F. Appendix G briefly describes NEMS and the major AEO97 assumptions, with a summary table. 114 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Hydrocracking and hydrogen production are growing energy consumers in the refining industry. An energy balance for refineries

  3. CBE Lab Tips **How to clean a balance**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    CBE Lab Tips **How to clean a balance** Proper cleaning and maintenance of our analytical balances, although it appears there was an attempt to clean the surface, there is still ample residue on the balance. Follow these tips: · Use one of the small balance brushes to lightly sweep residue from the balance

  4. Annual energy outlook 2005 with projections to 2025

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) presents midterm forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2025 prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The projections are based on results from EIA's National Energy Modelling System (NEMS). The report begins with an 'Overview' summarizing the AEO2005 reference case. The next section, 'Legislation and Regulations', discusses evolving legislative and regulatory issues in the USA. Issues in Focus includes discussions on key energy market issues and examines their potential impacts. In particular, it includes a discussion of the world oil price assumptions used in the reference case and four alternative world oil price cases examined in AEO2005. 'Issues in Focus' is followed by 'Market Trends', which provides a summary of energy market trends in the AEO2005 forecast. The analysis in AEO2005 focuses primarily on a reference case, lower and higher economic growth cases, and four alternative oil price cases, a low world oil price case, an October oil futures case, and two high world oil price cases. Forecast tables for those cases are provided in Appendixes A through D. The major results for the alterative cases, which explore the impacts of varying key assumption in NEMS (such as rates of technology penetration), are summarized in Appendix E. Appendix F briefly describes NEMS and the alternative cases. 115 figs., 38 tabs., 8 apps.

  5. Feasibility analysis/business plan for proposed residential balancing venture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-24

    To assess the feasibility of a residential balancing venture, Charles Rial and Associates determined the market potential for such a service, reviewed the efforts of the Chicago Energy Savers Fund, and interviewed engineering firms and heating and boiler contractors. Based on our findings, it was determined that a stand-alone venture that offers balancing as its only service will not reach a broad enough market to support a break-even operation, and therefore, does not represent a feasible venture opportunity. A more feasible approach would involve a joint-venture between an established heating/boiler contractor and a cbo. A summary of the findings that led to this conclusion are included.

  6. Water balance report for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The Y-12 Plant, which occupies approximately 800 acres, was built by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Recently, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, who manages the Y-12 Plant, has been concerned with the effects of water consumption and losses at the plant facility, and the ability of ground water beneath the site to act as a source of water seepage into East Fork Poplar Creek or as a source of water infiltration into subsurface strata. This has prompted the need to perform a water balance study on the facility. Data regarding all uses of municipal water and sources of discharge from the plant were recorded and then water balance calculations were performed using a computer model developed in a multi-dimensional electronic spreadsheet. This report describes the results of this research and includes the flow data collected during the study.

  7. Summary Impacts of Modeled Provisions of the 2003 Conference Energy Bill

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    This service report was undertaken at the February 2, 2004, request of Senator John Sununu to perform an assessment of the Conference Energy Bill of 2003. This report summarizes the CEB provisions that can be analyzed using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and have the potential to affect energy consumption, supply, and prices. The impacts are estimated by comparing the projections with the CEB provisions to the AEO2004 Reference Case.

  8. Balance Calibration – A Method for Assigning a Direct-Reading Uncertainty to an Electronic Balance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Stears

    2010-07-01

    Paper Title: Balance Calibration – A method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to an electronic balance. Intended Audience: Those who calibrate or use electronic balances. Abstract: As a calibration facility, we provide on-site (at the customer’s location) calibrations of electronic balances for customers within our company. In our experience, most of our customers are not using their balance as a comparator, but simply putting an unknown quantity on the balance and reading the displayed mass value. Manufacturer’s specifications for balances typically include specifications such as readability, repeatability, linearity, and sensitivity temperature drift, but what does this all mean when the balance user simply reads the displayed mass value and accepts the reading as the true value? This paper discusses a method for assigning a direct-reading uncertainty to a balance based upon the observed calibration data and the environment where the balance is being used. The method requires input from the customer regarding the environment where the balance is used and encourages discussion with the customer regarding sources of uncertainty and possible means for improvement; the calibration process becomes an educational opportunity for the balance user as well as calibration personnel. This paper will cover the uncertainty analysis applied to the calibration weights used for the field calibration of balances; the uncertainty is calculated over the range of environmental conditions typically encountered in the field and the resulting range of air density. The temperature stability in the area of the balance is discussed with the customer and the temperature range over which the balance calibration is valid is decided upon; the decision is based upon the uncertainty needs of the customer and the desired rigor in monitoring by the customer. Once the environmental limitations are decided, the calibration is performed and the measurement data is entered into a custom spreadsheet. The spreadsheet uses measurement results, along with the manufacturer’s specifications, to assign a direct-read measurement uncertainty to the balance. The fact that the assigned uncertainty is a best-case uncertainty is discussed with the customer; the assigned uncertainty contains no allowance for contributions associated with the unknown weighing sample, such as density, static charges, magnetism, etc. The attendee will learn uncertainty considerations associated with balance calibrations along with one method for assigning an uncertainty to a balance used for non-comparison measurements.

  9. NITROGEN BALANCE IN INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE IN THE NORTH CHINA PLAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuming; Hu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Jiabao; Chen, Deli

    2009-01-01

    differences in the soil water balance under perennial and1.8m) by the soil water balance (SWB) model (Heng et al.conducted. The soil water balance was calculated on a daily

  10. District-school leadership for organizational learning : finding the balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umekubo, Lisa Ann

    2012-01-01

    Learning: Finding the Balance Lisa A. Umekubo, a researcher/Learning: Finding the Balance CVESD has made an impact byLearning: Finding the Balance CVESD has made an impact by

  11. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Andrew Shepherd, 1 * Erikand models of surface mass balance and glacial isostaticThis Ice Sheet Mass Balance Exercise (IMBIE) was facilitated

  12. Scenarios for Benefits Analysis of Energy Research, Development,Demonstration and Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gumerman, Etan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-09-07

    For at least the last decade, evaluation of the benefits of research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RD3) by the U.S. Department of Energy has been conducted using deterministic forecasts that unrealistically presume we can precisely foresee our future 10, 25,or even 50 years hence. This effort tries, in a modest way, to begin a process of recognition that the reality of our energy future is rather one rife with uncertainty. The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is used by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) and Fossil Energy (FE) for their RD3 benefits evaluation. In order to begin scoping out the uncertainty in these deterministic forecasts, EE and FE designed two futures that differ significantly from the basic NEMS forecast. A High Fuel Price Scenario and a Carbon Cap Scenario were envisioned to forecast alternative futures and the associated benefits. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) implemented these scenarios into its version of NEMS,NEMS-LBNL, in late 2004, and the Energy Information Agency created six scenarios for FE in early 2005. The creation and implementation of the EE-FE scenarios are explained in this report. Both a Carbon Cap Scenario and a High Fuel Price Scenarios were implemented into the NEMS-LBNL. EIA subsequently modeled similar scenarios using NEMS. While the EIA and LBNL implementations were in some ways rather different, their forecasts do not significantly diverge. Compared to the Reference Scenario, the High Fuel Price Scenario reduces energy consumption by 4 percent in 2025, while in the EIA fuel price scenario (known as Scenario 4) reduction from its corresponding reference scenario (known as Scenario 0) in 2025 is marginal. Nonetheless, the 4 percent demand reduction does not lead to other cascading effects that would significantly differentiate the two scenarios. The LBNL and EIA carbon scenarios were mostly identical. The only major difference was that LBNL started working with the AEO 2004NEMS code and EIA was using AEO 2005 NEMS code. Unlike the High Price Scenario the Carbon Cap scenario gives a radically different forecast than the Reference Scenario. NEMS-LBNL proved that it can handle these alternative scenarios. However, results are price inelastic (for both oil and natural gas prices) within the price range evaluated. Perhaps even higher price paths would lead to a distinctly different forecast than the Reference Scenario. On the other hand, the Carbon Cap Scenario behaves more like an alternative future. The future in the Carbon Cap Scenario has higher electricity prices, reduced driving, more renewable capacity, and reduced energy consumption. The next step for this work is to evaluate the EE benefits under each of the three scenarios. Comparing those three sets of predicted benefits will indicate how much uncertainty is inherent within this sort of deterministic forecasting.

  13. Model documentation: Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it related to the production of the 1994 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO94) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves two purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. Of these six, four are documented in the following chapters: municipal solid waste, wind, solar and biofuels. Geothermal and wood are not currently working components of NEMS. The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological and cost characteristics of renewable energy technologies, and to pass these characteristics to other NEMS modules for the determination of mid-term forecasted renewable energy demand.

  14. Uniplanar microwave balanced mixers and amplifiers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Pang-Cheng

    1995-01-01

    The completely uniplanar broadband singly balanced diode mixers and FET amplifiers, which utilize coplanar waveguide and slot line as the main transmission lines, are presented. These mixers and amplifiers have several desirable features...

  15. Background-free balanced optical cross correlator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nejadmalayeri, Amir Hossein; Kaertner, Franz X

    2014-12-23

    A balanced optical cross correlator includes an optical waveguide, a first photodiode including a first n-type semiconductor and a first p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a first side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry, and a second photodiode including a second n-type semiconductor and a second p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a second side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry. A balanced receiver including first and second inputs is configured to produce an output current or voltage that reflects a difference in currents or voltages, originating from the first and the second photodiodes of the balanced cross correlator and fed to the first input and to the second input of the balanced receiver.

  16. Work-life balance across the lifecourse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Lynn; Morton, Sarah

    In Summer 2004, CRFR held an international conference to explore work-life balance across the lifecourse. This briefing outlines some of the main issues from the conference, explores what we might learn from international comparisons, and makes...

  17. Ecovillages, Values, and Information Technology: Balancing Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard

    Ecovillages, Values, and Information Technology: Balancing Sustainability with Daily Life in 21st as individuals with explicit value commitments interact with information technology. Specifically, ethnographic methods are being used to investigate the information technology adaptive process as it unfolds

  18. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2011, DOE announced $42.4 million in funding over three years for the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems...

  19. Thermal Balance in the Intracluster Medium: Is AGN Feedback Necessary?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charlie Conroy; Jeremiah P. Ostriker

    2008-03-10

    A variety of physical heating mechanisms are combined with radiative cooling to explore, via one dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, the expected thermal properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the context of the cooling flow problem. Energy injection from type Ia supernovae, thermal conduction, and dynamical friction (DF) from orbiting satellite galaxies are considered. The novel feature of this work is the exploration of a wide range of efficiencies of each heating process. While the latter two can provide a substantial amount of energy, neither mechanism operating alone can produce nor maintain an ICM in thermal balance over cosmological timescales, in stark contrast with observations. For simulated clusters with initially isothermal temperature profiles, both mechanisms acting in combination result in long-term thermal balance for a range of ICM temperatures and for central electron densities less than n_e~0.02 cm^-3; at greater densities catastrophic cooling invariably occurs. Furthermore, these heating mechanisms can neither produce nor maintain clusters with a declining temperature profile in the central regions, implying that the observed "cooling-core'' clusters, which have such declining temperature profiles, cannot be maintained with these mechanisms alone. Thus, while there appears to be an abundant supply of energy capable of heating the ICM in clusters, it is extremely difficult for the energy deposition to occur in such a way that the ICM remains in thermal balance over cosmological time-scales. These results strongly suggest that a more dynamic heating process such as feedback from a central black hole is required to generate the properties of observed intracluster media. (ABRIDGED)

  20. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    97-110, 1996. International Energy Agency (IEA), 2002. WorldEnergy Outlook. Paris: IEA/OECD.International Energy Agency (IEA), 2004a. Energy Balances of

  1. Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.2 - Balanced Scorecard Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 - Balanced Scorecard Performance Assessment Program - (March 2004) Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.2 - Balanced Scorecard Performance Assessment Program - (March 2004) This chapter...

  2. IN OTHER CATEGORIES; MACHINERY; MASS BALANCE; MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    world Bracher, B. 42 ENGINEERING NOT INCLUDED IN OTHER CATEGORIES; MACHINERY; MASS BALANCE; MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS; MAINTENANCE; REPAIR Field balancing can achieve significant...

  3. Distributed Real-Time Power Balancing in Renewable-Integrated Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Ben

    , taking into account the uncertainty of the renewable generation, loads, and energy prices. We and more renewable energy sources such as wind and solar are expected to be integrated into the power grids balancing. Real-time control is mainly motivated by the unpredictability of renewable sources, which can

  4. infall is balanced by outward radiation pressure. Consequently, the kinetic power of the wind is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, David

    infall is balanced by outward radiation pressure. Consequently, the kinetic power of the wind activity phase, such powerful winds would have provided the energy and momentum to self-regulate the black = 0.25 c), the minimum plausible starting point of the wind. The mechanical energy released over

  5. 1. Devaluation of 100% which is expected to improve the trade balance by making their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for young women without children. In order to provide energy for the EPZ, the government has secured a World1. Devaluation of 100% which is expected to improve the trade balance by making their exports is married to an energy tycoon who is poised to buy out the national gas opera- tion at quite a good rate

  6. Vol. 63 (2009) REPORTS ON MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS No. 1 COVARIANT BALANCE LAWS IN CONTINUA WITH MICROSTRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsden, Jerrold

    2009-01-01

    August 21, 2008) The purpose of this paper is to extend the Green­Naghdi­Rivlin balance of energy method of material particles and a director field manifold. The Green­ Naghdi­Rivlin theorem and its extensions of energy law and its invariance under time-dependent isometries of the ambient space, one obtains

  7. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  8. Energy Budgets: From a Person to a Planet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    Energy Budgets: From a Person to a Planet Richard Allan Environmental Systems Science Centre.g. the sun ~6000 K #12;Human energy balance 20o C 30o C 40o C #12;Human comfort diagram #12;Energy balance...Internal Energy Tbody 4 Tair 4 S S #12;Surface Energy Balance Ground Heat Flux Thermal/Longwave Radiation Ts 4

  9. Model documentation report: Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 1997 (AEO 97). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code. This document serves three purposes. First it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS MAM used for the AEO 1997 production runs for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  10. California's Energy Future - The View to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    electric load balancing, including some combination of energy storage, smart grid, bio-electricity, load-following fossil generation

  11. Enhanced BPA Balancing Authority (EBBA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S.Engineering Metal Impurities inPrinterRI/FS andebba

  12. Flow Effects on Jet quenching with Detailed Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luan Cheng; Enke Wang

    2011-02-01

    A new model potential in the presence of collective flow describing the interaction of the hard jet with scattering centers is derived based on the static color-screened Yukawa potential. The flow effect on jet quenching with detailed balance is investigated in pQCD. It turns out that the collective flow changes the emission current and the LPM destructive interference comparing to that in the static medium. Considering the collective flow with velocity v_z along the jet direction, the energy loss is (1 - v_z) times that in the static medium to the first order of opacity. The flow dependence of the energy loss will affect the suppression of high p_T hadron spectrum and anisotropy parameter v_2 in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  13. Mass balance of Vatnajokull outlet glaciers reconstructed back to 1958

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Mass balance of Vatnaj¨okull outlet glaciers reconstructed back to 1958 L. A. Rasmussen Department seasonal components of mass balance of five Vatnaj¨okull outlet glaciers. Over the period of observations of mass balance between 1991 and 2001, it had percentage r2 rang- ing from 41 to 93 for winter balance bw

  14. Measuring Partial Balance in Signed Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aref, Samin

    2015-01-01

    Is the enemy of an enemy necessarily a friend, or a friend of a friend a friend? If not, to what extent does this tend to hold? Such questions were formulated in terms of signed (social) networks and necessary and sufficient conditions for a network to be "balanced" were obtained around 1960. Since then the idea that signed networks tend over time to become more balanced has been widely used in several application areas, such as international relations. However investigation of this hypothesis has been complicated by the lack of a standard measure of partial balance, since complete balance is almost never achieved in practice. We formalise the concept of a measure of partial balance, compare several known measures on real-world and synthetic datasets, as well as investigating their axiomatic properties. We use both well-known datasets from the sociology literature, such as Read's New Guinean tribes, and much more recent ones involving senate bill co-sponsorship. The synthetic data involves both Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'e...

  15. Trends and balances: 1985-1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of Trends and Balances to be presented to the staff of Oak Ridge National (ORNL) and other interested parties. Each year at the end of the planning cycle the Laboratory publishes its official planning document, the Institutional Plan. Trends and Balances is brought out as a condensation of that more formal document and is intended to provide a reference to the kinds of plans that have occupied senior laboratory management over the past year. An institution as large as ORNL changes slowly, so some of the information in this document overlaps that contained in the previous edition of Trends and Balances. Much, however, is different. A new section, for example, describes what senior Laboratory management feels are five new directions for science and technology at ORNL. This document is intended to provide new insights into the programs and structure of the Laboratory.

  16. Aalborg Universitet Fuzzy-Logic-Based Gain-Scheduling Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    nature of renewable energy sources and changes of load demand. Apart from that, the use of distributed of Distributed Energy Storage Systems for DC Microgrids Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Dragicevic, Tomislav-Logic-Based Gain-Scheduling Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage Systems for DC

  17. Liquid Fuels Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Defines the objectives of the Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM), describes its basic approach, and provides detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  18. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a larger number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  19. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.; Peierls, R.F.

    1995-08-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a large number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  20. Detailed balance analysis of nanophotonic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Detailed balance analysis of nanophotonic solar cells Sunil Sandhu, Zongfu Yu, and Shanhui Fan-voltage characteristic modeling of nanophotonic solar cells. This approach takes into account the intrinsic material non-idealities, and is useful for determining the theoretical limit of solar cell efficiency for a given structure. Our approach