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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Microsoft Word - NegligibleCreepReport.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

GEN4LTR-06- 032 Assessment of Negligible Creep, Off-Normal Welding and Heat Treatment of Gr91 Steel for Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Application Weiju Ren, Thomas Lillo and...

2

Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared Beam Michael C. Martina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared Beam Michael C. Martina , Nelly M. Tsvetkovab of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California at Davis, USA Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is one can now obtain diffraction-limited spot sizes with high signal intensity in an infrared microscope

3

Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with Negligible Neutrino Mass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If the electron neutrino has an effective nonzero Majorana mass, then neutrinoless double beta decay will occur. However, the latter is possible also with a negligible neutrino mass. We show how this may happen in a simple model of scalar diquarks and dileptons. This possibility allows neutrino masses to be small and hierarchical, without conflicting with the possible experimental evidence of neutrinoless double beta decay.

Biswajoy Brahmachari; Ernest Ma

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

4

Application of Negligible Creep Criteria to Candidate Materials for HTGR Pressure Vessels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two of the proposed High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) under consideration for a demonstration plant have the design object of avoiding creep effects in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during normal operation. This work addresses the criteria for negligible creep in Subsection NH, Division 1 of the ASME B&PV (Boiler and Pressure Vessel) Code, Section III, other international design codes and some currently suggested criteria modifications and their impact on permissible operating temperatures for various reactor pressure vessel materials. The goal of negligible creep could have different interpretations depending upon what failure modes are considered and associated criteria for avoiding the effects of creep. It is shown that for the materials of this study, consideration of localized damage due to cycling of peak stresses results in a lower temperature for negligible creep than consideration of the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by creep properties. In assessing the effect of localized cyclic stresses it is also shown that consideration of cyclic softening is an important effect that results in a higher estimated temperature for the onset of significant creep effects than would be the case if the material were cyclically hardening. There are other considerations for the selection of vessel material besides avoiding creep effects. Of interest for this review are (1) the material s allowable stress level and impact on wall thickness (the goal being to minimize required wall thickness) and (2) ASME Code approval (inclusion as a permitted material in the relevant Section and Subsection of interest) to expedite regulatory review and approval. The application of negligible creep criteria to two of the candidate materials, SA533 and Mod 9Cr-1Mo (also referred to as Grade 91), and to a potential alternate, normalized and tempered 2 Cr-1Mo, is illustrated and the relative advantages and disadvantages of the materials are discussed.

Jetter, Robert I [Consultant; Sham, Sam [ORNL; Swindeman, Robert W [Consultant

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

380 Solutions Manual x Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition If Y is negligible, drops out also, leaving: .AnsU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of viscosity. If the exponent n is less than (greater than) unity, the material simulates a pseudoplastic of windmill diameter D, wind velocity V, air density U, windmill height H as compared to atmospheric boundary layer height L, and the number of blades N: : fcn(D, V, U, H/L, N). Viscosity effects are negligible

Bahrami, Majid

6

Negligent Misrepresentation as Contract  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

393. Arthur L. Harding, Williston’s Fundamental Conceptions1920), Vol 1 at 3-5. Williston’s view that contract strictlytouchstone for this. Williston, Contracts (1 st ed. 1920),

Gergen, Mark P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

A Simple Technique for Islanding Detection with Negligible Nondetection Zone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although active islanding detection techniques have smaller nondetection zones than passive techniques, active methods could degrade the system power quality and are not as simple and easy to implement as passive methods. ...

Kirtley Jr, James L.

8

Interactions of CO and surface K: Negligible CO adsorption on K/Ag(111)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unlike transition metals which are active for chemisorption of CO, Ag(111) shows no tendency to adsorb CO at 100 K even when various amounts of K are added. This observation supports the proposal of Solymosi and Berko (Ref. 1) that bonding of CO with the host metal plays an important role in the interactions of K and CO on transition metals.

Roop, B.; Blass, P.M.; Zhou, X.; White, J.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Container Approval for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste with Negligible Heat Generation in the German Konrad Repository - 12148  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the license for the Konrad repository was finally confirmed by legal decision in 2007, the Federal Institute for Radiation Protection (BfS) has been performing further planning and preparation work to prepare the repository for operation. Waste conditioning and packaging has been continued by different waste producers as the nuclear industry and federal research institutes on the basis of the official disposal requirements. The necessary prerequisites for this are approved containers as well as certified waste conditioning and packaging procedures. The Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) is responsible for container design testing and evaluation of quality assurance measures on behalf of BfS under consideration of the Konrad disposal requirements. Besides assessing the container handling stability (stacking tests, handling loads), design testing procedures are performed that include fire tests (800 deg. C, 1 hour) and drop tests from different heights and drop orientations. This paper presents the current state of BAM design testing experiences about relevant container types (box shaped, cylindrical) made of steel sheets, ductile cast iron or concrete. It explains usual testing and evaluation methods which range from experimental testing to analytical and numerical calculations. Another focus has been laid on already existing containers and packages. The question arises as to how they can be evaluated properly especially with respect to lack of completeness of safety assessment and fabrication documentation. At present BAM works on numerous applications for container design testing for the Konrad repository. Some licensing procedures were successfully finished in the past and BfS certified several container types like steel sheet, concrete until cast iron containers which are now available for waste packaging for final disposal. However, large quantities of radioactive wastes had been placed into interim storage using containers which are not already licensed for the Konrad repository. Safety assessment of these so-called 'old' containers is a big challenge for all parties because documentation sheets about container design testing and fabrication often contain gaps or have not yet been completed. Appropriate solution strategies are currently under development and discussion. Furthermore, BAM has successfully initiated and established an information forum, called 'ERFA QM Konrad Containers', which facilitates discussions on various issues of common interest with respect to Konrad container licensing procedures as well as the interpretation of disposal requirements under consideration of operational needs. Thus, it provides additional, valuable supports for container licensing procedures. (authors)

Voelzke, Holger; Nieslony, Gregor; Ellouz, Manel; Noack, Volker; Hagenow, Peter; Kovacs, Oliver; Hoerning, Tony [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Liability Waiver: I understand that participating in summer camp activities is potentially hazardous, and that I should not register my child un-less he/she is medically able. I assume all risks (known and unknown), even if arising from the negligence of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

__________________________________ Home Phone________________________________________________ Cell Phone__________________________________ Home Phone________________________________________________ Cell Phone________________________________________________ Cell Phone______________________________________ E

11

Design Enablement and Design-Centric Assessment of Future Semiconductor Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

line STDP compatible designs showing negligible area overhead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .line STDP compatible designs showing negligible area overhead.design implementation of STDP at the poly-line layer is achieved with 1.8× pitch relaxation with virtually no area overhead;

Abou Ghaida, Rani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Vcrnrmuugsfllnktione,r. ~IIICI ilrrc Vcrwc~~dw~~ bci der Rerechnllng VOll Isotopenunlwandlllngen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this effect is negligible. Atomkernenergie 3KerntechnikVol. 42 (1983)No. 1 Here n is the number of nuclides

Shlyakhter, Ilya

13

Parens Patriae Litigation to Redress Societal Damages from the BP Oil Spill: The Latest Stage in the Evolution of Crimtorts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

construction and transportation industries in lower Plaquemines Parish Negligence; Strict Liability; Breach of Contract; General Maritime Law; Federal Oil Pollution

Rustad, Michael L.; Koenig, Thomas H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING Timothy D. Stark1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING NEGLIGENCE By Timothy D. Stark1 ABSTRACT: Blasters are usually but should be liable only if their conduct is proven to be negligent. This change in legal standard be related to the level of care exercised by the blaster. It is anticipated that a negligence standard

15

Method for reducing ignition delay of fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of reducing ignition delay /tau/, of fuels to negligible values and negligible differences is disclosed. Fuels conditioned to have such negligible values and differences are readily used in multiple fuel engines, such fuels self-ignite substantially instantaneously when injected into an oxidant, require substantially no heat transfer from the oxidant to effect the self-ignition, and the self-ignition is sufficient to sustain continued combustion.

Hoppie, L.O.

1984-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

ams herds researcher: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

although a weak emission from the accretion stream could be still present. Cyclotron radiation, usually dominating the V and R bands, is negligible thus corroborating the...

17

all-sky solar irradiance: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations...

18

E-Print Network 3.0 - angular momentum transformation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

negligible angular momentum. mechanism... elements: First, angular momentum transport governed by a diffusion equation a no-slip boundary condition... microinstabilities....

19

E-Print Network 3.0 - angular momentum effects Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

negligible angular momentum. mechanism... elements: First, angular momentum transport governed by a diffusion equation a no-slip boundary condition... microinstabilities....

20

E-Print Network 3.0 - angular momentum limit Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

negligible angular momentum. mechanism... elements: First, angular momentum transport governed by a diffusion equation a no-slip boundary condition... microinstabilities....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

E-Print Network 3.0 - amorphous carbon particles Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Renewable Energy 3 High-Purity Catalytic CVD Generation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Alcohol Summary: SWNTs with negligible amount of amorphous carbon, multi-walled...

22

China Energy Databook - Rev. 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from geothermal and wind generators is negligible in thebeen so designated. Wind generators have also been used toand total capacity of all wind generator systems in China is

Sinton Editor, J.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Controlled Rapid Pressurization Using Liquid Propellants for EGS Well Stimulation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objective: Investigate the use of non-toxic? or negligible environmental impact liquid propellants for the stimulation of geothermal fields.

24

US DEPARl'lIIENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER Nl...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and information collection activities that are directly related to the conservation of fish or wildlife resources and that involve only negligible habitat destruction or...

25

E-Print Network 3.0 - abnormal rotation rates Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

detect abnormal events from a very low resolution video... an abnormality detection statistic for the simple case of a test sequence with negligible observa- tion noise... the...

26

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy management systems Combined heat and power (CHP) CHPperiod was negligible. Combined heat and power (CHP) 5 . Forrequirements, the use of combined heat and power systems can

Galitsky, Christina

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

jp303186v 1..8  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

separations and catalysis, due to their desirable properties: negligible volatility, high electrochemical and thermal stability, and high ionic conductivity. 1-8 In spite of broad...

28

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient dose equivalent Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

175 h. Ambient incandescent lights, however, produced a negligible... laser, light emitting diode ... Source: Yu, Peter K.N. - Department of Physics and Materials Science, City...

29

E-Print Network 3.0 - admissible du radon Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a and NEMO collaboration... ) Abstract: The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon... can be a non negligible component...

30

E-Print Network 3.0 - america residential radon Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a and NEMO collaboration... ) Abstract: The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon... can be a non negligible component...

31

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing cumulative radon Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a and NEMO collaboration... ) Abstract: The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon... can be a non negligible component...

32

E-Print Network 3.0 - astatine radon francium Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a and NEMO collaboration... ) Abstract: The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon... can be a non negligible component...

33

E-Print Network 3.0 - austrian radon database Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a and NEMO collaboration... ) Abstract: The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon... can be a non negligible component...

34

annihilation spectroscopy applied: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the mid-IR spectral Society for Applied Spectroscopy accelerated paper Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared, they could cause damage to biological molecules due to...

35

applying gamma spectroscopy: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the mid-IR spectral Society for Applied Spectroscopy accelerated paper Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared, they could cause damage to biological molecules due to...

36

E-Print Network 3.0 - accretion disc radii Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

produces a negligible amount of J... to compare the data with model results, very simple wind and accretion models ... Source: Folha, Daniel - Centre for Astrophysics, University...

37

Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Temperature and higher NO 2 :NOx have negligible impact on overall NOx Conversion Biodiesel Near-term Impacts Literature Review "Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Urea...

38

DOE/EA=O995 Final ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

is expected to be negligible because measured contamination levels are extremely low and the contaminants are contained in closed metal containers (alpha radiation f r o m...

39

Particle Contamination on a Thermal Flying-Height Control Slider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the slider, induces a thermophoretic force on particlesforce, the so called thermophoretic force, on a particle’swe show that the thermophoretic force is always negligible

Liu, Nan; Bogy, David B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER Nl!PA DFTFnIINATION RECIPIENT...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

field basis, biomass removal would have a negligible to minor adverse impact on soil organic mailer content. The recipient https:www.eere-pmc.energy.govINEPA...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

E-Print Network 3.0 - absolute zero temperature Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

zero signal on the ther- mocouples. A power generator... . In this case the absolute thermometer must have zero or negligeable magnetic effect. As in the standard method... and...

42

PREPARED FORTHE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, UNDER CONTRACT DEAC0276CH03073  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plasma Physics Laboratory Publications Reports web site Calendar Year 2000. The home PPPL Reports minority ion­cyclotron heating, even though process introduces negligible angular momentum. mechanism ion­cyclotron fast­wave heating raise question since minority ion­cyclotron heating negligible angular

43

The Melting of Greenland William H. Lipscomb  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). AnAn ice capice cap is a mass of glacier ice smaller than 50,000 kmis a mass of glacier ice smaller is negligibleSurface melting is negligible Antarctic ice thicknessAntarctic ice thickness (British Antarctic of the Greenland iceMuch of the Greenland ice sheet may have meltedsheet may have melted Greenland minimum extent

Born, Andreas

44

Unraveling the Kinship Network: Child Labor and Migration in Togo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the mother, the girl’s parents had lost their ?rst daughtera letter sent by the parents of a lost girl in Nigeria. Theparents negligent to send another daughter after they lost

Buchbinder, Liza S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Ionic liquid ion source emitter arrays fabricated on bulk porous substrates for spacecraft propulsion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic Liquid Ion Sources (ILIS) are a subset of electrospray capable of producing bipolar beams of pure ions from ionic liquids. Ionic liquids are room temperature molten salts, characterized by negligible vapor pressures, ...

Courtney, Daniel George

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Spatial and temporal controls on biogeochemical indicators at the small-scale interface between a contaminated aquifer and wetland surface water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from three locations exhibiting upward, downward, and negligent hydrologic flow between aquifer and wetland. PCA was used to identify the principal biogeochemical processes and to obtain factor scores for evaluating significant seasonal and hydrological...

Baez-Cazull, Susan Enid

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Analysis of the dispersion of the sound velocity in supercooled water O. Conde, J. Leblond and J. Teixeira  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the influence of the structural relaxation time is negligible, i.e. ms « 1, and if the thermal diffusivity number. From equation (1) one obtains : Article published online by EDP Sciences and available at http

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

alte madonie mounts: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the bag model also turned out to be negligible. Y. Kanazawa; Yuji Koike; N. Nishiyama 1999-02-18 22 Composite materials in dynamic shipboard structural mounts MIT - DSpace...

49

IOP PUBLISHING CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM GRAVITY Class. Quantum Grav. 26 (2009) 094031 (6pp) doi:10.1088/0264-9381/26/9/094031  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Online at stacks.iop.org/CQG/26/094031 Abstract Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), with masses negligible metallicity. This reduces radiative opacity and thus the strength of radiation driven winds, hence

Miller, Cole

50

Non-uniqueness problem in estimating original gas in place  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and a negligence of the effect of a considerable encroaching aquifer that could be thought not to exist. This study shows several examples for synthetic gas reservoir/aquifer systems that are modeled mathematically, then programmed, to simulate...

El-Ahmady, Mohamed Hamed

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Radiosensitization Strategies for Enhanced E-beam Irradiation Treatment of Fresh Produce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

necessary to develop treatments that will reduce their prevalence and numbers on fresh produce. Irradiation is a penetrating nonthermal treatment that effectively eliminates bacteria. Irradiated baby spinach leaves up to 1.0 kGy showed negligible (P>0...

Gomes, Carmen

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

52

Detecting the Presence of a Proximate Cellular User through Distributed Femtocell Sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, their spectrum usage and resulting interference become non-negligible. While using different operating frequency for femtocells is indeed possible, a co-channel deploy- ment of these will increase spectral efficiency, a much sought design by cellular opera- tors...

Parag, Pankaj 1988-

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Computational Reality I Linear elastostatics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. By assuming that the body forces (due to the gravitation or electromagnetic induction) are negligible against is given by the constitutive relation between the stress and strain, Hooke's law ij = Cijklkl , (5

Berlin,Technische Universität

54

Dynamics on the Laminar-Turbulent Boundary and the Origin of the Maximum Drag Reduction Asymptote  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamical trajectories on the boundary in state space between laminar and turbulent plane channel flow—edge states—are computed for Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids. Viscoelasticity has a negligible effect on the properties ...

Graham, Michael D.

55

Inter-annual variability in phytoplankton summer blooms in the freshwater tidal reaches of the Schelde estuary (Belgium)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Schelde estuary (Belgium) Marie Lionard a,*, Koenraad Muylaert b , Abdel Hanoutti c , Tom Maris d , Miche to be negligible due to the high turbidity of the water (e.g. Uncles and Stephens, 1993). An increase

Vincent, Warwick F.

56

Dark Energy in the Dark Ages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL- 61876 Dark Energy in the Dark Ages Eric V. LinderUniversity of California. Dark Energy in the Dark Ages Eric2008) Non-negligible dark energy density at high redshifts

Linder, Eric V.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloy quantum dots Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a dilute nitride: InAsNGaAsSb, GaInAsInP and In... . QUANTUM DOT INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL MATERIAL SYSTEMS WITH NEGLIGIBLE VALENCE BAND OFFSETS Michael Y... ABSTRACT In...

58

Proposal for a phase-coherent thermoelectric transistor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solution since their near perfect electron-hole symmetry leads to a negligible thermoelectric response; however, here we demonstrate theoretically a superconducting thermoelectric transistor which offers unparalleled figures of merit of up to ~ 45...

Giazotto, F.; Robinson, J. W. A.; Moodera, J. S.; Bergeret, F. S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Multiscale Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulations of the Thermomechanical Response of Polycrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

across ?P and r is the heat supply per unit mass. A heatcumulative macroscopic heat supply per unit volume due toat the microscale so that the heat supply is negligible in

Sengupta, Arkaprabha

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Comparison of index-3, index-2 and index-1 DAE solvers for nonsmooth multibody systems with unilateral and bilateral constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

constraints. A valve system with a zoom on the cylindrical cam and a standard cam­follower system period can be negligible and we use the Newton impact law with a coefficient of restitution e. If g

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming in global temperatures between 5 and 6o C. Although he was aware that his, these were negligible: global fossil fuel consumption was less than a twentieth

Lovejoy, Shaun

62

brief communications nature methods | VOL.7 NO.12 | DECEMBER2010 | 985  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

angle were 2-24 s. The total X-ray exposure (~109 Gy) produced negligible radiation damage, as we features. Using Fourier optical theory, we calculated that our microscope design should produce a dramatic

Cai, Long

63

atmospheric assessment system: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

wind vectors have a positive speed bias of 8.6 ? 3.8 m s ?1, while the quality-controlled wind vectors have a negligible speed bias. From the performance statistics against a...

64

The role of the geothermal heat flux in driving the abyssal ocean circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the geothermal heat flux (GHF) from the solid Earth into the ocean plays a non-negligible role in determining both abyssal stratification and circulation strength. Based ...

Mashayek, A.

65

NUCLEAR ENERGY Annals of Nuclear Energy 32 (2005) 13051322  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

`re *, Imre Pa´zsit Department of Reactor Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Go of ``clean'' stationary oscilla- tions with negligible background noise, the DR can be defined as the ratio

Demazière, Christophe

66

Search for gravitational waves from binary black hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the first modeled search for gravitational waves using the complete binary black-hole gravitational waveform from inspiral through the merger and ringdown for binaries with negligible component spin. We searched ...

Barnum, Sam

67

Injection compression modeling of non-linear positive temperature coefficient circuit protection devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymeric self-resettable circuit protection devices have been manufactured for many years with an extrusion based process. These devices add negligible resistance to a circuit at normal power operating conditions but ...

Hardy, Joseph T., 1978-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Final state interactions at the threshold of Higgs boson pair production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the effect of final state interactions at the threshold of Higgs boson pair production in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model. We consider three major processes of the pair production in the model: lepton pair annihilation, ZZ fusion, and WW fusion. We find that the corrections caused by the effect for these processes are markedly different. According to our results, the effect can cause non-negligible corrections to the cross sections for lepton pair annihilation and small corrections for ZZ fusion, and this effect is negligible for WW fusion.

Zhang, Zhentao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

ISSN 1754-5692 Environmental Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen production www.rsc.org/ees Volume 3 | Number 8 | August 2010 | Pages 981­1136 Downloadedby short of the $15% photovoltaic efficiency predicted from simple considerations.8,9 In particular (AM) 1.5 Global (G) solar illumination to electrical energy with negligible photovoltaic response from

Atwater, Harry

70

Solar proton events in cosmogenic isotope data Ilya G. Usoskin,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar proton events in cosmogenic isotope data Ilya G. Usoskin,1 Sami K. Solanki,2 Gennady A March 2006; published 27 April 2006. [1] A possible contribution of solar energetic particle events to the production of cosmogenic 10 Be and 14 C in the atmosphere is studied. The solar particle effect is negligible

Usoskin, Ilya G.

71

Seveso 1976, Chernobyl 1986: fractal description of two ecological disasters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) but there a lethal gas was distributed in the atmosphere, and no systematic measurements were performed which might accident released a negligible amount of radioactive nuclides and cannot be considered as a major event. This paper is applicative in nature as it describes the fractal properties shown by the pollutant

Ratti, Sergio P.

72

Figure 1. (a) Various contact angles of water droplets on hydrophilic surface terminated by OH after standard cleaning 1 (SC1) and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAM converge; (b) SEM images of SWNTs grown on substrate shown in (a) after catalyst dip-coating. High a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is both simple and nondestructive.5 In addition, the theoretically perfect flatness of a SAM makes the topography-induced effect negligible. Figure 1a shows the profiles

Maruyama, Shigeo

73

Electrical Integrity of MOS Devices in Laser Annealed 3D IC Structures B. Rajendran, R. S. Shenoy, M. O. Thompson1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MOS Capacitors on the lower level. It is found that there is negligible dopant diffusion in the lower and then aligning and bonding the thinned wafers and interconnecting the different levels with deep metal vias [2. This was achieved by putting an absorber layer comprising of a refractive metal like Titanium above an isolation Si

Pease, R. Fabian W.

74

Titanium dioxide based high temperature carbon monoxide selective sensor  

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Titanium dioxide based high temperature carbon monoxide selective sensor Nancy O. Savagea , Sheikh as a trap for the oxidation products of CO and CH4. Upon oxidation of CO on ALC, carbonate species were detected, whereas the reaction of CH4 produced negligible carbonate species. The insensitivity of the ALC

Dutta, Prabir K.

75

Evaporation of Picolitre Droplets on Surfaces with a Range of Wettabilities and Thermal Conductivities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is underestimated. For picolitre droplets however, convective heat transfer due to internal flows is negligible compared to conduc- tion. The relative effect of convection and conduction is seen in the Pe´clet number, Pe = uR/K, where K is the thermal diffusivity...

Talbot, E.L.; Berson, A.; Brown, P.S.; Bain, C.D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

APRIL 2006 MOUM ET. AL. 1 Energy Transport by Nonlinear Internal Waves  

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APRIL 2006 MOUM ET. AL. 1 Energy Transport by Nonlinear Internal Waves J. N. MOUM1 , J. M. KLYMAK2. The energy transported by these waves includes a nonlinear advection term uE that is negligible in linear internal waves. Unlike linear internal waves, the pressure-velocity energy flux up includes important

77

SEPTEMBER 2006 MOUM ET. AL. 1 Energy Transport by Nonlinear Internal Waves  

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SEPTEMBER 2006 MOUM ET. AL. 1 Energy Transport by Nonlinear Internal Waves J. N. MOUM1 , J. M of coastline. The energy transported by these waves includes a nonlinear advection term uE that is negligible in linear internal waves. Unlike linear internal waves, the pressure-velocity energy flux up includes

78

Energy Transport by Nonlinear Internal Waves College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon  

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Energy Transport by Nonlinear Internal Waves J. N. MOUM College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences in the bottom bound- ary layer. In the nonlinear internal waves that were observed, the kinetic energy. The energy transported by these waves includes a nonlinear advection term uE that is negligible in linear

Kurapov, Alexander

79

Ratcheting up energy by means of measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The destruction of quantum coherence can pump energy into a system. For our examples this is paradoxical since the destroyed correlations are ordinarily considered negligible. Mathematically the explanation is straightforward and physically one can identify the degrees of freedom supplying this energy. Nevertheless, the energy input can be calculated without specific reference to those degrees of freedom.

L. S. Schulman; B. Gaveau

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

WAVENUMBER EXPLICIT ANALYSIS OF A DPG METHOD FOR THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL HELMHOLTZ EQUATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

discontinuous Petrov Galerkin (DPG) method for acoustic wave propagation. The method yields Hermitian positive exhibits negligible phase errors (otherwise known as pollution errors) even in the lowest order case is to track down pollution errors and gain a better understanding of how they originate. These errors are well

Gopalakrishnan, Jay

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Energy-conserving Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for the Vlasov-Maxwell System  

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Energy-conserving Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for the Vlasov-Maxwell System Yingda Cheng Andrew previous work for the Vlasov-Amp`ere (VA) system [8] and develop energy-conserving discontinuous Galerkin is no longer negligible. Our proposed schemes conserve the total particle number and the total energy

Cheng, Yingda

82

A methodology to evaluate the competitiveness of electric delivery trucks Brian A. Davis, Miguel A. Figliozzi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

constraints, speed profiles, energy consump- tion, and vehicle ownership costs is developed. The model like electricity cost that are current in the US (as of June 2012) and easily obtained from vehicle, the stress on the electricity grid caused by these vehicles is negligible, and their effects on the cost

Bertini, Robert L.

83

J. Phj's. III France 5 (1995) 1917-1921 OCTOBER1995, PAGE 1917 Classification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on humans and on the environment depends on their energy. Nuclear tests and accidents can result for a point source in different media. 1. Introduction As a result of increasing use of nuclear energy are disregarded because their effects are negligible. For the change of reaction cross-section with energy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

Information >> Game Dates  

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foreseen or unforeseen. I hereby release Bowling Green State University, its employees, agents by the negligence of Bowling Green State University, its employees, agents and representatives harmless from any N. Mercer Road, Bowling Green, OH 43403 Department of Recreation and Wellness - Division of Student

Moore, Paul A.

85

ReleasePARENT/GUARDIAN/ADULT PARTICIPANT: PLEASE COMPLETE THE RELEASE AS INDICATED BELOW.  

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hereby release Bowling Green State University, and the BGSU Ice Arena program, its employees, agents by the negligence of Bowling Green State University, its employees, agents and representatives. I further agree to indemnify and hold Bowling Green State University, its employees, agents and representatives harmless from

Moore, Paul A.

86

Department of Recreation and Wellness -Division of Student Affairs ReleasePARENT/GUARDIAN/ADULT PARTICIPANT: PLEASE  

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desire to enroll myself/my child in 2012/2013 Bowling Green State University Recreation and Wellness 3-On release Bowling Green State University, and the BGSU Ice Arena 3-On-3 Hockey program, its employees or not caused by the negligence of Bowling Green State University, BGSU 3-On-3 Hockey, its employees, agents

Moore, Paul A.

87

417 North Mercer road, BowliNg greeN, oh 43403  

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in 2013/2014 Bowling Green State University Ice Arena Youth Hockey Program. I certify that I am cognizant or property, whether foreseen or unforeseen. I hereby release Bowling Green State University, and the BGSU Ice or suit of any kind sustained, whether or not caused by the negligence of Bowling Green State University

Moore, Paul A.

88

A simple column model to explore anticipated problems in variational assimilation of satellite observations  

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A simple column model to explore anticipated problems in variational assimilation of satellite Office, Exeter, UK Abstract We investigate a simplified form of variational data assimilation in a fully of nonlinearity become non-negligible in the variational data assimilation algorithm. A careful analysis

Roulstone, Ian

89

Presented at the 31 IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference, Orlando Florida, January 3-7 2005.  

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. QUANTUM DOT INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL MATERIAL SYSTEMS WITH NEGLIGIBLE VALENCE BAND OFFSETS Michael Y and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, 19716-3130, USA 3 Instituto de Energia Solar - ETSIT, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid, Spain ­ EU

Honsberg, Christiana

90

Assessment of the renewable groundwater resources of Wadi El-Arish, Sinai, Egypt, by using remote sensing, digital terrain elevation, and meteorological data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors show that the most popular method to simulate Bose-Einstein (BE) interference effects predicts negligible correlations between identical pions originating from the hadronic decay of different W's produced in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} {yields} 4 jets at typical linear collider energies.

Gheith, H. M.; Sultan, M. I.

2000-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

91

Gravitational dispersion in a torsional wave machine  

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We demonstrate that mechanical waves traveling in a torsional, mechanical wave machine exhibit dispersion due to gravity and the discreteness of the medium. We also show that although the dispersion due to discreteness is negligible, the dispersion due to gravity can be easily measured, and can be shown to disappear in a zero-gravity environment.

Rafael de la Madrid; Alejandro Gonzalez; George Irwin

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 22592270, 2007 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/2259/2007/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

calculated the diffuse radiation in the umbra and simulated the changing colours of the sky. Radiance a comparatively small im- pact on the radiation in the umbra. We also estimated the contribution of the solar corona to the radiation under the umbra and found that it is negligible compared to the diffuse solar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Wal-Mart could explore the option to sell generated electricity to the  

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Analysis on two types of renewable energy projects 3. Cost-Benefit Analysis considering FIT Financial%/year Accelerated Capital Cost Allowance (ACCA)[2] ·Application fee is negligible ·Conduct a Cost-Benefit than wind ·No major overhaul cost ·Lower annual maintenance cost 5. Solar is the Winner! 7. References

Sun, Yu

94

Construction of microfluidic chips using polydimethylsiloxane for adhesive Hongkai Wu, Bo Huang and Richard N. Zare*  

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Construction of microfluidic chips using polydimethylsiloxane for adhesive bonding{ Hongkai Wu, Bo exists only at the contact area of the two surfaces with a negligible portion exposed to the microfluidic channel. This method is demonstrated by bonding microfluidic channels of two representative soft materials

Zare, Richard N.

95

Welcome to the Entropics: Boot-Time Entropy in Embedded Devices Keaton Mowery, Michael Wei, David Kohlbrenner, Hovav Shacham, and Steven Swanson  

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Welcome to the Entropics: Boot-Time Entropy in Embedded Devices Keaton Mowery, Michael Wei, David- tropy during boot on embedded devices. Our first technique times the execution of code blocks early in the Linux kernel boot process. It is simple to implement and has a negligible runtime overhead, but, on many

Simunic, Tajana

96

Page 264 Courses: Business Administration (BUS) Sonoma State University 2012-2013 Catalog Business Administration (BUS)  

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of consumer protection, antitrust, labor and employment law. BUS 230a financial accoUnting (4) A foundation, legal protection, insurance, investments, retirements, retirement planning, and estate planning emphasizes the sources, functions and processes of law. It surveys a number of areas, including negligence

Ravikumar, B.

97

Enhancing Nanoparticle Electrodynamics with Gold Nanoplate Zijie Yan, Ying Bao, Uttam Manna, Raman A. Shah, and Norbert F. Scherer*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to reflect (near-)infrared laser beams with negligible distortion. We demonstrate enhanced optical trapping nanoparticles near the nanoplate surface in dark-field microscopy. More importantly, enhanced optical trapping a single laser beam and its reflection from individual Au nanoplates. The enhancement of the interparticle

Scherer, Norbert F.

98

Modeling Transient Slag-Layer Phenomena in the Shell/mold Gap in Continuous Casting of Steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with oil lubrication, powder(/slag) lubrication leads to more uniform and usually lower heat transfer.[5-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams, the models are applied to study the effect of casting speed and mold-powder viscosity. The study finds that liquid-slag lubrication would produce negligible stresses. A lower mold

Thomas, Brian G.

99

Meng, Y. and B.G. Thomas, Metall. & Materials Trans. B, Vol. 34B, No. 5, Oct. 2003, pp. 707-725. MODELING TRANSIENT SLAG LAYER PHENOMENA IN THE SHELL/MOLD GAP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;3 Compared with oil lubrication, powder(/slag) lubrication leads to more uniform and usually lower heat are applied to study the effect of casting speed and mold powder viscosity properties on slag layer behavior lubrication would produce negligible stresses. Lower mold slag consumption rate leads to high solid friction

Thomas, Brian G.

100

Exciton harvesting, charge transfer, and charge-carrier transport in amorphous-silicon nanopillar/polymer hybrid solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

report on the device physics of nanostructured amorphous-silicon a-Si:H /polymer hybrid solar cells and nanostructured a-Si:H/polymer systems. We find that strong energy transfer occurs in the a-Si:H/MEH-PPV system. However, inefficient hole transfer from the a-Si:H to the polymers renders negligible photocurrent

McGehee, Michael

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Antimicrobial packaging system for optimization of electron beam irradiation of fresh produce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study evaluated the potential use of an antimicrobial packaging system in combination with electron beam irradiation to enhance quality of fresh produce. Irradiated romaine lettuce up to 3.2 kGy showed negligible (p > 0.05) changes in color...

Han, Jaejoon

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

Naive Filterbots for Robust Cold-Start Recommendations Seung-Taek Park1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent community-driven web sites to e-commerce powerhouses. Once a substantial amount of preference data in cold-start user, cold-start item, and cold-start system settings. Performance is better when data is scarce, per- formance is no worse when data is plentiful, and algorithm efficiency is negligibly affected

Madani, Omid

103

Journal of Law Temperature Physics. Vol. 117. Nos. 112, 1999 Excitations Beyond the Roton of  

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4 He in Aerogel R. T. Azuah,1 H. R. Glyde,2 J. R. Beamish,3 and M. A. Adams4 1 Department of Physics% porous aerogel has been measured by inelastic neutron scattering methods. The aerogel was grown with deuterated materials and the multiple scattering involving the aerogel was negligible. S(Q, w) in the super

Glyde, Henry R.

104

Joule heating induced by vortex motion in a type-II superconductor Z. L. Xiao and E. Y. Andrei  

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Joule heating induced by vortex motion in a type-II superconductor Z. L. Xiao and E. Y. Andrei-II superconductor due to Joule heating induced by vortex motion. The effect of Joule heating is detected s duration, where the Joule heating is negligible and saturates, respectively. The thermometry is based

Andrei, Eva Y.

105

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 35633570, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/3563/2006/  

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in the entire solar spectrum, lower values (6.4­8.6%) are obtained, but those are still not negligible; Decesari et al., 2005). These aerosols scatter and absorb the incident light, affecting the energy transfer. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Optical properties

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

DANE TECHNICAL NOTE INFN -LNF, Accelerator Division  

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of possible high power loss. Another potential danger is creation of dust particles between the sliding of the coupling of the power spectrum lines to the HOMs is not negligible. The power loss in case of the full coupling can be of the order of some thousand watts. In order to estimate the possible power loss we can

Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)

107

Low Order Decentralized Stabilizing Controller Design for a Mobile Inverted Pendulum Robot  

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model is based on a form of an inverted pendulum and the robot was constructed into a mechanical system a schematic using Newton's laws of motion (e.g., [3]). The system has six states describing its motion-axis characterized by the yaw angle and yaw velocity . Any motion about the x-axis is considered negligible

Gundes, A. N.

108

RIS0-M-2294 HANDLING OF DEUTERIUM PELLETS FOR PLASMA REFUELLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RIS0-M-2294 HANDLING OF DEUTERIUM PELLETS FOR PLASMA REFUELLING P.s. Jensen and V. Andersen Association Euratom - Ris0 National Laboratory Abstract. The use of a guide tube technique to inject pellets in pellet-plasma experiments guide tube on the mass and (v ~ 150 m/s) is negligible. jectories

109

Characterization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) used in commercial bottled water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of temperature and UV radiation to accelerate the possible migration of substances. At the same time, physico in bottled water, sometimes in non negligible concentrations. Acetaldehyde, a thermal degradation compound.1088/1757-899X/5/1/012005 #12;catalyst, (iii) additives or degradation products formed in the manufactures

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Trawling Operations and South African (Cape) Fur Seals, Arctocepha/us pusillus pusil/us  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Wickens is with the Marine Biology Re search Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South, but this is negligible (0.3%) in terms ofthe value ofthe fishery. Seal mortality is mainly caused by drown ing in trawl are deliberately killed annually, but this most likely takes place only when caught and they enter the area below

111

MEASURED WINTER PERFORMANCE OF STORM WINDOWS  

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problem. From existing data (U. S. Department of Energy 2002) one can estimate that 90% of the present payback of energy savings. Certainly, given the present spectrum of available products, it is difficult. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation. Introduction Over the past

112

AVOIDING ILLEGAL STATES IN PSEUDORANDOM TESTING OF DIGITAL CIRCUITS  

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94305-9020 Abstract: Many digital circuits have constraints on the logic values a set of signal lines test results. Our techniques require minimal change to the design and impose almost negligible delay overhead. Simulation results show that the area overhead of our techniques is less than 1% for applying

Stanford University

113

Energy Harvesting Communications with Hybrid Energy Storage and Processing Cost  

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Energy Harvesting Communications with Hybrid Energy Storage and Processing Cost Omur Ozel Khurram with an energy harvesting transmitter with non-negligible processing circuitry power and a hybrid energy storage for energy storage while the battery has unlimited space. The transmitter stores the harvested energy either

Ulukus, Sennur

114

An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world Rosemarie Yevich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Latin America, respectively. Agricultural waste supplies about 33% of total biofuel use, providing 39%, 29%, and 13% of biofuel use in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and 41% and 51% of the biofuel use.9Pg C (as CO2) from burning of biofuels and field residues together is small, but non-negligible when

Jacob, Daniel J.

115

Heidelberg University Institute of Environmental Physics  

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geothermal gradient (red line) is 0.014 K m-1 . The deviation from the mean temperature (green sym- bols, the fluctuations become negligible and the tem- perature profile is dominated by the geothermal heat flux which results from the cooling of the Earth's core and from radioactive decay. It amounts to some 0.05 W m-2

Roth, Kurt

116

Collision Avoidance in Depth Space I. INTRODUCTION  

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; compute distances between the obstacles and the robot; optionally project the results in the CartesianCollision Avoidance in Depth Space I. INTRODUCTION When humans and robots share the same work space, safety is the primary issue of concern [8]. Secondary but not negligible is to prevent robot damages due

De Luca, Alessandro

117

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROBUST AND NONLINEAR CONTROL Int. J. Robust Nonlinear Control 8, 965--977 (1998)  

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--977 (1998) DECOUPLING AND FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION OF ROBOTS WITH MIXED RIGID/ELASTIC JOINTS ALESSANDRO DE for rigid link robots having some joints rigid and some with non-negligible elasticity. We start from the reduced model of robots with all joints elastic introduced by Spong, which is linearizable by static

De Luca, Alessandro

118

Efficient Virtual Memory for Big Memory Servers Our analysis shows that many "big-memory" server workloads,  

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-memory" server workloads, such as databases, in-memory caches, and graph analytics, pay a high cost for page introduced [13]. In contrast, virtual memory usage has changed dramatically in recent years. For example-negligible energy [5, 41] To reevaluate the cost and benefit of decades-old page-based vir- tual memory in today

Hill, Mark D.

119

Complex Refractive Indices of Thin Films of Secondary Organic Materials by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry from 220 to 1200 nm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

particles were produced in a flow tube reactor by ozonolysis of volatile organic compounds, including. By comparison, the UV absorption of the monoterpene-derived SOMs was negligible. On the basis of the measured and mode diameter. 1. INTRODUCTION Aerosol particles directly influence Earth's radiative balance

120

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D: APPLIED PHYSICS J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 (2006) 29792992 doi:10.1088/0022-3727/39/14/017  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in various industrial applications [6], e.g. in corona reactors for water and gas treatment [7 that move into the electron drift direction. From those avalanches, single or double ended streamers can charges is negligible in comparison with the background external field; on the other hand, if the space

Ebert, Ute

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Cycling firing method for bypass operation of bridge converters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bridge converter comprises a number of switching elements and an electronic logic system which regulated the electric power levels by controlling the firing, i.e., the initiation of the conduction period of the switching elements. Cyclic firing of said elements allows the direct current to bypass the alternating current system with high power factor and negligible losses.

Zabar, Zivan (99-72 66th Rd., Apt. 9N, Forest Hills, NY 11375)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Regional Estimation of Total Recharge to Ground Water in Nebraska  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)over long periods of time when the potential change in ground water storage becomes negligible compared storage other than discharge to streams. One such loss term is evapotranspiration (ET) from ground waterRegional Estimation of Total Recharge to Ground Water in Nebraska by Jozsef Szilagyi1m2,F. Edwin

Szilagyi, Jozsef

123

-Metabolism Part Ill: Lipids  

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in a cell is negligible, almost all of the fatty acids are bound to glycerol by ester linkages. The most reactions oftriacylglycerols is the alkaline hydrolysis of the ester linkage to give glycerol and sodium and Transporl Fats and oilsare broken down to fattyacids and glycerol in the soluble portion of the cytoplasm

Bodner, George M.

124

FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER OF ELECTRON FLOW IN SEMICONDUCTORS  

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= heat, f = LO-mode, g = LO, h = LA-mode, i = negligible, j = remote heat sink 7/ 70 #12;Heat conductionFLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER OF ELECTRON FLOW IN SEMICONDUCTORS Mihir Sen Department · Shallow water analogy · Vorticity dynamics · Linear stability analysis · Numerical simulations of heat

Sen, Mihir

125

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to compress the air as the tank was being filled are to be determined. Assumptions 1 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies are negligible. 4 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats. Properties it without permission. 8-130 8-129 A system consisting of a compressor, a storage tank, and a turbine

Bahrami, Majid

126

In:Safeprocess'09, 7th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes, Barcelona, 2009. ISBN: 978-3-902661-46-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Processes, Barcelona, 2009. ISBN: 978-3-902661-46-3 Post-mortem Diagnosis of Bottling Plants Based-based system that performs post-mortem fault localization of food packaging plants and, more specifically, bottling plants based on recorded data. In this project, we need to cope with non-negligible transportation

Cengarle, María Victoria

127

TO APPEAR IN TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, 2013 1 IVC in Cities: Signal Attenuation by Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of energy consumption is negligible. We performed an extensive set of simulations to evaluate the negativeTO APPEAR IN TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING, 2013 1 IVC in Cities: Signal Attenuation obstacles, especially in cities. Typical concepts address this problem by requiring all vehicles to also act

Breu, Ruth

128

Figure 1: Artificially colored image of the plasma produced with a cylindrical lens. The laser travels in the Z-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dimension to form a long focus. Progress on Plasma Lens Experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam* P. Kwok2, P. Chen of the supersonic gas jet as the plasma source, and study on focused beam size measurement techniques. Most demonstrate plasma focusing in a setting close to the true high energy collider with negligible induced

McDonald, Kirk

129

On cluster embedding schemes based on orbital space partitioning Ulrich Gutdeutsch, Uwe Birkenheuer, Sven Kruger, and Notker Roscha)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. and a surrounding exter- nal region. The impact of this ``environmental'' region on the central region is considered for this failure which prevents the expected convergence of the calculated results with increasing cluster size as non-negligible, yet of less importance so that it may be represented only approximately to reduce

Birkenheuer, Uwe

130

Identifying and Predicting Timing-Critical Instructions to Boost Timing Speculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to environmental tem- perature, supply voltage noise, and process variation, which also add a non-negligible energy are of equal importance ­ any one of them could produce a timing violation. Consequently, the impact flagged. The processor initiates a recovery mecha- nism to prevent the errors from affecting

Bustamante, Fabián E.

131

Hydrodynamical modeling of targets compression to high densities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by composite schemes on moving grid. Both models also include heat conductivity. The quotidian equation, E is total energy and heat flux W is given by W = - grad T (2) where T is temperature and is heat note that for most presented computations the heat conductivity is negligible. The above system

Limpouch, Jiri

132

Volume 55, Number 2, 2001 APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY 1110003-7028 / 01 / 5502-0111$2.00 / 0 q 2001 Society for Applied Spectroscopy  

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Society for Applied Spectroscopy accelerated paper Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared; DPPC; Beam; Heating. INTRODUCTION Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive analytical.H.C.) The use of synchrotron sources for infrared (IR) spectromicroscopy provides greatly increased brightness

133

M. Bahrami ENSC 388 Assignment # 4 1 Assignment #4  

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rate of . At the exit of the turbine, the pressure is and the quality is . Heat transfer from the outer in dashed line is at steady state. - Heat transfer is negligible. - Changes in kinetic and potential energy Due date: Thursday Oct. 14, 2009 Problem 1 Water flows into the top of an open barrel at a constant

Bahrami, Majid

134

Mesoscopic simulations of phase distribution effects on the effective thermal conductivity of microgranular porous media.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of transport in open-cell metal foam. J. Heat Transfer ASMEopen-celled metal foam model for thermal applications. J. Heat Transferheat transfer is a non-negligible factor for thermal transports in high-porosity low-conductivity open-

Wang, Moran; Pan, Ning; Wang, Jinku; Chen, Shiyi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

25480 Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 86 / Wednesday, May 4, 2011 / Rules and Regulations DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be granted if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s­1137­02] RIN 0648­BA14 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities Conducted Within application from the U.S. Navy (Navy), issues regulations to govern the unintentional taking of marine mammals

136

32379Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 109 / Tuesday, June 8, 2010 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE  

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if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XW13 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Open Water Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi

137

28412 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 93 / Tuesday, May 14, 2013 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XC562 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska

138

36730 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 125 / Monday, June 30, 2014 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be granted if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XD210 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a 3D Seismic Survey in Prudhoe Bay, Beaufort Sea

139

66106 Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 216 / Thursday, November 6, 2008 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s) and will not have an unmitigable adverse OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XD76 Taking Marine Mammals Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental

140

27322 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 90 / Wednesday, May 9, 2012 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XA811 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi Sea

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

21522 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 73 / Wednesday, April 16, 2014 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be granted if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XD229 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a Geohazard Survey in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

142

35851Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 115 / Friday, June 14, 2013 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XC564 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

143

35508 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 113 / Wednesday, June 12, 2013 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XC563 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska

144

27308 Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 91 / Wednesday, May 11, 2011 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be granted if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the identified species or stock(s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XA216 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking that a Letter of Authorization (LOA) has been issued to the Alaska Aerospace Corporation (AAC) to take two

145

75488 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 239 / Thursday, December 12, 2013 / Rules and Regulations Dated: November 25, 2013.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have an unmitigable adverse Administration 50 CFR Part 217 [Docket No. 100217096­1059­02] RIN 0648­AY63 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea

146

A three-parameter dispersion relationship for Biot's fast compressional wave in a marine sediment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in an unconsolidated, saturated porous medium such as a ma- rine sediment. Based on the classical theory of Biot2 wave is negligible, if present at all,5­10 in satu- rated, unconsolidated granular materials as a defining feature of an unconsolidated sediment. Two types of wave emerge from Buckingham's model, a fast

Buckingham, Michael

147

Compressional and shear wave properties of marine sediments: Comparisons between theory and data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, unconsolidated marine sedi- ments. It is evident from the data that an unconsolidated sediment is capable discussion that the slow wave in an unconsolidated sediment is negligible if not absent alto- gether propagation in an unconsolidated granular medium, that is to say, a material in which the mineral grains

Buckingham, Michael

148

On the origin of intergranular jets V. B. Yurchyshyn1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and mass transport by these tiny events may not be negligible in the energy and mass-flux balance near2 1 Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Big Bear City, CA 92314, USA 2 more numerous than the larger events, leading us to the speculation that the total energy release

149

Meteorol Atmos Phys 102, 223241 (2008) DOI 10.1007/s00703-008-0329-0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wind profile. The temporal and spatial relationship between the Surface Energy Balance (SEB. In the early morning, the city air becomes 1 C cooler than in the countryside (due to efficient heat storage and building shade on the city urban canopy), then warmer again (1 C) in the afternoon, due to negligible

Ribes, Aurélien

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Abstract--While the connectivity, sensing, and computational capabilities of today's smartphones have increased, congestion in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to pollution in the air. In a traditional pollution monitoring system, a handful of sites across a region of pollution with error of maximum 0.5 ppm, a negligible amount for the application of interest. Index Terms of interest are carefully selected for the deployment of air quality monitoring equipment [3]. However

Simunic, Tajana

151

STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pastoral care as well as teaching Take positive steps to promote students well-being Ensure the health students to make contact with their GP or local mental health services. The Duty of Care and Negligence1 STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY Revised January 2013 #12;2 A. INTRODUCTION 1. Context Widening

Martin, Ralph R.

152

Dynamic and Quasi-static Measurements of PBXN-5 and Comp-B Geoffrey W. Brown1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steel changes negligibly. Molybdenum grease was used to lubricate the sample ends. Samples were tested at Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference June 1-4, 2009 Albuquerque New Mexico USA ©2009 Society frame (MTS model 880). Specimens were compressed between polished tungsten carbide platens lubricated

153

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. 16193paper.hyper2884 c ESO 2010 December 13, 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

disc. We measured the dusty disc inner inner rim, i.e. 6 mas, constrained the inclination angle of the dense equatorial disc. Moreover, as the expansion velocity is negligible, radiatively driven wind). Fast rotation of the star leads to an expanding disc-like wind in the case of very massive stars

Boyer, Edmond

154

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. The Treatment of Solar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. The Treatment of Solar Generation the Q&A panel to ask questions during the webinar. We will hold all questions until the end WITH THE LOSS OF DATA OR PROFITS, WHICH MAY RESULT FROM AN ACTION IN CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS

155

2-Source Extractors Under Computational Assumptions and Cryptography with Defective Randomness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that for any distribution X {0, 1}n with (n) min-entropy, a circuit of size poly(nlog n ) cannot invert f(X), except with negligible probability. A concrete candidate may be the exponentiation function, over Grant CCF-0634811 and THECB ARP Grant 003658-0113-2007. §Institute for Advanced Study, arao

Anderson, Richard

156

2Source Extractors Under Computational Assumptions and Cryptography with Defective Randomness #  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that for any distribution X # {0, 1} n with# n) min­entropy, a circuit of size poly(n log n ) cannot invert f(X), except with negligible probability. A concrete candidate may be the exponentiation function, over by NSF Grant CCF­0634811 and THECB ARP Grant 003658­0113­2007. § Institute for Advanced Study, arao

Anderson, Richard

157

PHYSICAL REVIEW 8 VOLUME NVMBEH. 4 &5 I.ESHUAHY Nonadditive forces and vacancies in rare-gas crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW 8 VOLUME NVMBEH. 4 &5 I.ESHUAHY»» Nonadditive forces and vacancies in rare since overlap between adjacent atoms is small. A molecular model of the vacancy problem is set up. It is then seen that short-range three-body forces contribute a negligible fraction of the vacancy formation

Glyde, Henry R.

158

Testing the interaction of dark energy to dark matter through the analysis of virial relaxation of clusters Abell Clusters A586 and A1689 using realistic density profiles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interaction might also be detectable using for in- stance gamma-ray bursts. The interaction between dark of showing a negligible amount of mergers, as inferred from its low X-ray substructure [15]. We con- sider relevant technique for determination of the velocity dispersion is through the X-ray temperature. Our

159

Introduction: In this task you will be asked to assess the quality of student solutions to a physics exam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Your job is to calculate the direction and magnitude of the electric field needed so that CO+ ions conservation of energy to relate the electric potential energy transferred to the molecule and its final kinetic energy. Assume gravity is negligible. Convert the mass of CO into kilograms per molecule. ( ) ( )( ) ( )( )

Minnesota, University of

160

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 55, NO. 7, JULY 2007 3787 An Approximately MAI-Free Multiaccess OFDM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- tiplexing (OFDM) transceiver with preceding, called the precoded multiuser OFDM (PMU-OFDM) system, was recently introduced by Tsai et al. (2005). The PMU-OFDM system can reduce multiac- cess interference (MAI) due to the carrier frequency offset (CFO) to a negligible amount by preceding the data of each user

Kuo, C.-C. "Jay"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim COMMUNICATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lifetimes greater than 3­4 years. Here we present a detailed operating lifetime study of encapsulated solar and degradation of bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJs) based on poly(para-phenylene vinylene) (PPV)[8 when state-of-the-art encapsulation with a glass-on-glass architecture is used.[16] Assuming negligible

McGehee, Michael

162

LAPP-EXP-2006-03. LAPP -9 Chemin de Bellevue -BP 110 F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux CEDEX -FRANCE Tel : (33) (0) 4 50 09 16 00 --  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Their influence was found to be negligible to contribute to the optical transmission radiation damage in lead tungstate low dose rate radiation damage behaviour E. Auffraya , A. Borisevichb , G. Drobychevc , V Saint Odile, 29-31 March, 2006. Abstract Shallow traps influence the radiation damage behaviour of lead

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

AN IMPROVED CRITERION FOR NEW PARTICLE FORMATION IN DIVERSE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to test the validity of Lg as an NPF criterion. Measurements included aerosol size distributions down to 3 the probability that a nucleated particle will grow to a detectable size before being lost by coagulation with the pre-existing aerosol. Cluster-cluster coagulation was shown to contribute negligibly to this survival

164

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, suppl6ment au no 8, Tome 39, aolit 1978,page C6-1039 RESONANCES IN GENERALIZED SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PHONON ANOMALIES IN YS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the remarkable nesting features of the Fermi surfaces of the 9 valence electrons transition metal chalcogenides. Contrary to the transi- tion metal carbides, the p-d hybridization at the Fermi level is negligible for YS / l / in the 9 and 10 valence electrons (ve) transition metal chalchogenides (TMC) such as NbC, Ta

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

ORIGINAL PAPER Macroscopic Evidence of Thermally Activated Friction with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[1­3]. These extreme conditions are often the motivation for variable temperature studies Cryogenic tribology Á Polytetrafluoroethylene Á PTFE Á Solid lubrication Introduction There are a number- ical testing. Under conditions where wear, viscoelastic losses, and plastic deformation are negligible

Sawyer, Wallace

166

Journal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 249256 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nafion Gas diffusion layer Water content a b s t r a c t In this paper thermal properties for materials.27, 0.36 and 0.40 W K-1 m-1 respectively and the thermal contact resistivity to the apparatus resistance between two PTLs is negligible compared to the apparatus' thermal contact resistivity

Kjelstrup, Signe

167

Parametric internal waves in a compressible fluid Kausik S. Das1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the wave motion was as- sumed to be negligible compared to the speed of sound. Here, we allow. It may be possible to observe experimentally near a gas-liquid critical point. PACS numbers: 43.28.+h, 92 parametric waves and that such waves may be experimentally ob- servable near a gas-liquid critical point

Morris, Stephen W.

168

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume E T H A N L . G R O S S M A N , * , L U I, and methane, and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its

Grossman, Ethan L.

169

Remanence enhancement in magnetically interacting particles Heliang Qu and Jiang Yu Li*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, which completely characterizes the remanence of magnets if the exchange coupling is negligible of remanence for most permanent magnets, the re- cent development of exchange-spring magnets make the asRemanence enhancement in magnetically interacting particles Heliang Qu and Jiang Yu Li* Department

Li, Jiangyu

170

Off-shell OPERA neutrinos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the OPERA experiment, superluminal propagation of neutrinos can occur if one of the neutrino masses is extremely small. However the effect only has appreciable amplitude at energies of order this mass and thus has negligible overlap with the multi-GeV scale of the experiment.

Tim R. Morris

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

171

Copyright 2006 by the Genetics Society of America DOI: 10.1534/genetics.105.051110  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) decayed very rapidly in the self-incompatible wild sunflower, with the expected LD falling to negligible to this so-called ``domestication bottleneck,'' the transition to self-fertilization that often accompa- nies with a transition to partial or full self-fertilization reduces the effective recombination rate, once again

Burke, John M.

172

Mechanics of cycling J.-P. Mariot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as well. The movement is studied when an average constant torque is applied on the rear wheel. For a 72 kg, that mechanical losses due to the ball bearings are now negligible considering the excellence of modern products. The invention of the bicycle is probably as impor- tant as that of the wheel (a little over 5 000 years ago

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

Measuring sparticle masses in nonuniversal string inspired models at the LHC.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/UFB problem. It should be noted [12] that the A-terms of squarks other than the stop are not calculable for small tan ?. We shall approximate them here to be equal to At, but in fact they have a negligible effect upon the phenomenol- ogy/spectrum unless tan ?...

Allanach, B C; Lester, Christopher G; Parker, Michael A; Webber, Bryan R

174

Commercial Application of a New Formaldehyde-free Wood Adhesive from Renewable Professor Kaichang Li  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

production of plywood and particleboards in a number of plants and replaced over 50 million pounds and a petrochemical-based novel curing agent, polyamidoamine- epichlorohydride (PAE) resin. The price of this PAE goes solely from renewable materials, i.e., requiring negligible amount of petrochemical-based raw materials

Escher, Christine

175

500 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2006 ELF Radar System Proposed for Localized  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

500 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2006 ELF Radar System frequency (ELF), finite difference time domain (FDTD), ionospheric disturbances, radar, remote sensing. I to be of sufficiently low power to have negligible heating or any other effects upon the ionospheric anomaly.) Employing

Simpson, Jamesina J.

176

Recycling flows in eMergy evaluation: A Mathematical Paradox? N.Y. Amponsah, O. Le Corre1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 Recycling involving recycling or reuse of waste. If waste exergy (its residual usefulness) is not negligible, wastes could serve as input to another process or be recycled. In cases of continuous waste recycle or reuse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only it without permission. 8-106 8-114 Steam expands in a two-stage adiabatic turbine from a specified state The turbine is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible. 4 The environment temperature is given to be T0

Bahrami, Majid

178

The Influence of Trickle Irrigation on the Quality of Irrigation Return Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of 14 kg/ha from a lysimeter treated with 112kg/ha to a high of a- bout 75 kg/ha from a lysimeter treated with 224 kg/ha of N. Nitrate losses were negligible compared to checks when N application rates to sorghum were 112 kg/ha. Most of the N03-N losses...

Brown, K. W.; Gerard, C. J.; DeMichele, D. W.; Sharpe, P. J. H.; Hipp, B. W.

179

Onsrud, H.J., Evidence Generated from GIS. GIS Law, 1(3): 1-9, 1992 Evidence Generated from GIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an extended period of time on a large parcel of land it owns. The group claims that adverse effects caused set that identified the locations and sizes of various buried utilities in the community of negligent dissemination by government of faulty data, see Dansby 1992). The city claims that the data

Onsrud, Harlan J.

180

M. Bahrami ENSC 388 Assignment # 6 1 Assignment #6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the ideal gas model for air, determine the turbine efficiency. Problem 2 Components of a heat pump is modeled as an ideal gas. Analysis: Isentropic turbine efficiency can be obtained from The numerator at 50 with a negligible change in pressure. Using the ideal gas model for the air and neglecting kinetic

Bahrami, Majid

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Enhancing Jc(B,theta) in YBa2Cu3O7-delta via nano-engineering of pinning structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the YBCO lattice resulting in unnecessary degradation of Tc and low field Jc. In this work, two types of strong pinning centers with negligible effect on the Tc and low field Jc were incorporated in YBCO films via strain engineering on the nanoscale...

Emergo, Rose Lyn S.

2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

182

July 28, 2000 Taxes and Quotas for a Stock Pollutant with Multiplicative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for a non-negligible period. For these pollutants, the environmental damage at a point in time depends of information can occur regardless of whether environmental damages are associated with flows or stocks.4. All these papers conclude that (i) a steeper marginal environmental damage curve, or a flatter

Karp, Larry S.

183

Effects of liquid helium bubble formation in a superconducting cavity cryogenic system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We constructed a simple prototype model based on the geometry of the 56 MHz superconducting cavity for RHIC. We studied the formation, in this prototype, of bubbles of liquid helium and their thermal effects on the cavity. We found that due to the low viscosity of the liquid helium, and its small surface tension, no large bubbles formed. The tiny bubbles, generated from most of the area, behaved like light gas travelling in a free space and escaped from the trapping region. The bubbles that were generated in the trapping area, due to its descending geometry, are much bigger than the other bubbles, but due to the liquid flow generated by heating, they still are negligible compared to the size of the trapping region. We expected that the effects of bubbles in our 56 MHz cavity during operation might well be negligible.

Chang, X.; Wang, E.; Xin, T.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Search for the decay B? D(+)(s1) (2536)X  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. J. Thaler -Champaign, Illinois 61801 wards Ontario, Canada K1S 5B6 icle Physics, Canada MacFarlane, and P. M. Patel Que´bec, Canada H3A 2T8 icle Physics, Canada doff , New York 14850 . Darling, R. Davis, S. Kotov, I. Kravchenko, N. Kwak, Zhou 57I et... stringent RK.0.9 requirement on the K1 with negligible loss of efficiency. The Ds1 1 candidates are required to have a scaled momentum xp5pD s1 1 / A Ebeam 2 2M D s1 1 2 ,0.45, which is the kinematic limit for B!Ds11 X decays. ~We ignore the negligible...

Ammar, Raymond G.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Darling, C.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, Nowhan; Zhou, L.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Self-pumping impurity control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for removing the helium ash from a fusion reactor having a D-T plasma comprises a helium trapping site within the reactor plasma confinement device, said trapping site being formed of a trapping material having negligible helium solubility and relatively high hydrogen solubility; and means for depositing said trapping material on said site at a rate sufficient to prevent saturation of helium trapping.

Brooks, Jeffrey N. (Darien, IL); Mattas, Richard F. (Downers Grove, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

187

"Dark energy" as conformal dynamics of space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The exact solution for dynamic of conform-flat space homogeneous since dynamic equation is given. Conform mode of space metric changing in Global time theory has negative energy density. Swap of energy to this mode from another ones lead to increasing of Universe homogeneity although probability of this swap from local objects is negligibly small. Conform mode is corresponding to "dark energy" in observation astronomy.

D. Burlankov

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

188

Cleaning of soft-solid soil layers on vertical and horizontal surfaces by stationary coherent impinging liquid jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

number of 2 (from transient conduction through a symmetrical slab) gives an estimated heating time of 2h2/?, where ? is the thermal diffusivity. Taking ? = 10-7 m2s-1 gives a heating time for a 250 ?m thick soil layer of 1.3 s, which is negligible given... /ro - x hydraulic/film jump radius - Z height of inner radial zone above the point of impingement m 24 Greek ? thermal diffusivity...

Wilson, D. I.; Atkinson, P.; Köhler, H.; Mauermann, M.; Stoye, H.; Suddaby, K.; Wang, T.; Davidson, J. F.; Majschak, J. -P.

2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

189

Fracture toughness of the IEA heat of F82H ferritic/martensitic stainless steel as a function of loading mode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mode I and mixed-mode I/III fracture toughness tests were performed for the IEA heat of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic stainless steel F82H at ambient temperature in order to provide comparison with previous measurements on a small heat given a different heat treatment. The results showed that heat to heat variations and heat treatment had negligible consequences on Mode I fracture toughness, but behavior during mixed-mode testing showed unexpected instabilities.

Li, Huaxin; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States); Hirth, J.P. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

After the Conservation Reserve Program: Economic Decisions with Farming and Grazing in Mind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pump at various depths are listed in Table 5. The cost includes solar panels, pump, pipe removal and replace- ment, platform, wiring, control box, and installation. Notice the drop in gallons per minute as the well depth increases. A solar... submersible does not pump effectively at greater well depths. Expected annual repair costs are negligible. A submersible pump usually lasts about 10 years, and solar panels, 40-plus years. In addition to well and fencing costs, controlled burn- ing...

Cearley, Kenneth A.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Warminski , Patrick; Jones, DeDe; Kenny, Nicholas

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

191

Bremsstrahlung Radiation At a Vacuum Bubble Wall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When charged particles collide with a vacuum bubble, they can radiate strong electromagnetic waves due to rapid deceleration. Owing to the energy loss of the particles by this bremsstrahlung radiation, there is a non-negligible damping pressure acting on the bubble wall even when thermal equilibrium is maintained. In the non-relativistic region, this pressure is proportional to the velocity of the wall and could have influenced the bubble dynamics in the early universe.

Jae-Weon Lee; Kyungsub Kim; Chul H. Lee; Ji-ho Jang

2007-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

192

Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duggan, Ruth [SNL

2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

193

Inflation for Bianchi IX model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The influence of Inflation on initial (i.e. at Planck's epoch) large anisotropy of the Universe is studied, considering a more general metric than the isotropic one: the locally rotationally symmetric (L.R.S.) Bianchi IX metric. We find, then, a large set of initial conditions of intrinsic curvature and shear allowing an inflationary epoch that make the anisotropy negligible. These are not trivial because of the non-linearity of the Einstein's equations.

R. Bergamini; P. Sedici; P. Verrocchio

1996-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

194

HIGH CHARGE EFFECTS IN SILICON DRIFT DETECTORS WITH LATERAL CONFINEMENT OF ELECTRONS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new drift detector prototype which provides suppression of the lateral diffusion of electrons has been tested as a function of the signal charge up to high charge levels, when electrostatic repulsion is not negligible. The lateral diffusion of the electron cloud has been measured for injected charges up to 2 {center_dot} 10{sup 5} electrons. The maximum number of electrons for which the suppression of the lateral spread is effective is obtained.

CASTOLDI,A.; REHAK,P.

1995-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

195

Small sample size power for some tests of constant hazard function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1970 ABSTRACT Small Sample Size Power for Some Tests of Constant Hazard Function (December 1970) Wayne Ward Fercho, B. A. , North Dakota State University N. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Larry Ringer Four different tests of constant.... Moran [1951] showed that Bartlett's M test was an asymptotically most powerful test agai. nst the alternative of a gamma distribution with parameters beta and theta. Hartley [1950] stated that the loss in power of his test was negligible...

Fercho, Wayne Ward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

196

The benchmark of gutzwiller density functional theory in hydrogen systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose an approximate form of the exchange-correlation energy functional for the Gutzwiller density functional theory. It satisfies certain physical constraints in both weak and strong electron correlation limits. We benchmark the Gutzwiller density functional approximation in the hydrogen systems, where the static correlation error is shown to be negligible. The good transferability is demonstrated by applications to the hydrogen molecule and some crystal structures.

Yao, Y.; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

197

1) Laura Secord was making solid spherical cannon balls of radius R for General Brock during the war of 1812. She placed three of them on her smooth level floor. Each was in contact with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the above. 8 , f i ~ e n d c M Corn/- Cam, 45a4-3p k c d -* #12;2) A rigid metal pipe packed with recycled as point masses, all collisions are elastic, and air resistance is negligible. Find the ratio hllhz, where uses identical bulbs connectedto a 12 V battery as shown, list the bulbs in order of increasing

Boutaba, Raouf

198

Inertial currents in the Caribbean Sea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conveniently by applying boundary layer analysis to the vortlcity equation. Munk' s circulation theory divides naturally into two primary regions. I) An interior region in which the lateral-stress terms are negligible and ln which, for zonal winds... of the Problem The problem studied is that of the westward intensification of the wind-driven ocean circulation ln the Caribbean Sea, A rectangular sea is envisaged as representative of the Caribbean Sea with the eastern end in communication with the Atlantic...

Saylor, James H

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Absolute Source Activity Measurement with a Single Detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present paper the activity of {sup 60}Co source was measured using the full absorption, sum and random coincidences (pile up) peaks and the total spectrum area in the gamma spectra. By the exact treatment of the chance coincidence and pile-up events, surprisingly good results were obtained. With the source on the detector end-cap (when the angular correlation effects are negligible), this simple method yields absolute activity values deviating from the reference activity for about 1 percent.

Bikit, I.; Nemes, T.; Mrdja, D.; Forkapic, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 4, 21 000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

200

Origin of the inflationary Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a consistent description of how the inflationary Universe emerges in quantum cosmology. This involves two steps: Firstly, it is shown that a sensible probability peak can be obtained from the cosmological wave function. This is achieved by going beyond the tree level of the semiclassical expansion. Secondly, due to decoherence interference terms between different semiclassical branches are negligibly small. The results give constraints on the particle content of a unified theory.

A. Barvinsky; A. Kamenshchik; C. Kiefer

1999-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Relaying an optical wavefront  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A wavefront rely devices samples an incoming optical wavefront at different locations, optically relays the samples while maintaining the relative position of the samples and the relative phase between the samples. The wavefront is reconstructed due to interference of the samples. Devices can be designed for many different wavelengths, including for example the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and even longer wavelengths such as millimeter waves. In one application, the device function as a telescope but with negligible length.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

202

Main effects of the Earth's rotation on the stationary states of ultra-cold neutrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The relativistic corrections in the Hamiltonian for a particle in a uniformly rotating frame are discussed. They are shown to be negligible in the case of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) in the Earth's gravity. The effect, on the energy levels of UCN, of the main term due to the Earth's rotation, i.e. the angular-momentum term, is calculated. The energy shift is found proportional to the energy level itself.

Mayeul Arminjon

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

203

Formation of Cooper pairs as a consequence of exchange interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pairing of two electrons with antiparallel spins may lead to energy minimization of each of the paired electrons. Thus the exchange interaction causes a bond between two valence electrons in a crystal. This can be proved analyzing the energy of each valence electron in the field of the one-valent metallic crystal on assumption that all other kinds of magnetic spin ordering in the crystal are negligible.

Stanislav Dolgopolov

2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Dark energy perturbations and a possible solution to the coincidence problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze some generic properties of the dark energy (DE) perturbations, in the case of a self-conserved DE fluid. We also apply a simple test (the "F-test") to compare a model to the data on large scale structure (LSS) under the assumption of negligible DE perturbations. We exemplify our discussions by means of the LXCDM model, showing that it provides a viable solution to the cosmological coincidence problem.

Javier Grande; Ana Pelinson; Joan Sola

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

205

Alternative synthetic routes for the preparation of PLA/montmorillonite nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although the improvement of tensile Modulus and thermal stability due to the addition of innovative organoclays to PLA were negligible, our investigation allowed to evidence that the preliminary preparation of an inorganic rich composite through in situ polymerization of lactyde gave a final morphology improved with respect to that achieved by simply melt dispersing organoclay powder. Anyway the former preparation method should be further investigated in order to control PLA structural features resulting from the ring opening polymerization synthesis.

Bronco, Simona [CNR-IPCF Istituto per i Processi Chimco-Fisici, via Risorgimento n. 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Beatrice Coltelli, Maria; Castiello, Stefania; Ciardelli, Francesco; Taburoni, Elisa [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale via Risorgimento n. 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Conzatti, Lucia [CNR-ISMAC Genova, via dei Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy)

2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

206

arXiv:0802.2965v1[hep-ex]21Feb2008 Single Top Quark Production at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

arXiv:0802.2965v1[hep-ex]21Feb2008 Single Top Quark Production at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are s-channel, which involve the exchange of a time-like W boson, and t be created in association with an an on-shell W boson, but this process is negligible at the Fermilab

California at Santa Cruz, University of

207

Infrared thermography of a hot air/CO?b2 ?saxisymmetric jet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-band absorption constant (Appendix C) Planck's constant isotherm value ratio of specific heats (CgC?) wide-band absorption constant (Appendix C) optical length (Appendix C) wide-band absorption constant (Appendix C) Mach number molecular weight (Appendix C..., compressed air and dry bottled CO, . Some water vapor may have been entrained by the jet from the ambient surroundings but this amount is assumed negligible compared to the mass of the jet. Therefore the effects of water vapor emissions and absorptions...

Gordge, Dennis Noel

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Comparison of computation methods for CBM production performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Jensen and Smith?s method assumes the gas stored in the cleat system is negligible (no water saturation effects). Papers by David and Law7, Hower8, and Jalal and Shahab9 showed how numerical compositional simulators with additional features can be used... Study for Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery Processes, Part I: Carbon Dioxide Injection,? paper SPE 75669 presented at the 2002 SPE Technology Symposium, Calgary, 30 April-2 May. 8. Hower, T.L.: ?Coalbed Methane Reservoir Simulation: An Envolving...

Mora, Carlos A.

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

209

Aeroelastic analysis of a helicopter rotor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was in coalescence with the two-dimensional predicted flutter boundary, three ? dimensional theory was required. The effects of wake contraction and tip ~ortex presence were found to be negligible in comparison to that of the helical vortex sheet... are extended to Dr. Leland A. Carlson for reviewing the original manuscript for this thesis and editing it. Dr. Garison and Dr. Ralph K. Cavin also served on the advisory commit tee f or this thesis and their assistance is acknowledged. The financial...

McQuien, Larry Jay

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

The variability of fly ash and its effects on selected properties of fresh Portland cement/fly ash mortars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the needed quality control of concrete . Another source of concern results from the recent development of lignite and sub-bituminous coal as fuel sources. The ash produced from these coals is of a different chemical composition than traditional bituminous... 50 percent to greater than 200 percent of a control test. An exhaustive literature review has revealed neglig1ble information concerning the PAI of sub- b1tuminous and lignite ashes. Research is greatly needed to determine the ash properties...

McKerall, William Carlton

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

An economic analysis of commerical catfish production in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Texas were personally enumerated i n an effort to insure accurate data . Prominent areas of catfish production were located and total acreage and pond size distribution were determined. Based on relative homogeneity, Texas was divided into six... regions, two of which had negligible production and were therefore not included in the analysis. Texas was also divided into a northern and southern region. In addition, the operations in Texas were divided into size categories where size I was composed...

Jambers, Toby Harold

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Formation of Cooper pairs as a consequence of exchange interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pairing of two electrons with antiparallel spins may lead to energy minimization of each of the paired electrons. Thus the exchange interaction causes a bond between two valence electrons in a crystal. This can be proved analyzing the energy of each valence electron in the field of the one-valent metallic crystal on assumption that all other kinds of magnetic spin ordering in the crystal are negligible.

Dolgopolov, Stanislav

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

A simplified procedure for estimation of mixture permeances from unary permeation data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using the Maxwell–Stefan (M–S) diffusion equations as a basis, we derive simple analytic expression for the estimation of component permeances of mixtures across micro- and mesoporous membranes on the basis of unary permeation data. The analytic procedure uses two simplifying assumptions: (1) downstream pressures are negligibly small in comparison to upstream pressures, and (2) adsorption equilibrium within the pores can be described by Henry law coefficients. Two limiting scenarios are considered in estimating the M–S exchange coefficients, Ð{sub ij}: (1) correlations negligible, and (2) correlations dominant. In the correlations negligible scenario, the permeances of each component in the mixture equal that of the corresponding pure components. For the correlations dominant scenario, the permeances in the mixture are significantly different from the pure component values; the differences being dictated not only by mobilities of the species within the pores, but also by the adsorption equilibrium. The results of this study underlines the strong influence of diffusional correlations on the mixture permeances and permeation selectivities.

Krishna, Rajamani; van Baten, Jasper M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Environmental Effects for Gravitational-wave Astrophysics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The upcoming detection of gravitational waves by terrestrial interferometers will usher in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. This will be particularly true when space-based detectors will come of age and measure the mass and spin of massive black holes with exquisite precision and up to very high redshifts, thus allowing for better understanding of the symbiotic evolution of black holes with galaxies, and for high-precision tests of General Relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. Such ambitious goals require that astrophysical environmental pollution of gravitational-wave signals be constrained to negligible levels, so that neither detection nor estimation of the source parameters are significantly affected. Here, we consider the main sources for space-based detectors -- the inspiral, merger and ringdown of massive black-hole binaries and extreme mass-ratio inspirals -- and account for various effects on their gravitational waveforms, including electromagnetic fields, cosmological evolution, accretion disks, dark matter, "firewalls" and possible deviations from General Relativity. We discover that the black-hole quasinormal modes are sharply different in the presence of matter, but the ringdown signal observed by interferometers is typically unaffected. The effect of accretion disks and dark matter depends critically on their geometry and density profile, but is negligible for most sources, except for few special extreme mass-ratio inspirals. Electromagnetic fields and cosmological effects are always negligible. We finally explore the implications of our findings for proposed tests of General Relativity with gravitational waves, and conclude that environmental effects will not prevent the development of precision gravitational-wave astronomy.

Enrico Barausse; Vitor Cardoso; Paolo Pani

2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

215

Systematic relativistic quantum effects on screening of fusion rates in white dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relativistic electron degeneracy effects are dominant in ultra-dense plasmas (UDP), such as those found in white dwarfs. These effects can be treated systematically by obtaining an expansion of the screening length in inverse powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. In general, our theory leads to an ${\\cal O}(10)$ effect on the enhancement of fusion rates in white dwarfs. Further, it is shown analytically for these stellar conditions that Bose statistics of nuclei have a negligible effect on the screening length, in consonance with Monte Carlo simulations found in literature.

Shirish M. Chitanvis

2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

216

Systematic quantum effects on screening of fusion rates in white dwarfs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron degeneracy effects are dominant in ultra-dense plasmas (UDP), such as those found in white dwarfs. These effects can be treated systematically by obtaining an expansion of the screening length in inverse powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. The theory exhibits Thomas-Fermi-like screening in an appropriate regime. In general, our theory leads to an ${\\cal O}(1)$ effect on the enhancement of fusion rates in white dwarfs. Further, it is shown analytically for these stellar conditions that Bose statistics of nuclei have a negligible effect on the screening length, in consonance with Monte Carlo simulations found in literature.

Shirish M. Chitanvis

2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

217

Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon can be a non negligible component of the background. In order to reduce the radon level in the gas mixture, it has been necessary first to cover the NEMO 3 detector with an airtight tent and then to install a radon-free air factory. With the use of sensitive radon detectors, the level of radon at the exit of the factory and inside the tent is continuously controlled. These radon levels are discussed within the NEMO 3 context.

Nachab, A. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, BP 120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

218

Echo of the Quantum Bounce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We identify a signature of quantum gravitational effects that survives from the early universe to the current era: Fluctuations of quantum fields as seen by comoving observers are significantly influenced by the history of the early universe. In particular we show how the existence (or not) of a quantum bounce leaves a trace in the background quantum noise that is not damped and would be non-negligible even nowadays. Furthermore, we estimate an upper bound for the typical energy and length scales where quantum effects are relevant. We discuss how this signature might be observed and therefore used to build falsifiability tests of quantum gravity theories.

Luis J. Garay; Mercedes Martin-Benito; Eduardo Martin-Martinez

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Photon emission from bare quark stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the photon emission from the electrosphere of a quark star. It is shown that at temperatures T\\sim 0.1-1 MeV the dominating mechanism is the bremsstrahlung due to bending of electron trajectories in the mean Coulomb field of the electrosphere. The radiated energy for this mechanism is much larger than that for the Bethe-Heitler bremsstrahlung. The energy flux from the mean field bremsstrahlung exceeds the one from the tunnel e^{+}e^{-} pair creation as well. We demonstrate that the LPM suppression of the photon emission is negligible.

B. G. Zakharov

2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

220

Fermi-level depinning and contact resistance reduction in metal/n-Ge junctions by insertion of W-encapsulating Si cluster films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge junctions and a significant reduction of specific contact resistivity of n-Ge by inserting an ultra-thin semiconducting Si-rich W silicide film (WSi{sub n}, n?=?12–14) composed of W-encapsulating Si clusters. Dependence of the specific contact resistivity on the electron Schottky barrier height followed the ideal exponential relation for various contact metal species. This result indicates that the insertion of the WSi{sub n} film provides a negligible contribution to contact resistivity because its tunneling resistance is very low owing to the low offset of the conduction band edge of Ge.

Okada, Naoya [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Uchida, Noriyuki [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Kanayama, Toshihiko [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Training of a smoke detecting domestic security dog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is negligible in respect to the dog's olfactory threshold. Dogs seemed to react to a complex of odors (crushed plants, soil bacteria, leather, and shoe oil), the human odor apparently playing a minimal role. An apparatus was constructed by Menzel and Menzel.... ) Lever-press panel (LPP). E. ) Nose-push panel (NPP). F. ) Manually operated work cue. G. ) Fans were small TV camera blowers used to exhaust odors from checkpoint panels. H, ) Remote switching box allows manual control of power to all equipment from a...

Kirk, Douglas Walter

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

A hyperbolic problem with non-local constraint describing ion-rearrangement in a model for ion-lithium batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we study the Fokker-Plank equation arising in a model which describes the charge and discharge process of ion-lithium batteries. In particular we focus our attention on slow reaction regimes with non-negligible entropic effects, which triggers the mass-splitting transition. At first we prove that the problem is globally well-posed. After that we prove a stability result under some hypothesis of improved regularity and a uniqueness result for the stability under some additional condition of

Stefano Scrobogna; Juan J. L. Velázquez

2015-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

223

Simulations of NSTX with a Liquid Lithium Divertor Module  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The UEDGE edge plasma transport code is used to model the effect of the reduced recycling provided by the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) module that will be installed in NSTX. UEDGE's transport coefficients are calibrated against an existing NSTX shot using midplane and divertor diagnostic data. The LLD is then incorporated into the simulations as a reduction in the recycling coefficient over the outer divertor. Heat transfer calculations performed using the resulting heat flux profiles indicate that lithium evaporation will be negligible for pulse lengths < 2 s at low (? 2 MW) input power. At high input power (? 7 MW), the pulse length may have to be restricted.

D. P. Stotler, R. Maingi, H.W. Kugel, A. Yu. Pigarov, T.D. Rognlien, V.A. Soukhanovskii

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

224

Effects of guy wires on SWECS tower dynamics. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Rocky Flats (RF) Supporting Research and Technology (SRT) study for tower testing/analysis has led to some useful information concerning the effect of tower guy pretension on small wind system tower dynamics. The effect of guy-wire pretension on tower natural frequencies is usually considered negligible if the guy: (1) has no sag caused by gravity, and (2) the tension is not approaching the tower buckling load. At the rf test center it was found that, for the test tower even when these conditions were avoided, the guy fundamental frequency must be 30% greater than the tower fundamental frequency to maintain the fundamental's characteristics.

Butterfield, C P; Pykkonen, K R; Sexton, J H

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

-delayed proton emission branches in 43Cr  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The + decay of very neutron-deficient 43Cr was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of -delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81 4)%, (7.1 0.4)%, and (0.08 0.03)%, respectively. 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the -3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12 4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

Pomorski, M. [University of Warsaw; Miernik, K. [University of Warsaw; Dominik, W. [University of Warsaw; Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Czyrkowski, H. [University of Warsaw; Cwiok, Mikolaj [Warsaw University; Darby, Iain [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabrowski, Ryszard [Warsaw University; Ginter, T. N. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Korgul, A. [University of Warsaw; Kusmierz, W. [University of Warsaw; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rajabali, M. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Stolz, A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Resonant conversions of QCD axions into hidden axions and suppressed isocurvature perturbations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study in detail MSW-like resonant conversions of QCD axions into hidden axions, including cases where the adiabaticity condition is only marginally satisfied, and where anharmonic effects are non-negligible. When the resonant conversion is efficient, the QCD axion abundance is suppressed by the hidden and QCD axion mass ratio. We find that, when the resonant conversion is incomplete due to a weak violation of the adiabaticity, the CDM isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed, while non-Gaussianity of the isocurvature perturbations generically remain unsuppressed. The isocurvature bounds on the inflation scale can therefore be relaxed by the partial resonant conversion of the QCD axions into hidden axions.

Naoya Kitajima; Fuminobu Takahashi

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

227

MSW Effects in Vacuum Oscillations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We point out that for solar neutrino oscillations with the mass-squared difference of Delta m^2 ~ 10^-10 - 10^-9 eV^2, traditionally known as ``vacuum oscillation'' range, the solar matter effects are non-negligible, particularly for the low energy pp neutrinos. One consequence of this is that the values of the mixing angle theta and pi/2-theta are not equivalent, leading to the need to consider the entire physical range of the mixing angle 0<=theta<=pi/2 when determining the allowed values of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

Alexander Friedland

2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

228

Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

LoanSTAR Energy Auditing: Update and Changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that more lucrative, shorter payback projects were most often selected for accomplishment in the early days. AUDIT RESULTS During the recent five-month period between July 31 and December 31, 1991, 15 detailed audit reports covering 10.9 million square... $ Annual Savings, million $/yr Payback, yrs ECRMs 46.1 13.7 3.4 M&Os negligible 0.2 0.1 Combined 46.1 13.9 3.3 A total of 58 LoanSTAR detailed audit reports covering 28.3 million square feet and 425 buildings have been accepted. The total includes...

Heffington, W. M.; Athar, A.; Britton, A. J.; Nutter, D. W.; Stuewe, C.

230

Effects of Spatial Variations in Packing Fraction on Reactor Physics Parameters in Pebble-Bed Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The well-known spatial variation of packing fraction near the outer boundary of a pebble-bed reactor core is cited. The ramifications of this variation are explored with the MCNP computer code. It is found that the variation has negligible effects on the global reactor physics parameters extracted from the MCNP calculations for use in analysis by diffusion-theory codes, but for local reaction rates the effects of the variation are naturally important. Included is some preliminary work in using first-order perturbation theory for estimating the effect of the spatial variation of packing fraction on the core eigenvalue and the fision density distribution.

William K. Terry; A. M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema; Michael Scott McKinley

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

On the interplay between allowed Gamow-Teller and Isovector Spin Monopole (IVSM) excitations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The excitation of Gamow-Teller (GT) and Isovector Spin Monopole (IVSM) modes in {sup 116}In by (p,n) and (n,p)) charge-exchange reactions is studied within the framework of the Quasiparticle Random-phase Approximation. It is shown that the admixture of the IVSM and Gamow-Teller (GT) excitations is negligible, and that the contribution to the strength above 20 MeV excitation energy, in {sup 116}In, is, most likely, due to the IVSM ({sigma}r{sup 2}{tau}{sup {+-}}) mode.

Bes, D. R. [Dept of Physics. Lab.Tandar, CAC-CNEA. Avda Gral Paz 1499, 1650 Gral San Martin (Argentina); Civitarese, O. [Dept of Physics, University of La Plata, c.c.67 1900, La Plata (Argentina); Suhonen, J. [Dept of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

232

Top quark production at the Tevatron at NNLO.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the subleading terms. The average of the two kinematics results is just above the NLO cross sections for both energies. Our results using the CTEQ6M NLO parton densities [10] are similar. At ? S = 1.8 TeV, averaging over the NNLO 1PI and PIM results with the two... that differences with our previous estimates in [6, 7] have as much to do with the use of the new parton densities as with the inclusion of the new subleading terms. We also note that the scale dependence of the NNLO cross section is negligible [1...

Kidonakis, Nikolaos; Vogt, Ramona

233

On the mirror instability in the presence of electron temperature anisotropy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Computation of the mirror instability growth rate in an ion-electron bi-Maxwellian plasma is revisited, starting from the low-frequency kinetic theory. The role of the electron finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the instability quenching is shown to possibly be dominant, even near threshold where the smallest unstable scales significantly exceed the electron gyroscale. Validation of the results by comparison with predictions of the fully kinetic whamp software is also presented. The influence of the electron temperatures on the ion FLR effects very near threshold, where the electron kinetic effects are negligible, is also pointed out.

Kuznetsov, E. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., 119991 Moscow, Russia and Space Research Institute, 84/31 Profsoyuznaya St., 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L. [Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Vapor-liquid equilibria of coal-derived liquids; 3: Binary systems with tetralin at 200 mmHg  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data are reported for binary systems of tetralin with p-xylene, [gamma]-picoline, piperidine, and pyridine; all systems were measured at 26.66 kPa (200 mmHg) with a recirculation still. Liquid-phase activity coefficients were correlated using the Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations. Vapor-phase nonidealities were found negligible under the experimental conditions of this work, and deviations of the liquid phase from the ideal behavior, as described by Raoult's law, were found to be slightly positive for all the systems.

Blanco, B.; Beltran, S.; Cabezas, J.L. (University Coll., Burgos (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Coca, J. (Univ. of Oviedo (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Electronic Instability in a Zero-Gap Semiconductor: The Charge-Density Wave in (TaSe4)2I  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We report a comprehensive study of the paradigmatic quasi-1D compound (TaSe4)2I performed by means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and first-principles electronic structure calculations. We find it to be a zero-gap semiconductor in the nondistorted structure, with non-negligible interchain coupling. Theory and experiment support a Peierls-like scenario for the charge-density wave formation below TCDW=263??K, where the incommensurability is a direct consequence of the finite interchain coupling. The formation of small polarons, strongly suggested by the ARPES data, explains the puzzling semiconductor-to-semiconductor transition observed in transport at TCDW.

Tournier-Colletta, C.; Moreschini, L.; Autès, G.; Moser, S.; Crepaldi, A.; Berger, H.; Walter, A. L.; Kim, K. S.; Bostwick, A.; Monceau, P.; Rotenberg, E.; Yazyev, O. V.; Grioni, M.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Acceptor and donor production in Hg b1 s[subscript -x]Cd[subscript x]Te by neutron transmutation doping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

remains constant during the irradiation, 4. The dopant or oduced i'rom the decay of the pr oduct isot. ope is stable, 5. The effect of bur nup of the product isotopes and the dopants is negligible. With these assumptions and approximations one has... amounts such as Te and Te, and with products arri tting gamma rays with approximately the same ener gy, theoretical methods wer e developed for deter mining acceptor and donor production levels in Hg& xCdxTe based on the simultaneous irradiation of a...

Seager, Kevin Douglas

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Robust Broadcast-Communication Control of Electric Vehicle Charging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The anticipated increase in the number of plug-in electric vehicles (EV) will put additional strain on electrical distribution circuits. Many control schemes have been proposed to control EV charging. Here, we develop control algorithms based on randomized EV charging start times and simple one-way broadcast communication allowing for a time delay between communication events. Using arguments from queuing theory and statistical analysis, we seek to maximize the utilization of excess distribution circuit capacity while keeping the probability of a circuit overload negligible.

Turitsyn, Konstantin; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Results of First Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ACP and IRIS are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The first outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from January 28 to February 8, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of IRIS was within 1 W/m2. A difference of 5 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG).

Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.; Stoffel, T.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Bremsstrahlung emission modelling and application to fast electron physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of fast electron bremsstrahlung (FEB) using hard X-ray (HXR) cameras provide a unique diagnostic for the fast electron dynamics, with resolution in space, time and energy. A synthetic HXR diagnostic is developed to calculate the distribution function and FEB emission, such that experimental results can be directly compared with simulations. Using this comparison, the role of fast electron radial transport in radio-frequency current drive is investigated. For two cases studied in this paper, the HXR emission is consistent with negligible radial transport, although in one case this is in disagreement with the measured driven current.

Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Artaud, J.-F.; Basiuk, V.; Ekedahl, A.; Mazon, D. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Coda, S.; Gnesin, S.; Goniche, M. [CRPP, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Sharma, P. K. [IPR, Bhat, Gandhinagar - 382428 (India)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

240

Averaged equations for Josephson junction series arrays with LRC load  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive the averaged equations describing a series array of Josephson junctions shunted by a parallel inductor-resistor-capacitor load. We assume that the junctions have negligable capacitance ($\\beta = 0$), and derive averaged equations which turn out to be completely tractable: in particular the stability of both in-phase and splay states depends on a single parameter, $\\del$. We find an explicit expression for $\\delta$ in terms of the load parameters and the bias current. We recover (and refine) a common claim found in the technical literature, that the in-phase state is stable for inductive loads and unstable for capacitive loads.

Kurt Wiesenfeld; James W. Swift

1994-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Process for forming silicon carbide films and microcomponents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Silicon carbide films and microcomponents are grown on silicon substrates at surface temperatures between 900 K and 1700 K via C.sub.60 precursors in a hydrogen-free environment. Selective crystalline silicon carbide growth can be achieved on patterned silicon-silicon oxide samples. Patterned SiC films are produced by making use of the high reaction probability of C.sub.60 with silicon at surface temperatures greater than 900 K and the negligible reaction probability for C.sub.60 on silicon dioxide at surface temperatures less than 1250 K.

Hamza, Alex V. (Livermore, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Moalem, Mehran (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

A linearly constrained adaptive algorithm for seismic array processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-tap pzocessor nap be apyrozinated bp the single-tap processor Q(oyt) ~ 5 K(KW"X) (?) For the single-tap ossa equation (5) beoonee I(y) - s(ya)t + t)()). (14) Insertion of equations (5) and (14) into equation (15) yields Q(opt) ~ P"5 [1 + (Bt "K) /B(s (gd... requirement of the optimum constrained filter (11) ~ Assuming that the noise sources produced within the processor sre negligible, measure- ment of the input correlation matrix 5 for a given fitting interval J requires approximately N MJ operations...

Byun, Bok Sub

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Geodesic Motion on Closed Spaces: Two Numerical Examples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The geodesic structure is very closely related to the trace of the Laplace operator, involved in the calculation of the expectation value of the energy momentum tensor in Universes with non trivial topology. The purpose of this work is to provide concrete numerical examples of geodesic flows. Two manifolds with genus $g=0$ are given. In one the chaotic regions, form sets of negligible or zero measure. In the second example the geodesic flow, shows the presence of measurable chaotic regions. The approach is "experimental", numerical, and there is no attempt to an analytical calculation.

Daniel Muller

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

244

A Materials-Based Mitigation Strategy for SU/SD in PEM Fuel Cells: Properties and Performance-Specific Testing of IrRu OER Catalysts.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalysts that enable proton exchange membrane fuel cells to weather the damaging conditions experienced during transient periods of fuel starvation have been developed. The addition of minute amounts of iridium and ruthenium to the cathode enhances the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) during start-up/shutdown events, thus lowering the peak cell voltage closer to the onset of water oxidation. The catalyst loadings ranged from 1 to 10 g/cm2, but showed surprisingly high activity and durability. At such low loadings, it is possible to fully integrate the OER catalysts with negligible interference on fuel cell performance and a marginal increase in catalyst cost.

Atanasoski, Radoslav [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Cullen, David A [ORNL; Vernstrom, George [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Haugen, Gregory [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Atanasoska, Liliana [3M Industrial Mineral Products

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

Esquivel-Sirvent, R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

R. Esquivel-Sirvent

2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

247

Frequency sweep for a beam system with local unilateral contact modeling satellite solar arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to save mass of satellite solar arrays, the flexibility of the panels becomes not negligible and they may strike each other; this may damage the structure. To prevent this, rubber snubbers are mounted at well chosen points of the structure and they act as one sided linear spring; as a negative consequence, the dynamic of these panels becomes nonlinear. The finite element approximation is used to solve partial differential equations governing the structural dynamic. Frequency sweep has been performed numerically to study the dynamic behavior. Non linear normal modes are under study

Hazim, Hamad

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Radiative Thermal Noise for Transmissive Optics in Gravitational-Wave Detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative losses have traditionally been neglected in the calculation of thermal noise of transmissive optical elements because for the most commonly used geometries they are small compared to losses due to thermal conduction. We explore the use of such transmissive optical elements in extremely noise-sensitive environments such as the arm cavities of future gravitational-wave interferometers. This drives us to a geometry regime where radiative losses are no longer negligible. In this paper we derive the thermo-refractive noise associated with such radiative losses and compare it to other known sources of thermal noise.

Sheila Dwyer; Stefan W. Ballmer

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

249

Space time and rotations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper considers the problem of finding the metric of space time around a rotating, weakly gravitating body. Both external and internal metric tensors are consistently found, together with an appropriate source tensor. All tensors are calculated at the lowest meaningful approximation in a power series. The two physical parameters entering the equations (the mass and the angular momentum per unit mass) are assumed to be such that the mass effects are negligible with respect to the rotation effects. A non zero Riemann tensor is obtained. The order of magnitude of the effects at the laboratory scale is such as to allow for experimental verification of the theory.

A. Tartaglia

2002-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

250

Congestion management in electricity networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

 comparison of market designs    Another strand of literature compares different pricing strategies for real markets; often the  system  in  place  with  an  optimal  electricity  dispatch  based  on  LMP.  Bernard  and  Guertin  (2002)  simulate  a  three?node  model  of  Hydro...  possibilities are negligible  in most electric power networks, so demand and supply  must be instantly balanced. The consequence is that transmission constraints and how they  are managed often have a large influence on market prices. The European Union’s regulation  1228...

Holmberg, Pärr; Lazarczyk, Ewa

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

251

Higgs boson decay to mu mubar gamma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Higgs boson decay, H -> mu mubar gamma, is studied in the Standard Model at the tree and one-loop levels. It is shown that for Higgs boson masses above 110 GeV, the contribution to the radiative width from the one-loop level exceeds the contribution from the tree level, and for Higgs boson masses above 140 GeV, it even exceeds the contribution from the tree level decay H -> mu mubar. We also show that the contributions to the radiative decay width from the interference terms between the tree and one-loop diagrams are negligible.

Ali Abbasabadi; Wayne W. Repko

2000-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

252

Submarine diagenesis in Lower Cretaceous coral-rudist reefs, Mural Limestone, southeastern Arizona  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon isotope values (d 3 C? = 2. 5 '/ ) and a 0. 3X Mg enrichment over original low-Mg calcite rudi st shells support the interpretation of these peloidal features as former Mg-calcite submar1ne cements. Primary porosity in the reef core was neglig1.... . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Peloidal submarine cement infilling primary porosity. . 6O 62 65 25 26 27 Thin section photomicrographs of nonmarine diagenetic components. SEM micrograph showing section through Holocene submarine cement peloid 4 3 C vs. &IBO...

Cross, Scott Lewis

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

The elastic anisotropy of marble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on acoustic anisotropy in marble has been shown to be negligable in four naturally-deformed samples. Compressional-wave velocities in each of the samples were calculated from the single crystal elastic constants of calcite and the orien- tat1ons... thanks to my husband, Fred Tubb, for his patience and support. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant OCN 7817919 and Office of Naval Research contract N-00014- 80-0-0013. To my mother and father, for al1...

Gebhard, Susan Nash

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

One-shot rates for entanglement manipulation under non-entangling maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We obtain expressions for the optimal rates of one- shot entanglement manipulation under operations which generate a negligible amount of entanglement. As the optimal rates for entanglement distillation and dilution in this paradigm, we obtain the max- and min-relative entropies of entanglement, the two logarithmic robustnesses of entanglement, and smoothed versions thereof. This gives a new operational meaning to these entanglement measures. Moreover, by considering the limit of many identical copies of the shared entangled state, we partially recover the recently found reversibility of entanglement manipu- lation under the class of operations which asymptotically do not generate entanglement.

Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Nilanjana Datta

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

255

Improved self-absorption correction for extended x-ray absorption fine-structure measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) data collected in the fluorescence mode are susceptible to an apparent amplitude reduction due to the self-absorption of the fluorescing photon by the sample before it reaches a detector. Previous treatments have made the simplifying assumption that the effect of the EXAFS on the correction term is negligible, and that the samples are in the thick limit. We present a nearly exact treatment that can be applied for any sample thickness or concentration, and retains the EXAFS oscillations in the correction term.

Booth, C.H.; Bridges, F.

2003-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

256

Monolithic interconnected module with a tunnel junction for enhanced electrical and optical performance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMS), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Wilt, David M. (Bay Village, OH)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Can a spectator scalar field enhance inflationary tensor mode?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the possibility of enhancing the inflationary tensor mode by introducing a spectator scalar field with a small sound speed which induces gravitational waves as a second order effect. We analytically obtain the power spectra of gravitational waves and curvature perturbation induced by the spectator scalar field. We found that the small sound speed amplifies the curvature perturbation much more than the tensor mode and the current observational constraint forces the induced gravitational waves to be negligible compared with those from the vacuum fluctuation during inflation.

Tomohiro Fujita; Jun'ichi Yokoyama; Shuichiro Yokoyama

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

258

Loss of particles through a clad breach in a simulated sphere-pac fuel pin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fault . '" suff ic' ently low so as to be negligible. Fur i herr;or . , thc loss potential for spher e-pac pins after the initial approach to power appe. r s to be no differ ent than for pellet pins. ACKNOWLEDGENENTS The author would like... f illed with the lar ge splier e fr action Rig 3 loaded with both large and small spheres, standing in its containment basin 12 Close-up view of the fixed cnack in Rig 2, shown with the segmented plug in place 1 3 Close-up view of the variable...

Sunderland, Dion Julian

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Model for l/f Flux Noise in SQUIDs and Qubits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a model for 1/f flux noise in superconducting devices (f is frequency). The noise is generated by the magnetic moments of electrons in defect states which they occupy for a wide distribution of times before escaping. A trapped electron occupies one of the two Kramers-degenerate ground states, between which the transition rate is negligible at low temperature. As a result, the magnetic moment orientation is locked. Simulations of the noise produced by randomly oriented defects with a density of 5*10^17 m^-2 yield 1/f noise magnitudes in good agreement with experiments.

Roger H. Koch; David P. DiVincenzo; John Clarke

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

K0 photoproduction on the deuteron and the extraction of the elementary amplitude  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The photoproduction of K0 on the deuteron has been investigated with the inclusion of YN and KN final-state interaction (FSI), as well as the pion-mediated process gamma d --> pi NN --> KYN. The YN rescattering effects for the inclusive cross section are found to be large in the threshold regions. Polarization observables show sizable FSI effects at larger kaon and hyperon angles. It is shown that the extraction of the elementary gamma N --> KY amplitude is possible in the quasi-free scattering region where FSI effects are negligible. Furthermore, the cross sections in this region are large, indicating that measurements in this kinematical region are favored.

A. Salam; K. Miyagawa; T. Mart; C. Bennhold; W. Gloeckle

2006-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Radiative $?_{Q}^{*}\\rightarrow?_{Q}?$ and $?_{Q}^{*}\\rightarrow?^{\\prime}_{Q}?$ transitions in light cone QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments associated with the radiative $\\Omega_{Q}^{*}\\rightarrow\\Omega_{Q}\\gamma$ and $\\Xi_{Q}^{*}\\rightarrow\\Xi^{\\prime}_{Q}\\gamma$ transitions with $Q=b$ or $c$ in the framework of light cone QCD sum rules. It is found that the corresponding quadrupole moments are negligibly small while the magnetic dipole moments are considerably large. A comparison of the results on the considered multipole moments as well as corresponding decay widths with the predictions of the vector dominance model is performed.

T. M. Aliev; K. Azizi; H. Sundu

2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

262

Optical losses of Al-free lasers for {lambda}=0.808 and 0.98 {mu}m  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we study the origin of the optical losses in Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs ({lambda}=0.808 {mu}m) and InGaAs/GaAs/InGaP ({lambda}=0.980 {mu}m) lasers. Theoretical modeling and the experimental results indicate that the scattering of the laser beam by refractive index fluctuation in the alloys is the dominant loss in our lasers, and the loss due to the free-carrier absorption and scattering by interface roughness are negligible. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Yi, H.; Diaz, J.; Lane, B.; Razeghi, M. [Center for Quantum Devices, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] [Center for Quantum Devices, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

An ultra-thin diamond membrane as a transmission particle detector and vacuum window for external microbeams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several applications of external microbeam techniques demand a very accurate and controlled dose delivery. To satisfy these requirements when post-sample ion detection is not feasible, we constructed a transmission single-ion detector based on an ultra-thin diamond membrane. The negligible intrinsic noise provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and enables a hit-detection efficiency of close to 100%, even for energetic protons, while the small thickness of the membrane limits beam spreading. Moreover, because of the superb mechanical stiffness of diamond, this membrane can simultaneously serve as a vacuum window and allow the extraction of an ion microbeam into the atmosphere.

Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakši?, M. [Division of Experimental Physics, Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)] [Division of Experimental Physics, Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pomorski, M. [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)] [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Kada, W. [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Iwamoto, N.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)] [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

264

Relativistic Point Coupling Model for Vibrational Excitations in the Continuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An implementation of the relativistic random phase approximation with the proper treatment of the continuum has been developed for the relativistic point coupling model and applied to investigate collective excitations in spherical nuclei. The results are compared with the spectral implementation of the same model. In heavy nuclei, where the escape width is negligible, we find an excellent agreement between both methods in the region of giant resonance and some discrepancies in the region of low-lying pygmy resonance. The differences are more pronounced in light nuclei due to the larger values of the escape widths.

Ring, P.; Daoutidis, J. [Physics Department Technical University Munich, 85748 Garching (Germany); Litvinova, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia)

2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

265

Bypass Flow Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched Index of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for the flow ratios between coolant channels and bypass gaps in the interstitial regions of typical prismatic standard fuel element (SFE) or upper reflector block geometries of typical Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (MHTGR) in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to measure the velocity fields that will populate the bypass flow study database.

Richard Schultz

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Anisotropic flow generated by hard partons in medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard partons which are produced copiously in nuclear collisions at the LHC, deposit most of their energy and momentum into the surrounding quark-gluon plasma. We show that this generates streams in the plasma and contributes importantly to flow anisotropies. With the help of event-by-event three-dimensional perfect hydrodynamic simulations we calculate the observable azimuthal anisotropies of hadronic distributions and show that the proposed mechanism is capable of generating non-negligible part of the observed signal. Hence, it must be taken into account in quantitative studies in which one tries to extract the values of viscosities from the comparison of simulated results with measured data.

Tomasik, Boris

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Electronic properties of graphite in tilted magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The minimal nearest-neighbor tight-binding model with the Peierls substitution is employed to describe the electronic structure of Bernal-stacked graphite subject to tilted magnetic fields. We show that while the presence of the in-plane component of the magnetic field has a negligible effect on the Landau level structure at the K point of the graphite Brillouin zone, at the H point it leads to the experimentally observable splitting of Landau levels which grows approximately linearly with the in-plane field intensity.

Goncharuk, Nataliya A.; Smr?ka, Ludvík [Institute of Physics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern for the neighboring countries, about the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study a worst-case scenario is assumed mainly to assess the risk for Greece and other neighboring countries of Yugoslavia at similar distances . The risk of the weapons currently in use is proved to be negligible at distances greater than 100 Km. For shorter distances classified data of weapons composition are needed to obtain a reliable assessment.

Liolios, T E

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Generalized score tests for missing covariate data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that n?12U(?,?piN,0) = n?12U(?,pi,??) +Op(?n), n?12UA(?,?piN, ???N) = Op(?n), (2.7) where UA(?,pi,?) = summationtextni=1(1? ?ipii)?(yi,zi), and ?n = braceleftbignh2s + (nh2d)?1bracerightbig12. 13 Liang, Wang, Robins, and Carroll (2004) used different...) +Rn1, U2(??) = U2(?) +E(?U2?? 1 )(??1 ??1) +Rn2, where the remainders Rn1, Rn2 are relatively negligibly small with order Op(1) under H0 and the partial derivatives above are row vectors. By combining the two equations above, we have U2(??) = (?A...

Jin, Lei

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Contribution of the Reaction Ny-]Nnk to Antikaon Production in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy spectrum can also be understood qualitatively. ' There is another process NY ?+NNK which may also contribute to the production of antikaons in heavy-ion collisions. Since the threshold energies for this process are -455 MeV and -635 MeV for Y...=X and Y=A, respectively, and are larger than those for the process m Y?+KN, which are ?120 MeV and -215 MeV for Y=X and Y=A, respectively, one might intuitively think that the contribution from the reaction NY~NNK is negligible. To ensure...

Ko, Che Ming.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Interacting particle systems at the edge of multilevel Dyson Brownian motions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the joint asymptotic behavior of spacings between particles at the edge of multilevel Dyson Brownian motions, when the number of levels tends to infinity. Despite the global interactions between particles in multilevel Dyson Brownian motions, we observe a decoupling phenomenon in the limit: the global interactions become negligible and only the local interactions remain. The resulting limiting objects are interacting particle systems which can be described as Brownian versions of certain totally asymmetric exclusion processes. This is the first appearance of a particle system with local interactions in the context of general $\\beta$ random matrix models.

Vadim Gorin; Mykhaylo Shkolnikov

2014-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

272

Scalar Higgs boson production in a fusion of two off-shell gluons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The amplitude for scalar Higgs boson production in a fusion of two off-shell gluons is calculated including finite (not infinite) masses of quarks in the triangle loop. In comparison to the effective Lagrangian approach, we have found a new term in the amplitude. The matrix element found can be used in the kt-factorization approach to the Higgs boson production. The results are compared with the calculations for on-shell gluons. Small deviations from the cos(phi)^2-dependence are predicted. The off-shell effects found are practically negligible.

R. S. Pasechnik; O. V. Teryaev; A. Szczurek

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

273

Impact of graphene polycrystallinity on the performance of graphene field-effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used a multi-scale physics-based model to predict how the grain size and different grain boundary morphologies of polycrystalline graphene will impact the performance metrics of graphene field-effect transistors. We show that polycrystallinity has a negative impact on the transconductance, which translates to a severe degradation of the maximum and cutoff frequencies. On the other hand, polycrystallinity has a positive impact on current saturation, and a negligible effect on the intrinsic gain. These results reveal the complex role played by graphene grain boundaries and can be used to guide the further development and optimization of graphene-based electronic devices.

Jiménez, David; Chaves, Ferney [Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Escola d'Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Cummings, Aron W.; Van Tuan, Dinh [ICN2, Institut Català de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Kotakoski, Jani [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Roche, Stephan [ICN2, Institut Català de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08070 Barcelona (Spain)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

274

Adsorption of silver dimer on graphene - A DFT study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We performed a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study of the adsorption of silver dimer (Ag{sub 2}) on graphene using SIESTA (Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations with Thousands of Atoms) package, in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The adsorption energy, geometry, and charge transfer of Ag2-graphene system are calculated. The minimum energy configuration for a silver dimer is parallel to the graphene sheet with its two atoms directly above the centre of carbon-carbon bond. The negligible charge transfer between the dimer and the surface is also indicative of a weak bond. The methodology demonstrated in this paper may be applied to larger silver clusters on graphene sheet.

Kaur, Gagandeep, E-mail: gaganj1981@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India and Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran, Mohali-140307, Punjab (India); Gupta, Shuchi [Department of Physics and Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India and University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh -160014 (India); Rani, Pooja; Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics and Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

275

Doping suppression and mobility enhancement of graphene transistors fabricated using an adhesion promoting dry transfer process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the facile dry transfer of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on copper film to a functional device substrate. High quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to oxidized silicon substrate was achieved by exploiting the beneficial features of a poly(4-vinylphenol) adhesive layer involving a strong adhesion energy to graphene and negligible influence on the electronic and structural properties of graphene. The graphene field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the dry transfer process exhibit excellent electrical performance in terms of high FET mobility and low intrinsic doping level, which proves the feasibility of our approach in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

Cheol Shin, Woo; Hun Mun, Jeong; Yong Kim, Taek; Choi, Sung-Yool; Jin Cho, Byung, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taeshik; Kim, Taek-Soo, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

276

Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ?4 ?m spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

Rhead, S. D., E-mail: S.Rhead@warwick.ac.uk; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Shah, V. A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Reparaz, J. S. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sotomayor Torres, C. M. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

277

Modelling of trickle-bed reactors at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that it is very difficult to reproduce the same flow pattern from bed to bed, Lee and Smith present a criterion for negligible inter- and intraphase transport effects. For exothermic reactions, this criterion is (RL/k C )(p /s ) & P/(1-1)) b L L p p (22.... This is valid for reactions such as hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation, which are only slightly exothermic. Most models assume a non-volatile liquid phase. Since the models reviewed were tested against reaction systems at ambient conditions...

Collins, George Michael

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Why are the effective equations of loop quantum cosmology so accurate?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We point out that the relative Heisenberg uncertainty relations vanish for non-compact spaces in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology. As a consequence, for sharply peaked states quantum fluctuations in the scale factor never become important, even near the bounce point. This shows why quantum back-reaction effects remain negligible and explains the surprising accuracy of the effective equations in describing the dynamics of sharply peaked wave packets. This also underlines the fact that minisuperspace models ---where it is global variables that are quantized--- do not capture the local quantum fluctuations of the geometry.

Carlo Rovelli; Edward Wilson-Ewing

2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

279

Experimental performance evaluation of line-focus sun trackers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two sun trackers have been tested for tracking accuracy on an sun tracker. Both performed well during the entire test period. Their tracking performance as a function of insolation level was established, and their overall tracking accuracy (rms tracking error) was calculated. Both the flux-line and the shadowband tracker were found to have an effective rms error of about 1 milliradian. This information was used to determine the impact that the two trackers have on the annual energy performance of typical parabolic trough concentrating collectors. One milliradian rms tracking errors were found to result in negligibly small annual performance losses.

Gee, R.C.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Analysis of transport and thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a self-consistent modeling of a 3.4-THz intersubband laser device. An ensemble Monte Carlo simulation, including both carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering, is used to predict current density, population inversion, gain, and electron temperature. However, these two scattering mechanisms alone appear to be insufficient to explain the observed current density. In addition, the insufficient scattering yields a gain that is slightly higher than inferred from experiments. This suggests the presence of a non-negligible scattering mechanism which is unaccounted for in the present calculations.

Callebaut, Hans (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Kumar, Sushil (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Williams, Benjamin S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Hu, Qing (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Reno, John Louis

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The self-stabilising dynamics of bicycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyse the classical problem of the stability of bicycles when moving quickly and upright. Developing a lean causes the front wheel to turn thereby setting the bicycle instantaneously into circular motion. The centripetal force associated with the lean-dependent turning circle gives a restoring torque which corrects the lean. The force also helps self-steer the front wheel, ensuring the bicycle continues in an essentially straight path. We give the frequency of lean oscillations about the vertical executed during riding. As in the literature, we discuss the neglect of gyroscopic effects, which experiment suggests are negligible.

Warner, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Non-LTE metal abundances in V652 Her and HD144941  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two evolutionary scenarios are proposed for the formation of extreme helium stars: a post-AGB star suffering from a late thermal pulse, or the merger of two white dwarfs. An identification of the evolutionary channel for individual objects has to rely on surface abundances. We present preliminary results from a non-LTE analysis of CNO, Mg and S for two unique objects, V652 Her and HD144941. Non-LTE abundance corrections for these elements range from negligible values to ~0.7 dex. Non-LTE effects typically lead to systematic shifts in the abundances relative to LTE and reduce the uncertainties.

N. Przybilla; M. F. Nieva; U. Heber; C. S. Jeffery

2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

283

Tilting the Primordial Power Spectrum with Bulk Viscosity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within the context of the cold dark matter model, current observations suggest that inflationary models which generate a tilted primordial power spectrum with negligible gravitational waves provide the most promising mechanism for explaining large scale clustering. The general form of the inflationary potential which produces such a spectrum is a hyperbolic function and is interpreted physically as a bulk viscous stress contribution to the energy-momentum of a perfect baryotropic fluid. This is equivalent to expanding the equation of state as a truncated Taylor series. Particle physics models which lead to such a potential are discussed.

James E. Lidsey

1993-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

284

NLTE Strontium and Barium in metal poor red giant stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present atmospheric models of red giant stars of various metallicities, including extremely metal poor (XMP, [Fe/H]Strontium (Sr) and Barium (Ba), treated in Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) with various degrees of realism. We conclude that 1) for all lines that are useful Sr and Ba abundance diagnostics the magnitude and sense of the computed NLTE effect on the predicted line strength is metallicity dependent, 2) the indirect NLTE effect of overlap between Ba and Sr transitions and transitions of other species that are also treated in NLTE non-negligibly enhances NLTE abundance corrections for some lines, 3) the indirect NLTE effect of NLTE opacity of other species on the equilibrium structure of the atmospheric model is not significant, 4) the computed NLTE line strengths differ negligibly if collisional b-b and b-f rates are an order of magnitude smaller or larger than those calculated with standard analytic formulae, and 5) the effect of NLTE upon the resonance line of Ba II at 4554.03 AA is independent of whether that line is treated with hyperfine splitting. As a result, the derivation of abundances of Ba and Sr for metal-poor red giant stars with LTE modeling that are in the literature should be treated with caution.

C. I. Short; P. H. Hauschildt

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

285

Static and dynamical properties of heavy water at ambient conditions from first-principles molecular dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The static and dynamical properties of heavy water have been studied at ambient conditions with extensive Car-Parrinello molecular-dynamics simulations in the canonical ensemble, with temperatures ranging between 325 K and 400 K. Density-functional theory, paired with a modern exchange-correlation functional (PBE), provides an excellent agreement for the structural properties and binding energy of the water monomer and dimer. On the other hand, the structural and dynamical properties of the bulk liquid show a clear enhancement of the local structure compared to experimental results; a distinctive transition to liquid-like diffusion occurs in the simulations only at the elevated temperature of 400 K. Extensive runs of up to 50 picoseconds are needed to obtain well-converged thermal averages; the use of ultrasoft or norm-conserving pseudopotentials and the larger plane-wave sets associated with the latter choice had, as expected, only negligible effects on the final result. Finite-size effects in the liquid state are found to be mostly negligible for systems as small as 32 molecules per unit cell.

P. H-L. Sit; Nicola Marzari

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

286

Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp.

Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp. 18 figs.

Simpson, J.E.

1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

288

Laser machining of explosives  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Heat removal aspects of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor safety in light of the Three Mile Island incident  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The safety aspects of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) loop design are compared with those of the Light Water Reactor (LWR), in light of the Three Mile Island (TMI) incident. The events at TMI are briefly described, the fundamental differences between the LWR water coolant and the LMFBR sodium coolant are presented, and the design of analogous LMFBR safety systems under similar events as those at TMI is discussed. A preliminary qualitative evaluation of a TMI-equivalent accident for an LMFBR indicates that there is likely to be: (1) negligible pressure transients in the primary loop, (2) no core damage, (3) isolation of the incident at the steam generator, and (4) no radiation release to the environment, except a negligible amount of tritium from the secondary sodium. Furthermore, with the absence of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System), pressurizer, and other pressure-related components in the LMFBR design, operator action for a LMFBR should be much simpler in dealing with the coolant upset condition and the decay heat removal problems.

Victor, H.R.; Graf, D.G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Thermophoretically augmented mass-, momentum-, and energy-transfer rates in high particle mass-loaded laminar forced convection systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In all previous treatments of thermophoretically-modified aerosol particle transport, even those which attempt to allow for variable host-gas properties, it has been explicitly (or implicitly) assumed that the particle mass fraction is small enough to neglect the influence of the suspended particles on the host-gas momentum-density- and energy-density-fields. However, in high-intensity material-processing applications, particle mass loadings often exceed 1/3, and the thermophoretically enhanced particle mass-deposition flux itself modifies the local-mixture velocity and temperature fields in the vicinity of the deposition surface. A self-consistent pseudo- single-phase mixture (diffusion) approximation which exploits the fact that the volume fraction of suspended particles is negligible even when the particle mass fraction is quite near unity is introduced to calculate the fully coupled problem of mass-, energy- and momentum diffusion for laminar boundary (LBL) flow of a combustion-gas mixture containing submicron particles of appreciable thermophoretic diffusivity but negligible Brownian diffusion. It is shown that thigh particles mass loading systematically increase the wall fluxes of momentum (shear stress), heat and particle mass, much like those effects associated with massive suction in single-phase LBL-theory.

Park, H.M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary. The second type will treat heated jets entering a model plenum. Unheated MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique which will not even handle constant properties properly. The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of CFD solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing and turbulence models for typical NGNP plenum geometries in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. As indicated by the scaling studies, in normal full power operation of a typical NGNP conceptual design, buoyancy influences should be negligible in the lower plenum. The MIR experiment will simulate flow features of the paths of jets as they mix in flowing through the array of posts in a lower plenum en route to the single exit duct. Conceptual designs for such experiments are described.

D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Collective Deceleration: Toward a Compact Beam Dump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the increasing development of laser accelerators, the electron energy is already beyond GeV and even higher in near future. Conventional beam dump based on ionization or radiation loss mechanism is cumbersome and costly, also has radiological hazards. We revisit the stopping power of high-energy charged particles in matter and discuss the associated problem of beam dump from the point of view of collective deceleration. The collective stopping length in an ionized gas can be several orders of magnitude shorter than the Bethe-Bloch and multiple electromagnetic cascades stopping length in solid. At the mean time, the tenuous density of the gas makes the radioactivation negligible. Such a compact and non-radioactivating beam dump works well for short and dense bunches, which is typically generated from laser wakefield accelerator.

Wu, H.-C.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt.; Tajima, T.; Habs, D.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt. /Munich U.; Chao, A.W.; /SLAC; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt.

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

293

Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on the Nearshore Environment: A Month-Long Study in Monterey Bay CA.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A modified version of an indust ry standard wave modeling tool, SNL - SWAN, was used to perform model simulations for hourly initial wave conditio ns measured during the month of October 2009. The model was run with an array of 50 wave energy converters (WECs) and compared with model runs without WECs. Maximum changes in H s were found in the lee of the WEC array along the angles of incident wave dire ction and minimal changes were found along the western side of the model domain due to wave shadowing by land. The largest wave height reductions occurred during observed typhoon conditions and resulted in 14% decreases in H s along the Santa Cruz shoreline . Shoreline reductions in H s were 5% during s outh swell wave conditions and negligible during average monthly wave conditions.

Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Magalen, Jason; Jones, Craig

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

295

Use of the WECC WAMS in Wide Area Probing Tests for Validation of System Performance & Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 2005 and 2006 the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) performed three major tests of western system dynamics. These tests used a Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based primarily on Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) to determine response to events including the insertion of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph braking resistor, probing signals, and ambient events. Test security was reinforced through real-time analysis of wide area effects, and high-quality data provided dynamic profiles for interarea modes across the entire western interconnection. The tests established that low-level optimized pseudo-random ±20-MW probing with the Pacific DC Intertie (PDCI) roughly doubles the apparent noise that is natural to the power system, providing sharp dynamic information with negligible interference to system operations. Such probing is an effective alternative to use of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph dynamic brake, and it is under consideration as a standard means for assessing dynamic security.

Hauer, John F.; Mittelstadt, William; Martin, Kenneth E.; Burns, J. W.; Lee, Harry; Pierre, John W.; Trudnowski, Daniel

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

First results from the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey: Constraints on the z=6 quasar luminosity function and the quasar contribution to reionization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present preliminary results of a new quasar survey being undertaken with multi-colour optical imaging from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The current data consists of 3.83 sq. deg. of imaging in the i' and z' filters to a 10 sigma limit of z'-3.2 at 95% confidence. We find that the comoving space-density of quasars brighter than M_1450=-23.5 declines by a factor >25 from z=2 to z=6, mirroring the decline observed for high-luminosity quasars. We consider the contribution of the quasar population to the ionizing photon density at z=6 and the implications for reionization. We show that the current constraints on the quasar population give an ionizing photon density <<30% that of the star-forming galaxy population. We conclude that active galactic nuclei make a negligible contribution to the reionization of hydrogen at z~6.

Chris J. Willott; Xavier Delfosse; Thierry Forveille; Philippe Delorme; Stephen D. J. Gwyn

2005-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

Crumb rubber feasibility report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cumberland County supply region generates approximately 58,000 tons of scrap tires each year, equivalent to 45,000 tons of rubber after processing. Approximately 8,000 tons per year are in concentrated locations and can be easily collected. The costs of collection for the remainder vary significantly. Given current markets, economically feasible processes (ambient technology) can reprocess approximately 65 to 75 percent of the 37,000 tons into a marketable product. A processing plant sized for this supply would process 120 tons per day, a viable plant by industry standards. The end uses for whole tires constitute a negligible market, aside from the retreader market. Crumbed rubber is the major development efforts, there are potentially large opportunities in North Carolina.

NONE

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Modulated active charge exchange fast ion diagnostic for the C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A diagnostic technique for measuring the fast-ion energy distribution in a field-reversed configuration plasma was developed and tested on the C-2 experiment. A deuterium neutral beam modulated at 22 kHz is injected into the plasma, producing a localized charge-exchange target for the confined fast protons. The escaping fast neutrals are detected by a neutral particle analyzer. The target beam transverse size ({approx}15 cm) defines the spatial resolution of the method. The equivalent current density of the target beam is {<=}0.15 A/cm{sup 2}, which corresponds to a neutral density ({approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) that highly exceeds the background neutral density in the core of C-2. The deuterium fast-ions due to the target beam (E{approx}27 keV), are not confined in C-2 and thus make a negligible contribution to the measured signals.

Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Clary, R.; Dettrick, S. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Deichuli, P.; Kondakov, A.; Murakhtin, S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Finite Element Modeling of Suspended Particle Migration in Non-Newtonian Fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shear-induced migration of particles is studied during the slow flow of suspensions of spheres (particle volume fraction {phi} = 0.50) in an inelastic but shear-thinning, suspending fluid in flow between counterrotating concentric cylinders, The conditions are such that nonhydrodynamic effects are negligible. The movement of particles away from the high shear rate region is more pronounced than in a Newtonian suspending liquid. We test a continuum constitutive model for the evolution of particle concentration in a flowing suspension proposed by Phillips et al. (1992) by using shear-thinning, suspending fluids. The fluid constitutive equation is Carreau-like in its shear-thinning behavior but also varies with the local particle concentration. The model is compared with the experimental data gathered with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging.

Altobelli, S.; Baer, T.; Mondy, L.; Rao, R.; Stephens, T.

1999-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

An approach to predict tarmat breakdown in Minagish Reservoir in Kuwait  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Minagish Oolite reservoir, Minagish Field in Kuwait is characterized by tarmat presence at the oil-water contact. A water flooding project is planned for the reservoir. This paper discusses the possibility of tarmat break-down upon water injection below it. It was found that differential pressure at tarmat would be mainly due to water injection and that differential pressure due to oil production would be negligible. This paper suggests a technique to predict tarmat break-down time, response time at the nearest producer or observation well and the time at which water injection should be switched from below tarmat to above it. Also, the technique could be used to predict the differential pressure at tarmat anywhere in the reservoir.

Osman, M.E.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Vacancy solution theory of adsorption from gas mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new correlation based on vacancy-solution theory, reports Pennsylvania State University, improves predictions of gas-mixture adsorption equilibria from single-component adsorption isotherm data. The new method is more general, simpler to apply, and more accurate than other available models. For an adsorption system, the binary parameters - adsorbate and vacancy - are obtained from regression of the pure-gas adsorption data with the vacancy-solution isotherm equation. These parameters are then used to predict multicomponent adsorption equilibrium, assuming that the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions are negligible. Penn State has verified the new correlation on two different kinds of binary adsorption systems: mixtures of O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, and CO on zeolite 10X and mixtures of light hydrocarbons on Nuxit-AL activated carbon.

Suwanayuen, S.; Danner, R.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Energy Momentum Pseudo-Tensor of Relic Gravitational Wave in Expanding Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the energy-momentum pseudo-tensor of gravitational wave, and examine the one introduced by Landau-Lifshitz for a general gravitational field and the effective one recently used in literature. In short wavelength limit after Brill-Hartle average, both lead to the same gauge invariant stress tensor of gravitational wave. For relic gravitational waves in the expanding universe, we examine two forms of pressure, $p_{gw}$ and $\\mathcal{P}_{gw}$, and trace the origin of their difference to a coupling between gravitational waves and the background matter. The difference is shown to be negligibly small for most of cosmic expansion stages starting from inflation. We demonstrate that the wave equation is equivalent to the energy conservation equation using the pressure $\\mathcal{P}_{gw}$ that includes the mentioned coupling.

Daiqin Su; Yang Zhang

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

304

Electron transport in carbon nanotube/RbAg{sub 4}I{sub 5} film composite nanostructures modulated by optical field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore the transport properties of mixed ionic-electronic conductors made of carbon nanotube/RbAg{sub 4}I{sub 5} film composite nanostructures in the presence of optical fields. The formation of ion-electron bound states (IEBSs) due to Coulomb interactions results in significant conductance decrease. The wavelength-dependent and power-dependent dynamic responses show that the effect of photo-induced dissociation of IEBSs is pronounced in the visible region and negligible in near-infrared region. Our results lead to a deeper understanding of the impact of ion-electron interactions (IEIs) on transport and are expected to open up a way for designing new-type photodetectors based on IEIs.

Zhang, Guowei; Zhu, Jia-Lin [State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wei, Jinquan [Key Lab for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhang-wei@iapcm.ac.cn, E-mail: jlsun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009(28), Beijing 100088 (China); Sun, Jia-Lin, E-mail: zhang-wei@iapcm.ac.cn, E-mail: jlsun@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

305

A portable cryostat for the cold transfer of polarized solid HD targets: HDice-I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A device has been developed with moveable liquid nitrogen and liquid helium volumes that is capable of reaching over two meters into the coldest regions of a cryostat or dilution refrigerator and reliably extracting or installing a target of solid, polarized hydrogen deuteride (HD). This Transfer Cryostat incorporates a cylindrical neodymium rare-earth magnet that is configured as a Halbach dipole, which is maintained at 77 K and produces a 0.1 T field around the HD target. Multiple layers provide a hermetic 77 K-shield as the device is used to maintain a target at 2 K during a transfer between cryostats. Tests with frozen-spin HD show negligible polarization loss for either H or D over typical transfer periods. Multiple target transfers with this apparatus have shown an overall reliability of about 95% per transfer, which is a significant improvement over earlier versions of the device.

Bass, Christopher D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Sandorfi, Andy M. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Bade, C.; Blecher, M.; Caracappa, A.; D'Angelo, A.; Deur, A.; Dezern, G.; Glueckler, H.; Hanretty, C.; Ho, D.; Kageya, T.; Khandaker, M.; Laine, V.; Lincoln, F.; Lowry, M. M.; Mahon, J. C.; Connell, T. O.; Peng, P.; Preedom, B.; Seyfarth, H.; Stroeher, H.; Thorn, C. E.; Wei, X.; Whisnant, C. S.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Fatigue flaw growth assessment and inclusion of stratification to the LBB assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application of the LBB requires also fatigue flaw growth assessment. This analysis was performed for PWR nuclear power plants types VVER 440/230, VVER 440/213c, VVER 1000/320. Respecting that these NPP`s were designed according to Russian codes that differ from US codes it was needed to compare these approaches. Comparison with our experimental data was accomplished, too. Margins of applicability of the US methods and their modifications for the materials used for construction of Czech and Slovak NPP`s are shown. Computer code accomplishing the analysis according to described method is presented. Some measurement and calculations show that thermal stratifications in horizontal pipelines can lead to additive loads that are not negligible and can be dangerous. An attempt to include these loads induced by steady-state stratification was made.

Samohyl, P.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

{open_quotes}Open vessel{close_quotes} heat balance for TBP-nitric acid solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat balances were performed for both single phase (organic) and two phase (organic and aqueous) TBP/HNO{sub 3} solutions at temperatures above 100{degrees}C. The balance included the heat produced from oxidation minus losses from evaporation and butylnitrate formation by esterification. Net heat measurements were performed using an isothermal calorimeter. Losses from evaporation were determined from the volume of condensate produced (ice bath trap) and the component concentrate Carbon and nitrogen balances were performed to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction. The heat from oxidation was then calculated using the heats of formation of the reactants and products. Balances were obtained assuming that the heat from esterification was near zero (negligibly small). For two layered reaction systems the net heat was maintained endothermic, and constant with time, due to the transport of water to the organic phase by bubble mixing at the interface. This transported was replaced the water lost in the organic phase by evaporation.

Smith, J.R.; Cavin, W.S.; Laurinat, J.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

Study on LiCl waste salt treatment process by layer melt crystallization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Layer melt crystallization operated in a static mode has been applied to separate Group I and II chlorides from surrogate LiCl waste salt. The effects of operating conditions such as crystal growing rate(or flux) and initial impurity concentration on separation (or concentration) of cesium, strontium and barium involved in a LiCl melts were analyzed. In a layer crystallization process, separation was impaired by occlusion of impurities and by residual melt adhering to LiCl crystal after at the end of the process. The crystal growth rate strongly affects the crystal structure, therefore the separation efficiency, while the effect of the initial Cs and Sr concentration in LiCl molten salt was nearly negligible. (authors)

Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Matter power spectrum for the generalized Chaplygin gas model: The relativistic case  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model is the prototype of a unified model of dark energy (DE) and dark matter (DM). It is characterized by equation-of-state (EoS) parameters $A$ and $\\alpha$. We use a statistical analysis of the 2dFGRS data to constrain these parameters. In particular, we find that very small (close to zero) and very large values ($\\alpha\\gg 1$) of the equation-of-state parameter $\\alpha$ are preferred. To test the validity of this type of unification of the dark sector we admit the existence of a separate DM component in addition to the Chaplygin gas and calculate the probability distribution for the fractional contributions of both components to the total energy density. This analysis favors a model for which the Universe is nearly entirely made up of the separate DM component with an almost negligible Chaplygin gas part. This confirms the results of a previous Newtonian analysis.

J. C. Fabris; H. E. S. Velten; W. Zimdahl

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

310

Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

FEFC processes, unlike many of the proposed fuel cycles and technologies under consideration, involve mature operational processes presently in use at a number of facilities worldwide. This report identifies significant impacts resulting from these current FEFC processes and activities. Impacts considered to be significant are those that may be helpful in differentiating between fuel cycle performance and for which the FEFC impact is not negligible relative to those from the remainder of the full fuel cycle. This report: • Defines ‘representative’ processes that typify impacts associated with each step of the FEFC, • Establishes a framework and architecture for rolling up impacts into normalized measures that can be scaled to quantify their contribution to the total impacts associated with various fuel cycles, and • Develops and documents the bases for estimates of the impacts and costs associated with each of the representative FEFC processes.

Brett W Carlsen; Urairisa Phathanapirom; Eric Schneider; John S. Collins; Roderick G. Eggert; Brett Jordan; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. Ault; Alan G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn; William G. Halsey; Mark Sutton; Clay E. Easterly; Ryan P. Manger; C. Wilson McGinn; Stephen E. Fisher; Brent W. Dixon; Latif Yacout

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Type Ia Supernova Intrinsic Magnitude Dispersion and the Fitting of Cosmological Parameters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I present an analysis for fitting cosmological parameters from a Hubble Diagram of a standard candle with unknown intrinsic magnitude dispersion. The dispersion is determined from the data themselves, simultaneously with the cosmological parameters. This contrasts with the strategies used to date. The advantages of the presented analysis are that it is done in a single fit (it is not iterative), it provides a statistically founded and unbiased estimate of the intrinsic dispersion, and its cosmological-parameter uncertainties account for the intrinsic dispersion uncertainty. Applied to Type Ia supernovae, my strategy provides a statistical measure to test for sub-types and assess the significance of any magnitude corrections applied to the calibrated candle. Parameter bias and differences between likelihood distributions produced by the presented and currently-used fitters are negligibly small for existing and projected supernova data sets.

Kim, Alex G

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

312

Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements and Analysis of Bypass Data for a Scaled 6mm Gap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched Index of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for the flow ratios between coolant channels and bypass gaps in the interstitial regions of typical prismatic standard fuel element (SFE) or upper reflector block geometries of typical Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (MHTGR) in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments will use optical techniques, primarily particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the INL Matched Index of Refraction (MIR) flow system.

J.R. Wolf; T.E. Conder; R.R. Schultz

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

High performance organic field-effect transistors with ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly onto the organic semiconductor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have produced stable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with an ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly on top of rubrene single crystals by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We find that ALD is a gentle deposition process to grow thin films without damaging rubrene single crystals, as results these devices have a negligibly small threshold voltage and are very stable against gate-bias-stress, and the mobility exceeds 1 cm{sup 2}/V s. Moreover, the devices show very little degradation even when kept in air for more than 2 months. These results demonstrate thin HfO{sub 2} layers deposited by ALD to be well suited as high capacitance gate dielectrics in OFETs operating at small gate voltage. In addition, the dielectric layer acts as an effective passivation layer to protect the organic semiconductor.

Ono, S., E-mail: shimpei@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Häusermann, R. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan) [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Chiba, D. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 322-0012 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimamura, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Batlogg, B. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)] [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

314

Controlled motion of Janus particles in periodically phase-separating binary fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We numerically investigate the propelled motions of a Janus particle in a periodically phase-separating binary fluid mixture. In this study, the surface of the particle tail prefers one of the binary fluid components and the particle head is neutral in the wettability. During the demixing period, the more wettable phase is selectively adsorbed to the particle tail. Growths of the adsorbed domains induce the hydrodynamic flow in the vicinity of the particle tail, and this asymmetric pumping flow drives the particle toward the particle head. During the mixing period, the particle motion almost ceases because the mixing primarily occurs via diffusion and the resulting hydrodynamic flow is negligibly small. Repeating this cycle unboundedly moves the Janus particle toward the head. The dependencies of the composition and the repeat frequency on the particle motion are discussed.

Takeaki Araki; Shintaro Fukai

2015-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

315

Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.

Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Adámek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

The over 20 year operating experience with carbon steel tubings at Abu Attifel Field. Problems and solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abu Attifel onshore oil field (Libya) was discovered in 1968 and put in production in November 1972. The total average production is nowadays about 140,000 BOPD (22,260 m{sup 3}/d) with 46 producing wells. All the production wells were originally completed with carbon steel tubing, although the produced fluids contain CO{sub 2}-4% in the gas phase. After several years of production with minor downhole corrosion problems, several corrosion failures started to occur in the nineties at extremely high corrosion rate. In some cases corrosion attacks occurred although the water cut was negligible (lower than 1%). A detailed corrosion study was initiated to investigate the problem in order to identify the most critical production wells and the priority of intervention for well; this paper reports the corrosion assessment results and the actions undertaken to control the corrosion. A occurred corrosion events is also reported.

Cheldi, T. [ENI-AGIP Div., Milan (Italy); Rumash, K. [AGIP Oil, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Bazzoni, B. [Cescor srl, Milan (Italy)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Dissipative Cryogenic Filters with Zero DC Resistance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors designed, implemented and tested cryogenic RF filters with zero DC resistance, based on wires with a superconducting core inside a resistive sheath. The superconducting core allows low frequency currents to pass with negligible dissipation. Signals above the cutoff frequency are dissipated in the resistive part due to their small skin depth. The filters consist of twisted wire pairs shielded with copper tape. Above approximately 1 GHz, the attenuation is exponential in {radical}{omega}, as typical for skin depth based RF filters. By using additional capacitors of 10 nF per line, an attenuation of at least 45 dB above 10 MHz can be obtained. Thus, one single filter stage kept at mixing chamber temperature in a dilution refrigerator is sufficient to attenuate room temperature black body radiation to levels corresponding to 10 mK above about 10 MHz.

Bluhm, Hendrik; Moler, Kathryn A.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

318

Secondary Charmonium Production at LHC Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the production of charmonium by $D\\bar D$ annihilation during the mixed and hadronic phase of Pb-Pb collision at LHC energy. The calculations for secondary $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi^,$ production are performed within a kinetic model taking into account the space-time evolution of a longitudinally and transversely expanding medium. It is shown that the yield of secondary $J/\\psi$ mesons depends strongly on the $J/\\psi$ dissociation cross section with co-moving hadrons. Within the most likely scenario for the dissociation cross section it will be negligible. The secondary production of $\\psi^,$ mesons, however, due to their large cross section above the threshold, can substantially exceed the primary yield.

P. Braun-Munzinger; K. Redlich

1999-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

319

Are multiple parton interactions important at high energies? New types of hadrons production processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hadrons interaction at high energies is carried out by one color gluon exchange. All quarks and gluons contained in colliding hadrons take part in interaction and production of particles. The contribution of multiple parton interactions is negligible. Multiple hadrons production at high energies occurs only in three types of processes. The first process is hadrons production in gluon string, the second is hadrons production in two quark strings and the third is hadrons production in three quark strings. In proton-proton interaction production of only gluon string and two quark strings is possible. In proton-antiproton interaction production of gluon string, two quark strings and three quark strings is possible. Therefore multiplicity distributions in proton-proton and proton-antiproton interactions are different.

V. A. Abramovsky

2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

320

Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as $45.5\\,M_\\odot$. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

Szilagyi, Bela; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as $45.5\\,M_\\odot$. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

Bela Szilagyi; Jonathan Blackman; Alessandra Buonanno; Andrea Taracchini; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Mark A. Scheel; Tony Chu; Lawrence E. Kidder; Yi Pan

2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

322

On the lepton-nucleon neutral and charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on the requirement in the simulation of lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS), we construct a fortran program LDCS 1.0 calculating the differential and total cross sections for the unpolarized charged lepton-unpolarized nucleon and neutrino-unpolarized nucleon neutral current (charged current) DIS at leading order. Any set of the experimentally fitted parton distribution functions could be employed directly. The mass of incident and scattered leptons is taken into account and the boundary conditions calculating the single differential and total cross section are studied. The calculated results well agree with the corresponding experimental data which indicating the LDCS 1.0 program is good. It is also turned out that the effect of tauon mass is not negligible in the GeV energy level.

Xing-Long Li; Yu-Liang Yan; Xiao-Mei Li; Dai-Mei Zhou; Xu Cai; Ben-Hao Sa

2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

323

The Araucaria Project. The Distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud from Near-Infrared Photometry of RR Lyrae Variables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have obtained deep infrared $J$ and $K$ band observations of five fields located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) bar with the ESO New Technology Telescope equipped with the SOFI infrared camera. In our fields, 65 RR Lyrae stars catalogued by the OGLE collaboration were identified. Using different theoretical and empirical calibrations of the period-luminosity-metallicity relation, we find consistent LMC distance moduli values. Since the observed fields are situated very close to the center of the LMC, the correction for the tilt of the LMC bar with respect to the line of sight is negligible. Our adopted best true distance modulus to the LMC of $18.58 \\pm 0.03$ (statistical) $\\pm$ 0.11 (systematic) mag agrees very well with most independent determinations to this galaxy.

Olaf Szewczyk; Grzegorz Pietrzynski; Wolfgang Gieren; Jesper Storm; Alistair Walker; Luca Rizzi; Karen Kinemuchi; Fabio Bresolin; Rolf-Peter Kudritzki; Massimo Dall'Ora

2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

324

Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Thermodynamic and mechanical properties of TiC from ab initio calculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temperature-dependent thermodynamic and mechanical properties of TiC are systematically investigated by means of a combination of density-functional theory, quasi-harmonic approximation, and thermal electronic excitation. It is found that the quasi-harmonic Debye model should be pertinent to reflect thermodynamic properties of TiC, and the elastic properties of TiC decease almost linearly with the increase of temperature. Calculations also reveal that TiC possesses a pronounced directional pseudogap across the Fermi level, mainly due to the strong hybridization of Ti 3d and C 2p states. Moreover, the strong covalent bonding of TiC would be enhanced (reduced) with the decrease (increase) of temperature, while the change of volume (temperature) should have negligible effect on density of states at the Fermi level. The calculated results agree well with experimental observations in the literature.

Dang, D. Y.; Fan, J. L.; Gong, H. R., E-mail: gonghr@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

326

Single molecule thermodynamics of ATP synthesis by F$_1$-ATPase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

F$_\\mathrm{o}$F$_1$-ATP synthase is a factory for synthesizing ATP in virtually all cells. Its core machinery is the subcomplex F$_1$-motor (F$_1$-ATPase) and performs the reversible mechanochemical coupling. Isolated F$_1$-motor hydrolyzes ATP, which is accompanied by unidirectional rotation of its central $\\gamma$-shaft. When a strong opposing torque is imposed, the $\\gamma$-shaft rotates in the opposite direction and drives the F$_1$-motor to synthesize ATP. This mechanical-to-chemical free-energy transduction is the final and central step of the multistep cellular ATP-synthetic pathway. Here, we determined the amount of mechanical work exploited by the F$_1$-motor to synthesize an ATP molecule during forced rotations using methodology combining a nonequilibrium theory and single molecule measurements of responses to external torque. We found that the internal dissipation of the motor is negligible even during rotations far from a quasistatic process.

Shoichi Toyabe; Eiro Muneyuki

2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

327

One electron oxygen reduction in room temperature ionic liquids: A comparative study of Butler-Volmer and Symmetric Marcus-Hush theories using microdisc electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The voltammetry for the reduction of oxygen at a microdisc electrode is reported in two room temperature ionic liquids: 1-butyl-1-methylpyyrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([Bmpyrr][NTf2]) and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis9trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([P14,6,6,6][NTf2]) at 298 K. Simulated voltammograms using Butler-Volmer theory and Symmetric Marcus-Hush (SMH) theory were compared with experimental data. Butler-Volmer theory consistently provided experimental parameters with a higher level of certainty than SMH theory. A value of solvent reorganisation energy for oxygen reduction in ionic liquids was inferred for the first time as 0.4-0.5 eV, which is attributable to inner-sphere reorganisation with a negligible contribution from solvent reorganisation. The developed Butler-Volmer and Symmetric Marcus-Hush programs are also used to theoretically study the possibility of kinetically limited steady state currents, and to establish an approximate equivalence relationship between microdisc el...

Tanner, Eden E L; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Predictions for single spin asymmetries in $lp^{\\uparrow}\\rightarrow \\pi X $ and $\\gamma^{*} p^{\\uparrow}\\rightarrow \\pi X$  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predictions for the single transverse spin asymmetry A_N in semi-inclusive DIS processes are given; non negligible values of A_N may arise from spin effects in the fragmentation of a polarized quark into a final hadron with a transverse momentum k_T with respect to the jet axis, the so-called Collins effect. The elementary single spin asymmetry of the fragmenting quark has been fixed in a previous paper, by fitting data on p(transv. polarized) + P -> pion + X, and the predictions given here are uniquely based on the assumption that the Collins effect is the only cause of the observed single spin asymmetries in p(transv. polarized) + p -> pion + X. Eventual spin and k_T dependences in quark distribution functions, the so-called Sivers effect, are also discussed.

Anselmino, M; Hansson, J; Murgia, F

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Magnetic Reconnection with Asymmetry in the Outflow Direction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetic reconnection with asymmetry in the outflow direction occurs in the Earth's magnetotail, coronal mass ejections, flux cancellation events, astrophysical disks, spheromak merging experiments, and elsewhere in nature and the laboratory. A control volume analysis is performed for the case of steady antiparallel magnetic reconnection with asymmetric downstream pressure, which is used to derive scaling relations for the outflow velocity from each side of the current sheet and the reconnection rate. Simple relationships for outflow velocity are presented for the incompressible case and the case of symmetric downstream pressure but asymmetric downstream density. Asymmetry alone is not found to greatly affect the reconnection rate. The flow stagnation point and magnetic field null do not coincide in a steady state unless the pressure gradient is negligible at the flow stagnation point.

Murphy, N A; Cassak, P A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

On how nanomechanical systems can minimize dissipation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information processing machines at the nanoscales are unavoidably affected by thermal fluctuations. Efficient design requires understanding how nanomachines can operate at minimal energy dissipation. In this letter we focus on mechanical systems controlled by smoothly varying potential forces. We show that optimal control equations come about in a natural way if the energy cost to manipulate the potential is taken into account. When such cost becomes negligible, the optimal control strategy can be constructed by transparent geometrical methods and recovers the solution of optimal mass transport equations in the overdamped limit. Our equations are equivalent to hierarchies of kinetic equations of a form well-known in the theory of dilute gases. From our results, optimal strategies for energy efficient nanosystems may be devised

Paolo Muratore-Ginanneschi; Kay Schwieger

2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

331

COMPRESSIBLE STREAMING INSTABILITIES IN ROTATING THERMAL VISCOUS OBJECTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study electromagnetic streaming instabilities in thermal viscous regions of rotating astrophysical objects, such as protostellar and protoplanetary magnetized accretion disks, molecular clouds, their cores, and elephant trunks. The obtained results can also be applied to any regions of interstellar medium, where different equilibrium velocities between charged species can arise. We consider a weakly and highly ionized three-component plasma consisting of neutrals and magnetized electrons and ions. The vertical perturbations along the background magnetic field are investigated. The effect of perturbation of collisional frequencies due to density perturbations of species is taken into account. The growth rates of perturbations are found in a wide region of wave number spectrum for media, where the thermal pressure is larger than the magnetic pressure. It is shown that in cases of strong collisional coupling of neutrals with ions the contribution of the viscosity is negligible.

Nekrasov, A. K., E-mail: anatoli.nekrassov@t-online.d [Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, 123995 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

332

Quasi-zero dimensional CuB2O4: a resonant inelastic X-ray scattering case study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore the general phenomenology of resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) using CuB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, a network of CuO{sub 4} plaquettes electronically isolated by B{sup +3} ions. Spectra show a small number of well-separated features, and we exploit the simple electronic structure to explore RIXS phenomenology by developing a calculation which allows for intermediate-state effects ignored in standard approaches. These effects are found to be non-negligible and good correspondence between our model and experiment leads to a simple picture of such phenomenology as the genesis of d {yields} d excitations at the K edge and intermediate-state interference effects.

Hancock, J.N.

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

333

Contribution of HD molecules in cooling of the primordial gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the effects of HD molecules on thermochemical evolution of the primordial gas behind shock waves, possibly arised in the process of galaxy formation. We find the critical shock velocity when deuterium transforms efficiently into HD molecules which then dominate gas cooling. Above this velocity the shocked gas is able to cool down to the temperature of the cosmic microwave background. Under these conditions the corresponding Jeans mass depends only on redshift and initial density of baryons $M_J \\propto \\delta_c^{-0.5} (1+z)^{0.5}$. At $z\\simgt 45$ HD molecules heat shocked gas, and at larger redshift their contribution to thermal evolution becomes negligible.

E. O. Vasiliev; Yu. A. Shchekinov

2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

334

LIMB-DARKENED RADIATION-DRIVEN WINDS FROM MASSIVE STARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We calculated the influence of the limb-darkened finite-disk correction factor in the theory of radiation-driven winds from massive stars. We solved the one-dimensional m-CAK hydrodynamical equation of rotating radiation-driven winds for all three known solutions, i.e., fast, {Omega}-slow, and {delta}-slow. We found that for the fast solution, the mass-loss rate is increased by a factor of {approx}10%, while the terminal velocity is reduced about 10%, when compared with the solution using a finite-disk correction factor from a uniformly bright star. For the other two slow solutions, the changes are almost negligible. Although we found that the limb darkening has no effects on the wind-momentum-luminosity relationship, it would affect the calculation of synthetic line profiles and the derivation of accurate wind parameters.

Cure, M. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Casilla 5030, Valparaiso (Chile); Cidale, L. [Departamento de Espectroscopia, Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rial, D. F., E-mail: michel.cure@uv.cl, E-mail: lydia@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: drial@dm.uba.ar [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Photoelectron emission from LiF surfaces by ultrashort electromagnetic pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy- and angle-resolved electron emission spectra produced by incidence of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses on a LiF(001) surface are studied by employing a distorted-wave method named the crystal surface-Volkov (CSV) approximation. The theory makes use of the Volkov phase to describe the action of the external electric field on the emitted electron, while the electron-surface interaction is represented within the tight-binding model. The CSV approach is applied to investigate the effects introduced by the crystal lattice when the electric field is oriented parallel to the surface plane. These effects are essentially governed by the vector potential of the external field, while the influence of the crystal orientation was found to be negligible.

Acuna, M. A. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gravielle, M. S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Axions: Bose Einstein Condensate or Classical Field?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligeable.

Sacha Davidson

2014-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

337

Impact of contact and access resistances in graphene field-effect transistors on quartz substrates for radio frequency applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-frequency performance of graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) has been limited largely by parasitic resistances, including contact resistance (R{sub C}) and access resistance (R{sub A}). Measurement of short-channel (500?nm) GFETs with short (200?nm) spin-on-doped source/drain access regions reveals negligible change in transit frequency (f{sub T}) after doping, as compared to ?23% f{sub T} improvement for similarly sized undoped GFETs measured at low temperature, underscoring the impact of R{sub C} on high-frequency performance. DC measurements of undoped/doped short and long-channel GFETs highlight the increasing impact of R{sub A} for larger GFETs. Additionally, parasitic capacitances were minimized by device fabrication using graphene transferred onto low-capacitance quartz substrates.

Ramón, Michael E., E-mail: michael.ramon@utexas.edu, E-mail: hemacp@utexas.edu; Movva, Hema C. P., E-mail: michael.ramon@utexas.edu, E-mail: hemacp@utexas.edu; Fahad Chowdhury, Sk.; Parrish, Kristen N.; Rai, Amritesh; Akinwande, Deji; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Magnuson, Carl W.; Ruoff, Rodney S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Materials Science and Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

338

Rigorous theory of nuclear fusion rates in a plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Real-time thermal field theory is used to reveal the structure of plasma corrections to nuclear reactions. Previous results are recovered in a fashion that clarifies their nature, and new extensions are made. Brown and Yaffe have introduced the methods of effective quantum field theory into plasma physics. They are used here to treat the interesting limiting case of dilute but very highly charged particles reacting in a dilute, one-component plasma. The highly charged particles are very strongly coupled to this background plasma. The effective field theory proves that this mean field solution plus the one-loop term dominate; higher loop corrections are negligible even though the problem involves strong coupling. Such analytic results for very strong coupling are rarely available, and they can serve as benchmarks for testing computer models.

Lowell S. Brown; David C. Dooling; Dean L. Preston

2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

339

Evaluation of two-stage system for neutron measurement aiming at increase in count rate at Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Fusion Neutronics Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to increase the count rate capability of a neutron detection system as a whole, we propose a multi-stage neutron detection system. Experiments to test the effectiveness of this concept were carried out on Fusion Neutronics Source. Comparing four configurations of alignment, it was found that the influence of an anterior stage on a posterior stage was negligible for the pulse height distribution. The two-stage system using 25 mm thickness scintillator was about 1.65 times the count rate capability of a single detector system for d-D neutrons and was about 1.8 times the count rate capability for d-T neutrons. The results suggested that the concept of a multi-stage detection system will work in practice.

Shinohara, K., E-mail: shinohara.koji@jaea.go.jp; Ochiai, K.; Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Kitajima, S. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Baba, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sasao, M. [Organization for Research Initiatives and Development, Doshisha University, Kyoto 602-8580 (Japan)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Cell body rocking is a dominant mechanism for flagellar synchronization in a swimming algae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas swims with two flagella, which can synchronize their beat. Synchronized beating is required to swim both fast and straight. A long-standing hypothesis proposes that synchronization of flagella results from hydrodynamic coupling, but the details are not understood. Here, we present realistic hydrodynamic computations and high-speed tracking experiments of swimming cells that show how a perturbation from the synchronized state causes rotational motion of the cell body. This rotation feeds back on the flagellar dynamics via hydrodynamic friction forces and rapidly restores the synchronized state in our theory. We calculate that this `cell body rocking' provides the dominant contribution to synchronization in swimming cells, whereas direct hydrodynamic interactions between the flagella contribute negligibly. We experimentally confirmed the coupling between flagellar beating and cell body rocking predicted by our theory. We propose that the interplay of flagellar beating a...

Geyer, Veikko; Howard, Jonathon; Friedrich, Benjamin M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Evolution of Primordial Black Holes in a radiation and phantom energy environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we extend previous work on the evolution of a Primordial Black Hole (PBH) to address the presence of a dark energy component with a super-negative equation of state as a background, investigating the competition between the radiation accretion, the Hawking evaporation and the phantom accretion, the latter two causing a decrease on black hole mass. It is found that there is an instant during the matter-dominated era after which the radiation accretion becomes negligible compared to the phantom accretion. The Hawking evaporation may become important again depending on a mass threshold. The evaporation of PBHs is quite modified at late times by these effects, but only if the Generalized Second Law of thermodynamics is violated.

Daniel C. Guariento; J. E. Horvath; P. S. Custódio; J. A. de Freitas Pacheco

2007-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

342

Induced Optical Losses in Optoelectronic Devices due to Focused Ion Beam Damages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A study of damages caused by gallium focused ion beam (FIB) into III-V compounds is presented. Potential damages caused by local heating, ion implantation, and selective sputtering are presented. Preliminary analysis shows that local heating is negligible. Gallium implantation is shown to occur over areas tens of nanometers thick. Gallium accumulation as well as selective sputtering during III-V compounds milling is expected. Particularly, for GaAs, this effect leads to gallium segregation and formation of metallic clusters. Microdisk resonators were fabricated using FIB milling with different emission currents to analyze these effects on a device. It is shown that for higher emission current, thus higher implantation doses, the cavity quality factor rapidly decreases due to optical scattering losses induced by implanted gallium atoms.

Vallini, Felipe; Reis, Elohim Fonseca dos; von Zuben, Antônio Augusto; Frateschi, Newton Cesário

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Numerical analysis of binary solid-liquid phase change with buoyancy and surface tension driven convection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of thermo/diffusocapillary convection on the solidification of aqueous NH{sub 4}Cl in a rectangular cavity have been simulated numerically using a newly developed continuum model. Diffusocapillary convection is negligible relative to thermocapillary convection, and for a 20 {times} 20 mm cavity in a one-gravity environment, thermocapillary effects are most pronounced during the early stages of solidification, when flow conditions are characterized by three major cells. One cell, driven by solutal buoyancy forces, extends from the mush region to the melt and separates top and bottom melt region cells driven primarily by surface tension and buoyancy forces, respectively. With increasing time, however, the top cell strengthens and eventually envelops the entire melt. In terms of the strength of the flow, the liquidus front morphology, and the amount of solid formed, final conditions differ only slightly from those predicted for pure thermal/solutal convection.

Incropera, F.P.; Engel, A.H.H. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Heat Transfer Lab.); Bennon, W.D. (Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, PA (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Direct deposition of aluminum oxide gate dielectric on graphene channel using nitrogen plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deposition of high-quality dielectric on a graphene channel is an essential technology to overcome structural constraints for the development of nano-electronic devices. In this study, we investigated a method for directly depositing aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on a graphene channel through nitrogen plasma treatment. The deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on graphene demonstrated excellent dielectric properties with negligible charge trapping and de-trapping in the gate insulator. A top-gate-structural graphene transistor was fabricated using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the gate dielectric with nitrogen plasma treatment on graphene channel region, and exhibited p-type transistor characteristics.

Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Dongchool; Ju, Sanghyun [Department of Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Diamond as an inert substrate of graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interaction between graphene and semiconducting diamond substrate has been examined with large-scale density functional theory calculations. Clean and hydrogenated diamond (100) and (111) surfaces have been studied. It turns out that weak van der Waals interactions dominate for graphene on all these surfaces. High carrier mobility of graphene is almost not affected, except for a negligible energy gap opening at the Dirac point. No charge transfer between graphene and diamond (100) surfaces is detected, while different charge-transfer complexes are formed between graphene and diamond (111) surfaces, inducing either p-type or n-type doping on graphene. Therefore, diamond can be used as an excellent substrate of graphene, which almost keeps its electronic structures at the same time providing the flexibility of charge doping.

Hu Wei; Li Zhenyu; Yang Jinlong [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

346

Analytical Energy Gradients in Range-Separated Hybrid Density Functional Theory with Random Phase Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analytical forces have been derived in the Lagrangian framework for several random phase approximation (RPA) correlated total energy methods based on the range separated hybrid (RSH) approach, which combines a short-range density functional approximation for the short-range exchange-correlation energy with a Hartree-Fock-type long-range exchange and RPA long-range correlation. The RPA correlation energy has been expressed as a ring coupled cluster doubles (rCCD) theory. The resulting analytical gradients have been implemented and tested for geometry optimization of simple molecules and intermolecular charge transfer complexes, where intermolecular interactions are expected to have a non-negligible effect even on geometrical parameters of the monomers.

Mussard, Bastien; Ángyán, János G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Testing dissipative magnetosphere model light curves and spectra with FERMI pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore the emission properties of a dissipative pulsar magnetosphere model introduced by Kalapotharakos et al. (2014), comparing its high energy light curves and spectra, due to curvature radiation, with data collected by the Fermi LAT. The magnetosphere structure is assumed to be near the force-free solution. The accelerating electric field, inside the light-cylinder, is assumed to be negligible, while outside the light-cylinder it rescales with a finite conductivity ({\\sigma}). In our approach we calculate the corresponding high energy emission by integrating the trajectories of test particles that originate from the stellar surface, taking into account both the accelerating electric field components and the radiation reaction forces. First we explore the parameter space assuming different value sets for the stellar magnetic field, stellar period, and conductivity. We show that the general properties of the model are in a good agreement with observed emission characteristics of young {\\gamma}-ray pulsar...

Brambilla, Gabriele; Harding, Alice K; Kazanas, Demosthenes

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Kinetic mix mechanisms in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shock-driven implosions of thin-shell capsules, or “exploding pushers,” generate low-density, high-temperature plasmas in which hydrodynamic instability growth is negligible and kinetic effects can play an important role. Data from implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells with hydroequivalent D{sup 3}He gas fills ranging from pure deuterium to pure {sup 3}He [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135001 (2014)] were obtained to evaluate non-hydrodynamic fuel-shell mix mechanisms. Simulations of the experiments including reduced ion kinetic models support ion diffusion as an explanation for these data. Several additional kinetic mechanisms are investigated and compared to the data to determine which are important in the experiments. Shock acceleration of shell deuterons is estimated to introduce mix less than or comparable to the amount required to explain the data. Beam-target mechanisms are found to produce yields at most an order of magnitude less than the observations.

Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hoffman, N.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Betti, R.; Yu Glebov, V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Bellei, C.; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Phase, Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Microwave Sintered La and Ca Modified BaTiO{sub 3} Ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lanthanum and calcium modified barium titanate, Ba{sub (1-x)}La{sub x}Ti{sub (1-x/4)}O{sub 3}/BLT and Ba({sub 1-x})Ca{sub x}TiO{sub 3}/BCT, where x = 0.02, ferroelectric ceramic samples were synthesized in single perovskite phase by microwave processing technique. Sintering temperature was optimized at 1100 deg. C for 1h. Presence of pore free micron size uniform grains suggested the advantage of using microwave sintering process. Transition temperature (T{sub c}) decreases with the substitution of La content in BT system. Temperature coefficient of capacitance is negligible from RT temperature to 75 deg. C for BLT ceramic samples. Polarization vs. electric field (P-E) hysteresis loop study confirms the ferroelectric nature of the modified BT ceramic samples.

Sonia, S.; Patel, R. K. [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela - 769008 (India); Kumar, P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela - 769008 (India); Prakash, Chandra [Directorate of IE and IPR, DRDO, DRDO Bhawan, New Delhi-110105 (India); Agrawal, D. K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

350

Study of space charge compensation phenomena in charged particle beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The propagation of a charged particle beam is accompanied by the production of secondary particles created in the interaction of the beam itself with the background gas flowing in the accelerator tube. In the drift region, where the electric field of the electrodes is negligible, secondary particles may accumulate giving a plasma which shields the self-induced potential of the charged beam. This phenomenon, known as space charge compensation is a typical issue in accelerator physics, where it is usually addressed by means of 1D radial transport codes or Monte Carlo codes. The present paper describes some theoretical studies on this phenomenon, presenting a Particle in Cell-Monte Carlo (PIC-MC) Code developed ad hoc where both radial and axial confinements of secondary particles are calculated. The features of the model, offering a new insight on the problem, are described and some results discussed.

Veltri, P.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35100 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell'Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Accuracy Test for Link Prediction in terms of Similarity Index: The Case of WS and BA Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Link prediction is a technique that uses the topological information in a given network to infer the missing links in it. Since past research on link prediction has primarily focused on enhancing performance for given empirical systems, negligible attention has been devoted to link prediction with regard to network models. In this paper, we thus apply link prediction to two network models: The Watts-Strogatz (WS) model and Barab\\'asi-Albert (BA) model. We attempt to gain a better understanding of the relation between accuracy and each network parameter (mean degree, the number of nodes and the rewiring probability in the WS model) through network models. Six similarity indices are used, with precision and area under the ROC curve (AUC) value as the accuracy metrics. We observe a positive correlation between mean degree and accuracy, and size independence of the AUC value.

Ahn, Min-Woo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Apparatus and method for polarizing polarizable nuclear species  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a polarizing process involving a number of steps. The first step requires moving a flowing mixture of gas, the gas at least containing a polarizable nuclear species and vapor of at least one alkali metal, with a transport velocity that is not negligible when compared with the natural velocity of diffusive transport. The second step is propagating laser light in a direction, preferably at least partially through a polarizing cell. The next step is directing the flowing gas along a direction generally opposite to the direction of laser light propagating. The next step is containing the flowing gas mixture in the polarizing cell. The final step is immersing the polarizing cell in a magnetic field. These steps can be initiated in any order, although the flowing gas, the propagating laser and the magnetic field immersion must be concurrently active for polarization to occur.

Hersman, F. William; Leuschner, Mark; Carberry, Jeannette

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

353

Non-adiabatic perturbations in decaying vacuum cosmology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology in which a decaying vacuum term causes matter production at late times. Assuming a decay proportional to the Hubble rate, the ratio of the background energy densities of dark matter and dark energy changes with the cosmic scale factor as a{sup ?3/2}. The intrinsically non-adiabatic two-component perturbation dynamics of this model is reduced to a single second-order equation. Perturbations of the vacuum term are shown to be negligible on scales that are relevant for structure formation. On larger scales, dark-energy perturbations give a somewhat higher contribution but remain always smaller than the dark-matter perturbations.

Zimdahl, W.; Fabris, J.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Borges, H.A.; Carneiro, S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Hipólito-Ricaldi, W.S., E-mail: winfried.zimdahl@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: humberto@ufba.br, E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: fabris@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: whipolito@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciências Matemáticas e Naturais, UFES, São Mateus, ES (Brazil)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Study of microwave/gamma-ray properties for Fermi-LAT bright AGNs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blazars are a small fraction of all extragalactic sources but, unlike other objects, they are strong emitters across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Recent data in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum have become available to allow for systematic studies of blazars over large cosmological volumes. This frequency band is indeed particularly suited for the selection of blazars since at these frequencies the contamination from radio extended components with steep spectra is no longer present and the emission from the accretion process is negligible. During the first 3 months of scientific operations Fermi-LAT detected 106 bright, high-galactic latitude (| b |> 10 deg) AGNs with high significance. In this study we investigate the possible relations between the microwave and the gamma-ray emissions for Fermi-LAT detected AGNs belonging to WMAP 5th year bright source catalog.

Gasparrini, D; Giommi, P; Pittori, C; Colafrancesco, S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10{sup -78}). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

Niu Yuezhen; Huang Junwu; Ma Boqiang [School of Physics and State Keye Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for History and Philosophy of Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Role of electric charge in shaping equilibrium configurations of fluid tori encircling black holes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Astrophysical fluids may acquire nonzero electrical charge because of strong irradiation or charge separation in a magnetic field. In this case, electromagnetic and gravitational forces may act together and produce new equilibrium configurations, which are different from the uncharged ones. Following our previous studies of charged test particles and uncharged perfect fluid tori encircling compact objects, we introduce here a simple test model of a charged perfect fluid torus in strong gravitational and electromagnetic fields. In contrast to ideal magnetohydrodynamic models, we consider here the opposite limit of negligible conductivity, where the charges are tied completely to the moving matter. This is an extreme limiting case which can provide a useful reference against which to compare subsequent more complicated astrophysically motivated calculations. To clearly demonstrate the features of our model, we construct three-dimensional axisymmetric charged toroidal configurations around Reissner-Nordstroem black holes and compare them with equivalent configurations of electrically neutral tori.

Kovar, Jiri; Slany, Petr; Stuchlik, Zdenek; Karas, Vladimir; Cremaschini, Claudio; Miller, John C. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava Bezrucovo nam. 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Bocni II, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); SISSA and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); SISSA and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy and Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

Transients from Zel'dovich initial conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the error implied by the use of the Zel'dovich approximation to set up the initial conditions at a finite redshift zi in numerical simulations. Using a steepest-descent method developed in a previous work we derive the probability distribution P(delta_R) of the density contrast in the quasi-linear regime. This also provides its dependence on the redshift zi at which the simulation is started. Thus, we find that the discrepancy with the exact pdf (defined by the limit zi->infinity) is negligible after the scale factor has grown by a factor a/a_i>5, for scales which were initially within the linear regime with sigma_i>0.1. This shows that the use of the Zel'dovich approximation to implement the initial conditions is sufficient for practical purposes since these are not very severe constraints.

P. Valageas

2002-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

358

The Stiller-Smith Engine: Floating gear analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Stiller-Smith Engine employs a non-standard gear train and as such requires a closer examination of the design and sizing of the gears. To accomplish this the motion of the Stiller-Smith gear train is compared to more familiar arrangements. The results of a kinematic and dynamic analysis introduce the irregular forces that the gears are subjected to. The ''floating'' or ''trammel'' gear is examined more closely, first stochastically and then with finite element analysis. This pinpoints high stress concentrations on the gear and where they occur during the engine cycle. The configuration considered is an output shaft, negligible idler gear forces, and floating gear pins that are part of the connecting rods rather than the floating gear. Various loading techniques are discussed with possible ramifications of each.

Craven, R.; Smith, J.E.; Butler, S.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

202-328-5000 www.rff.orgSector Effects of the Shale Gas Revolution in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reviews the impact of the shale gas revolution on the sectors of electricity generation, transportation, and manufacturing in the United States. Natural gas is being substituted for other fuels, particularly coal, in electricity generation, resulting in lower greenhouse gas emissions from this sector. The use of natural gas in the transportation sector is currently negligible but is projected to increase with investments in refueling infrastructure and natural gas vehicle technologies. Petrochemical and other manufacturing industries have responded to lower natural gas prices by investing in domestically located manufacturing projects. This paper also speculates on the impact of a possible shale gas boom in China. Key Words: shale gas, electricity, transportation, and manufacturing JEL Classification Numbers: L71, L9, Q4 © 2013 Resources for the Future. All rights reserved. No portion of this paper may be reproduced without permission of the authors. Discussion papers are research materials circulated by their authors for purposes of information and discussion.

360

Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay CA.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A n indust ry standard wave modeling tool was utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters and wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deploym ent scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that b oth wave height and near - bottom orbital velocity we re subject to the largest pote ntial variations, each decreas ed in sensitivity as transmission coefficient increase d , as number and spacing of WEC devices decrease d , and as the deployment location move d offshore. Wave direction wa s affected consistently for all parameters and wave perio d was not affected (or negligibly affected) by varying model parameters or WEC configuration .

Roberts, Jesse D.; Grace Chang; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Performance of a copper-lithium alloy as an impurity control system surface material for a fusion reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A copper-lithium alloy was evaluated as a surface material for the impurity control system of the INTOR reactor. Both the medium edge temperature limiter regime and the low edge temperature divertor regime were examined. The analysis used TRIM code data to predict sputtering coefficients for copper-lithium with a 1.5 monolayer coverage of lithium. The REDEP code was used to evaluate the erosion performance for INTOR. Other properties such as fabrication and thermal performance were also briefly assessed. It was found, from the standpoint of erosion, that copper-lithium is a very good candidate material for the medium edge temperature regime, and also works well in the low edge temperature regime. For the medium edge temperature regime, the use of copper-lithium results in an almost negligible erosion rate over the entire limiter surface.

Brooks, J.N.; Krauss, A.R.; Mattas, R.F.; DeWald, A.B.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Analysis of core damage frequency due to external events at the DOE (Department of Energy) N-Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A complete external events probabilistic risk assessment has been performed for the N-Reactor power plant, making full use of all insights gained during the past ten years' developments in risk assessment methodologies. A detailed screening analysis was performed which showed that all external events had negligible contribution to core damage frequency except fires, seismic events, and external flooding. A limited scope analysis of the external flooding risk indicated that it is not a major risk contributor. Detailed analyses of the fire and seismic risks resulted in total (mean) core damage frequencies of 1.96E-5 and 4.60E-05 per reactor year, respectively. Detailed uncertainty analyses were performed for both fire and seismic risks. These results show that the core damage frequency profile for these events is comparable to that found for existing commercial power plants if proposed fixes are completed as part of the restart program. 108 refs., 85 figs., 80 tabs.

Lambright, J.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Daniel, S.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Baxter, J.T. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Johnson, J.J.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.O.; Mraz, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Conoscente, J.P. (EQE, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Brosseau, D.A. (ERCE, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Neutrino-nucleus reactions and their role for supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The description of nuclear reactions induced by supernova neutrinos has witnessed significant progress during the recent years. At the energies and momentum transfers relevant for supernova neutrinos neutrino-nucleus cross sections are dominated by allowed transitions, however, often with non-negligible contributions from (first) forbidden transitions. For several nuclei allowed Gamow-Teller strength distributions could be derived from charge-exchange reactions and from inelastic electron scattering data. Importantly the diagonalization shell model has been proven to accurately describe these data and hence became the appropriate tool to calculate the allowed contributions to neutrino-nucleus cross sections for supernova neutrinos. Higher multipole contributions are usually calculated within the framework of the Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation, which describes the total strength and the position of the giant resonances quite well. This manuscript reviews the recent progress achieved in calculating su...

Balasi, K G; Martínez-Pinedo, G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

Peterka, J.A.; Derickson, R.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Lab.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Plasma-enriched chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride on silicon carbide fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near stoichiometric Si:N coatings were deposited by means of PECVD on SCS-6 SiC fibers which contained a carbon-rich coating. Weight loss associated with oxidation of the outer carbon-rich coating of the as-received SiC fibers was greatly reduced for the Si:N coated SiC fibers even after 10 h heat-treatment in oxygen at 800{degrees}C. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain elemental compositions of the as-received and Si:N coated SiC fibers after heat-treatment. Negligible amounts of oxygen were found at the carbon-rich coating of the heat-treated Si:N coated SiC fiber. These results clearly prove the effectiveness of PECVD silicon nitride coating as an oxygen diffusion barrier.

Stinespring, C.D.; Collazos, D.F.; Gupta, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy level alignment at the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}, facilitating hole transfer from CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.

Chen, Shi; Goh, Teck Wee; Sum, Tze Chien, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Sabba, Dharani; Chua, Julianto; Mathews, Nripan [Energy Research Institute @NTU (ERI-N), Research Techno Plaza, X-Frontier Block, Level 5, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Huan, Cheng Hon Alfred, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16–16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

A bridge-functional-based classical mapping method for predicting the correlation functions of uniform electron gases at finite temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient and accurate prediction of the correlation functions of uniform electron gases is of great importance for both practical and theoretical applications. This paper presents a bridge-functional-based classical mapping method for calculating the correlation functions of uniform spin-unpolarized electron gases at finite temperature. The bridge functional is formulated by following Rosenfeld's universality ansatz in combination with the modified fundamental measure theory. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo results but with negligible computational cost, and the accuracy is better than a previous attempt based on the hypernetted-chain approximation. We find that the classical mapping method is most accurate if the effective mass of electrons increases as the density falls.

Liu, Yu; Wu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jwu@engr.ucr.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Department of Mathematics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)] [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Department of Mathematics, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

369

Uniform wafer-scale synthesis of graphene on evaporated Cu (111) film with quality comparable to exfoliated monolayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monolayer graphene has been grown on crystallized Cu (111) films on standard oxidized Si 100 mm wafers. The monolayer graphene demonstrates high uniformity (>97% coverage), with immeasurable defects (>95% defect-negligible) across the entire wafer. Key to these results is the phase transition of evaporated copper films from amorphous to crystalline at the growth temperature as corroborated by X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Noticeably, phase transition of copper film is observed on technologically ubiquitous oxidized Si wafer where the oxide is a standard amorphous thermal oxide. Ion mass spectroscopy indicates that the copper films can be purposely hydrogen-enriched during a hydrogen anneal which subsequently affords graphene growth with a sole carbonaceous precursor for low defect densities. Owing to the strong hexagonal lattice match, the graphene domains align to the Cu (111) domains, suggesting a pathway for increasing the graphene grains by maximizing the copper grain sizes. Fabr...

Tao, Li; Lee, Jongho; Chou, Harry; McDonnell, Stephen J; Ferrer, Domingo A; Babenco, Matias; Wallace, Robert M; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Ruoff, Rodney S; Akinwande, Deji

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Self-field effects on instability of wave modes in a two-stream free-electron laser with an axial magnetic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Free electron lasers (FEL) play major roles in the Raman Regime, due to the charge and current densities of the beam self-field. The method of perturbation has been applied to study the influence of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. A dispersion relation for two-stream free electron lasers with a helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field has been found. This dispersion relation is solved numerically to investigate the influence of self-fields on the FEL coupling and the two-stream instability. It was found that self-fields can produce very large effects on the FEL coupling, but they have almost negligible effects on two-stream instability.

Mohsenpour, Taghi, E-mail: mohsenpour@umz.ac.ir; Rezaee Rami, Omme Kolsoum [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Wafer-scale solution-derived molecular gate dielectrics for low-voltage graphene electronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene field-effect transistors are integrated with solution-processed multilayer hybrid organic-inorganic self-assembled nanodielectrics (SANDs). The resulting devices exhibit low-operating voltage (2?V), negligible hysteresis, current saturation with intrinsic gain >1.0 in vacuum (pressure?

Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; McMorrow, Julian J.; He, Jianting; Lauhon, Lincoln J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Everaerts, Ken [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Grayson, Matthew [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Marks, Tobin J., E-mail: t-marks@northwestern.edu, E-mail: m-hersam@northwestern.edu; Hersam, Mark C., E-mail: t-marks@northwestern.edu, E-mail: m-hersam@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

372

Clustering and Triaxial Deformations of $^{40}$Ca  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have studied the positive-parity states of $^{40}$Ca using antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) and the generator coordinate method (GCM). Imposing two different kinds of constraints on the variational calculation, we have found various kinds of $^{40}{\\rm Ca}$ structures such as a deformed-shell structure, as well as $\\alpha$-$^{36}$Ar and $^{12}$C-$^{28}$Si cluster structures. After the GCM calculation, we obtained a normal-deformed band and a superdeformed band together with their side bands associated with triaxial deformation. The calculated $B(E2)$ values agreed well with empirical data. It was also found that the normal-deformed and superdeformed bands have a non-negligible $\\alpha$-$^{36}$Ar cluster component and $^{12}$C-$^{28}$Si cluster component, respectively. This leads to the presence of an $\\alpha$-$^{36}$Ar higher-nodal band occurring above the normal-deformed band.

Yasutaka Taniguchi; Masaaki Kimura; Yoshiko Kanada-En'yo; Hisashi Horiuchi

2007-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

373

Negative refraction with tunable absorption in an active dense gas of atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applications of negative index materials (NIM) presently are severely limited by absorption. Next to improvements of metamaterial designs, it has been suggested that dense gases of atoms could form a NIM with negligible losses. In such gases, the low absorption is facilitated by quantum interference. Here, we show that additional gain mechanisms can be used to tune and effectively remove absorption in a dense gas NIM. In our setup, the atoms are coherently prepared by control laser fields, and further driven by a weak incoherent pump field to induce gain. We employ nonlinear optical Bloch equations to analyze the optical response. Metastable Neon is identified as a suitable experimental candidate at infrared frequencies to implement a lossless active negative index material.

P. P. Orth; R. Hennig; C. H. Keitel; J. Evers

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

374

The effect of tungsten and molybdenum additions on the cavitation corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel (DSS) in seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavitation corrosion studies were conducted on two duplex stainless steel (DSS) specimens of which one was containing tungsten and more molybdenum than the other. Experiments were conducted in seawater using an ultrasonically-induced cavitation facilities. The rate of mass-loss, free corrosion potential, and microscopic examinations were compared for the two alloys in the presence and absence of cavitation. There was negligible mass loss for the two alloys under stagnant conditions. However, some differences were observed between the two alloys with respect to mass-loss, corrosion potential and morphology of attacked areas. The alloy containing tungsten and mover molybdenum experienced more loss in weight regardless of their more noble corrosion potential during cavitation. This difference in behavior was explained in terms of the effect of the alloying elements on the microstructure of the alloys and their susceptibility to absorb the impact energy of cavitation.

Al-Hashem, A.; Abdullah, A.; Shalaby, H.M. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

A novel design for monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design for the fabrication of Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion described in this paper utilizes a novel, interdigitated contacting scheme that increases the flexibility in the size of the component cells and hence the output current and voltage of the module. This flexibility is gained at the expense of only minimally increased grid obscuration. Because the design uses the grid fingers of the component cells as the interconnect structure, the area of the device used for this purpose becomes negligible. In this paper the authors report on the specifics of the design as well as issues related to the fabrication of the modules. Preliminary performance data for representative modules also are offered.

Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. I. Cross Validation of Polarization Measurements by Impedance Spectroscopy and Current-Potential Sweep  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to address three issues in solid oxide fuel cells: (1) cross-validation of the polarization of a single cell measured using both dc and ac approaches, (2) the precise determination of the total areal specific resistance (ASR), and (3) understanding cathode polarization with LSCF cathodes. The ASR of a solid oxide fuel cell is a dynamic property, meaning that it changes with current density. The ASR measured using ac impedance spectroscopy (low frequency interception with real Z´ axis of ac impedance spectrum) matches with that measured from a dc IV sweep (the tangent of dc i-V curve). Due to the dynamic nature of ASR, we found that an ac impedance spectrum measured under open circuit voltage or on a half cell may not represent cathode performance under real operating conditions, particularly at high current density. In this work, the electrode polarization was governed by the cathode activation polarization; the anode contribution was negligible.

Zhou, Xiao Dong; Pederson, Larry R.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

378

Kinetics of gasification of black liquor char by steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the steam gasification kinetics of kraft black liquor char that were studied in a thermogravimetric analysis reactor. The effect of steam and hydrogen concentration on gasification rate can be described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetics. An activation energy of 210 kJ/mol was obtained. Methane formation was negligible, and H{sub 2}S was the major gaseous sulfur-containing product obtained over the temperature range studied, 873-973 K. The CO{sub 2} concentration was higher than calculated for the water-shift reaction at equilibrium. A gasification mechanism is proposed whereby CO{sub 2} is one of the primary gasification products.

Li, J.; van Heiningen, A.R.P. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McGill Univ., Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Montreal, Quebec (CA))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Dark Energy in the Dark Ages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-negligible dark energy density at high redshifts would indicate dark energy physics distinct from a cosmological constant or ``reasonable'' canonical scalar fields. Such dark energy can be constrained tightly through investigation of the growth of structure, with limits of \\la2% of total energy density at z\\gg1 for many models. Intermediate dark energy can have effects distinct from its energy density; the dark ages acceleration can be constrained to last less than 5% of a Hubble e-fold time, exacerbating the coincidence problem. Both the total linear growth, or equivalently \\sigma_8, and the shape and evolution of the nonlinear mass power spectrum for zenergy behavior over the entire range z=0-1100.

Eric V. Linder

2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

380

The role of the quantum properties of gravitational radiation in the dete ction of gravitational waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The role that the quantum properties of a gravitational wave could play in the detection of gravitational radiation is analyzed. It is not only corroborated that in the current laser-interferometric detectors the resolution of the experimental apparatus could lie very far from the corresponding quantum threshold (thus the backreaction effect of the measuring device upon the gravitational wave is negligible), but it is also suggested that the consideration of the quantum properties of the wave could entail the definition of dispersion of the measurement outputs. This dispersion would be a function not only of the sensitivity of the measuring device, but also of the interaction time (between measuring device and gravitational radiation) and of the arm length of the corresponding laser- interferometer. It would have a minimum limit, and the introduction of the current experimental parameters insinuates that the dispersion of the existing proposals could lie very far from this minimum, which means that they would show a very large dispersion.

A. Camacho

1998-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Probing Dark Matter Self-Interaction in the Sun with IceCube-PINGU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the capture, annihilation and evaporation of dark matter (DM) inside the Sun. It has been shown that the DM self-interaction can increase the DM number inside the Sun. We demonstrate that this enhancement becomes more significant in the regime of small DM mass, given a fixed DM self-interaction cross section. This leads to the enhancement of neutrino flux from DM annihilation. On the other hand, for DM mass as low as a few GeVs, not only the DM-nuclei scatterings can cause the DM evaporation, DM self-interaction also provides non-negligible contributions to this effect. Consequently, the critical mass for DM evaporation (typically 3 $\\sim$ 4 GeV without the DM self-interaction) can be slightly increased. We discuss the prospect of detecting DM self-interaction in IceCube-PINGU using the annihilation channels $\\chi\\chi \\rightarrow \\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}, \

Chian-Shu Chen; Fei-Fan Lee; Guey-Lin Lin; Yen-Hsun Lin

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

382

The dark matter self-interaction and its impact on the critical mass for dark matter evaporations inside the sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the capture, annihilation and evaporation of dark matter (DM) inside the Sun. It has been shown that the DM self-interaction can increase the DM number inside the Sun. We demonstrate that this enhancement becomes more significant in the regime of small DM mass, given a fixed DM self-interaction cross section. This leads to the enhancement of neutrino flux from DM annihilation. On the other hand, for DM mass as low as as a few GeVs, not only the DM-nuclei scatterings can cause the DM evaporation, DM self-interaction also provides non-negligible contributions to this effect. Consequently, the critical mass for DM evaporation (typically 3 ~ 4 GeV without the DM self-interaction) can be slightly increased. We discuss the prospect of detecting DM self-interaction in IceCube- PINGU using the annihilation channels $\\chi\\chi\\rightarrow\

Chian-Shu Chen; Fei-Fan Lee; Guey-Lin Lin; Yen-Hsun Lin

2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

383

Investigations of the properties of double ratio estimators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

case, let YO , XO , end Xl only a a(Z) -~ 1 m c Z xl J~1 ylp a(Z) =~ E vO) g 1 70 r 2m (s. 5) 29 E yl a(Z)-~ a a E xp. j 1 yla r 3a xp Substituting (3. 5) in (1. 18) again, we get (N-a) n I- rla Xl + r2a Yp ? r3a Xp + ~gn-a 1 la xl..., showing that the ratio estimator is a consistent estimator of the population value and that the bias is negligible in large samples. Hartley and Ross ($) have given an exact expression for the bias: s s? r x Bias (r) - ? cov (r, x) / X--p X where...

Pizarro de Pereira, Norma

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

384

Dark Matter And The Habitability of Planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In many models, dark matter particles can elastically scatter with nuclei in planets, causing those particles to become gravitationally bound. While the energy expected to be released through the subsequent annihilations of dark matter particles in the interior of the Earth is negligibly small (a few megawatts in the most optimistic models), larger planets that reside in regions with higher densities of slow moving dark matter could plausibly capture and annihilate dark matter at a rate high enough to maintain liquid water on their surfaces, even in the absence of additional energy from starlight or other sources. On these rare planets, it may be dark matter rather than light from a host star that makes it possible for life to emerge, evolve, and survive.

Hooper, Dan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Dark Matter And The Habitability of Planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In many models, dark matter particles can elastically scatter with nuclei in planets, causing those particles to become gravitationally bound. While the energy expected to be released through the subsequent annihilations of dark matter particles in the interior of the Earth is negligibly small (a few megawatts in the most optimistic models), larger planets that reside in regions with higher densities of slow moving dark matter could plausibly capture and annihilate dark matter at a rate high enough to maintain liquid water on their surfaces, even in the absence of additional energy from starlight or other sources. On these rare planets, it may be dark matter rather than light from a host star that makes it possible for life to emerge, evolve, and survive.

Dan Hooper; Jason H. Steffen

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

386

The effect of topography on SAR calibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During normal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing, a flat earth is assumed when performing radiometric corrections such as antenna pattern and scattering area removal. Here the authors examine the effects of topographic variations on these corrections. Local slopes will cause the actual scattering area to be different from that calculated using the flat earth assumption. It is shown that this effect, which is present for both airborne and spaceborne SAR data, may easily cause calibration errors larger than a decibel. Ignoring the topography during antenna pattern removal is expected to be negligible for spaceborne SAR's. In this paper they show how these effects can be taken into account if a digital elevation model is available for the imaged area. It is also shown that not taking the topography into account during antenna pattern removal introduces polarimetric calibration errors.

Zyl, J.J. van; Chapman, B.D.; Dubois, P. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.); Shi, Jiancheng (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Effect of eccentricity on binary neutron star searches in Advanced LIGO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Binary neutron stars (BNSs) are the primary source of gravitational waves for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and its international partners Virgo and KAGRA. Current BNS searches target field binaries whose orbits will have circularized by radiation reaction before their gravitational waves enter the Advanced LIGO sensitive band at 15 Hz. It has been suggested that a population of BNSs may form by n-body interactions near supermassive black holes or in globular clusters and that these systems may have non-negligible eccentricity in the Advanced LIGO band. We show that for BNS systems with total mass of 2.4 (6.0) solar masses, the effect of eccentricity e search is effectual for these binaries. For eccentricities up to e = 0.4, we investigate the selection bias caused by neglecting eccentricity in BNS searches. If such high eccentricity systems exist, searches that specifically target eccentric binaries will be needed in Advanced LIGO and Virgo.

E. A. Huerta; Duncan A. Brown

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

388

Numerical investigation of the convection of heat-emitting liquid reactor materials taking stratification into account  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Convective heat transfer to a reactor vessel following core destruction is analyzed. Fuel fragment and structural materials are assumed to melt either mix uniformly or stratify. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved numerically with a rectangular coarse difference grid, neglecting the negligibly small contribution of the laminar boundary layer. Calculations for different levels of volume heat release showed that integral heat fluxes at the lateral and top surfaces of the melt are virtually independent of the convective flow scenario. However, the maximum heat flux on the lateral surface is approximately 1.5 times higher for the homogeneous case than for the stratified case. The higher heat flux could result in larger mechanical loads on the reactor vessel, requiring more cooling of the reactor vessel outer surface. 12 refs., 4 figs.

Likhanskii, V.V.; Loboiko, A.I.; Khoruzhii, O.V.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

ADVANCED HEAT EXCHANGERS USING TUNABLE NANOSCALE-MOLECULAR ASSEMBLY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam condensation heat transfer on smooth horizontal tubes and enhanced tubes (TURBO-CDI and TURBO-CSL) along with nanoscale hydrophobic coated tubes was studied experimentally. Hydrophobic coatings have been created through self-assembled mono layers (SAMs) on copper alloy (99.9% Cu, 0.1% P) surfaces to enhance steam condensation through dropwise condensation. In general, a SAM system with a long-chain, hydrophobic group is nano-resistant, meaning that such a system forms a protective hydrophobic layer with negligible heat transfer resistance but a much stronger bond. When compared to complete filmwise condensation, the SAM coating on a plain tube increased the condensation heat transfer rate by a factor of 3 for copper alloy surfaces, under vacuum pressure (33.86 kPa) and by a factor of about 8 times when operated at atmospheric pressure (101 kPa). Lifetime of maintaining dropwise condensation is greatly dependent on the processing conditions.

Kwang J. Kim; Thomas W. Bell; Srinivas Vemuri; Sailaja Govindaraju

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Fluid dynamics, particulate segregation, chemical processes, and natural ore analog discussions that relate to the potential for criticality in Hanford tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an in-depth review of the potential for nuclear criticality to occur in Hanford defense waste tanks during past, current and future safe storage and maintenance operations. The report also briefly discusses the potential impacts of proposed retrieval activities, although retrieval was not a main focus of scope. After thorough review of fluid dynamic aspects that focus on particle segregation, chemical aspects that focus on solubility and adsorption processes that might concentrate plutonium and/or separate plutonium from the neutron absorbers in the tank waste, and ore-body formation and mining operations, the interdisciplinary team has come to the conclusion that there is negligible risk of nuclear critically under existing storage conditions in Hanford site underground waste storage tanks. Further, for the accident scenarios considered an accidental criticality is incredible.

Barney, G.S.

1996-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

391

Impact of electron irradiation on electron holographic potentiometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While electron holography in the transmission electron microscope offers the possibility to measure maps of the electrostatic potential of semiconductors down to nanometer dimensions, these measurements are known to underestimate the absolute value of the potential, especially in GaN. We have varied the dose rates of electron irradiation over several orders of magnitude and observed strong variations of the holographically detected voltages. Overall, the results indicate that the electron beam generates electrical currents within the specimens primarily by the photovoltaic effect and due to secondary electron emission. These currents have to be considered for a quantitative interpretation of electron holographic measurements, as their negligence contributes to large parts in the observed discrepancy between the measured and expected potential values in GaN.

Park, J. B.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M. [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Berger, D. [Technische Universität Berlin, Zentraleinrichtung für Elektronenmikroskopie, Strae des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Knauer, A.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibnitz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Koslow, I.; Kneissl, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibnitz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Nonlocal homogenization theory in metamaterials: effective electromagnetic spatial dispersion and artificial chirality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop, from first principles, a general and compact formalism for predicting the electromagnetic response of a metamaterial with non-magnetic inclusions in the long wavelength limit, including spatial dispersion up to the second order. Specifically, by resorting to a suitable multiscale technique, we show that medium effective permittivity tensor and the first and second order tensors describing spatial dispersion can be evaluated by averaging suitable spatially rapidly-varying fields each satysifing electrostatic-like equations within the metamaterial unit cell. For metamaterials with negligible second-order spatial dispersion, we exploit the equivalence of first-order spatial dispersion and reciprocal bianisotropic electromagnetic response to deduce a simple expression for the metamaterial chirality tensor. Such an expression allows us to systematically analyze the effect of the composite spatial symmetry properties on electromagnetic chirality. We find that even if a metamaterial is geometrically achi...

Ciattoni, Alessandro

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

On the need of the Light Elements Primary Process (LEPP)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extant chemical evolution models underestimate the Galactic production of Sr, Y and Zr as well as the Solar System abundances of s-only isotopes with 904.0 M_SUN) are negligible; 4) the inclusion of rotation implies a downward shift of the whole distribution with an higher efficiency for the heavy s-only isotopes, leading to a flatter s-only distribution; 5) different prescriptions on convection or mass-loss produce nearly rigid shifts of the whole distribution. In summary, a variation of the standard paradigm of AGB nucleosynthesis would allow to reconcile models predictions with Solar System s-only abundances. Nonetheless, the LEPP cannot be definitely ruled out, because of the uncertainties still affecting stellar and Galactic chemical evolution models.

Cristallo, Sergio; Straniero, Oscar; Piersanti, Luciano

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Energy band modulation of graphane by hydrogen-vacancy chains: A first-principles study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated a variety of configurations of hydrogen-vacancy chains in graphane by first-principles density functional calculation. We found that graphane with two zigzag H-vacancy chains segregated by one or more H chain is generally a nonmagnetic conductor or has a negligible band gap. However, the same structure is turned into a semiconductor and generates a magnetic moment if either one or both of the vacancy chains are blocked by isolated H atoms. If H-vacancy chains are continuously distributed, the structure is similar to a zigzag graphene nanoribbon embedded in graphane. It was also found that the embedded zigzag graphene nanoribbon is antiferromagnetic, and isolated H atoms left in the 2-chain nanoribbon can tune the band gap and generate net magnetic moments. Similar effects are also obtained if bare carbon atoms are present outside the nanoribbon. These results are useful for designing graphene-based nanoelectronic circuits.

Wu, Bi-Ru [Department of Natural science, Center for General Education, Chang Gung University, Kueishan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Chih-Kai, E-mail: ckyang@nccu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan, ROC (China)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Measurement of Spin-Correlation Parameters all and Asl in P-P Elastic-Scattering from 500 Mev to 800 Mev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in magnitude of target polarization in the (+) and ( ?) states was negligible. When the beam polarization is purely L, the asym- metry associated with the yields is eI =P&"PI'AII . When the beam contains both L and S components of polariza- tion, two....365 0.356 0.360 0.310 0.309 0.291 0.325 0.298 0.309 0.296 0.301 0.279 0.250 0.267 0.331 0.316 0.310 0.307 0.289 0.235 0.263 0.254 0.233 0.223 0.278 0.221 0.257 0.331 0.343 0.312 0.308 0.070 0.023 0.027 0.123 0.026 85...

Glass, G.; Bhatia, T. S.; Hiebert, John C.; Kenefick, R. A.; Nath, S.; Northcliffe, L. C.; Tippens, W. B.; Barlow, D. B.; Jarmer, J. J.; Simmons, J. E.; Jeppersen, R. H.; Tripard, G. E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation: The role of O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, frequency, and power density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone as functions of applied frequencies and applied power are investigated. Experiments are performed over the frequency range of 205--1,078 kHz. The higher overall reaction rates are observed at 358 and 618 kHz and then at 205 and 1,078 kHz. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant, k{sub 0}, for MTBE degradation increases with increasing power density up to 250 W L{sup {minus}1}. A linear dependence of the first-order rate constant, k{sub O{sub 3}}, for the simultaneous degradation of O{sub 3} on power density is also observed. Naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) is shown to have a negligible effect on observed reaction rates.

Kang, J.W.; Hung, H.M.; Lin, A.; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

A flexible scintillation light apparatus for rare event searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compelling experimental evidences of neutrino oscillations and their implication that neutrinos are massive particles have given neutrinoless double beta decay a central role in astroparticle physics. In fact, the discovery of this elusive decay would be a major breakthrough, unveiling that neutrino and antineutrino are the same particle and that the lepton number is not conserved. It would also impact our efforts to establish the absolute neutrino mass scale and, ultimately, understand elementary particle interaction unification. All current experimental programs to search for neutrinoless double beta decay are facing with the technical and financial challenge of increasing the experimental mass while maintaining incredibly low levels of spurious background. The new concept described in this paper could be the answer which combines all the features of an ideal experiment: energy resolution, low cost mass scalability, isotope choice flexibility and many powerful handles to make the background negligible. The ...

Bonvicini, Valter; Cremonesi, Oliviero; Cucciati, Giacomo; Gironi, Luca; Pavan, Maura; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Massive charged scalar field in the Kerr-Newman background II: Hawking radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform accurate calculations of the energy-, momentum-, and charge-emission rates of a charged scalar field in the background of the Kerr-Newman black hole at the range of parameters for which the effect is not negligibly small and, at the same time, the semiclassical regime is, at least marginally, valid. For black holes with charge below or not much higher than the charge accretion limit $Q \\sim \\mu M/e$ (where $e$ and $\\mu$ are the electron's mass and charge), the time between the consequent emitting of two charged particles is very large. For primordial black holes the transition between the increasing and decreasing of the ratio $Q/M$ occurs around the charge accretion limit. The rotation increases the intensity of radiation up to three orders, while the effect of the field's mass strongly suppresses the radiation.

R. A. Konoplya; A. Zhidenko

2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

399

Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

A full dimensional investigation of infrared spectroscopy of the RbCs dimer using the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The geometry and infrared absorption spectrum of (RbCs){sub 2} have been studied by full dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. For this purpose, the potential energy and dipole moment surfaces are generated by means of a cluster expansion with all two and three mode correlations, and fitted to analytical expressions with negligible deviations. Accordingly, the ground state (RbCs){sub 2} has a diamond geometry with D{sub 2h} symmetry. The infrared spectrum with frequencies up to 120 cm{sup ?1}, exhibits rich details of the fundamentals, overtones, and combination bands; the highest fundamental frequency of (RbCs){sub 2} is only 40.26 cm{sup ?1}. The present study unravels important details of the interactions between the widely investigated ultracold RbCs molecules.

Wang, Huihui; Yang, Yonggang, E-mail: ygyang@sxu.edu.cn; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Nonperturbative renormalization of the neutrinoless double-beta operator in p-shell nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use Lee-Suzuki mappings and related techniques to construct effective two-body p-shell interactions and neutrinoless double-beta operators that exactly reproduce the results of large no-core-shell-model calculations of double-beta decay in nuclei with mass number A=6. We then apply the effective operators to the decay of nuclei with A=7, 8, and 10, again comparing with no-core calculations in much larger spaces. The results with the effective two-body operators are generally good. In some cases, however, they differ non-negligibly from the full no-core results, suggesting that three-body corrections to the decay operator in heavier nuclei may be important. An application of our procedure and related ideas to fp-shell nuclei such as 76Ge should be feasible within coupled-cluster theory.

Deepshikha Shukla; Jonathan Engel; Petr Navratil

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Unparticle effects on neutrinoless and neutrino double beta decay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The neutrinoless and neutrinos double beta decays are investigated in an effective theory where a scalar unparticle is introduced. We calculate the contributions of a virtual unparticle to the rates of 0{nu}2{beta} and 2{nu}2{beta} decays. The unparticle effect is negligibly small when the scaling dimension d of unparticle lies in the region 1.1-1.9. But it can be relatively large when d approaches to 1 or 2. We also study the neutrinoless double beta decay with a real unparticle in the final state which cannot be distinguished from 2{nu}2{beta} decay in experiment. We consider the unparticle effect on extracting the neutrino mass parameter m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} from experimental data and find that it can be relatively large when d takes certain values.

Zhang Chunxu; Huang Mingqiu; Zhong Ming [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Hunan 410073 (China)

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Cryogenic Test of a Coaxial Coupling Scheme for Fundamental and Higher Order Modes in Superconducting Cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A coaxial coupling device located in the beam pipe of the TESLA type superconducting cavities provides for better propagation of Higher Order Modes (HOMs) and their strong damping in appropriate HOM couplers. Additionally, it also provides efficient coupling for fundamental mode RF power into the superconducting cavity. The whole coupling device can be designed as a detachable system. If appropriately dimensioned, the magnetic field can be minimized to a negligible level at the flange position. This scheme, presented previously*, provides for several advantages: strong HOM damping, flangeable solution, exchangeability of the HOM damping device on a cavity, less complexity of the superconducting cavity, possible cost advantages. This contribution will describe the results of the first cryogenic test.

J.K. Sekutowicz, P. Kneisel

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Post-processing of polymer foam tissue scaffolds with high power ultrasound: a route to increased pore interconnectivity, pore size and fluid transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We expose thick polymer foam tissue scaffolds to high power ultrasound and study its effect on the openness of the pore architecture and fluid transport through the scaffold. Our analysis is supported by measurements of fluid uptake during insonification and imaging of the scaffold microstructure via x-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and acoustic microscopy. The ultrasonic treatment is found to increase the mean pore size by over 10%. More striking is the improvement in fluid uptake: for scaffolds with only 40% water uptake via standard immersion techniques, we can routinely achieve full saturation of the scaffold over approximately one hour of exposure. These desirable modifications occur with no loss of scaffold integrity and negligible mass loss, and are optimized when the ultrasound treatment is coupled to a pre-wetting stage with ethanol. Our findings suggest that high power ultrasound is a highly targetted and efficient means to promote pore interconnectivity and fluid transport in thick foam tissue scaffolds.

N J Watson; R K Johal; Y Reinwald; L J White; A M Ghaemmaghami; S P Morgan; F R A J Rose; M J W Povey; N G Parker

2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

405

Schwarzschild-type solution in an effective gravitational theory with local Galilean invariance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct a Schwarzschild-type exact external solution for a theory of gravity admitting local Galilean invariance. In order to realize the Galilean invariance we need to adopt a five-dimensional manifold. The solution for the gravitational field equations obeys a Birkhoff-like theorem. Three classic tests of general relativity are analyzed in detail: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The Galilean version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter $b$ related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant $b$ can be estimated by a comparison with observational data. We observe that the Galilean theory is able to reproduce the results traditionally predicted by general relativity in the limit of negligible $b$. This shows that the tests are not specifically Lorentz invariant.

R. R. Cuzinatto; P. J. Pompeia; M. de Montigny; F. C. Khanna

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

406

Nonlocal microscopic theory of quantum friction between parallel metallic slabs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a new derivation of the friction force between two metallic slabs moving with constant relative parallel velocity, based on T=0 quantum-field theory formalism. By including a fully nonlocal description of dynamically screened electron fluctuations in the slab, and avoiding the usual matching-condition procedure, we generalize previous expressions for the friction force, to which our results reduce in the local limit. Analyzing the friction force calculated in the two local models and in the nonlocal theory, we show that for physically relevant velocities local theories using the plasmon and Drude models of dielectric response are inappropriate to describe friction, which is due to excitation of low-energy electron-hole pairs, which are properly included in nonlocal theory. We also show that inclusion of dissipation in the nonlocal electronic response has negligible influence on friction.

Despoja, Vito [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Apto. 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Echenique, Pedro M. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Apto. 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Sunjic, Marijan [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

The strategy of APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency in forming the model of public acceptance of Croatian Waste Management Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of basic elements related to public participation in hazardous and radioactive waste management in Croatia are underlined in the paper. Most of them are created or led by the APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency. Present efforts in improvement of public participation in the field of hazardous and radioactive waste management are important in particular due to negligible role of public in environmentally related issues during former Yugoslav political system. For this reason it is possible to understand the public fearing to be deceived or neglected again. Special attention is paid to the current APO editions related to public information and education in the field of hazardous and radioactive waste management. It is important because only the well-informed public can present an active and respectful factor in hazardous and radioactive waste management process.

Klika, M.C.; Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Lokner, V. [APO, Zagreb (Croatia)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Localized saddle-point search and application to temperature-accelerated dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a method for speeding up temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) simulations by carrying out a localized saddle-point (LSAD) search. In this method, instead of using the entire system to determine the energy barriers of activated processes, the calculation is localized by only including a small chunk of atoms around the atoms directly involved in the transition. Using this method, we have obtained N-independent scaling for the computational cost of the saddle-point search as a function of system size N. The error arising from localization is analyzed using a variety of model systems, including a variety of activated processes on Ag(100) and Cu(100) surfaces, as well as multiatom moves in Cu radiation damage and metal heteroepitaxial growth. Our results show significantly improved performance of TAD with the LSAD method, for the case of Ag/Ag(100) annealing and Cu/Cu(100) growth, while maintaining a negligibly small error in energy barriers.

Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Callahan, Nathan B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

409

Assessment of radiocarbon in the Savannah River Site Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a radiological assessment of {sup 14}C releases from the Savannah River Site. During the operation of five production reactors {sup 14}C has been produced at SRS. Approximately 3000 curies have been released to the atmosphere but there are no recorded releases to surface waters. Once released, the {sup 14}C joins the carbon cycle and a portion enters the food chain. The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by a dose of 1.1 mrem, compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Releases of {sup 14}C have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

Carlton, W.H.; Evans, A.G.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Tuck, D.M.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

First XMM-Newton observations of a Cataclysmic Variable I: Timing studies of OY Car  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present XMM-Newton observations of the eclipsing, disc accreting, cataclysmic variable OY Car which were obtained as part of the performance verification phase of the mission. The star was observed 4 days after an outburst and then again 5 weeks later when it was in a quiescent state. There is a quasi-stable modulation of the X-rays at ~2240 sec, which is most prominent at the lowest energies. We speculate that this may be related to the spin period of the white dwarf. The duration of the eclipse ingress and egress in X-rays is 20--30 sec. This indicates that the bulk of the X-ray emission originates from the boundary layer which has a negligible height above the surface of the white dwarf. The eclipse profile implies a white dwarf of mass M_{1}=0.9-1.1Msun and a secondary star of M_{2}=0.08-0.11Msun.

Gavin Ramsay; Tracey Poole; Keith Mason; France Cordova; William Priedhorsky; Alice Breeveld; Rudi Much; Julian Osborne; Dirk Pandel; Stephen Potter; Jennifer West; Peter Wheatley

2000-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

411

Gas lasers with wave-chaotic resonators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semiclassical multimode laser theory is extended to gas lasers with open two-dimensional resonators of arbitrary shape. The Doppler frequency shift of the linear-gain coefficient leads to an additional linear coupling between the modes, which, however, is shown to be negligible. The nonlinear laser equations simplify in the special case of wave-chaotic resonators. In the single-mode regime, the intensity of a chaotic laser, as a function of the mode frequency, displays a local minimum at the frequency of the atomic transition. The width of the minimum scales with the inhomogeneous linewidth, in contrast to the Lamb dip in uniaxial resonators whose width is given by the homogeneous linewidth.

Oleg Zaitsev

2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

String Gas Cosmology and Non-Gaussianities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently it has been shown that string gas cosmology, an alternative model of the very early universe which does not involve a period of cosmological inflation, can give rise to an almost scale invariant spectrum of metric perturbations. Here we calculate the non-Gaussianities of the spectrum of cosmological fluctuations in string gas cosmology, and find that these non-Gaussianities depend linearly on the wave number and that their amplitude depends sensitively on the string scale. If the string scale is at the TeV scale, string gas cosmology could lead to observable non-Gaussianities, if it is close to the Planck scale, then the non-Gaussianities on current cosmological scales are negligible.

Bin Chen; Yi Wang; Wei Xue; Robert Brandenberger

2008-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

413

Transport properties of a meson gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present recent results on a systematic method to calculate transport coefficients for a meson gas (in particular, we analyze a pion gas) at low temperatures in the context of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Our method is based on the study of Feynman diagrams with a power counting which takes into account collisions in the plasma by means of a non-zero particle width. In this way, we obtain results compatible with analysis of Kinetic Theory with just the leading order diagram. We show the behavior with temperature of electrical and thermal conductivities and shear and bulk viscosities, and we discuss the fundamental role played by unitarity. We obtain that bulk viscosity is negligible against shear viscosity near the chiral phase transition. Relations between the different transport coefficients and bounds on them based on different theoretical approximations are also discussed. We also comment on some applications to heavy-ion collisions.

D. Fernandez-Fraile; A. Gomez Nicola

2007-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

414

Absence of exchange interaction between localized magnetic moments and conduction-electrons in diluted Er{sup 3+} gold-nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) of diluted Er{sup 3+} magnetic ions in Au nanoparticles (NPs) is reported. The NPs were synthesized by reducing chloro triphenyl-phosphine gold(I) and erbium(III) trifluoroacetate. The Er{sup 3+} g-value along with the observed hyperfine splitting indicate that the Er{sup 3+} impurities are in a local cubic symmetry. Furthermore, the Er{sup 3+} ESR spectra show that the exchange interaction between the 4f and the conduction electrons (ce) is absent or negligible in Au{sub 1–x}Er{sub x} NPs, in contrast to the ESR results in bulk Au{sub 1–x}Er{sub x}. Therefore, the nature of this interaction needs to be reexamined at the nano scale range.

Lesseux, G. G., E-mail: lesseux@ifi.unicamp.br; Urbano, R. R. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Iwamoto, W. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFU, 38400-902 Uberlândia, Minas Gerais (Brazil); García-Flores, A. F. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, UFABC, 09210-971 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Rettori, C. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, UFABC, 09210-971 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

415

Environmental Effects for Gravitational-wave Astrophysics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The upcoming detection of gravitational waves by terrestrial interferometers will usher in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. This will be particularly true when space-based detectors will come of age and measure the mass and spin of massive black holes with exquisite precision and up to very high redshifts, thus allowing for better understanding of the symbiotic evolution of black holes with galaxies, and for high-precision tests of General Relativity in strong-field, highly-dynamical regimes. Such ambitious goals require that astrophysical environmental pollution of gravitational-wave signals be constrained to negligible levels, so that neither detection nor estimation of the source parameters are significantly affected. Here, we consider the main sources for space-based detectors -the inspiral, merger and ringdown of massive black-hole binaries and extreme mass-ratio inspirals- and account for various effects on their gravitational waveforms, including electromagnetic fields, cosmological evolution, ...

Barausse, Enrico; Pani, Paolo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Failure of a neutrino-driven explosion after core-collapse may lead to a thermonuclear supernova  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate that $\\sim10$ seconds after core-collapse of a massive star, a thermonuclear explosion of the outer shells is possible for some (tuned) initial density and composition profiles, assuming the neutrinos failed to explode the star. The explosion may lead to a successful supernova, as first suggested by Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle (1957). We perform a series of one-dimensional (1D) calculations of collapsing massive stars with simplified initial density profiles (similar to the results of stellar evolution calculations) and various compositions (not similar to 1D stellar evolution calculations). We assume that the neutrinos escaped with negligible effect on the outer layers, which inevitably collapse. As the shells collapse, they compress and heat up adiabatically, enhancing the rate of thermonuclear burning. In some cases, where significant shells of mixed helium and oxygen are present with pre-collapsed burning times of $\\lesssim100\\,\\textrm{s}$ ($\\approx10$ times the free-fall time), a ...

Kushnir, Doron

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

S17 near Zero Energy in a Direct Radiative Capture Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S17 near zero energy was calculated without using the effective expansion of the S factor or the asymptotic wave functions. Variations of the nuclear potential parameters scarcely affect the d-wave capture cross section below 0.1 MeV, but the s-wave capture cross section near zero energy is affected strongly by the shape of the nuclear potential in our calculations. This result is contrary to the existing assumption that the value of the S factor near zero energy depends on the asymptotic wave function (or asymptotic normalization coefficient). We showed that although the s-wave contribution is dominant near zero energy, the d-wave contribution is not negligible.

Kyung Hoon Kim

2011-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

418

Observational Consequences of a Landscape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we consider the implications of the "landscape" paradigm for the large scale properties of the universe. The most direct implication of a rich landscape is that our local universe was born in a tunnelling event from a neighboring vacuum. This would imply that we live in an open FRW universe with negative spatial curvature. We argue that the "overshoot" problem, which in other settings would make it difficult to achieve slow roll inflation, actually favors such a cosmology. We consider anthropic bounds on the value of the curvature and on the parameters of inflation. When supplemented by statistical arguments these bounds suggest that the number of inflationary efolds is not very much larger than the observed lower bound. Although not statistically favored, the likelihood that the number of efolds is close to the bound set by observations is not negligible. The possible signatures of such a low number of efolds are briefly described.

Ben Freivogel; Matthew Kleban; Maria Rodriguez Martinez; Leonard Susskind

2005-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

419

On the variations of optical property and electronic structure in heavily Al-doped ZnO films during double-step growth process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the variations of optical property and electronic structure in heavily Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films during the growth process, which were formed by first creating Zn vacancies in O{sub 2}-rich atmosphere and second filling the vacancies with Zn atoms in Zn-vapor atmosphere. After the first step, the high-resistance AZO films have the same optical bandgap with nominally undoped ZnO, indicating that negligible variations in the fundamental bandgap happened to the AZO films although Al atom was incorporated into the ZnO lattice. After the second step, once free electrons were brought into the lattice by Zn-filling, the optical transition energy blueshifts due to the band-filling effect. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements suggest that Zn-filling process decreased the unoccupied states of the conduction band, but not raised the conduction band minimum.

Hu, Q. C.; Ding, K., E-mail: kding@fjirsm.ac.cn; Zhang, J. Y.; Yan, F. P.; Pan, D. M.; Huang, F., E-mail: fhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chiou, J. W., E-mail: jwchiou@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

420

Anisotropy of flow in stochastically generated porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Models of porous media are often applied to relatively small systems, which leads not only to system-size-dependent results, but also to phenomena that would be absent in larger systems. Here we investigate one such finite-size effect: anisotropy of the permeability tensor. We show that a non-zero angle between the external body force and macroscopic flux vector exists in three-dimensional periodic models of sizes commonly used in computer simulations and propose a criterion, based on the system size to the grain size ratio, for this phenomenon to be relevant or negligible. The finite-size anisotropy of the porous matrix induces a pressure gradient perpendicular to the axis of a porous duct and we analyze how this effect scales with the system and grain sizes.

Matyka, Maciej; Go?embiewski, Jaros?aw; Kostur, Marcin; Januszewski, Micha?

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Observational Constraints of New Variable Modified Chaplygin Gas Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assuming the flat FRW universe in Einstein's gravity filled with New Variable Modified Chaplygin gas (NVMCG) dark energy and dark matter having negligible pressure. In this research work we analyze the viability on the basis of recent observation. Hubble parameter $H$ is expressed in terms of the observable parameters $H_0$, $\\Omega_m^0$ and the model parameters $A_0$, $B_0$, $C_0$, $m$, $n$, $\\alpha$ and the red shift parameter $z$. Here we find a best fitted parameter range of $A_0$, $B_0$ keeping $0\\leq \\alpha \\leq 1$ and using Stern data set (12 points) by minimizing the $\\chi^2$ test at 66%, 90% and 99% confidence levels. Next we do the joint analysis with BAO and CMB observations. Again evaluating the distance modulus $\\mu(z)$ vs redshift ($z$) curve obtained in the model NVMCG with dark matter with the best fitted value of the parameters and comparing with that derived from the union2 compilation data.

Jhumpa Bhadra; Ujjal Debnath

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

422

Two-step build-up of a thermoreversible polymer network: From early local to late collective dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We probe the mechanisms at work in the build-up of thermoreversible gel networks, with the help of hybrid gelatin gels containing a controlled density of irreversible, covalent crosslinks (CL), which we quench below the physical gelation temperature. The detailed analysis of the dependence on covalent crosslink density of both the shear modulus and optical activity evolutions with time after quench enables us to identify two stages of the physical gelation process, separated by a temperature dependent crossover modulus: (i) an early nucleation regime during which rearrangements of the triple-helix CL play a negligible role, (ii) a late, logarithmic aging one, which is preserved, though slowed down, in the presence of irreversible CL. We show that aging is fully controlled by rearrangements and discuss the implication of our results in terms of the switch from an early, local dynamics to a late, cooperative long-range one.

H. Souguir; O. Ronsin; C. Caroli; T. Baumberger

2015-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

423

CT Measurements of Two-Phase Flow in Fractured Porous Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the design, construction, and preliminary results of an experiment that studies imbibition displacement in two fracture blocks. Multiphase (oil/water) displacements will be conducted at the same rate on three core configurations. The configurations are a compact core, a two-block system with a 1 mm spacer between the blocks, and a two-block system with no spacer. The blocks are sealed in epoxy so that saturation measurements can be made throughout the displacement experiments using a Computed Tomography (CT) scanner. Preliminary results are presented from a water/air experiment. These results suggest that it is incorrect to assume negligible capillary continuity between matrix blocks as is often done.

Brigham, William E.; Castanier Louis M.; Hughes, Richard G.

1999-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

424

Bubble Chambers for Experiments in Nuclear Astrophysics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with gamma-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning temperatures are dominated by radiative captures, in this experimental scheme we measure the time-reversed processes. Such photodisintegrations allow us to compute the radiative capture cross sections when transitions to excited states of the reaction products are negligible. Due to the transformation of phase space, the photodisintegration cross sections are up to two orders of magnitude higher. The main advantage of the new target-detector system is a density several orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas tar...

DiGiovine, B; Holt, R J; Rehm, K E; Raut, R; Robinson, A; Sonnenschein, A; Rusev, G; Tonchev, A P; Ugalde, C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

The Effect of Condensates on the Characterization of Transiting Planet Atmospheres with Transmission Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Through a simple physical argument we show that the slant optical depth through the atmosphere of a "hot Jupiter" planet is 35-90 times greater than the normal optical depth. This not unexpected result has direct consequences for the method of transmission spectroscopy for characterizing the atmospheres of transiting giant planets. The atmospheres of these planets likely contain minor condensates and hazes which at normal viewing geometry have negligible optical depth, but at slant viewing geometry have appreciable optical depth that can obscure absorption features of gaseous atmospheric species. We identify several possible condensates. We predict that this is a general masking mechanism for all planets, not just for HD 209458b, and will lead to weaker than expected or undetected absorption features. Constraints on an atmosphere from transmission spectroscopy are not the same as constraints on an atmosphere at normal viewing geometry.

Jonathan J. Fortney

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

426

Nanoscale compositional banding in binary thin films produced by ion-assisted deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the ion-assisted deposition of a binary material, the ion beam can induce the formation of nanoscale ripples on the surface of the growing thin film and compositional banding within its bulk. We demonstrate that this remains true even if the curvature dependence of the sputter yields and ballistic mass redistribution are negligible, and the two atomic species are completely miscible. The concentration of the species with the lower of the two sputter yields is higher at the crests of the ripples than at their troughs. Depending on the angles of incidence of the two atomic species, the incident flux of atoms with the higher sputter yield can either stabilize or destabilize the initially flat surface of the thin film.

Mark Bradley, R. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

427

Magnetic anisotropies in epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/GaAs(100) patterned structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous studies on epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} rings in the context of spin-transfer torque effect have revealed complicated and undesirable domain structures, attributed to the intrinsic fourfold magnetocrystalline anisotropy in the ferrite. In this Letter, we report a viable solution to this problem, utilizing a 6-nm-thick epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin film on GaAs(100), where the fourfold magnetocrystalline anisotropy is negligible. We demonstrate that in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} planar wires patterned from our thin film, such a unique magnetic anisotropy system has been preserved, and relatively simple magnetic domain configurations compared to those previous reports can be obtained.

Zhang, W., E-mail: xiaotur@gmail.com; Zhang, D.; Yuan, S. J.; Huang, Z. C.; Zhai, Y. [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Wong, P. K. J. [NanoElectronics Group, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 (Singapore); Wu, J. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Xu, Y. B. [Spintronics and Nanodevice Laboratory, Department of Electronics, University of York, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

Emulation to simulate low resolution atmospheric data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate simulations require significant compute power, they are complex and therefore it is time consuming to simulate them. We have developed an emulator to simulate unknown climate datasets. The emulator uses stochastic collocation and multi-dimensional in- terpolation to simulate the datasets. We have used the emulator to determine various physical quantities such as temperature, short and long wave cloud forcing, zonal winds etc. The emulation gives results which are very close to those obtained by simulations. The emulator was tested on 2 degree atmospheric datasets. The work evaluates the pros and cons of evaluating the mean first and inter- polating and vice versa. To determine the physical quantities, we have assumed them to be a function of time, longitude, latitude and a random parameter. We have looked at parameters that govern high stable clouds, low stable clouds, timescale for convection etc. The emulator is especially useful as it requires negligible compute times when compared to the simulation itself.

Hebbur Venkata Subba Rao, Vishwas [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Fingerprints of Disorder Source in Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a systematic study of the electronic, transport and optical properties of disordered graphene including the next-nearest-neighbor hopping. We show that this hopping has a non-negligible effect on resonant scattering but is of minor importance for long-range disorder such as charged impurities, random potentials or hoppings induced by strain fluctuations. Different types of disorder can be recognized by their fingerprints appearing in the dc conductivity, carrier mobility, optical spectroscopy and Landau level spectrum. By matching our calculations to the experimental observations, we conclude that the long-range disorder potential induced by strain is the most important source of disorder in high-quality graphene on a substrate.

Zhao, Pei-liang; Katsnelson, M I; De Raedt, H

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Continuum Electrodynamics of a Piecewise-Homogeneous Linear Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy--momentum tensor and the tensor continuity equation serve as the conservation laws of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum for a continuous flow. Previously, we derived equations of motion for macroscopic electromagnetic fields in a homogeneous linear dielectric medium that is draped with a gradient-index antireflection coating (J. Math Phys. 55, 042901 (2014) ). These results are consistent with the electromagnetic tensor continuity equation in the limit that reflections and the accompanying surface forces are negligible thereby satisfying the condition of an unimpeded flow in a thermodynamically closed system. Here, we take the next step and derive equations of motion for the macroscopic fields in the limiting case of a piecewise-homogeneous simple linear dielectric medium. The presence of radiation surface forces on the interface between two different homogeneous linear materials means that the energy--momentum formalism must be modified to treat separate homogeneous media in which the ...

Crenshaw, Michael E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Hybrid Inflation Exit through Tunneling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For hybrid inflationary potentials, we derive the tunneling rate from field configurations along the flat direction towards the waterfall regime. This process competes with the classically rolling evolution of the scalar fields and needs to be strongly subdominant for phenomenologically viable models. Tunneling may exclude models with a mass scale below 10^12 GeV, but can be suppressed by small values of the coupling constants. We find that tunneling is negligible for those models, which do not require fine tuning in order to cancel radiative corrections, in particular for GUT-scale SUSY inflation. In contrast, electroweak scale hybrid inflation is not viable, unless the inflaton-waterfall field coupling is smaller than approximately 10^-11.

Bjorn Garbrecht; Thomas Konstandin

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

432

Suppression of star formation in early-type galaxies by feedback from supermassive black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed high-resolution observations of the innermost regions of nearby galaxies have revealed the presence of supermassive black holes1. These black holes may interact with their host galaxies by means of 'feedback' in the form of energy and material jets; this feedback affects the evolution of the host and gives rise to observed relations between the black hole and the host. Here we report observations of the ultraviolet emissions of massive early-type galaxies. We derive an empirical relation for a critical black-hole mass (as a function of velocity dispersion) above which the outflows from these black holes suppress star formation in their hosts by heating and expelling all available cold gas. Supermassive black holes are negligible in mass compared to their hosts but nevertheless seem to play a critical role in the star formation history of galaxies.

Kevin Schawinski; Sadegh Khochfar; Sugata Kaviraj; Sukyoung K. Yi; Alessandro Boselli; Tom Barlow; Tim Conrow; Karl Forster; Peter G. Friedman; D. Chris Martin; Patrick Morrissey; Susan Neff; David Schiminovich; Mark Seibert; Todd Small; Ted K. Wyder; Luciana Bianchi; Jose Donas; Tim Heckman; Young-Wook Lee; Barry Madore; Bruno Milliard; R. Michael Rich; Alex Szalay

2006-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

433

Effect of carrier density and valence states on superconductivity of oxygen annealed Fe{sub 1.06}Te{sub 0.6}Se{sub 0.4} single crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The variations of carrier density and valence states in oxygen annealed Fe{sub 1.06}Te{sub 0.6}Se{sub 0.4} single crystals were studied systematically. It was found that the carrier density n{sub H} increases after oxygen annealing by Hall coefficient measurements. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments reveal that the oxygen annealing changes Fe{sup 0} and Te{sup 0} states to Fe{sup 2+/3+} and Te{sup 4+}, respectively, while the valence variation of Se is negligible. Our results indicate that the improvement of superconductivity, such as the zero resistance transition temperature T{sub c}{sup zero}, shielding and Meissner fraction value 4?? and upper critical field H{sub c2}, could be closely related to the proper manipulation of n{sub H} and the valence states by oxygen annealing in the system.

Su, T. S.; Yin, Y. W., E-mail: yyw@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: lixg@ustc.edu.cn; Teng, M. L.; Gong, Z. Z.; Zhang, M. J.; Li, X. G., E-mail: yyw@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: lixg@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

434

Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

435

Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an are monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

Bivins, S.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

2007-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

437

Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the DOE Standard Radiological Control, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2000 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

2001-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

438

Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2001 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

2002-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

439

Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Evaluating and Minimizing Distributed Cavity Phase Errors in Atomic Clocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform 3D finite element calculations of the fields in microwave cavities and analyze the distributed cavity phase errors of atomic clocks that they produce. The fields of cylindrical cavities are treated as an azimuthal Fourier series. Each of the lowest components produces clock errors with unique characteristics that must be assessed to establish a clock's accuracy. We describe the errors and how to evaluate them. We prove that sharp structures in the cavity do not produce large frequency errors, even at moderately high powers, provided the atomic density varies slowly. We model the amplitude and phase imbalances of the feeds. For larger couplings, these can lead to increased phase errors. We show that phase imbalances produce a novel distributed cavity phase error that depends on the cavity detuning. We also design improved cavities by optimizing the geometry and tuning the mode spectrum so that there are negligible phase variations, allowing this source of systematic error to be dramatically reduced.

Li, Ruoxin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "negligible negligible negligible" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Using long-baseline interferometric gravitational waves detectors for high precision measures of the gravitational acceleration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A derivation of the optical axis lenght fluctations due by tilts of the mirrors of the Fabry-Perot cavity of long-baseline interferometers for the detection of gravitational waves in presence of the gravitational field of the earth is discussed. By comparing with the typical tilt-induced noises it is shown that this potential signal, which is considered a weak source of noise, is negligible for the first generation of gravitational waves interferometers, but, in principle, this effect could be used for high precision measures of the gravitational acceleration if advanced projects will achieve an high sensitivity. In that case the precision of the misure could be higher than the gravimeter realized by the Istituto di Metrologia ``Gustavo Colonnetti''.

Christian Corda

2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

442

Evaluating and Minimizing Distributed Cavity Phase Errors in Atomic Clocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform 3D finite element calculations of the fields in microwave cavities and analyze the distributed cavity phase errors of atomic clocks that they produce. The fields of cylindrical cavities are treated as an azimuthal Fourier series. Each of the lowest components produces clock errors with unique characteristics that must be assessed to establish a clock's accuracy. We describe the errors and how to evaluate them. We prove that sharp structures in the cavity do not produce large frequency errors, even at moderately high powers, provided the atomic density varies slowly. We model the amplitude and phase imbalances of the feeds. For larger couplings, these can lead to increased phase errors. We show that phase imbalances produce a novel distributed cavity phase error that depends on the cavity detuning. We also design improved cavities by optimizing the geometry and tuning the mode spectrum so that there are negligible phase variations, allowing this source of systematic error to be dramatically reduced.

Ruoxin Li; Kurt Gibble

2010-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

443

Synthesis of cumulenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6 ($) 6 6 C H /Cn-OCH5 ' ~c=c=c=c, ' C, H, Stannous chloride in acidic anhydrous ether gave negligible results. However, to reduce 1, 1, 4, 4- tetrapheny1-1, 4. -dihydroxy-2-butyne to the 1, 1, 4, 4- tetraphenylbutatriene, stannous chloride..., (4) formed a compound believed to be the dimer (5). l-OCH6 C H POCH6 Hi C ? C S sc 66CCCrC& 6 hv C66 ~ [ 66 ChH6 Ch H6 C6H6 C ? C, , ~C6H6 (4) H CO ( C6H6 This dimer was also obtained in a small amount as a by- product from the preparation...

Adam, Klaus

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

First measurement of the 14N(p,gamma)15O cross section down to 70 keV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In stars with temperatures above 20*10^6 K, hydrogen burning is dominated by the CNO cycle. Its rate is determined by the slowest process, the 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction. Deep underground in Italy's Gran Sasso laboratory, at the LUNA 400 kV accelerator, the cross section of this reaction has been measured at energies much lower than ever achieved before. Using a windowless gas target and a 4pi BGO summing detector, direct cross section data has been obtained down to 70 keV, reaching a value of 0.24 picobarn. The Gamow peak has been covered by experimental data for several scenarios of stable and explosive hydrogen burning. In addition, the strength of the 259 keV resonance has been remeasured. The thermonuclear reaction rate has been calculated for temperatures 90 - 300 *10^6 K, for the first time with negligible impact from extrapolations.

A. Lemut; D. Bemmerer; F. Confortola; R. Bonetti; C. Broggini; P. Corvisiero; H. Costantini; J. Cruz; A. Formicola; Zs. Fulop; G. Gervino; A. Guglielmetti; C. Gustavino; Gy. Gyurky; G. Imbriani; A. P. Jesus; M. Junker; B. Limata; R. Menegazzo; P. Prati; V. Roca; D. Rogalla; C. Rolfs; M. Romano; C. Rossi Alvarez; F. Schumann; E. Somorjai; O. Straniero; F. Strieder; F. Terrasi; H. P. Trautvetter

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

445

Complete population transfer in a three-state quantum system by a train of pairs of coincident pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A technique for complete population transfer between the two end states $\\ket{1}$ and $\\ket{3}$ of a three-state quantum system with a train of $N$ pairs of resonant and coincident pump and Stokes pulses is introduced. A simple analytic formula is derived for the ratios of the pulse amplitudes in each pair for which the maximum transient population $P_2(t)$ of the middle state $\\ket{2}$ is minimized, $P_2^{\\max}=\\sin^2(\\pi/4N)$. It is remarkable that, even though the pulses are on exact resonance, $P_2(t)$ is damped to negligibly small values even for a small number of pulse pairs. The population dynamics resembles generalized $\\pi$-pulses for small $N$ and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for large $N$ and therefore this technique can be viewed as a bridge between these well-known techniques.

Andon A. Rangelov; Nikolay V. Vitanov

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

446

Method of making dense, conformal, ultra-thin cap layers for nanoporous low-k ILD by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Barrier layers and methods for forming barrier layers on a porous layer are provided. The methods can include chemically adsorbing a plurality of first molecules on a surface of the porous layer in a chamber and forming a first layer of the first molecules on the surface of the porous layer. A plasma can then be used to react a plurality of second molecules with the first layer of first molecules to form a first layer of a barrier layer. The barrier layers can seal the pores of the porous material, function as a diffusion barrier, be conformal, and/or have a negligible impact on the overall ILD k value of the porous material.

Jiang, Ying-Bing (Albuquerque, NM); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

447

Reaction network and kinetics for the catalytic oxidation of toluene over V sub 2 O sub 5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of three methyl-diphenylmethane isomers and of bibenzyl, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde, which are intermediates in the catalytic oxidation of toluene over V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, has been studied to elucidate the reaction network and relative importance of various reactions. Selectivity dependences reveal that the network is composed mainly of three parallel reaction routes: (1) side-chain oxidation with consecutive reactions, (2) oxidative coupling with both parallel and consecutive reactions, and (3) carbon oxide formation. Coupling products are not negligible, with an initial selectivity of 29% (400{degree}C). Anthraquinone is produced mainly from o-methyl-diphenylmethane conditions and catalyst used. Selectivity dependences suggested product lumping and a simplified network. Kinetic analysis of this reaction network indicates that higher temperatures favor route 2 over route 1. The same initial intermediates for route 1 of side-chain oxidation and for route 2 of oxidative coupling are suggested.

Zhu, J.; Andersson, L.T. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

On the minimum dark matter mass testable by neutrinos from the Sun  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss a limitation on extracting bounds on the scattering cross section of dark matter with nucleons, using neutrinos from the Sun. If the dark matter particle is sufficiently light (less than about 4 GeV), the effect of evaporation is not negligible and the capture process goes in equilibrium with the evaporation. In this regime, the flux of solar neutrinos of dark matter origin becomes independent of the scattering cross section and therefore no constraint can be placed on it. We find the minimum values of dark matter masses for which the scattering cross section on nucleons can be probed using neutrinos from the Sun. We also provide simple and accurate fitting functions for all the relevant processes of GeV-scale dark matter in the Sun.

Busoni, Giorgio; Simone, Andrea De; Huang, Wei-Chih, E-mail: giorgio.busoni@sissa.it, E-mail: andrea.desimone@sissa.it, E-mail: wei-chih.huang@sissa.it [SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Impurities as a quantum thermometer for a Bose-Einstein condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a primary thermometer which measures the temperature of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in the sub-nK regime. We show, using quantum Fisher information, that the precision of our technique improves the state-of-the-art in thermometry in the sub-nK regime. The temperature of the condensate is mapped onto the quantum phase of an atomic dot that interacts with the system for short times. We show that the highest precision is achieved when the phase is dynamical rather than geometric and when it is detected through Ramsey interferometry. Standard techniques to determine the temperature of a condensate involve an indirect estimation through mean particle velocities made after releasing the condensate. In contrast to these destructive measurements, our method involves a negligible disturbance of the system.

Carlos Sabín; Angela White; Lucia Hackermuller; Ivette Fuentes

2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

450

Sea ice floes dissipate the energy of steep ocean waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wave attenuation by ice floes is an important parameter for modelling the Arctic Oceans. At present, attenuation coefficients are extracted from linear models as a function of the incident wave period and floe thickness. Recent explorations in the Antarctic Mixed Ice Zone (MIZ) revealed a further dependence on wave amplitude, suggesting that nonlinear contributions are non-negligible. An experimental model for wave attenuation by a single ice floe in a wave flume is here presented. Observations are compared with linear predictions based on wave scattering. Results indicate that linear models perform well under the effect of gently sloping waves. For more energetic wave fields, however, transmitted wave height is normally over predicted. Deviations from linearity appear to be related to an enhancement of wave dissipation induced by unaccounted wave-ice interaction processes, including the floe over wash.

Toffoli, Alessandro; Meylan, Michael H; Cavaliere, Claudio; Alberello, Alberto; Elsnab, John; Monty, Jason P

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Coherent motion of stereocilia assures the concerted gating of hair-cell transduction channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hair cell's mechanoreceptive organelle, the hair bundle, is highly sensitive because its transduction channels open over a very narrow range of displacements. The synchronous gating of transduction channels also underlies the active hair-bundle motility that amplifies and tunes responsiveness. The extent to which the gating of independent transduction channels is coordinated depends on how tightly individual stereocilia are constrained to move as a unit. Using dual-beam interferometry in the bullfrog's sacculus, we found that thermal movements of stereocilia located as far apart as a bundle's opposite edges display high coherence and negligible phase lag. Because the mechanical degrees of freedom of stereocilia are strongly constrained, a force applied anywhere in the hair bundle deflects the structure as a unit. This feature assures the concerted gating of transduction channels that maximizes the sensitivity of mechanoelectrical transduction and enhances the hair bundle's capacity to amplify its inputs.

Andrei S. Kozlov; Thomas Risler; A. J. Hudspeth

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

452

Stability of the Minimizers of Least Squares with a Non-Convex Regularization. Part I: Local Behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many estimation problems amount to minimizing a piecewise C{sup m} objective function, with m {>=} 2, composed of a quadratic data-fidelity term and a general regularization term. It is widely accepted that the minimizers obtained using non-convex and possibly non-smooth regularization terms are frequently good estimates. However, few facts are known on the ways to control properties of these minimizers. This work is dedicated to the stability of the minimizers of such objective functions with respect to variations of the data. It consists of two parts: first we consider all local minimizers, whereas in a second part we derive results on global minimizers. In this part we focus on data points such that every local minimizer is isolated and results from a C{sup m-1} local minimizer function, defined on some neighborhood. We demonstrate that all data points for which this fails form a set whose closure is negligible.

Durand, S. [LAMFA UMR 6140, Universite de Picardie, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 90039 Amien Cedex (France)], E-mail: sdurand@cmla.ens-cachan.fr; Nikolova, M. [CMLA UMR 8536, ENS de Cachan, 61 av. du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France)], E-mail: nikolova@cmla.ens-cachan.fr

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

453

van der Waals forces in density functional theory: The vdW-DF method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A density functional theory (DFT) that accounts for van der Waals (vdW) interactions in condensed matter, materials physics, chemistry, and biology is reviewed. The insights that led to the construction of the Rutgers-Chalmers van der Waals Density Functional (vdW-DF) are presented with the aim of giving a historical perspective, while also emphasising more recent efforts which have sought to improve its accuracy. In addition to technical details, we discuss a range of recent applications that illustrate the necessity of including dispersion interactions in DFT. This review highlights the value of the vdW-DF method as a general-purpose method, not only for dispersion bound systems, but also in densely packed systems where these types of interactions are traditionally thought to be negligible.

Berland, Kristian; Lee, Kyuho; Schröder, Elsebeth; Thonhauser, T; Hyldgaard, Per; Lundqvist, Bengt I

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Prediction of annular liquid-gas flow with entrainment: cocurrent vertical pipe flow with no gravity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fully developed and adiabatic two-phase annular model with liquid entrainment is derived for flow in a pipe with negligible gravity effects. The model subdivides the flow cross section into three regions: a liquid film, a gas core of constant density, and a transition wavy layer between them. The combination of a constant velocity and a density varying exponentially with distance from the wall is employed in the transition layer. Extensive comparisons of the model are made with air-water and steam-water test data, and the results generally are satisfactory over a wide range of conditions and for all the important characteristics of this flow pattern. A simplified model is developed to permit rapid and approximate calculations.

Levy, S.; Healzer, J.M.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Effect of synthesis conditions on the nanopowder properties of Ce{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1}O{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: . The synthesis of nanocrystalline Ce{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} powders via the gel-combustion method, using different fuels, and following either stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric pH-controlled routes is investigated. Research highlights: {yields} All samples exhibited the fluorite-type crystal structure, nanometric average crystallite size and negligible carbon content. {yields} Synthesis conditions strongly affect the average crystallite size, the degree of agglomeration, the specific surface area and the pore volume. {yields} Our results indicate that, by controlling the synthesis conditions it is possible to obtain solids with custom-made morphological properties. -- Abstract: In this work, the synthesis of nanocrystalline Ce{sub 0.9}Zr{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} powders via the gel-combustion method, using different fuels, and following either stoichiometric or non-stoichiometric pH-controlled routes is investigated. The objective is to evaluate the effect of synthesis conditions on the textural and morphological properties, and the crystal structure of the synthesized materials. The solids were characterized by nitrogen physisorption, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), and Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen Elemental Analysis (CHN). All the powders exhibited nanometric crystallite size, fluorite-type structure and negligible carbon content. Synthesis conditions strongly affect the average crystallite size, the degree of agglomeration, the specific surface area and the pore volume. Our results indicate that, by controlling the synthesis conditions it is possible to obtain solids with custom-made morphological properties.

Zimicz, M.G.; Fabregas, I.O.; Lamas, D.G. [CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos) CONICET-CITEFA J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [CINSO (Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos) CONICET-CITEFA J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Larrondo, S.A., E-mail: susana@di.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Procesos Cataliticos, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon de Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

The solar photospheric abundance of hafnium and thorium. Results from CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamic model atmospheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context: The stable element hafnium (Hf) and the radioactive element thorium (Th) were recently suggested as a suitable pair for radioactive dating of stars. The applicability of this elemental pair needs to be established for stellar spectroscopy. Aims: We aim at a spectroscopic determination of the abundance of Hf and Th in the solar photosphere based on a \\cobold 3D hydrodynamical model atmosphere. We put this into a wider context by investigating 3D abundance corrections for a set of G- and F-type dwarfs. Method: High-resolution, high signal-to-noise solar spectra were compared to line synthesis calculations performed on a solar CO5BOLD model. For the other atmospheres, we compared synthetic spectra of CO5BOLD 3D and associated 1D models. Results: For Hf we find a photospheric abundance A(Hf)=0.87+-0.04, in good agreement with a previous analysis, based on 1D model atmospheres. The weak Th ii 401.9 nm line constitutes the only Th abundance indicator available in the solar spectrum. It lies in the red wing of an Ni-Fe blend exhibiting a non-negligible convective asymmetry. Accounting for the asymmetry-related additional absorption, we obtain A(Th)=0.09+-0.03, consistent with the meteoritic abundance, and about 0.1 dex lower than obtained in previous photospheric abundance determinations. Conclusions: Only for the second time, to our knowledge, has am non-negligible effect of convective line asymmetries on an abundance derivation been highlighted. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations should be employed to measure Th abundances in dwarfs if similar blending is present, as in the solar case. In contrast, 3D effects on Hf abundances are small in G- to mid F-type dwarfs and sub-giants, and 1D model atmospheres can be conveniently used.

Elisabetta Caffau; L. Sbordone; H. -G. Ludwig; P. Bonifacio; M. Steffen; N. T. Behara

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

457

SHORT VERSUS LONG AND COLLAPSARS VERSUS NON-COLLAPSARS: A QUANTITATIVE CLASSIFICATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are traditionally divided into long and short according to their durations (lg2 s). It was generally believed that this reflects a different physical origin: collapsars (long) and non-collapsars (short). We have recently shown that the duration distribution of collapsars is flat, namely, independent of the duration, at short durations. Using this model for the distribution of Collapsars we determine the duration distribution of non-Collapsars and estimate the probability that a burst with a given duration (and hardness) is a Collapsar or not. We find that this probability depends strongly on the spectral window of the observing detector. While the commonly used limit of 2 s is conservative and suitable for BATSE bursts, 40% of Swift's bursts shorter than 2 s are Collapsars and the division lg0.8 s is more suitable for Swift. We find that the duration overlap of the two populations is very large. On the one hand there is a non-negligible fraction of non-Collapsars longer than 10 s, while on the other hand even bursts shorter than 0.5 s in the Swift sample have a non-negligible probability to be Collapsars. Our results enable the construction of non-Collapsar samples while controlling the Collapsar contamination. They also highlight that no firm conclusions can be drawn based on a single burst and they have numerous implications concerning previous studies of non-Collapsar properties that were based on the current significantly contaminated Swift samples of localized short GRBs. Specifically (1) all known short bursts with z > 1 are most likely Collapsars; (2) the only short burst with a clear jet break is most likely a Collapsar, indicating our lack of knowledge concerning non-Collapsar beaming; and (3) the existence of non-Collapsars with durations up to 10 s imposes new challenges to non-Collapsar models.

Bromberg, Omer; Piran, Tsvi; Sari, Re'em [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel)] [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Nakar, Ehud [The Raymond and Berverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)] [The Raymond and Berverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

458

Cardiac Motion During Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold: Implications for Breast Cancer Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Many patients with left-sided breast cancer receive adjuvant radiotherapy during deep-inspiration breath hold (DIBH) to minimize radiation exposure to the heart. We measured the displacement of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and heart owing to cardiac motion during DIBH, relative to the standard tangential fields for left breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 20 patients who had undergone computed tomography-based coronary angiography with retrospective electrocardiographic gating were randomly selected for the present study. The patients underwent scanning during DIBH to control the influence of respiration on cardiac motion. Standard medial and lateral tangential fields were placed, and the LADs were contoured on the systolic- and diastolic-phase computed tomography data sets by the clinicians. Displacement of the LAD during cardiac contractions was calculated in three directions: toward the posterior edge of the treatment fields, left-right, and anteroposterior. Displacement of the entire heart was measured on the maximal and minimal intensity projection computed tomography images. Results: The mean displacement of the LAD from cardiac contraction without the influence of respiration for 20 patients was 2.3 mm (range, 0.7-3.8) toward the posterior edge of the treatment fields, 2.6 mm (range, 1.0-6.8) in the left-right direction, and 2.3 mm (range, 0.6-6.5) in the anteroposterior direction. At least 30% of the LAD volume was displaced >5 mm in any direction in 2 patients (10%), and <10% of the LAD volume was displaced >5 mm in 10 patients (50%). The extent of displacement of the heart periphery during cardiac motion was negligible near the treatment fields. Conclusions: Displacement of the heart periphery near the treatment fields was negligible during DIBH; however, displacement of the LAD from cardiac contraction varied substantially between and within patients. We recommend maintaining {>=}5 mm of distance between the LAD and the field edge for patients undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy during DIBH.

Wang Xiaochun, E-mail: xiaochunw@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pan Tinsu [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pinnix, Chelsea [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang, Sean X.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Sun, Tzouh Liang [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gladish, Gregory [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Hoffman, Karen E.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Yu, T. Kuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Neutron Interactions in the CUORE Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}DBD) is a lepton-number violating process that can occur only for a massive Majorana neutrino. The search for 0{nu}DBD is currently the only practical experimental way to determine whether neutrinos are identical to their own antiparticles (Majorana neutrinos) or have distinct particle and anti-particle states (Dirac neutrinos). In addition, the observation of 0{nu}DBD can provide information about the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. The Cuoricino experiment was a sensitive search for 0{nu}DBD, as well as a proof of principle for the next generation experiment, CUORE. CUORE will search for 0{nu}DBD of {sup 130}Te with a ton-scale array of unenriched TeO{sub 2} bolometers. By increasing mass and decreasing the background for 0{nu}DBD, the half-life sensitivity of CUORE will be a factor of twenty better than that of Cuoricino. The site for both of these experiments is the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, an underground laboratory with 3300 meters water equivalent rock overburden and a cosmic ray muon attenuation factor of 10{sup -6}. Because of the extreme low background requirements for CUORE, it is important that all potential sources of background in the 0{nu}DBD peak region at 2530 keV are well understood. One potential source of background for CUORE comes from neutrons, which can be produced underground both by ({alpha},n) reactions and by fast cosmic ray muon interactions. Preliminary simulations by the CUORE collaboration indicate that these backgrounds will be negligible for CUORE. However, in order to accurately simulate the expected neutron background, it is important to understand the cross sections for neutron interactions with detector materials. In order to help refine these simulations, I have measured the gamma-ray production cross sections for interactions of neutrons on the abundant stable isotopes of Te using the GEANIE detector array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. In addition, I have used the GEANIE data to set an upper limit for the production of a 2529 keV gamma-ray from the {sup 126}Te(n,n{prime}{gamma}) reaction. This gamma-ray is a potential source of interference for the 0{nu}DBD peak. Based on this measurement, the contribution of this line to the background is expected to be negligible.

Dolinski, M J

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

460

Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV materials. Through the results obtained from this integrated materials behavior and NDE study, new insight will be gained into the best nondestructive creep and microstructure monitoring methods for the particular mechanisms identified in these materials. The proposed project includes collaboration with a national laboratory partner and the results will also serve as a foundation to guide the efforts of scientists in the DOE laboratory, university, and industrial communities concerned with the technological challenges of monitoring creep and microstructural evolution in materials planned to be used in Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems.

Nagy, Peter

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: Qualitative features  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Because of physical processes ranging from microscopic particle collisions to macroscopic hydrodynamic fluctuations, any plasma in thermal equilibrium emits gravitational waves. For the largest wavelengths the emission rate is proportional to the shear viscosity of the plasma. In the Standard Model at T > 160 GeV, the shear viscosity is dominated by the most weakly interacting particles, right-handed leptons, and is relatively large. We estimate the order of magnitude of the corresponding spectrum of gravitational waves. Even though at small frequencies (corresponding to the sub-Hz range relevant for planned observatories such as eLISA) this background is tiny compared with that from non-equilibrium sources, the total energy carried by the high-frequency part of the spectrum is non-negligible if the production continues for a long time. We suggest that this may constrain (weakly) the highest temperature of the radiation epoch. Observing the high-frequency part directly sets a very ambitious goal for future ge...

Ghiglieri, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Parametric instability of a monochromatic Alfven wave: Perpendicular decay in low beta plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-dimensional hybrid simulations are performed to investigate the parametric decay of a monochromatic Alfven wave in low beta plasma. Both the linearly and left-hand polarized pump Alfven waves are considered in the paper. For the linearly polarized pump Alfven wave, either a parallel or obliquely propagating wave can lead to the decay along the perpendicular direction. Initially, the parametric decay takes place along the propagating direction of the pump wave, and then the decay occurs in the perpendicular direction. With the increase of the amplitude and the propagating angle of the pump wave (the angle between the propagating direction of the pump wave and the ambient magnetic field), the spectral range of the excited waves becomes broad in the perpendicular direction. But the effects of the plasma beta on the spectral range of the excited waves in perpendicular direction are negligible. However, for the left-hand polarized pump Alfven wave, when the pump wave propagates along the ambient magnetic field, the parametric decay occurs nearly along the ambient magnetic field, and there is no obvious decay in the perpendicular direction. Significant decay in the perpendicular direction can only be found when the pump wave propagates obliquely.

Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Shan, Lican; Wang, Shui [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Li, Xing [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Magnetic reconnection at the termination shock in a striped pulsar wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most of the rotational luminosity of a pulsar is carried away by a relativistic magnetised wind in which the matter energy flux is negligible compared to the Poynting flux. Near the equatorial plane of an obliquely rotating pulsar magnetosphere, the magnetic field reverses polarity with the pulsar period, forming a wind with oppositely directed field lines. This structure is called a striped wind; dissipation of alternating fields in the striped wind is the object of our study. The aim of this paper is to study the conditions required for magnetic energy release at the termination shock of the striped pulsar wind. Magnetic reconnection is considered via analytical methods and 1D relativistic PIC simulations. An analytical condition on the upstream parameters for partial and full magnetic reconnection is derived from the conservation laws of energy, momentum and particle number density across the relativistic shock. Furthermore, by using a 1D relativistic PIC code, we study in detail the reconnection process at the termination shock. We found a very simple criterion for dissipation of alternating fields at the termination shock, depending on the upstream parameters of the flow. 1D relativistic PIC simulations are in agreement with our criterion. Thus, alternating magnetic fields annihilate easily at relativistic highly magnetised shocks.

Jerome Petri; Yuri Lyubarsky

2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

464

THE INFLUENCE OF INELASTIC NEUTRINO REACTIONS WITH LIGHT NUCLEI ON THE STANDING ACCRETION SHOCK INSTABILITY IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). The time evolution of shock waves is calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions, and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations. In addition, the effects of ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons is addressed in the simulations. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as {approx}10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hand, alpha particles are heated near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and the density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei evolve differently in the non-linear phase of SASI than do models that lack heating by light nuclei. This result is because matter in the gain region has a varying density and temperature and therefore sub-regions appear that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. Although the light nuclei are never dominant heating sources and they work favorably for shock revival in some cases and unfavorably in other cases, they are non-negligible and warrant further investigation.

Furusawa, Shun; Nagakura, Hiroki; Yamada, Shoichi [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke, E-mail: furusawa@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Numazu College of Technology, Ooka 3600, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Shell effects in hot nuclei and their influence on nuclear composition in supernova matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We calculate nuclear composition in supernova (SN) matter explicitly taking into account the temperature dependence of nuclear shell effects. The abundance of nuclei in SN matter is important in the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae and, in recently constructed equations of state (EOS) for SN matter, the composition of nuclei are calculated assuming nuclear statistical equilibrium wherein the nuclear internal free energies govern the composition. However, in these EOS, thermal effects on the shell energy are not explicitly taken into account. To address this shortfall, we calculate herein the shell energies of hot nuclei and examine their influence on the composition of SN matter. Following a simplified macroscopic-microscopic approach, we first calculate single-particle (SP) energies by using a spherical Woods-Saxon potential. Then we extract shell energies at finite temperatures using Strutinsky method with the Fermi distribution as the average occupation probability of the SP levels. The results show that at relatively low temperatures, shell effects are still important and magic nuclei are abundant. However, at temperatures above approximately 2 MeV, shell effects are almost negligible, and the mass fractions with shell energies including the thermal effect are close to those obtained from a simple liquid drop model at finite temperatures.

Nishimura, Suguru [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Takano, Masatoshi [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan and Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

466

Fluid seals development for coal liquefaction slurry pumps. Final report, 28 September 1982-31 January 1986. [Centrifugal and reciprocating pumps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a fluid seal developemnt program for coal liquefaction centrifugal and reciprocating slurry pumps are presented. The preliminary evaluation indicated that the best fluid seal concepts were the hydrostatic convergent tapered bore floating ring and the hydrostatic orifice compensated floating bushing. Detail evaluation and analysis were performed and the tapered bore floating ring seal was selected for final design and fabrication. The seal rings were constructed from solid tungsten carbide K68 with a convergent taper ratio of 2.0 and nominal diametral exit clearances of 0.002 to 0.003 inch. The laboratory testing demonstrated satisfactory leakage and negligible wear with synthetic slurry at typical field conditions. The centrifugal seals accumulated 72 hours with final leakage rates of 0.05 to 0.15 gpm. The reciprocating seals accumulated 63.3 hours with leadage rates of 0.04 to 0.05 gpm. The reciprocating seal field testing demonstrated successful field operation with actual process fluids. A total of 506 hours was daccumulated with no significant wear and leakage rates of 0.02 to 0.05 gpm. 32 refs., 143 figs., 32 tabs.

Burcham, R.E.; Keba, J.E.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Interdiffusion at the bilayer polymer interface: Evidence for reptation. [NEUTRONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutron reflection is used to study the interdiffusion in equal molecular weight polystyrene bilayer melts with a spatial resolution of 1nm. Interfacial widths and concentration profiles at the bilayer interface are obtained for annealing times up to and beyond the time (reptation time, {tau}{sub d}) in which the molecule has moved by its own length. For annealing times t < {tau}{sub d}, the reptation model predicts a mean square displacement of monomers whose time evolution is a power law. The detailed profile is expected to exhibit a discontinuity (sharp gradient) of density at the interface between the two polymers. For relatively light weight polymers of M {approx} 233,000, the mean square displacements of monomers is in general agreement with reptation predictions; the discontinuity at the interface is only observed when the molecular weights are large, M {approx} 1,000,000. The discontinuity is present even for low concentrations of the deuterated polymer where isotopic slowing down effects are negligible, thus confirming the sharp gradient as being due to reptation. 19 refs., 5 figs.

Felcher, G.P.; Karim, A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Russell, T.P. (IBM Research Div., San Jose, CA (USA). Almaden Research Center)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Strong Electronic Polarization of the C60 Fullerene by the Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids: Accurate Insights from Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fullerenes are known to be polarizable due to the strained carbon-carbon bonds and high surface curvature. Electronic polarization of fullerenes is of steady practical importance, since it leads to non-additive interactions and, therefore, to unexpected phenomena. For the first time, hybrid density functional theory (HDFT) powered Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulations have been conducted to observe electronic polarization and charge transfer phenomena in the C60 fullerene at finite temperature (350 K). The non-additive phenomena are fostered by the three selected imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). We conclude that although charge transfer appears nearly negligible in these systems, an electronic polarization is indeed significant leading to a systematically positive effective electrostatic charge on the C60 fullerene: +0.14e in [EMIM][Cl], +0.21e in [EMIM][NO3], +0.17e in [EMIM][PF6]. These results are, to certain extent, unexpected providing an inspiration to consider ...

Chaban, Vitaly V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Space-time contours to treat intense field-dressed molecular states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we consider a molecular system exposed to an intense short-pulsed external field. It is a continuation of a previous publication [A. K. Paul, S. Adhikari, D. Mukhopadhyay et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 7331 (2009)] in which a theory is presented that treats quantum effects due to nonclassical photon states (known also as Fock states). Since these states became recently a subject of intense experimental efforts we thought that they can be treated properly within the existing quantum formulation of dynamical processes. This was achieved by incorporating them in the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) treatment with time-dependent coefficients. The extension of the BO treatment to include the Fock states results in a formidable enhancement in numerical efforts expressed, in particular, in a significant increase in CPU time. In the present article we discuss an approach that yields an efficient and reliable approximation with only negligible losses in accuracy. The approximation is tested in detail for the dissociation process of H{sub 2}{sup +} as caused by a laser field.

Paul, Amit K.; Adhikari, Satrajit [Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Baer, Michael [Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

470

SOLVING THE NON-BORN-OPPENHEIMER SCHROeDINGER EQUATION FOR THE HYDROGEN MOLECULAR ION WITH THE FREE COMPLEMENT METHOD. II. HIGHLY ACCURATE ELECTRONIC, VIBRATIONAL, AND ROTATIONAL EXCITED STATES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly accurate wave functions of the ground and electronic (1s {sigma}{sub g} and 3d {sigma}{sub g}), vibrational (v = 0-15 for 1s {sigma}{sub g} and v = 0-8 for 3d {sigma}{sub g}), and rotational (L = 0-6: {sup 1} S, {sup 3} P, {sup 1} D, {sup 3} F, {sup 1} G, {sup 3} H, and {sup 1} I) excited states of the hydrogen molecular ion were obtained by solving the non-Born-Oppenheimer (non-BO) Schroedinger equation using the free complement (FC) method. The vibronic states belonging to the electronic excited state 3d {sigma}{sub g} are embedded in the continuum of the dissociation, H(1s) + H{sup +}. Nevertheless, they exist as physical bound states that have negligible coupling with the continuum. The complex scaled Hamiltonian was employed to analyze the bound and/or resonance natures of the obtained eigenstates, and a new resonance state appeared between the above two electronic states. We numerically proved that the FC method is a reliable theoretical tool for investigating non-BO quantum effects, and it should be available for various studies of hydrogen-related space chemistry and low-temperature physics.

Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi [Quantum Chemistry Research Institute, JST, CREST, Kyodai Katsura Venture Plaza 107, Goryo Oohara 1-36, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hijikata, Yuh, E-mail: h.nakashima@qcri.or.jp, E-mail: h.nakatsuji@qcri.or.jp [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan)

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

471

CO2 SELECTIVE CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR WATER-GAS SHIFT REACTION WITH CONCOMITANT RECOVERY OF CO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} diffusivity through hydrotalcite materials at 200 to 250 C was determined based upon the weight pick-up vs time. D/r{sup 2} (diffusivity/radius{sup 2}) for CO{sub 2} ranges from 3 x 10{sup -4} to 1 x 10{sup -3} depending upon the temperature. This range of diffusivity is consistent with the diffusivities through nanoporous materials, such as pillard clays and carbon molecular sieve, reported in the literature. Further the activation energy calculated based upon the diffusivity as a function of temperature is {approx}12 kcal/mole CO{sub 2}, indicating activated diffusion for CO{sub 2} transport through the intracrystalline region of hydrotalcite. More importantly nitrogen diffusivity determined based upon the same methodology is negligible. This implies that the hydrotalcite materials have a strong affinity to CO{sub 2}, but not nitrogen although the kinetic diameters for both molecules are similar. This result supports our proposed concept on the use of the hydrotalcite membrane for selective permeation of CO{sub 2}. In the next quarter, we will conduct more calculation to determine the CO{sub 2} permeability of an ideal hydrotalcite membrane. This theoretical analysis will provide a quantitative basis for the design of a hydrotalcite membrane. Further, the theoretical diffusivity thus obtained can be used as a tool to (1) gauge the degree of defects of experimental membranes prepared, and (2) direct the future membrane synthesis and improvement.

Paul K. T. Liu

2003-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

472

Effects of water chemistry on itergranular cracking of irradiated austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To determine the effects of water chemistry on the susceptibility to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in austenitic stainless steels. constant-extension-rate tests were conducted in simulated BWR environments on several heats of high- and commercial-purity (HP and CP) Type 304 SS specimens from BWR components irradiated to fluences up to 2.4 {times} 10{sup 21} n cm{sup {minus}2} (E > I MeV). Effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrochemical potential (ECP) in 289{degrees}C water were investigated. Dependence of Susceptibility to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) on DO was somewhat different for the two materials. Susceptibility of the HP heats. less influenced by DO and ECP, was higher than that of CP material for all DO and fluence levels. Percent IGSCC in the CP material was negligible for DO <0.01 ppm or ECP <{minus}140 mV SHE. Results of analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy indicated that the HP neutron absorber tubes were characterized by relatively lower concentrations of C, Ni, and Li and relatively higher concentrations of F and N on grain boundaries than those of the CP materials. It is suggested that a synergism between irradiation-induced grain-boundary Cr depletion and fabrication-related fluorine contamination plays an important role in the stress corrosion cracking behavior of the HP neutron absorber tubes.

Chung, H.M.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.; Hins, A.; Kassner, T.F.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

473

Deployment of an alternative cover and final closure of the Mixed Waste Landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alternative cover design consisting of a monolithic layer of native soil is proposed as the closure path for the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The proposed design would rely upon soil thickness and evapotranspiration to provide long-term performance and stability, and would be inexpensive to build and maintain. The proposed design is a 3-ft-thick, vegetated soil cover. The alternative cover meets the intent of RCRA Subtitle C regulations in that: (a) water migration through the cover is minimized; (b) maintenance is minimized by using a monolithic soil layer; (c) cover erosion is minimized by using erosion control measures; (d) subsidence is accommodated by using a ''soft'' design; and (e) the permeability of the cover is less than or equal to that of natural subsurface soil present. Performance of the proposed cover is integrated with natural site conditions, producing a ''system performance'' that will ensure that the cover is protective of human health and the environment. Natural site conditions that will produce a system performance include: (a) extremely low precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration; (b) negligible recharge to groundwater; (c) an extensive vadose zone; (d) groundwater approximately 500 ft below the surface; and (e) a versatile, native flora that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance.

Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); McVey, Michael David (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Borns, David James

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Tomographic imaging system for measuring impurity line emission in a field-reversed configuration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 16 chord optical tomography system has been developed and implemented in the flux coil generated-field reversed configuration (FRC). The chords are arranged in two fans of eight, which cover {approx}35% of the vessel area at the midplane. Each illuminate separate photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) which are fitted with narrow band-pass filters. In this case, filters are centered at 434.8 nm to measure emission from singly ionized argon. PMT crosstalk is negligible. Background noise due to electron radiation and H{sub {gamma}} line radiation is <10% of argon emission. The spatial resolution of the reconstruction is 1.5 cm. Argon is introduced using a puff valve and tube designed to impart the gas into the system as the FRC is forming. Reconstruction of experimental data results in time-dependent, 2D emissivity profiles of the impurity ions. Analysis of these data show radial, cross-field diffusion to be in the range of 10-10{sup 3} m{sup 2}/s during FRC equilibrium.

Roche, T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McWilliams, R. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Bolte, N.; Garate, E.; Wessel, F. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Domain wall QCD with physical quark masses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results for several light hadronic quantities ($f_\\pi$, $f_K$, $B_K$, $m_{ud}$, $m_s$, $t_0^{1/2}$, $w_0$) obtained from simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall lattice QCD with large physical volumes and nearly-physical pion masses at two lattice spacings. We perform a short, O(3)%, extrapolation in pion mass to the physical values by combining our new data in a simultaneous chiral/continuum `global fit' with a number of other ensembles with heavier pion masses. We use the physical values of $m_\\pi$, $m_K$ and $m_\\Omega$ to determine the two quark masses and the scale - all other quantities are outputs from our simulations. We obtain results with sub-percent statistical errors and negligible chiral and finite-volume systematics for these light hadronic quantities, including: $f_\\pi$ = 130.2(9) MeV; $f_K$ = 155.5(8) MeV; the average up/down quark mass and strange quark mass in the $\\overline {\\rm MS}$ scheme at 3 GeV, 2.997(49) and 81.64(1.17) MeV respectively; and the neutral kaon mixing parameter, $B_K$, in the RGI scheme, 0.750(15) and the $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ scheme at 3 GeV, 0.530(11).

RBC; UKQCD collaborations; :; T. Blum; P. A. Boyle; N. H. Christ; J. Frison; N. Garron; R. J. Hudspith; T. Izubuchi; T. Janowski; C. Jung; A. Juettner; C. Kelly; R. D. Kenway; C. Lehner; M. Marinkovic; R. D. Mawhinney; G. McGlynn; D. J. Murphy; S. Ohta; A. Portelli; C. T. Sachrajda; A. Soni

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

476

Adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were studied on alumina-supported iridium catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were studied on alumina-supported iridium catalysts which were examined by a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The metal particle size and number of particles per area of catalyst increased with increasing metal loading. The particles were approx. 10 A. in diameter, cubo-octahedral shaped, and approx. 80-90% disperse. The STEM electron beam caused negligible damage to the samples. Hydrogen adsorption measurements showed that the hydrogen-iridium atom ratio was 1.2:1-1.3:1 and increased with decreasing metal loading. Temperature-programed desorption showed four types of adsorbed hydrogen desorbing at -90/sup 0/C (I), 15/sup 0/C (IV), 115/sup 0/C (II), and 245/sup 0/C (III). Types II and IV desorb from single atom sites and Types I and III from multiple atom sites. Type I is in rapid equilibrium with the gas phase. All desorption processes appear to be first order. Carbon monoxide adsorbed nondissociatively at 25/sup 0/C with approx. 0.7:1 CO/Ir atom ratio. It adsorbed primarily in linear forms at low coverage, but a bridged form appeared at high coverage.

Etherton, B.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

LNAPL Removal from Unsaturated Porous Media using Surfactant Infiltration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of unsaturated column experiments was performed to evaluate light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) fate and removal during surfactant solution infiltration. Surfactant-LNAPL phase behavior tests were conducted to optimize the remedial solutions. Packed sand and site sediment columns were first processed to establish representative LNAPL smear zone under unsaturated conditions. Infiltration of low-concentration surfactant was then applied in a stepwise flush mode, with 0.3 column pore volume (PV) of solution in each flush. The influence of infiltrated surfactant solution volume and pH on LNAPL removal was assessed. A LNAPL bank was observed at the very front of the first surfactant infiltration in each column, indicating that a very low surfactant concentration is needed to reduce the LNAPL-water interfacial tension sufficiently enough to mobilize trapped LNAPL under unsaturated conditions. More LNAPL was recovered as additional steps of surfactant infiltration were applied. Up to 99% LNAPL was removed after six infiltration steps, with less than 2.0 PV of total surfactant solution application, suggesting surfactant infiltration may be an effective method for vadose zone LNAPL remediation. The influence of pH tested in this study (3.99~10.85) was insignificant because the buffering capacity of the sediment kept the pH in the column higher than the zero point charge, pHzpc, of the sediment and therefore the difference between surfactant sorption was negligible.

Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

478

Relativistic distorted-wave analysis of quasielastic proton-nucleus scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A relativistic distorted-wave impulse approximation formalism is presented for the calculation of quasielastic proton-nucleus scattering. It is shown that the double differential cross section may be written as a contraction between the hadronic tensor (describing the projectile and ejectile) and the polarization tensor (describing the nuclear target) and that this mathematical structure also holds for the case where distortions are included. The eikonal approximation is used to introduce distortions in the wave functions, and the nuclear response is described using a Fermi gas model. The highly oscillatory nine-dimensional integrand contained in the expression for the double differential cross section is computed using a novel technique based on combining traditional Gaussian integration methods with the powerful fitting functions in the matlab programming language. This work has successfully calculated the distorted-wave quasielastic differential cross section for proton-nucleus scattering within a fully relativistic framework. It is found that the distortions lead to a reduction in the double differential cross section and have a negligible effect on the computed spin observables.

Titus, N. P.; Ventel, B. I. S. van der; Niekerk, D. D. van; Hillhouse, G. C. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); University for Information Science and Technology, Partizanska Street, Ohrid 6000 (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Design of and data reduction from compact Thomson parabola spectrometers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thomson parabola spectrometers are used to characterize MeV ion beams produced in high intensity laser interactions. These spectrometers disperse multiple ion species according to their charge to mass ratio through the use of parallel electric and magnetic fields. Analytical solutions for ion deflection in electric and magnetic fields have been used to extract ion spectra with the assumption that fringing effects are negligible. Experimental space restrictions and dynamic range requirements necessitate designs that stress the analytical assumptions. Depending on design parameters, the error in the analytical assumption can be comparable to the energy resolution. Estimates are provided to approximate the error on the total ion deflection. A method for modeling ion trajectories including fringing effects is presented using software freely available or in common use. The magnetostatic fields are modeled in 3D, including material properties of nearby magnetic materials using RADIA. Electrostatic fields are modeled in 2D for a spectrometer implementing angled plates using the partial differential equation toolbox in MATLAB. Using these models to calculate the ion trajectory allows for analysis of a Thomson parabola spectrometer with an arbitrary field configuration.

Morrison, J. T.; Willis, C.; Freeman, R. R.; Van Woerkom, L. [Physics Department, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

IceCube-Plus: An Ultra-High Energy Neutrino Telescope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While the first kilometer-scale neutrino telescope, IceCube, is under constructi on, alternative plans exist to build even larger detectors that will, however, b e limited by a much higher neutrino energy threshold of 10 PeV or higher rather than 10 to 100 GeV. These future projects detect radio and acoustic pulses as w ell as air showers initiated by ultra-high energy neutrinos. As an alternative, we here propose an expansion of IceCube, using the same strings, placed on a gri d with a spacing of order 500 m. Unlike other proposals, the expanded detector uses methods that are understood and calibrated on atmospheric neutrinos. Atmosp heric neutrinos represent the only background at the energies under consideratio n and is totally negligible. Also, the cost of such a detector is understood. We conclude that supplementing the 81 IceCube strings with a modest number of addi tional strings spaced at large distances can almost double the effective volume of the detector. Doubling the number of strings on a 800 m ...

Halzen, F; Halzen, Francis; Hooper, Dan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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481

IceCube-Plus: An Ultra-High Energy Neutrino Telescope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While the first kilometer-scale neutrino telescope, IceCube, is under construction, alternative plans exist to build even larger detectors that will, however, b e limited by a much higher neutrino energy threshold of 10 PeV or higher rather than 10 to 100 GeV. These future projects detect radio and acoustic pulses as w ell as air showers initiated by ultra-high energy neutrinos. As an alternative, we here propose an expansion of IceCube, using the same strings, placed on a gri d with a spacing of order 500 m. Unlike other proposals, the expanded detector uses methods that are understood and calibrated on atmospheric neutrinos. Atmosp heric neutrinos represent the only background at the energies under consideratio n and is totally negligible. Also, the cost of such a detector is understood. We conclude that supplementing the 81 IceCube strings with a modest number of addi tional strings spaced at large distances can almost double the effective volume of the detector. Doubling the number of strings on a 800 m grid can deliver a d etector that this a factor of 5 larger for horizontal muons at modest cost.

Francis Halzen; Dan Hooper

2003-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

482

Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In January 1993, PNNL established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. This program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the DOE Standard Radiological Control, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-1998 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 123 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during calendar year 1999. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

2000-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

483

PAC spectroscopy of electronic ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dilute indium dopants in cerium oxides and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} have been studied by{sup 111}In/Cd Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. By controlling oxygen vacancy concentration in the cerium oxides through doping or high-temperature vacuum annealing, we have found that indium always forms a defect complex unless the sample is doped to reduce greatly the oxygen vacancy concentration. Three different vacancy-associated complexes are found with concentrations that depend on doping and oxygen stoichiometry. Another defect complex occurs in samples having negligible vacancy concentration. At low temperatures, evidence is found of interaction with an electronic hole trapped by {sup 111}Cd after the radioactive decay of the {sup 111}In parent. In YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} the indium substitutes preferentially at the Y site but has measurable probability of substitution in at least one of the two copper sites. A symmetry change near 650 {degree}C is consistent with the well-documented orthorhombic/tetragonal transition for samples in air or oxygen.

Gardner, J.A.; Wang, Ruiping; Schwenker, R. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Evenson, W.E. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Rasera, R.L. [Maryland Univ., Catonsville, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sommers, J.A. [Teledyne-Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

484

PAC spectroscopy of electronic ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dilute indium dopants in cerium oxides and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} have been studied by{sup 111}In/Cd Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. By controlling oxygen vacancy concentration in the cerium oxides through doping or high-temperature vacuum annealing, we have found that indium always forms a defect complex unless the sample is doped to reduce greatly the oxygen vacancy concentration. Three different vacancy-associated complexes are found with concentrations that depend on doping and oxygen stoichiometry. Another defect complex occurs in samples having negligible vacancy concentration. At low temperatures, evidence is found of interaction with an electronic hole trapped by {sup 111}Cd after the radioactive decay of the {sup 111}In parent. In YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} the indium substitutes preferentially at the Y site but has measurable probability of substitution in at least one of the two copper sites. A symmetry change near 650 {degree}C is consistent with the well-documented orthorhombic/tetragonal transition for samples in air or oxygen.

Gardner, J.A.; Wang, Ruiping; Schwenker, R. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics); Evenson, W.E. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Rasera, R.L. (Maryland Univ., Catonsville, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics); Sommers, J.A. (Teledyne-Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of the core-degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The core-degenerate (CD) scenario for type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) involves the merger of the hot core of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star and a white dwarf, and might contribute a non-negligible fraction of all thermonuclear supernovae. Despite its potential interest, very few studies, and based on only crude simplifications, have been devoted to investigate this possible scenario, compared with the large efforts invested to study some other scenarios. Here we perform the first three-dimensional simulations of the merger phase, and find that this process can lead to the formation of a massive white dwarf, as required by this scenario. We consider two situations, according to the mass of the circumbinary disk formed around the system during the final stages of the common envelope phase. If the disk is massive enough, the stars merge on a highly eccentric orbit. Otherwise, the merger occurs after the circumbinary disk has been ejected and gravitational wave radiation has brought the stars close to the Roche...

Aznar-Siguán, G; Lorén-Aguilar, P; Soker, N; Kashi, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

The optical depth of the Universe to ultrahigh energy cosmic ray scattering in the magnetized large scale structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper provides an analytical description of the transport of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in an inhomogeneously magnetized intergalactic medium. This latter is modeled as a collection of magnetized scattering centers such as radio cocoons, magnetized galactic winds, clusters or magnetized filaments of large scale structure, with negligible magnetic fields in between. Magnetic deflection is no longer a continuous process, it is rather dominated by scattering events. We study the interaction between high energy cosmic rays and the scattering agents. We then compute the optical depth of the Universe to cosmic ray scattering and discuss the phenomological consequences for various source scenarios. For typical parameters of the scattering centers, the optical depth is greater than unity at 5x10^{19}eV, but the total angular deflection is smaller than unity. One important consequence of this scenario is the possibility that the last scattering center encountered by a cosmic ray be mistaken with the source of this cosmic ray. In particular, we suggest that part of the correlation recently reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory may be affected by such delusion: this experiment may be observing in part the last scattering surface of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays rather than their source population. Since the optical depth falls rapidly with increasing energy, one should probe the arrival directions of the highest energy events beyond 10^{20}eV on an event by event basis to circumvent this effect.

Kumiko Kotera; Martin Lemoine

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

487

Enforcing positivity in intrusive PC-UQ methods for reactive ODE systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore the relation between the development of a non-negligible probability of negative states and the instability of numerical integration of the intrusive Galerkin ordinary differential equation system describing uncertain chemical ignition. To prevent this instability without resorting to either multi-element local polynomial chaos (PC) methods or increasing the order of the PC representation in time, we propose a procedure aimed at modifying the amplitude of the PC modes to bring the probability of negative state values below a user-defined threshold. This modification can be effectively described as a filtering procedure of the spectral PC coefficients, which is applied on-the-fly during the numerical integration when the current value of the probability of negative states exceeds the prescribed threshold. We demonstrate the filtering procedure using a simple model of an ignition process in a batch reactor. This is carried out by comparing different observables and error measures as obtained by non-intrusive Monte Carlo and Gauss-quadrature integration and the filtered intrusive procedure. The filtering procedure has been shown to effectively stabilize divergent intrusive solutions, and also to improve the accuracy of stable intrusive solutions which are close to the stability limits.

Najm, Habib N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Valorani, Mauro [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., Sapienza University of Rome, Rome (Italy)

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Neutral long-living kaon and muon system of the Belle II detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Belle detector operated at KEKb B-factory in 1999-2010 was one of the most remarkable experiments in the field of elementary particle physics of the last decades. The Belle successor, Belle II collaboration, is aimed to operate the Belle II detector at SuperKEKb factory at 40 times higher luminosity. Increased luminosity imposes new requirements on the detector elements: they have to survive at higher radiation levels, to operate at higher loads and at higher backgrounds. The Belle K_L and muon system based on the resistive plate chambers (RPC) technology worked well during all data taking period, however at Belle II environments its performance decreases to negligible level due to increasing load and high neutron background. To sustain detector operation it will be replaced by the new system based on the scintillation strips read-out by silicon photomultipliers. The latter technology allows not only to reach time resolution at level of 1 ns but also perform the amplitude measurements. Nowadays the production of the new EKLM system's elements are under way. The assembly at KEK is started this fall.

Timofey Uglov

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

489

Neutral long-living kaon and muon system of the Belle II detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Belle detector operated at KEKb B-factory in 1999-2010 was one of the most remarkable experiments in the field of elementary particle physics of the last decades. The Belle successor, Belle II collaboration, is aimed to operate the Belle II detector at SuperKEKb factory at 40 times higher luminosity. Increased luminosity imposes new requirements on the detector elements: they have to survive at higher radiation levels, to operate at higher loads and at higher backgrounds. The Belle K_L and muon system based on the resistive plate chambers (RPC) technology worked well during all data taking period, however at Belle II environments its performance decreases to negligible level due to increasing load and high neutron background. To sustain detector operation it will be replaced by the new system based on the scintillation strips read-out by silicon photomultipliers. The latter technology allows not only to reach time resolution at level of 1 ns but also perform the amplitude measurements. Nowadays the produc...

Uglov, Timofey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Rheological fluid motion in tube by metachronal wave of cilia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this paper is a theoretical study of a non-linear problem of rheological fluid transport in an axisymmetric tube by cilium. However, an attempt has been made to explain the role of cilia motion on the transport of fluid through the ductus efferentes of the male reproductive tract. Ostwald-de Waele power law viscous fluid has been considered to represent the rheological fluid to analyze pumping by means of a sequence of beat of cilia from row to row of cilia in a given row of cells and from one row of cells to the next (metachronal wave movement) under conditions for which the corresponding Reynolds number is small enough for inertial effects to be negligible and the wavelength to diameter ratio is large enough for the pressure to be considered uniform over the cross-section. Analyses and computations of the detailed fluid motions reveal that the time-averaged flow rates are directly dependent on epsilon, a non-dimensional measure involving the mean radius R of the tube and the cilia length. Thu...

Maiti, S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Dosimetric Impact of Surgical Clips in Electron Beam Treatment of Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Titanium clips are commonly used to delineate the location of the tumor bed during breast cancer surgery. Electron beams are frequently used to boost radiation dose to the breast cavity. This research investigated the effect on such boost treatments as a result of metallic clip perturbation potentially exhibited through attenuation and scatter processes using measurements with Gafchromic film and treatment planning simulation with both generalized Gaussian pencil beam and electron Monte Carlo algorithms. Results showed that the potential effect of clip interference is unidentifiable from both algorithms. Dosimetry with Gafchromic external beam therapy film did detect dose perturbations caused by the titanium clips in proximal plane, 0.23 mm away, resulting in 3.0% backscatter and 2.4% attenuation at 6 MeV and 2.0% backscatter and 6.7% attenuation at 9 MeV. The noise contribution of the film scanner is estimated to be about 0.4% and nearly 2% uncertainty in film calibration. As a result, we conclude that the magnitude of dose perturbations from clip is negligible for clinical findings.

Gossman, Michael S. [Tri-State Regional Cancer Center, Ashland, KY (United States)], E-mail: mgossman@tsrcc.com; Zhao Li [Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, IN (United States); Cao Minsong [Indiana University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Lopez, Jeffrey P. [Tri-State Regional Cancer Center, Ashland, KY (United States); Das, Indra J. [Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, IN (United States); Indiana University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

Spädtke, Peter, E-mail: p.spaedtke@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)] [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

493

Disformal Theories of Gravity: From the Solar System to Cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is concerned with theories of gravity that contain a scalar coupled both conformally and disformally to matter through the metric. By systematically deriving the non-relativistic limit, it is shown that no new non-linear screening mechanisms are present beyond the Vainshtein mechanism and chameleon-like screening. If one includes the cosmological expansion of the universe, disformal effects that are usually taken to be absent can be present in the solar system. When the conformal factor is absent, fifth-forces can be screened on all scales when the cosmological field is slowly-rolling. We investigate the cosmology of these models and use local tests of gravity to place new constraints on the disformal coupling and find $\\mathcal{M}>\\mathcal{O}(\\textrm{eV})$, which is not competitive with laboratory tests. Finally, we discuss the future prospects for testing these theories and the implications for other theories of modified gravity. In particular, the Vainshtein radius of solar system objects can be altered from the static prediction when cosmological time-derivatives are non-negligible.

Jeremy Sakstein

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

494

Observations on the Optimality Tolerance in the CAISO 33% RPS Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2008 Governor Schwarzenegger of California issued an executive order requiring that 33 percent of all electricity in the state in the year 2020 should come from renewable resources such as wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, and small hydroelectric facilities. This 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) was further codified and signed into law by Governor Brown in 2011. To assess the market impacts of such a requirement, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) initiated a study to quantify the cost, risk, and timing of achieving a 33% RPS by 2020. The California Independent System Operator (CAISO) was contracted to manage this study. The production simulation model used in this study was developed using the PLEXOS software package, which allows energy planners to optimize long-term system planning decisions under a wide variety of system constraints. In this note we describe our observations on varying the optimality tolerance in the CAISO 33% RPS model. In particular, we observe that changing the optimality tolerance from .05% to .5% leads to solutions over 5 times faster, on average, producing very similar solutions with a negligible difference in overall distance from optimality.

Yao, Y; Meyers, C; Schmidt, A; Smith, S; Streitz, F

2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

495

Colloidal gold nanoparticle probe-based immunochromatographic assay for the rapid detection of chromium ions in water and serum samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An immunochromatographic assay (ICA) using gold nanoparticles coated with monoclonal antibody (McAb) for the detection of chromium ions (Cr) in water and serum samples was developed, optimized, and validated. Gold nanoparticles coated with affinity- purified monoclonal antibodies against isothiocyanobenzyl-EDTA (iEDTA)-chelated Cr3+ were used as the detecting reagent in this completive immunoassay-based one- step test strip. The ICA was investigated to measure chromium speciation in water samples. Chromium standard samples of 0-80 ng/mL in water were determined by the test strips. The results showed that the visual lowest detection limit (LDL) of the test strip was 50.0 ng/mL. A portable colorimetric lateral flow reader was used for the quantification of Cr. The results indicated that the linear range of the ICA with colorimetric detection was 5-80 ng/mL. The ICA was also validated for the detection of chromium ions in serum samples. The test trips showed high stability in that they could be stored at at 37 C for at least 12 weeks without significant loss of activity. The test strip also showed good selectivity for Cr detection with negligible interference from other heavy metals. Because of its low cost and short testing time (within 5 min), the test strip is especially suitable for on-site large- scale screening of Cr-polluted water samples, biomonitoring of Cr exposure, and many other field applications.

Liu, Xi; Xiang, Jun-Jian; Tang, Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Fu, Qiang-Qiang; Zou, Jun-Hui; Lin, Yuehe

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Neutrino oscillations: Entanglement, energy-momentum conservation and QFT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider several subtle aspects of the theory of neutrino oscillations which have been under discussion recently. We show that the $S$-matrix formalism of quantum field theory can adequately describe neutrino oscillations if correct physics conditions are imposed. This includes space-time localization of the neutrino production and detection processes. Space-time diagrams are introduced, which characterize this localization and illustrate the coherence issues of neutrino oscillations. We discuss two approaches to calculations of the transition amplitudes, which allow different physics interpretations: (i) using configuration-space wave packets for the involved particles, which leads to approximate conservation laws for their mean energies and momenta; (ii) calculating first a plane-wave amplitude of the process, which exhibits exact energy-momentum conservation, and then convoluting it with the momentum-space wave packets of the involved particles. We show that these two approaches are equivalent. Kinematic entanglement (which is invoked to ensure exact energy-momentum conservation in neutrino oscillations) and subsequent disentanglement of the neutrinos and recoiling states are in fact irrelevant when the wave packets are considered. We demonstrate that the contribution of the recoil particle to the oscillation phase is negligible provided that the coherence conditions for neutrino production and detection are satisfied. Unlike in the previous situation, the phases of both neutrinos from $Z^0$ decay are important, leading to a realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox.

E. Kh. Akhmedov; A. Yu. Smirnov

2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

497

Luminosity function of clusters of galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The composite galaxy luminosity function (hereafter LF) of 39 Abell clusters of galaxies is derived by computing the statistical excess of galaxy counts in the cluster direction with respect to control fields. Due to the wide field coverage of the digitised POSS-II plates, we can measure field counts around each cluster in a fully homogeneous way. Furthermore, the availability of virtually unlimited sky coverage allows us to directly compute the LF errors without having to rely on the estimated variance of the background. The wide field coverage also allows us to derive the LF of the whole cluster, including galaxies located in the cluster outskirts. The global composite LF has a slope alpha ~ -1.1+/-0.2 with minor variations from blue to red filters, and M* ~ -21.7,-22.2,-22.4 mag (H_0=50 km/s/Mpc) in g, r and i filters, respectively. These results are in quite good agreement with several previous determinations and in particular with the LF determined for the inner region of a largely overlapping set of clusters, but derived making use of a completely different method for background subtraction. The similarity of the two LFs suggests the existence of minor differences between the LF in the cluster outskirts and in the central region, or a negligible contribution of galaxies in the cluster outskirts to the global LF.

M. Paolillo; S. Andreon; G. Longo; E. Puddu; R. R. Gal; R. Scaramella; S. G. Djorgovski; R. de Carvalho

2000-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

498

Effects of constraints in general branched molecules: A quantitative ab initio study in HCO-L-Ala-NH2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general approach to the design of accurate classical potentials for protein folding is described. It includes the introduction of a meaningful statistical measure of the differences between approximations of the same potential energy, the definition of a set of Systematic and Approximately Separable and Modular Internal Coordinates (SASMIC), much convenient for the simulation of general branched molecules, and the imposition of constraints on the most rapidly oscillating degrees of freedom. All these tools are used to study the effects of constraints in the Conformational Equilibrium Distribution (CED) of the model dipeptide HCO-L-Ala-NH2. We use ab initio Quantum Mechanics calculations including electron correlation at the MP2 level to describe the system, and we measure the conformational dependence of the correcting terms to the naive CED based in the Potential Energy Surface (PES) without any simplifying assumption. These terms are related to mass-metric tensors determinants and also occur in the Fixman's compensating potential. We show that some of the corrections are non-negligible if one is interested in the whole Ramachandran space. On the other hand, if only the energetically lower region, containing the principal secondary structure elements, is assumed to be relevant, then, all correcting terms may be neglected up to peptides of considerable length. This is the first time, as far as we know, that the analysis of the conformational dependence of these correcting terms is performed in a relevant biomolecule with a realistic potential energy function.

Pablo Echenique; J. L. Alonso; Ivan Calvo

2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

499

Elliptic flow from two- and four-particle correlations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130 GeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elliptic flow holds much promise for studying the early-time thermalization attained in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. Flow measurements also provide a means of distinguishing between hydrodynamic models and calculations which approach the low density (dilute gas) limit. Among the effects that can complicate the interpretation of elliptic flow measurements are azimuthal correlations that are unrelated to the reaction plane (non-flow correlations). Using data for Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130 GeV from the STAR TPC, it is found that four-particle correlation analyses can reliably separate flow and non-flow correlation signals. The latter account for on average about 15 percent of the observed second-harmonic azimuthal correlation, with the largest relative contribution for the most peripheral and the most central collisions. The results are also corrected for the effect of flow variations within centrality bins. This effect is negligible for all but the most central bin , where the correction to the elliptic flow is about a factor of two. A simple new method for two-particle flow analysis based on scalar products is described. An analysis based on the distribution of the magnitude of the flow vector is also described.

Adler, C.; Ahammed, Z.; Allgower, C.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Averichev, G.S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Cardenas, A.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Castro, M.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Deng, W.S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Draper, J.E.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Filimonov, K.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Grachov, O.; Grigoriev, V.; Guedon, M.; Gushin, E.; Hallman, T.J.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.I.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kunde, G.J.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.Kh.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Lakehal Ayat, L.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; Lange, S.; Lansdell, C.P.; Lasiuk, B.; Laue, F.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Leontiev, V.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, Q.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Q.J.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; LoCurto, G.; Long, H.; Longacre, R.S.; Lopez-Noriega, M.; Love, W.A.; Ludlam, T.; Lynn, D.; et al.

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

500

Recent Results for the Ferritics Isotopic Tailoring (FIST) Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alloy of F82H prepared using the isotope 54 Fe in order to encourage H and He production in a fission reactor has been irradiated in the HFIR JP20 experiment at three temperatures to 7 dpa as TEM disks. Irradiated disks were shear punch tested, examined by TEM, analyzed for He and H content, and compared with previous results in order to quantify irradiation hardening due to transmutation-induced H and He. Hardening due to irradiation is found following irradiation at 300 and 400 C, that is intermediate between that at lower and higher dose, but hardening is negligible following irradiation at 500 C. Microstructural examinations show typical behavior of irradiation as a function of irradiation temperature, with moderate swelling after 400 C irradiation but few bubbles after irradiation at 300 C. Correlations of change in hardening with He and H content show little indication of transmutation-induced hardening, but measured H levels do not agree with predictions and therefore H production and analysis requires further study.

Gelles, David S.; Hamilton, M L.; Oliver, Brian M.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ohnuki, Somei; Shiba, K; Kohno, Yutaka; Kohyama, Akira; Robertson, J P.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z