Sample records for negligible negligible negligible

  1. APPLICATION OF STRICT LIABILTY AND NEGLIGENCE TO BLASTING CLAIMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Explosives Engineers 2004G Volume 1 - Application of Strict Liability and Negligence to Blasting Claims 1-7394; tstark@uiuc.edu Copyright © 2004 International Society of Explosives Engineers 2004G Volume 1

  2. Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared Beam Michael C. Martina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared Beam Michael C. Martina , Nelly M. Tsvetkovab of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California at Davis, USA Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is one can now obtain diffraction-limited spot sizes with high signal intensity in an infrared microscope

  3. NEGLIGIBLE CREEP CONDITIONS FOR MOD 9 CR 1 MO STEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Riou, Bernard [AREVA Group; Escaravage, Claude [AREVA Group; Swindeman, Robert W [ORNL; Cabrillat, Marie-Th?r?se [CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lex Durance, France; Allais, Lucien [CEA, Saclay, France

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mod 9 Cr 1 Mo Steel (grade 91) is one of the materials envisaged for the Reactor Pressure Vessel of Very High Temperature Reactors. To avoid the implementation of a surveillance program covering the monitoring of the creep damage throughout the whole life of the reactor, it is recommended to operate the Reactor Pressure Vessel in the negligible creep regime. In this paper, the background of negligible creep criteria available in nuclear Codes is first recalled and their limitations were analyzed. Then, guidance for deriving criteria more appropriate for mod 9 Cr 1 Mo steel is provided. Finally, R&D actions in the U. S. and France to support the new approaches are discussed and recommended.

  4. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with Negligible Neutrino Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biswajoy Brahmachari; Ernest Ma

    2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    If the electron neutrino has an effective nonzero Majorana mass, then neutrinoless double beta decay will occur. However, the latter is possible also with a negligible neutrino mass. We show how this may happen in a simple model of scalar diquarks and dileptons. This possibility allows neutrino masses to be small and hierarchical, without conflicting with the possible experimental evidence of neutrinoless double beta decay.

  5. Application of Negligible Creep Criteria to Candidate Materials for HTGR Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jetter, Robert I [Consultant; Sham, Sam [ORNL; Swindeman, Robert W [Consultant

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two of the proposed High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) under consideration for a demonstration plant have the design object of avoiding creep effects in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during normal operation. This work addresses the criteria for negligible creep in Subsection NH, Division 1 of the ASME B&PV (Boiler and Pressure Vessel) Code, Section III, other international design codes and some currently suggested criteria modifications and their impact on permissible operating temperatures for various reactor pressure vessel materials. The goal of negligible creep could have different interpretations depending upon what failure modes are considered and associated criteria for avoiding the effects of creep. It is shown that for the materials of this study, consideration of localized damage due to cycling of peak stresses results in a lower temperature for negligible creep than consideration of the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by creep properties. In assessing the effect of localized cyclic stresses it is also shown that consideration of cyclic softening is an important effect that results in a higher estimated temperature for the onset of significant creep effects than would be the case if the material were cyclically hardening. There are other considerations for the selection of vessel material besides avoiding creep effects. Of interest for this review are (1) the material s allowable stress level and impact on wall thickness (the goal being to minimize required wall thickness) and (2) ASME Code approval (inclusion as a permitted material in the relevant Section and Subsection of interest) to expedite regulatory review and approval. The application of negligible creep criteria to two of the candidate materials, SA533 and Mod 9Cr-1Mo (also referred to as Grade 91), and to a potential alternate, normalized and tempered 2 Cr-1Mo, is illustrated and the relative advantages and disadvantages of the materials are discussed.

  6. THE IMPACT OF MATERIAL AND DESIGN CRITERIA ON THE ASSESSMENT OF NEGLIGIBLE CREEP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sham, Sam [ORNL] [ORNL; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant] [Consultant; Swindeman, Robert W [Consultant] [Consultant

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two of the proposed High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) under consideration for a demonstration plant have the design object of avoiding creep effects during normal operation. The goal of negligible creep could have different interpretations depending upon what failure modes are considered and associated criteria for avoiding the effects of creep. This paper addresses the criteria for negligible creep in Subsection NH of Section III of the ASME B&PV Code, other international design codes and some currently suggested criteria modifications and their impact on permissible operating temperatures for various reactor pressure vessel materials. There are a number of other considerations for the selection of vessel material besides avoiding creep effects. Of particular interest for this review are (1) the material s allowable stress level and impact on wall thickness (the goal being to minimize required wall thickness) and (2) ASME Code approval (inclusion as a permitted material in the relevant Section and Subsection of interest) to expedite regulatory review and approval. The application of negligible creep criteria to two of the candidate materials, SA533 and Mod 9Cr-1Mo, and to a potential alternate, normalized and tempered 2 Cr-1Mo, are illustrated and the relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  7. 380 Solutions Manual x Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition If Y is negligible, drops out also, leaving: .AnsU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    of viscosity. If the exponent n is less than (greater than) unity, the material simulates a pseudoplastic of windmill diameter D, wind velocity V, air density U, windmill height H as compared to atmospheric boundary layer height L, and the number of blades N: : fcn(D, V, U, H/L, N). Viscosity effects are negligible

  8. Reconstructing the WIMP Velocity Distribution from Direct Dark Matter Detection Data with a Non-negligible Threshold Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Chung-Lin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the modification of our expressions developed for the model-independent data analysis procedure of the reconstruction of the (time-averaged) one-dimensional velocity distribution of Galactic Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with a non-negligible experimental threshold energy. Our numerical simulations show that, for a minimal reconstructable velocity of as high as O(200) km/s, our model-independent modification of the estimator for the normalization constant could provide precise reconstructed velocity distribution points to match the true WIMP velocity distribution with a <~ 10% bias.

  9. Assessment of Negligible Creep, Off-Normal Welding and Heat Treatment of Gr91 Steel for Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Terry, Totemeier [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two different topics of Grade 91 steel are investigated for Gen IV nuclear reactor pressure vessel application. On the first topic, negligible creep of Grade 91 is investigated with the motivation to design the reactor pressure vessel in negligible creep regime and eliminate costly surveillance programs during the reactor operation. Available negligible creep criteria and creep strain laws are reviewed, and new data needs are evaluated. It is concluded that modifications of the existing criteria and laws, together with their associated parameters, are needed before they can be reliably applied to Grade 91 for negligible creep prediction and reactor pressure vessel design. On the second topic, effects of off-normal welding and heat treatment on creep behavior of Grade 91 are studied with the motivation to better define the control over the parameters in welding and heat treatment procedures. The study is focused on off-normal austenitizing temperatures and improper cooling after welding but prior to post-weld heat treatment.

  10. Why has spacetime torsion such negligible effect on our universe?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashmita Das; Biswarup Mukhopadhyaya; Soumitra SenGupta

    2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We attempt an answer to the question as to why the evolution of four-dimensional universe is governed by spacetime curvature but not torsion. An answer is found if there is an additional compact spacelike dimension with a warped geometry, with torsion caused by a Kalb-Ramond (KR) antisymmetric tensor field in the bulk. Starting from a Randall-Sundrum type of warped extra dimension, and including the inevitable back reaction ensuing from the radius stabilization mechanism, we show that there is always an extra exponential suppression of the KR field on the four-dimensional projection that constitutes our visible universe. The back reaction is found to facilitate the process of such suppression.

  11. A Simple Technique for Islanding Detection with Negligible Nondetection Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirtley Jr, James L.

    Although active islanding detection techniques have smaller nondetection zones than passive techniques, active methods could degrade the system power quality and are not as simple and easy to implement as passive methods. ...

  12. Surface chemistry : a non-negligible parameter in determining optical properties of small colloidal metal nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Y.; Gray, S. K.; Peng, S. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface chemistry can become pronounced in determining the optical properties of colloidal metal nanoparticles as the nanoparticles become so small (diameters <20 nm) that the surface atoms, which can undergo chemical interactions with the environment, represent a significant fraction of the total number of atoms although this effect is often ignored. For instance, formation of chemical bonds between surface atoms of small metal nanoparticles and capping molecules that help stabilize the nanoparticles can reduce the density of conduction band electrons in the surface layer of metal atoms. This reduced electron density consequently influences the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the metal atoms in the surface layer and, for sufficiently high surface to volume ratios, the overall surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectrum. The important role of surface chemistry is highlighted here by carefully analyzing the classical Mie theory and a multi-layer model is presented to produce more accurate predictions by considering the chemically reduced density of conduction band electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms in nanoparticles. Calculated absorption spectra of small Ag nanoparticles quantitatively agree with the experimental results for our monodispersed Ag nanoparticles synthesized via a well-defined chemical reduction process, revealing an exceptional size-dependence of absorption peak positions: the peaks first blue-shift followed by a turnover and a dramatic red-shift as the particle size decreases. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between surface chemistry and optical properties is beneficial to exploit new applications of small colloidal metal nanoparticles, such as colorimetric sensing, electrochromic devices, and surface enhanced spectroscopies.

  13. Down-regulation of gibberellic acid in poplar has negligible effects on host-plant suitability and insect pest response

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buhl, Christine; Strauss, Steven H.; Lindroth, Richard L.

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Endogenous levels and signaling of gibberellin plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (GA) have been genetically down-regulated to create semi-dwarf varieties of poplar. The potential benefits of semi-dwarf stature include reduced risk of wind damage, improved stress tolerance, and improved wood quality. Despite these benefits, modification of growth traits may have consequences for non-target traits that confer defense against insect herbivores. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, reductions in growth may shift allocation of carbon from growth to chemical resistance traits, thereby altering plant defense. To date, host-plant suitability and pest response have not been comprehensively evaluated in GA down-regulated plants. We quantified chemical resistance and nitrogen (an index of protein) in GA down-regulated and wild-type poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) genotypes. We also evaluated performance of both generalist (Lymantria dispar) and specialist (Chrysomela scripta) insect pests reared on these genotypes. Our evaluation of resistance traits in four GA down-regulated genotypes revealed increased phenolic glycosides in one modified genotype and reduced lignin in two modified genotypes relative to the non-transgenic wild type. Nitrogen levels did not vary significantly among the experimental genotypes. Generalists reared on the four GA down-regulated genotypes exhibited reduced performance on only one modified genotype relative to the wild type. Specialists, however, performed similarly across all genotypes. Results from this study indicate that although some non-target traits varied among GA down-regulated genotypes, the differences in poplar pest susceptibility were modest and highly genotype-specific.

  14. Down-regulation of gibberellic acid in poplar has negligible effects on host-plant suitability and insect pest response

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buhl, Christine; Strauss, Steven H.; Lindroth, Richard L.

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Endogenous levels and signaling of gibberellin plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (GA) have been genetically down-regulated to create semi-dwarf varieties of poplar. The potential benefits of semi-dwarf stature include reduced risk of wind damage, improved stress tolerance, and improved wood quality. Despite these benefits, modification of growth traits may have consequences for non-target traits that confer defense against insect herbivores. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, reductions in growth may shift allocation of carbon from growth to chemical resistance traits, thereby altering plant defense. To date, host-plant suitability and pest response have not been comprehensively evaluated in GAmore »down-regulated plants. We quantified chemical resistance and nitrogen (an index of protein) in GA down-regulated and wild-type poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) genotypes. We also evaluated performance of both generalist (Lymantria dispar) and specialist (Chrysomela scripta) insect pests reared on these genotypes. Our evaluation of resistance traits in four GA down-regulated genotypes revealed increased phenolic glycosides in one modified genotype and reduced lignin in two modified genotypes relative to the non-transgenic wild type. Nitrogen levels did not vary significantly among the experimental genotypes. Generalists reared on the four GA down-regulated genotypes exhibited reduced performance on only one modified genotype relative to the wild type. Specialists, however, performed similarly across all genotypes. Results from this study indicate that although some non-target traits varied among GA down-regulated genotypes, the differences in poplar pest susceptibility were modest and highly genotype-specific.« less

  15. Smart Parking Mangement Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodier, Caroline J.; Shaheen, Susan; Kemmerer, Charlene

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pollution. Although local pol- lution is negligible, they do operate on electricity generated mainly from coal-?

  16. Electric Two-Wheelers in China: Effect on Travel Behavior, Mode Shift, and User Safety Perceptions in a Medium-Sized City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Ma, Chaktan; Yang, Xinmiao; Cherry, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pollution. Although local pol- lution is negligible, they do operate on electricity generated mainly from coal-?

  17. STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING Timothy D. Stark1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Explosives Engineers 2003G Volume 1 - STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING NEGLIGENCE 1 of 15 #12;Copyright © 2003 International Society of Explosives Engineers 2003G Volume 1 - STANDARD OF CARE FOR BLASTING NEGLIGENCE 2 of 15

  18. TEMPLATE DESIGN 2008 www.PosterPresentations.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    these steps are done very quickly (5s) and the heat transfer from the tube to the particle is negligible

  19. Parens Patriae Litigation to Redress Societal Damages from the BP Oil Spill: The Latest Stage in the Evolution of Crimtorts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rustad, Michael L.; Koenig, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    construction and transportation industries in lower Plaquemines Parish Negligence; Strict Liability; Breach of Contract; General Maritime Law; Federal Oil Pollution

  20. Method for reducing ignition delay of fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1984-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reducing ignition delay /tau/, of fuels to negligible values and negligible differences is disclosed. Fuels conditioned to have such negligible values and differences are readily used in multiple fuel engines, such fuels self-ignite substantially instantaneously when injected into an oxidant, require substantially no heat transfer from the oxidant to effect the self-ignition, and the self-ignition is sufficient to sustain continued combustion.

  1. annihilation spectroscopy applied: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the mid-IR spectral Society for Applied Spectroscopy accelerated paper Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared, they could cause damage to biological molecules due to...

  2. applying gamma spectroscopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the mid-IR spectral Society for Applied Spectroscopy accelerated paper Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared, they could cause damage to biological molecules due to...

  3. Particle Contamination on a Thermal Flying-Height Control Slider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Nan; Bogy, David B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the slider, induces a thermophoretic force on particlesforce, the so called thermophoretic force, on a particle’swe show that the thermophoretic force is always negligible

  4. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from geothermal and wind generators is negligible in thebeen so designated. Wind generators have also been used toand total capacity of all wind generator systems in China is

  5. Controlled Rapid Pressurization Using Liquid Propellants for EGS Well Stimulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Investigate the use of non-toxic? or negligible environmental impact liquid propellants for the stimulation of geothermal fields.

  6. A REVIEW OF LIGHT-WATER REACTOR SAFETY STUDIES. VOLUME 3 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NT(NC) NT(NC) NA fluid (negligible flows) Fuel rod thermalThe major of Fluid Test was that tests of fuel and cladding

  7. Secure Program Execution Via Dynamic Information Flow Tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suh, G. Edward

    2003-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple architectural mechanism called dynamicinformation flow tracking that can significantly improve thesecurity of computing systems with negligible performanceoverhead. Dynamic information flow tracking ...

  8. ams herds researcher: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    although a weak emission from the accretion stream could be still present. Cyclotron radiation, usually dominating the V and R bands, is negligible thus corroborating the...

  9. EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER Nl!PA DFTFnIINATION RECIPIENT...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    field basis, biomass removal would have a negligible to minor adverse impact on soil organic mailer content. The recipient https:www.eere-pmc.energy.govINEPA...

  10. Review of the Impacts of Crumb Rubber in Artificial Turf Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Rachel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have contact with crumb rubber synthetic turf is negligible.of cryogenic crumb rubber for synthetic turf. Test resultscrumb rubber. Crumb rubber and synthetic turf have many

  11. The Robust Cold Standby Redundancy Allocation in Series-Parallel ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 17, 2015 ... There is no repair or preventive maintenance. • The replacement time is negligible. According to [10] and [14], for a CSRAP in Fig. 1 under.

  12. all-sky solar irradiance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations...

  13. US DEPARl'lIIENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER Nl...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and information collection activities that are directly related to the conservation of fish or wildlife resources and that involve only negligible habitat destruction or...

  14. El Niño Southern Oscillation Variability from 1871-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Sulagna

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    centered at about 140 degrees W. The strength and frequency of ENSO events have very little trend indicating negligible impact from global warming....

  15. Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Temperature and higher NO 2 :NOx have negligible impact on overall NOx Conversion Biodiesel Near-term Impacts Literature Review "Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Urea...

  16. PREPARED FORTHE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, UNDER CONTRACT DEAC0276CH03073

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasma Physics Laboratory Publications Reports web site Calendar Year 2000. The home PPPL Reports minority ion­cyclotron heating, even though process introduces negligible angular momentum. mechanism ion­cyclotron fast­wave heating raise question since minority ion­cyclotron heating negligible angular

  17. The Melting of Greenland William H. Lipscomb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Born, Andreas

    ). AnAn ice capice cap is a mass of glacier ice smaller than 50,000 kmis a mass of glacier ice smaller is negligibleSurface melting is negligible Antarctic ice thicknessAntarctic ice thickness (British Antarctic of the Greenland iceMuch of the Greenland ice sheet may have meltedsheet may have melted Greenland minimum extent

  18. Proposal for a phase-coherent thermoelectric transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giazotto, F.; Robinson, J. W. A.; Moodera, J. S.; Bergeret, F. S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution since their near perfect electron-hole symmetry leads to a negligible thermoelectric response; however, here we demonstrate theoretically a superconducting thermoelectric transistor which offers unparalleled figures of merit of up to ~ 45...

  19. Three-dimensional diamagnetic particle deflection in ferrofluid microchannel flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xuan, Xiangchun "Schwann"

    , Junjie Zhu, and Xiangchun Xuana) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South) Magnetic field-induced particle manipulation is a promising technique for biomicrofluidics applications through a rectangular microchannel with a nearby permanent magnet. Due to their negligible magnetization

  20. Ionic liquid ion source emitter arrays fabricated on bulk porous substrates for spacecraft propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtney, Daniel George

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic Liquid Ion Sources (ILIS) are a subset of electrospray capable of producing bipolar beams of pure ions from ionic liquids. Ionic liquids are room temperature molten salts, characterized by negligible vapor pressures, ...

  1. DESY 07087 arXiv:0706.2280v1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ ity of current­enhanced SASE schemes (ESASE) recently proposed for LCLS, that fall well­within our calculations for the LCLS case are given in free­space, as if the presence of the undulator were negligible

  2. Investigation of sub-bandgap absorption in iron pyrite : optical and electrical measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Rupak

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate sub-bandgap absorption in pyrite FeS? single-crystals, using both natural and synthetic crystals. Both types of crystals show non-negligible magnitudes of sub-bandgap absorption. To test whether the origin ...

  3. atmospheric assessment system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wind vectors have a positive speed bias of 8.6 ? 3.8 m s ?1, while the quality-controlled wind vectors have a negligible speed bias. From the performance statistics against a...

  4. BIOINFORMATICS Vol. 00 no. 00

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Peter F.

    structures. The sampling of k structures requires only negligible additional memory resources and runs in O and Vogel, 2007) and eukaryotes (McManus and Sharp, 2002; Banerjee and Slack, 2002), the targeting

  5. Injection compression modeling of non-linear positive temperature coefficient circuit protection devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Joseph T., 1978-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymeric self-resettable circuit protection devices have been manufactured for many years with an extrusion based process. These devices add negligible resistance to a circuit at normal power operating conditions but ...

  6. Stable nitrogen isotope measurements of marine bacterial proteins and nucleic acids: tracers of microbial activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovacs, Jeffrey Paul

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable nitrogen isotopes ([]15N) can trace elemental cycling in aquatic ecosystems if the enzyme mediated fractionations associated with nutrient uptake and assimilation are negligible or consistently predictable. In this study, bacterial proteins...

  7. Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in a Landfill-Leachate Plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, E. L.; Cifuentes, L. A.; Cozzarelli, I. M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (?13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its margins. Methane ?13C values increased from about...

  8. Real-Time Adaptive Management of Soil Salinity Using a Receding Horizon Control Algorithm: A Pilot-Scale Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yeonjeong; Harmon, Thomas C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water content, residual water content, an empirical moistureand rinsed with deionized water to remove residual salts.residual salt concentrations were found to be negligible compared to the salt loading in the irrigation water,

  9. PPS-27, 2011, 27 World Congress of the Polymer Processing Society, May 10-14, Marrakech, Morocco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    frequencies. Introduction Nowadays, petrochemical based polymers are associated with a lot of environmental negligible part of the plastics accumulate in the oceans and impact the ecosystems. Biotechnological polymers for various applications in different domains: packaging, medicine, agriculture, textiles... The blending

  10. Ecological Monographs, 83(4), 2013, pp. 419439 2013 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    to global warming WILLY TINNER,1,2,3,11 DANIELE COLOMBAROLI,1,2 OLIVER HEIRI,1,2 PAUL D. HENNE,1,2,3 MARCO human impact was negligible, corroborate the Holocene evidence. Thermophilous Mediterranean A. alba

  11. Commercial Application of a New Formaldehyde-free Wood Adhesive from Renewable Professor Kaichang Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    and a petrochemical-based novel curing agent, polyamidoamine- epichlorohydride (PAE) resin. The price of this PAE goes solely from renewable materials, i.e., requiring negligible amount of petrochemical-based raw materials

  12. Pyrotechnic Modelling for the NSI Driven Pin Puller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reactor: ­ spatial homogeneity ­ time-dependent variables ­ no mass, momentum, or energy diffusion #12 assumed negligible. #12;Mass, Momentum, and Energy Principles Mass Evolution Equations: d dt [sVs] = -s

  13. Geotechnical and environmental impacts on the surface of the water rising in French Underground coal mines after closure.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of these gases in confined areas and premises that are not or poorly ventilated are far from being negligible of gas emissions to the surface or even accumulations in places not or badly ventilated. The various

  14. WATER INFLOW INTO BOREHOLES DURING THE STRIPA HEATER EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is plotted against water extraction rate with temper­ aturei^ H 2 _ -i I Liquid water extraction rate (liters/day) XBLholi? s due to water extraction was negligible because the

  15. Competitive sorption of pyrene and pyridine to natural clay minerals and reference clay standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Lai Man

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -organic interactions were thought to be negligible or nonexistent. Recent studies have shown that the mineral contribution in sorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) has been underestimated. Sorption mechanisms between minerals and PAH are poorly...

  16. Characteristics of Desulfation Behavior for Pre-Sulfated Pt-BaO...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is negligible, in agreement with the results of H2 TPRX. These results suggest that H2S produced by the reduction of BaSO4 is readily re-adsorbed on the ceria support to form...

  17. The role of the geothermal heat flux in driving the abyssal ocean circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mashayek, A.

    The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the geothermal heat flux (GHF) from the solid Earth into the ocean plays a non-negligible role in determining both abyssal stratification and circulation strength. Based ...

  18. K-12 Public Education in the Kansas Courts: 1980-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, Leeann

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    in the number of special education cases shows a need for heightened awareness of state and federal regulations regarding special education requirements. Concerning the increase in negligence cases, school districts may want to ensure that all personnel are well...

  19. Spatial and temporal controls on biogeochemical indicators at the small-scale interface between a contaminated aquifer and wetland surface water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez-Cazull, Susan Enid

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    from three locations exhibiting upward, downward, and negligent hydrologic flow between aquifer and wetland. PCA was used to identify the principal biogeochemical processes and to obtain factor scores for evaluating significant seasonal and hydrological...

  20. american large wind: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    layer of the flow, waves whose phase velocity is equal to the horizontal wind speed have negligible energy. This indicates a nonlocal transfer of their energy to the mean...

  1. Unintentional F doping of SrTiO3(001) etched in HF acid-structure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    growth of complex oxides results in a non-negligible level of F doping within the terminal surface layer of TiO2. Using a combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and...

  2. alte madonie mounts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the bag model also turned out to be negligible. Y. Kanazawa; Yuji Koike; N. Nishiyama 1999-02-18 22 Composite materials in dynamic shipboard structural mounts MIT - DSpace...

  3. AH 18/02/2011 Page 1 of 12 Tech Venture Creation Programme 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrys, Mark

    : applicable to new venture creation Legal structures Liability Negligence, Duty of Care Statutory Regulation is Selling? Selling Technology Products Managing your Sales Pipeline Case Material/Practical Exercises: TBC

  4. Back to the Basics using Developing Technologies JT Land and Cattle LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Back to the Basics using Developing Technologies #12;JT Land and Cattle LLC #12;#12;"Unfavorable;#12;#12;#12;Negligent Management? Resilient Management? #12;Back to the Basics using Developing Technologies #12

  5. MONITORING OF SALT-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS IN POROUS SYSTEMS BY MICROSCOPIC SPECKLE PATTERN INTERFEROMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinsch, Klaus

    MONITORING OF SALT-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS IN POROUS SYSTEMS BY MICROSCOPIC SPECKLE PATTERN porosity distribution, and its negligible humidity expansion. The glass sam- ples, soaked with salt: electronic speckle pattern interferometry, deformation measurement, salt crys- tallization, phase transition

  6. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1293112950, 2014 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/12931/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    ) is negligible (R2 assumption that this factor is associated with fresh pollution mass spectra of fresh diesel exhaust, fuel and lubricating oil also suggests that this factor mainly

  7. Inter-annual variability in phytoplankton summer blooms in the freshwater tidal reaches of the Schelde estuary (Belgium)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    of the Schelde estuary (Belgium) Marie Lionard a,*, Koenraad Muylaert b , Abdel Hanoutti c , Tom Maris d , Miche to be negligible due to the high turbidity of the water (e.g. Uncles and Stephens, 1993). An increase

  8. Dark Energy in the Dark Ages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linder, Eric V.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL- 61876 Dark Energy in the Dark Ages Eric V. LinderUniversity of California. Dark Energy in the Dark Ages Eric2008) Non-negligible dark energy density at high redshifts

  9. Non-uniqueness problem in estimating original gas in place 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Ahmady, Mohamed Hamed

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and a negligence of the effect of a considerable encroaching aquifer that could be thought not to exist. This study shows several examples for synthetic gas reservoir/aquifer systems that are modeled mathematically, then programmed, to simulate...

  10. Multiscale Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulations of the Thermomechanical Response of Polycrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengupta, Arkaprabha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    across ?P and r is the heat supply per unit mass. A heatcumulative macroscopic heat supply per unit volume due toat the microscale so that the heat supply is negligible in

  11. The distribution and diurnal variation of phosphorus in some Texas bays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce, Herbert Ernest

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of these compounds is probably negligible since these compounds are obtained by extraction from nucleo- protein with chloroform (Harvey, 1938). SECTION III DETERMINATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF IONIC PHOSPHATE IN BAFFIN BAY AS TRACED HITH P In an effort...

  12. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed - PIER Final Project Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of these transformers, negligible fault current flowedD Optional Utility Transformer (Sheet 17) K62 Fault bus barphase-to- ground fault due to transformer T51. Gen-set B1

  13. Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming in global temperatures between 5 and 6o C. Although he was aware that his, these were negligible: global fossil fuel consumption was less than a twentieth

  14. brief communications nature methods | VOL.7 NO.12 | DECEMBER2010 | 985

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    angle were 2-24 s. The total X-ray exposure (~109 Gy) produced negligible radiation damage, as we features. Using Fourier optical theory, we calculated that our microscope design should produce a dramatic

  15. Modeling and Design of a Low-Voltage SOI Suspended-Gate MOSFET (SG-MOSFET) with a Metal-Over-Gate Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (CMI), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Switzerland 3 Center of Integrated Systems constant (reported. 1 and negligible inter- modulation distortion, [2-4]. This paper reports on the physical and analytical modeling

  16. Size dependence of transfer free energies: A hard-sphere-chain-based formalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimizu, Seishi

    : the volume-proportional term is shown to be negligibly small. This disproves the basic assumption and binding. A large amount of data on the oil/water partitioning and gas solubility vapor/ liquid

  17. Chapter 1 x Introduction 63 C1.2 When a person ice-skates, the ice surface actually melts beneath the blades, so

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    100 kg, L 30 cm, W 5 mm, and h 0.1 mm. Do you think our assumption of negligible air resistance! It appears that our assumption of negligible air drag was grossly incorrect. C1.3 Two thin flat plates)] Ans. (b) C1.4 Oil of viscosity P and density U drains steadily down the side of a tall, wide vertical

  18. Laser ablation of contaminants from concrete and metal surfaces. Topical report, June--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests have demonstrated that it is possible to clean coatings off surfaces using high-power, pulsed, high-repetition-rate lasers. Purpose of this contract is to demonstrate (1) that pulsed-repetition lasers can be used to remove paint from concrete and metal surfaces, including cleaning out the surface pores, (2) that the cleaning process will result in negligible release of contaminated ablated material to the environment, and (3) that the process generates negligible additional waste compared to competing technologies. This report covers technical progress during Phase 1 of the contract and makes recommendations for technology development in Phase 2.

  19. Final state interactions at the threshold of Higgs boson pair production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhentao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of final state interactions at the threshold of Higgs boson pair production in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model. We consider three major processes of the pair production in the model: lepton pair annihilation, ZZ fusion, and WW fusion. We find that the corrections caused by the effect for these processes are markedly different. According to our results, the effect can cause non-negligible corrections to the cross sections for lepton pair annihilation and small corrections for ZZ fusion, and this effect is negligible for WW fusion.

  20. Volume 55, Number 2, 2001 APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY 1110003-7028 / 01 / 5502-0111$2.00 / 0 q 2001 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society for Applied Spectroscopy accelerated paper Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared; DPPC; Beam; Heating. INTRODUCTION Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive analytical.H.C.) The use of synchrotron sources for infrared (IR) spectromicroscopy provides greatly increased brightness

  1. LATTICE DYNAMICS NUCLEAR RESONANCE ABSORPTION OF GAMMA-RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LATTICE DYNAMICS NUCLEAR RESONANCE ABSORPTION OF GAMMA-RADIATION AND COHERENT DECAY MODES Institut effets de correlation de paires. Abstract. -The cross-section for nuclear resonance absorption of gamma-radiation rksonnante des radiations gamma est en gBneral calculee en negligeant I'influence des phenomknes de coherence

  2. 25480 Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 86 / Wednesday, May 4, 2011 / Rules and Regulations DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be granted if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s­1137­02] RIN 0648­BA14 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Military Training Activities Conducted Within application from the U.S. Navy (Navy), issues regulations to govern the unintentional taking of marine mammals

  3. 32379Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 109 / Tuesday, June 8, 2010 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XW13 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Open Water Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi

  4. 28412 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 93 / Tuesday, May 14, 2013 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XC562 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska

  5. 36730 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 125 / Monday, June 30, 2014 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be granted if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XD210 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a 3D Seismic Survey in Prudhoe Bay, Beaufort Sea

  6. 66106 Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 216 / Thursday, November 6, 2008 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s) and will not have an unmitigable adverse OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XD76 Taking Marine Mammals Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental

  7. 27322 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 90 / Wednesday, May 9, 2012 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XA811 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration Drilling Program in the Chukchi Sea

  8. 21522 Federal Register / Vol. 79, No. 73 / Wednesday, April 16, 2014 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be granted if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XD229 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a Geohazard Survey in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

  9. 35851Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 115 / Friday, June 14, 2013 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XC564 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

  10. 35508 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 113 / Wednesday, June 12, 2013 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XC563 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska

  11. 27308 Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 91 / Wednesday, May 11, 2011 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be granted if NMFS finds that the taking will have a negligible impact on the identified species or stock(s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648­XA216 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking that a Letter of Authorization (LOA) has been issued to the Alaska Aerospace Corporation (AAC) to take two

  12. 75488 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 239 / Thursday, December 12, 2013 / Rules and Regulations Dated: November 25, 2013.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the taking will have a negligible impact on the species or stock(s), will not have an unmitigable adverse Administration 50 CFR Part 217 [Docket No. 100217096­1059­02] RIN 0648­AY63 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea

  13. PA C I F I C C OAS T A N D A L A S K A P E L AG I C F I S H E R I E S Pacific Coast and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    declined due mainly to significant price reductions for fish meal. Low prices and market problems continue (Figure 14-1).The decline of the resource, from a biomass of more than 3,000,000 t in the 1930's. The biomass of sardines remained negligibly low for about 40 years. Since 1986, sardine biomass has increased

  14. Highly Compliant and Self-Tightening Docking Modules for Precise and Fast Connection of Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Wei-Min

    -And-Self-Tightening (CAST) developed as an effective and efficient connector for joining and releasing modules of self using no additional energy for docking and negligible amount of energy for undocking. Development in order to make the process feasible and reliable. For example, docking among locomotives and railroad

  15. Test Pile Reactivity Loss Due to Trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plumlee, K.E.

    2001-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of trichloroethylene in the test pile caused a continual decrease in pile reactivity. A system which removed, purified, and returned 12,000 cfh helium to the pile has held contamination to a negligible level and has permitted normal pile operation.

  16. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C4, supplement au no 8, Tome 47, aoOt 1986

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -segment NaI(TI) sum-crystal arrav) in coincidence with projectile-like fragments detected at 12 deg:1986413 #12;C4-102 JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Since the gamma ray spectra indicated generally small to negligible in heavy ion collisions offer the possibility of delineating the part~alwave dependence of domlnant

  17. EART 265 Lecture Notes: Boundary Layers We're interested here mainly in boundary layers relevant to planets, i.e. those of planetary atmo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    and the surface, thus mediating all interactions between the two. If we look back at the Navier-Stokes equations of a solid (or liquid in the case of gas ows) where diusion is non-negligible. It is characterized by strong then promotes mixing. Outside the boundary layer, uid often mixes only very slowly because turbulence

  18. Three-Dimensional Structure of Electroosmotic Flow over Heterogeneous Surfaces David Erickson and Dongqing Li*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, David

    to be negligible. 1. Introduction Microfluidics can trace its roots back to the development of such devices-driven flow. When a liquid comes into contact with a solid, the formation of an interfacial charge causes and voltage arrangements to enhance species mixing6 or to perform multistage analysis on a chip.7-9 Although

  19. doi: 10.1149/1.2096139 1988, Volume 135, Issue 7, Pages 1822-1824.J. Electrochem. Soc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    to be negligible. 1. Introduction Microfluidics can trace its roots back to the development of such devices-driven flow. When a liquid comes into contact with a solid, the formation of an interfacial charge causes and voltage arrangements to enhance species mixing6 or to perform multistage analysis on a chip.7-9 Although

  20. Reduced xenon diffusion for quantitative lung studythe role of SF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Reduced xenon diffusion for quantitative lung studyÐthe role of SF6 Ross W. Mair,1 * Dominik, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), on 129 Xe NMR and diffusion. We found that the contribution of SF6 to 129 Xe T1 relaxation in a 1:1 xenon/oxygen mixture is negligible up to 2 bar of SF6 at standard temperature

  1. Regional Estimation of Total Recharge to Ground Water in Nebraska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    )over long periods of time when the potential change in ground water storage becomes negligible compared storage other than discharge to streams. One such loss term is evapotranspiration (ET) from ground waterRegional Estimation of Total Recharge to Ground Water in Nebraska by Jozsef Szilagyi1m2,F. Edwin

  2. -Metabolism Part Ill: Lipids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodner, George M.

    in a cell is negligible, almost all of the fatty acids are bound to glycerol by ester linkages. The most reactions oftriacylglycerols is the alkaline hydrolysis of the ester linkage to give glycerol and sodium and Transporl Fats and oilsare broken down to fattyacids and glycerol in the soluble portion of the cytoplasm

  3. Interface instabilities during displacements of two miscible fluids in a vertical pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lajeunesse, Eric

    superposed layers of fluids of different viscosities between two horizontal plates. He showed that the flow analysis of steady concentric flow of two fluids in a vertical circular tube. He considered both asymmetric for diffusive effects to be negligible. For certain viscosity ratios and flow rates, the interface between

  4. Beloin-Saint-Pierre, D., Blanc, I., New spatiotemporally resolved LCI applied to photovoltaic electricity , In Proceedings of the Life Cycle Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of temporal distributions defined in the database. An example of electricity production by a multi that a negligence of temporal considerations can lead, for example, to an underestimation of global warming photovoltaic (PV) electricity production as an example to describe the methodology. 2 Spatiotemporally informed

  5. Answers for Homework Handout for unit 4 Work and Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansell, Edward "Ted"

    the net work is zero: Wapp = mg(y) = 330 J. 4. The spring constant comes from Fapp = k(x); k = (200 N)/(0 doing work are the applied force and gravity, and the net work is zero (constant velocity).] 10 negligible work and can be ignored. The tension force in the arms also does zero work because it is always

  6. In:Safeprocess'09, 7th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes, Barcelona, 2009. ISBN: 978-3-902661-46-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cengarle, María Victoria

    Processes, Barcelona, 2009. ISBN: 978-3-902661-46-3 Post-mortem Diagnosis of Bottling Plants Based-based system that performs post-mortem fault localization of food packaging plants and, more specifically, bottling plants based on recorded data. In this project, we need to cope with non-negligible transportation

  7. Figure 1: Artificially colored image of the plasma produced with a cylindrical lens. The laser travels in the Z-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    -dimension to form a long focus. Progress on Plasma Lens Experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam* P. Kwok2, P. Chen of the supersonic gas jet as the plasma source, and study on focused beam size measurement techniques. Most demonstrate plasma focusing in a setting close to the true high energy collider with negligible induced

  8. On cluster embedding schemes based on orbital space partitioning Ulrich Gutdeutsch, Uwe Birkenheuer, Sven Kruger, and Notker Roscha)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkenheuer, Uwe

    . and a surrounding exter- nal region. The impact of this ``environmental'' region on the central region is considered for this failure which prevents the expected convergence of the calculated results with increasing cluster size as non-negligible, yet of less importance so that it may be represented only approximately to reduce

  9. Identifying and Predicting Timing-Critical Instructions to Boost Timing Speculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    to environmental tem- perature, supply voltage noise, and process variation, which also add a non-negligible energy are of equal importance ­ any one of them could produce a timing violation. Consequently, the impact flagged. The processor initiates a recovery mecha- nism to prevent the errors from affecting

  10. On the origin of intergranular jets V. B. Yurchyshyn1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and mass transport by these tiny events may not be negligible in the energy and mass-flux balance near2 1 Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Big Bear City, CA 92314, USA 2 more numerous than the larger events, leading us to the speculation that the total energy release

  11. Meteorol Atmos Phys 102, 223241 (2008) DOI 10.1007/s00703-008-0329-0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wind profile. The temporal and spatial relationship between the Surface Energy Balance (SEB. In the early morning, the city air becomes 1 C cooler than in the countryside (due to efficient heat storage and building shade on the city urban canopy), then warmer again (1 C) in the afternoon, due to negligible

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Macroscopic Evidence of Thermally Activated Friction with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawyer, Wallace

    [1­3]. These extreme conditions are often the motivation for variable temperature studies Cryogenic tribology Á Polytetrafluoroethylene Á PTFE Á Solid lubrication Introduction There are a number- ical testing. Under conditions where wear, viscoelastic losses, and plastic deformation are negligible

  13. Analysis of Stability and Performance of Adaptation Algorithms with Time-invariant Gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    parameters of linear regression models are investigated. The considered class of algorithms apply linear time adaptation task is to estimate the parameter vector h t in a linear regression y t = ' #3; t h t + v t ; (1 straightforward. Performance analysis in the presence of a non-negligible time- varying feedback is performed

  14. Parametric internal waves in a compressible fluid Kausik S. Das1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Stephen W.

    with the wave motion was as- sumed to be negligible compared to the speed of sound. Here, we allow. It may be possible to observe experimentally near a gas-liquid critical point. PACS numbers: 43.28.+h, 92 parametric waves and that such waves may be experimentally ob- servable near a gas-liquid critical point

  15. Thermal Radiation from Nucleons and Mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan-e Alam; Pradip Roy; Sourav Sarkar

    2003-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal photon emission rates due to meson-nucleon interactions have been evaluated. An exhaustive set of reactions involving p(\\bar p), n(\\bar n), rho, omega, a_1, pi and eta is seen to provide a sizeable contribution to the emission rate from hot hadronic matter. Contributions from baryonic resonances are found to be negligibly small.

  16. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    ice, which incorporates statistical measurements of the brine microstructure. The numerical of the electrical properties of the ice. Since sea ice is a composite of pure ice with brine inclusions [21 conductivity of pure ice is negligible for most purposes, the electrical conductivity of brine can

  17. Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landoll, Michael 1984-

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . Mixtures of calcium carboxylate salts were thermally decomposed at 450 degrees C. Low lime-to-salt ratios (g Ca(OH)2/g salt) of 0.00134 and less had a negligible effect on ketone yield. In contrast, salts with higher lime-to-salt ratios of 0.00461, 0.0190...

  18. NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Dissipative Losses in Nonlinear Internal Waves Propagating across the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, William David

    NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE Dissipative Losses in Nonlinear Internal Waves Propagating across, however, dissipative ef- fects are negligible and the wave may be considered freely propagating. We of an individual wave propagating onto the con- tinental shelf (Fig. 1). In particular, we follow the lead- ing

  19. DRAFT, 8/2/07 List of Key Assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    will be stacked three high. c. Lead used in the shielding can come from DOE inventories, and any radiological component of the lead will be negligible in the context of the radiological characteristics of the inventory containers handled as three packs 5. Hazardous Waste Facility Permit a. The HWFP will require modification b

  20. Lazy Error Detection for Microprocessor Functional Units Mahmut Yilmaz1, Albert Meixner2, Sule Ozev1, and Daniel J. Sorin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorin, Daniel J.

    1 Lazy Error Detection for Microprocessor Functional Units Mahmut Yilmaz1, Albert Meixner2, Sule and evaluate error detection mechanisms for a microprocessor's func- tional units (FUs), such as adders and multipliers. We want our error detectors to have three fea- tures: negligible impact on microprocessor

  1. Off-shell OPERA neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim R. Morris

    2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In the OPERA experiment, superluminal propagation of neutrinos can occur if one of the neutrino masses is extremely small. However the effect only has appreciable amplitude at energies of order this mass and thus has negligible overlap with the multi-GeV scale of the experiment.

  2. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only it without permission. 8-106 8-114 Steam expands in a two-stage adiabatic turbine from a specified state The turbine is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible. 4 The environment temperature is given to be T0

  3. GEOMETRIC SINGULAR PERTURBATION ANALYSIS OF OXIDATION HEAT PULSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schecter, Stephen

    - mation is negligible. Here, we employ a simple model for combustion, which takes into account oil reduction. 1. Introduction In situ combustion is a method of oil recovery that uses a chemical reaction, and oxidation or combustion is induced, a combustion front forms if heat loss to the surrounding rock for

  4. Simulations of Tungsten Powder Experiment at HiRadMat CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Phase:done B. Continuous Dense Phase: done 2.1bar Run57 D. Solid Dense Phase: not done yet Pipeline full Titaniuminnertrough Figure 1. Variation of size distribution for different stirrer p Tungstenpowdersize for experiment 1. Is force propagation through the powder negligible? 2. How severe is beam induced gas expansion

  5. 414 Solutions Manual x Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition Solution: Given 'p fcn(U, V, d/D), then by dimensional analysis 'p/(UV2) fcn(d/D). For

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    /D), then by dimensional analysis 'p/(UV2) fcn(d/D). For water at 20qC, take U 998 kg/m3. For gasoline at 20qC, take U 680 are negligible, estimate the terminal fall velocity at 5000-ft standard altitude of a parachutist using

  6. TIGER:Thermal-Aware File Assignment in Storage Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    energy efficiency of data centers housing storage clusters. Disks have non-negligible thermal impactTIGER:Thermal-Aware File Assignment in Storage Clusters Ajit Chavan, Xunfei Jiang, Mohemmad I/O performance. I. INTRODUCTION Thermal management for power-dense storage clusters can address cooling problems

  7. Naive Filterbots for Robust Cold-Start Recommendations Seung-Taek Park1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madani, Omid

    independent community-driven web sites to e-commerce powerhouses. Once a substantial amount of preference data in cold-start user, cold-start item, and cold-start system settings. Performance is better when data is scarce, per- formance is no worse when data is plentiful, and algorithm efficiency is negligibly affected

  8. Analyzing the Impact of Useless Write-Backs on the Endurance and Energy Consumption of PCM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Youtao

    . This can reduce the static power consumption to negligible levels. The energy required to read data fromAnalyzing the Impact of Useless Write-Backs on the Endurance and Energy Consumption of PCM Main-effective and energy-efficient alternative to traditional DRAM main memory. Due to the high energy consumption

  9. DANE TECHNICAL NOTE INFN -LNF, Accelerator Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)

    of possible high power loss. Another potential danger is creation of dust particles between the sliding of the coupling of the power spectrum lines to the HOMs is not negligible. The power loss in case of the full coupling can be of the order of some thousand watts. In order to estimate the possible power loss we can

  10. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise specified) Domestic Production and Use: Manganese ore containing 35% or more manganese was not produced domestically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    of ore were used for such nonmetallurgical purposes as production of dry cell batteries, as an ingredient Recycling: Scrap recovery specifically for manganese was negligible, but a significant amount was recycled inventory inventory for disposal FY 2001 FY 2001 Battery: Natural ore 103 0.2 103 27 1 Synthetic dioxide 3

  11. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: Manganese ore containing 35% or more manganese was not produced domestically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    purposes as producing dry cell batteries, as an ingredient in plant fertilizers and animal feed Recycling: Scrap recovery specifically for manganese was negligible, but a significant amount was recycled of nonstockpile- grade materials, as follows: 16,400 tons of natural battery ore, 81 tons of chemical ore, and 392

  12. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise specified) Domestic Production and Use: Manganese ore containing 35% or more manganese was not produced domestically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    for such nonmetallurgical purposes as producing dry cell batteries, as an ingredient in plant fertilizers and animal feed Recycling: Scrap recovery specifically for manganese was negligible, but a significant amount was recycled inventories of nonstockpile-grade materials, as follows, in tons: natural battery ore, 16,800; chemical ore

  13. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise specified) Domestic Production and Use: Manganese ore containing 35% or more manganese was not produced domestically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    of ore were used for such nonmetallurgical purposes as production of dry cell batteries, as an ingredient Recycling: Scrap recovery specifically for manganese was negligible, but a significant amount was recycled, as follows, in tons: natural battery, 16,800, and metallurgical, 331,000. Prepared by Thomas S. Jones [(703

  14. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise specified) Domestic Production and Use: Manganese ore containing 35% or more manganese was not produced domestically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    for such nonmetallurgical purposes as producing dry cell batteries, as an ingredient in plant fertilizers and animal feed Recycling: Scrap recovery specifically for manganese was negligible, but a significant amount was recycled of nonstockpile-grade materials, as follows: 16,400 tons of natural battery ore, 81 tons of chemical ore, and 392

  15. RIS0-M-2294 HANDLING OF DEUTERIUM PELLETS FOR PLASMA REFUELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RIS0-M-2294 HANDLING OF DEUTERIUM PELLETS FOR PLASMA REFUELLING P.s. Jensen and V. Andersen Association Euratom - Ris0 National Laboratory Abstract. The use of a guide tube technique to inject pellets in pellet-plasma experiments guide tube on the mass and (v ~ 150 m/s) is negligible. jectories

  16. Joule heating induced by vortex motion in a type-II superconductor Z. L. Xiao and E. Y. Andrei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei, Eva Y.

    Joule heating induced by vortex motion in a type-II superconductor Z. L. Xiao and E. Y. Andrei-II superconductor due to Joule heating induced by vortex motion. The effect of Joule heating is detected s duration, where the Joule heating is negligible and saturates, respectively. The thermometry is based

  17. Synthetic-viability genomic screening defines Sae2 function in DNA repair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puddu, Fabio; Oelschlaegel, Tobias; Guerini, Ilaria; Geisler, Nicola J.; Niu, Hengyao; Herzog, Mareike; Salguero, Israel; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Viré, Emmanuelle; Sung, Patrick; Adams, David J.; Keane, Thomas M.; Jackson, Stephen P.

    2015-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    are led to a model that resolves apparent para- doxes regarding Sae2 and MRX functions, namely the fact that while deletion of either SAE2 or MRE11 causes hypersensitivity to DNA- damaging agents, the resection defect of sae2? strains is negligible...

  18. Scattering of charge carriers in graphene induced by topological defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Fonseca; W. A. Moura-Melo; A. R. Pereira

    2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the scattering of graphene quasiparticles by topological defects, represented by holes, pentagons and heptagons. For holes, we found that at low concentration they give a negligible contribution to the resistivity. Whenever pentagons or heptagons are introduced we realize that a fermionic current is scattered by defects.

  19. MEASURED WINTER PERFORMANCE OF STORM WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problem. From existing data (U. S. Department of Energy 2002) one can estimate that 90% of the present payback of energy savings. Certainly, given the present spectrum of available products, it is difficult. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation. Introduction Over the past

  20. FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER OF ELECTRON FLOW IN SEMICONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Mihir

    = heat, f = LO-mode, g = LO, h = LA-mode, i = negligible, j = remote heat sink 7/ 70 #12;Heat conductionFLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER OF ELECTRON FLOW IN SEMICONDUCTORS Mihir Sen Department · Shallow water analogy · Vorticity dynamics · Linear stability analysis · Numerical simulations of heat

  1. 500 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2006 ELF Radar System Proposed for Localized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Jamesina J.

    500 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2006 ELF Radar System frequency (ELF), finite difference time domain (FDTD), ionospheric disturbances, radar, remote sensing. I to be of sufficiently low power to have negligible heating or any other effects upon the ionospheric anomaly.) Employing

  2. Abstract--While the connectivity, sensing, and computational capabilities of today's smartphones have increased, congestion in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    to pollution in the air. In a traditional pollution monitoring system, a handful of sites across a region of pollution with error of maximum 0.5 ppm, a negligible amount for the application of interest. Index Terms of interest are carefully selected for the deployment of air quality monitoring equipment [3]. However

  3. Solar proton events in cosmogenic isotope data Ilya G. Usoskin,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Solar proton events in cosmogenic isotope data Ilya G. Usoskin,1 Sami K. Solanki,2 Gennady A March 2006; published 27 April 2006. [1] A possible contribution of solar energetic particle events to the production of cosmogenic 10 Be and 14 C in the atmosphere is studied. The solar particle effect is negligible

  4. Magnetic dipole transition rates from measured lifetimes of levels of Be-like and B-like argon ions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moehs, D. P.; Church, David A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    level is rapidly depopulated by E1 transitions to the ground level. The 2s2p 3P2 level also decays to the lower 3P levels by E2 transi- tions, but at negligible rates for Ar XV, and by an M2 transition to the 2s2 1S0 ground level with a calculated...

  5. Journal of Law Temperature Physics. Vol. 117. Nos. 112, 1999 Excitations Beyond the Roton of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    4 He in Aerogel R. T. Azuah,1 H. R. Glyde,2 J. R. Beamish,3 and M. A. Adams4 1 Department of Physics% porous aerogel has been measured by inelastic neutron scattering methods. The aerogel was grown with deuterated materials and the multiple scattering involving the aerogel was negligible. S(Q, w) in the super

  6. A Multi-axis Compact Positioner with a 6-coil Platen Moving Over a Superimposed Halbach Magnet Matrix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Vu Huy

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    and the magnetic flux densities sensed by the Hall-effect sensors. A new discrete PID-like controller is proposed and tested. For the step responses with the step sizes within 1000 micrometers, the overshoots and the steady state errors are negligible. The achieved...

  7. Warmstarting the Homogeneous and Self-Dual Interior Point Method ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    negligible computational cost. This is a ... Department of Management Science and Engineering ... A problem often incurred, however, is a relatively costly .... generating the hsd-model is by construction a feasible point for the problem, so ...... Here, ¯r denotes the mean of observed historical realizations of r and R is the

  8. STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    pastoral care as well as teaching Take positive steps to promote students well-being Ensure the health students to make contact with their GP or local mental health services. The Duty of Care and Negligence1 STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH POLICY Revised January 2013 #12;2 A. INTRODUCTION 1. Context Widening

  9. Energy Harvesting Communications with Hybrid Energy Storage and Processing Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Energy Harvesting Communications with Hybrid Energy Storage and Processing Cost Omur Ozel Khurram with an energy harvesting transmitter with non-negligible processing circuitry power and a hybrid energy storage for energy storage while the battery has unlimited space. The transmitter stores the harvested energy either

  10. Offshore Coastal Wind Speed Gradients: issues for the design and development of large offshore windfarms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, Sara C.

    -situ and remote sensing data from offshore wind farms in Denmark, are used to examine both horizontal and vertical the area of the wind farm appear to be small and negligible. 1. INTRODUCTION As large offshore wind farmsOffshore Coastal Wind Speed Gradients: issues for the design and development of large offshore

  11. ISSN 1754-5692 Environmental Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    hydrogen production www.rsc.org/ees Volume 3 | Number 8 | August 2010 | Pages 981­1136 Downloadedby short of the $15% photovoltaic efficiency predicted from simple considerations.8,9 In particular (AM) 1.5 Global (G) solar illumination to electrical energy with negligible photovoltaic response from

  12. Trawling Operations and South African (Cape) Fur Seals, Arctocepha/us pusillus pusil/us

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Wickens is with the Marine Biology Re search Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South, but this is negligible (0.3%) in terms ofthe value ofthe fishery. Seal mortality is mainly caused by drown ing in trawl are deliberately killed annually, but this most likely takes place only when caught and they enter the area below

  13. Rotary pneumatic valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotary pneumatic valve which is thrust balanced and the pneumatic pressure developed produces only radial loads on the valve cylinder producing negligible resistance and thus minimal torque on the bearings of the valve. The valve is multiplexed such that at least two complete switching cycles occur for each revolution of the cylinder spindle.

  14. Journal of Counter-Ordnance Technology (Sixth International Sym um on Technology and Mine Problem, NPS, 10-13 Uncertainty in Acoustic Mine Detection Due to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Peter C.

    alternative to nuclear submarines. Technological advancements in battery design have resulted in higherJournal of Counter-Ordnance Technology (Sixth International Sym um on Technology and Mine Problem advantage of nuclear submarines is negligible to these countries. Mines come in a multitude of variations

  15. Experimental validation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change default values for ruminant-derived

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    conversion rate (Ym; Tier 2 method), describing the percentage of gross feed energy lost as CH4. The IPCC the highest CH4 conversion rate (Ym 7.9%). Negligible amounts of CH4 were emitted from slurries stored at low enrichment factors eCO2-CH4 for maize (33.2) and hay (35.9). Compared with the Intergovernmental Panel

  16. Figure 1. (a) Various contact angles of water droplets on hydrophilic surface terminated by OH after standard cleaning 1 (SC1) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    SAM converge; (b) SEM images of SWNTs grown on substrate shown in (a) after catalyst dip-coating. High a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is both simple and nondestructive.5 In addition, the theoretically perfect flatness of a SAM makes the topography-induced effect negligible. Figure 1a shows the profiles

  17. Electrical Integrity of MOS Devices in Laser Annealed 3D IC Structures B. Rajendran, R. S. Shenoy, M. O. Thompson1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pease, R. Fabian W.

    MOS Capacitors on the lower level. It is found that there is negligible dopant diffusion in the lower and then aligning and bonding the thinned wafers and interconnecting the different levels with deep metal vias [2. This was achieved by putting an absorber layer comprising of a refractive metal like Titanium above an isolation Si

  18. Optimal Sensitivity Based on IPOPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this case the vapor molar hold up is assumed negligible. ... In this last section, we consider the capabilities of sIPOPT for recovery of reduced ..... process units, where IPOPT solves a nonlinear program in background and sIPOPT provides.

  19. GAUSSIAN CONVERGENCE FOR STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION OF N PARTICLES IN THE DENSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in law to a Wiener process, in the limit of a dense wave spectrum with independent complex amplitudes The author. Reproduction of this article, in its entirety, for noncom- mercial purposes is permitted. Date], including (i) the non-relativistic regime of Coulomb plasmas, where magnetic fields are negligible ; (ii

  20. SUBJECT: Employee Hazard Communication 1.0 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and protect employees of the School. 2.0 POLICY The Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) establishes rules for safety in the workplace. One of these rules is called the "Hazard with safety rules is a condition of employment and negligence or willful disregard of the supervisor

  1. Ratcheting up energy by means of measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Schulman; B. Gaveau

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The destruction of quantum coherence can pump energy into a system. For our examples this is paradoxical since the destroyed correlations are ordinarily considered negligible. Mathematically the explanation is straightforward and physically one can identify the degrees of freedom supplying this energy. Nevertheless, the energy input can be calculated without specific reference to those degrees of freedom.

  2. 2.2 SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION MODELING OF SPRABERRY CORES USING A FINITE DIFFERENCE SCHEME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    that equation numerically by using a semi-implicit method. Baker and Wilson (1997) used a "black oil" DRS Ver. 3 of the spontaneous imbibition equation. The objectives of this study were to simulate and to understand is negligible. In other words, no countercurrent oil flow exists. Knowing this weakness, they used equations

  3. WAVENUMBER EXPLICIT ANALYSIS OF A DPG METHOD FOR THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL HELMHOLTZ EQUATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, Jay

    discontinuous Petrov Galerkin (DPG) method for acoustic wave propagation. The method yields Hermitian positive exhibits negligible phase errors (otherwise known as pollution errors) even in the lowest order case is to track down pollution errors and gain a better understanding of how they originate. These errors are well

  4. CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and the Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science + MINES ParisTech, CERNA Empirical Policy and their international diffusion on a global scale. Statistics suggest that innovation has mostly been driven by energy economies is far from being negligible as China and South Korea together represent about 15% of total

  5. Fermion dispersion in axion medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Mikheev; E. N. Narynskaya

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of a fermion with the dense axion medium is investigated for the purpose of finding an axion medium effect on the fermion dispersion. It is shown that axion medium influence on the fermion dispersion under astrophysical conditions is negligible small if the correct Lagrangian of the axion-fermion interaction is used.

  6. Axion-medium effect on fermion dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikheev, N. V., E-mail: mikheev@uniyar.ac.ru; Narynskaya, E. N., E-mail: elenan@uniyar.ac.r [Yaroslavl State University (Russian Federation)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of fermions with a dense axion medium is considered with the aim of studying the effect of the axionmediumon fermion dispersion. It is shown that, if use is made of a correct Lagrangian for axion-fermion interaction, the effect of a dense axion medium on fermion dispersion is negligible under real astrophysical conditions.

  7. Comparative study of blood flow in microbore glass tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosley, Jane Sloan

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to penetrate the cell membrane rapidly, its effect on the osmolarity of the solution is negligible (Bessie and Weed, 1969). The ratio of cellular volume to fixative volume was 1:20. The cells were stored in the fixative at 4 0 for one hour. 2...

  8. Ultrashort pulse laser machining of metals and alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention consists of a method for high precision machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of metals and alloys. By using pulses of a duration in the range of 10 femtoseconds to 100 picoseconds, extremely precise machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. Because the pulses are so short, there is negligible thermal conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond approximately 0.1-1 micron (dependent upon the particular material) from the laser machined surface. Due to the short duration, the high intensity (>10.sup.12 W/cm.sup.2) associated with the interaction converts the material directly from the solid-state into an ionized plasma. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces with negligible redeposition either within the kerf or on the surface. Since there is negligible heating beyond the depth of material removed, the composition of the remaining material is unaffected by the laser machining process. This enables high precision machining of alloys and even pure metals with no change in grain structure.

  9. Modeling Transient Slag-Layer Phenomena in the Shell/mold Gap in Continuous Casting of Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    with oil lubrication, powder(/slag) lubrication leads to more uniform and usually lower heat transfer.[5-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams, the models are applied to study the effect of casting speed and mold-powder viscosity. The study finds that liquid-slag lubrication would produce negligible stresses. A lower mold

  10. Meng, Y. and B.G. Thomas, Metall. & Materials Trans. B, Vol. 34B, No. 5, Oct. 2003, pp. 707-725. MODELING TRANSIENT SLAG LAYER PHENOMENA IN THE SHELL/MOLD GAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    ;3 Compared with oil lubrication, powder(/slag) lubrication leads to more uniform and usually lower heat are applied to study the effect of casting speed and mold powder viscosity properties on slag layer behavior lubrication would produce negligible stresses. Lower mold slag consumption rate leads to high solid friction

  11. Construction of microfluidic chips using polydimethylsiloxane for adhesive Hongkai Wu, Bo Huang and Richard N. Zare*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Construction of microfluidic chips using polydimethylsiloxane for adhesive bonding{ Hongkai Wu, Bo exists only at the contact area of the two surfaces with a negligible portion exposed to the microfluidic channel. This method is demonstrated by bonding microfluidic channels of two representative soft materials

  12. An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world Rosemarie Yevich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    and Latin America, respectively. Agricultural waste supplies about 33% of total biofuel use, providing 39%, 29%, and 13% of biofuel use in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and 41% and 51% of the biofuel use.9Pg C (as CO2) from burning of biofuels and field residues together is small, but non-negligible when

  13. Correlation of photon pairs from the double Raman amplifier: Generalized analytical quantum Langevin theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Scully, Marlan O.; Sun, Qingqing; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with the results using the equations of Balic et al., while perfect agreement is obtained for sufficiently large detuning. We also compute the reverse correlation G(sa)((2)) which turns out to be negligibly small and remains classical while the cross correlation...

  14. Trip Report Apologies for long report. Geophysical boundary conditions must be considered in defining a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    ) are uncertain. Expert opinion suggests that we are now close to "peak oil", i.e., remaining oil is about as much of unconventional fossil fuels (tar shale, tar sands) remained negligible, atmospheric CO2 would peak at 400-425 ppm

  15. Climate Change and the Nuclear Wedge Climate change frames the issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    base-load electric power with negligible CO2 emissions." http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/mailings/2008 Efficiency & Conservation (4) CO2 Capture & Storage (3) Stabilization Triangle Renewable Fuels & Electricity power plant lifetime Population control #12;90% fossil 40% electricity 21% U.S. (5% population) Energy

  16. Climatic Change manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    use · trade · coal · computable general equilibrium · CO2 emissions 1 Introduction Coal is an abundant- dioxide (CO2) emissions (EIA, 2013). In a "business as usual" (BAU) future K. Daenzer Pennsylvania State burning of fossil fuels to meet electricity demands with negligible net release of CO2 to the atmosphere

  17. Methods Note/ Net Recharge vs. Depth to Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    of Nebraska, United States by Jozsef Szilagyi1,2 , Vitaly A. Zlotnik3 , and Janos Jozsa4 Abstract One, evapotranspiration (ET)-estimation results based on MODIS values (e.g., Mu et al. 2011; Senay et al. 2011; Szilagyi assessment (Senay et al. 2011; Szilagyi et al. 2011b, 2012). For areas with negligible overland flow due

  18. Information >> Game Dates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Paul A.

    foreseen or unforeseen. I hereby release Bowling Green State University, its employees, agents by the negligence of Bowling Green State University, its employees, agents and representatives harmless from any N. Mercer Road, Bowling Green, OH 43403 Department of Recreation and Wellness - Division of Student

  19. ReleasePARENT/GUARDIAN/ADULT PARTICIPANT: PLEASE COMPLETE THE RELEASE AS INDICATED BELOW.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Paul A.

    hereby release Bowling Green State University, and the BGSU Ice Arena program, its employees, agents by the negligence of Bowling Green State University, its employees, agents and representatives. I further agree to indemnify and hold Bowling Green State University, its employees, agents and representatives harmless from

  20. Department of Recreation and Wellness -Division of Student Affairs ReleasePARENT/GUARDIAN/ADULT PARTICIPANT: PLEASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Paul A.

    desire to enroll myself/my child in 2012/2013 Bowling Green State University Recreation and Wellness 3-On release Bowling Green State University, and the BGSU Ice Arena 3-On-3 Hockey program, its employees or not caused by the negligence of Bowling Green State University, BGSU 3-On-3 Hockey, its employees, agents

  1. 417 North Mercer road, BowliNg greeN, oh 43403

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Paul A.

    in 2013/2014 Bowling Green State University Ice Arena Youth Hockey Program. I certify that I am cognizant or property, whether foreseen or unforeseen. I hereby release Bowling Green State University, and the BGSU Ice or suit of any kind sustained, whether or not caused by the negligence of Bowling Green State University

  2. Why are Web Browsers Slow on Smartphones? Felix Xiaozhu Lin,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    of optimization, our measurement and analysis show that their improvement will only lead to marginal performance- trast, prior work [2-4] assume resource loading contributes neglig- ible delay, which is not true, the browser loading procedure and the processing power of the smartphone. Our results agree with the findings

  3. Presented at the 31 IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference, Orlando Florida, January 3-7 2005.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    . QUANTUM DOT INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL MATERIAL SYSTEMS WITH NEGLIGIBLE VALENCE BAND OFFSETS Michael Y and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, 19716-3130, USA 3 Instituto de Energia Solar - ETSIT, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid, Spain ­ EU

  4. DOI 10.1007/s10546-005-7772-y Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2006) 118: 477501 Springer 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radial velocity measurements on a 6-km radius area in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere. Thus the urban effects appear to be negligible. Keywords: Atmospheric boundary layer, Doppler lidar, Numerical the Marseille area are compared to the Doppler lidar data, for which the spatial res- olution is comparable

  5. Gravitational dispersion in a torsional wave machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael de la Madrid; Alejandro Gonzalez; George Irwin

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that mechanical waves traveling in a torsional, mechanical wave machine exhibit dispersion due to gravity and the discreteness of the medium. We also show that although the dispersion due to discreteness is negligible, the dispersion due to gravity can be easily measured, and can be shown to disappear in a zero-gravity environment.

  6. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 22592270, 2007 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/2259/2007/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    calculated the diffuse radiation in the umbra and simulated the changing colours of the sky. Radiance a comparatively small im- pact on the radiation in the umbra. We also estimated the contribution of the solar corona to the radiation under the umbra and found that it is negligible compared to the diffuse solar

  7. Enhancing Nanoparticle Electrodynamics with Gold Nanoplate Zijie Yan, Ying Bao, Uttam Manna, Raman A. Shah, and Norbert F. Scherer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    to reflect (near-)infrared laser beams with negligible distortion. We demonstrate enhanced optical trapping nanoparticles near the nanoplate surface in dark-field microscopy. More importantly, enhanced optical trapping a single laser beam and its reflection from individual Au nanoplates. The enhancement of the interparticle

  8. Perturbation dynamics of a planktonic ecosystem Katherine Healey1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monahan, Adam Hugh

    , the contribution of aggregation is negligible. 1 #12;1. Introduction Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves waters, and more recently have been embedded in global climate models. While the equilibrium properties it into particulate organic carbon (POC). A portion of this POC, denoted exported carbon, eventually reaches the deep

  9. Heidelberg University Institute of Environmental Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, Kurt

    geothermal gradient (red line) is 0.014 K m-1 . The deviation from the mean temperature (green sym- bols, the fluctuations become negligible and the tem- perature profile is dominated by the geothermal heat flux which results from the cooling of the Earth's core and from radioactive decay. It amounts to some 0.05 W m-2

  10. 1 INTRODUCTION In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a radioactive waste repository in claystone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . The influence of damage on the creep behaviour was highlighted by simulating: (a) a multi-stage creep test is not activated; (c) from creep tests, simultaneous measurement of axial and lateral strains shows that volumetric strains are negligible; (d) in the phase corresponding to the secondary creep for long term tests,

  11. Collision Avoidance in Depth Space I. INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    ; compute distances between the obstacles and the robot; optionally project the results in the CartesianCollision Avoidance in Depth Space I. INTRODUCTION When humans and robots share the same work space, safety is the primary issue of concern [8]. Secondary but not negligible is to prevent robot damages due

  12. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROBUST AND NONLINEAR CONTROL Int. J. Robust Nonlinear Control 8, 965--977 (1998)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    --977 (1998) DECOUPLING AND FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION OF ROBOTS WITH MIXED RIGID/ELASTIC JOINTS ALESSANDRO DE for rigid link robots having some joints rigid and some with non-negligible elasticity. We start from the reduced model of robots with all joints elastic introduced by Spong, which is linearizable by static

  13. Optical Networks Moray McLaren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Splitters Low cost VCSELs randomly polarized Negligible beam-walk off 11% NPPBS ­ 15 layers of SiO2/TiO2 to metal walls Low numerical aperture Prop delay 33psec/cm Air core Ag clad (n, k) = (0.15+i 5.68) w =150

  14. A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U NSTX Upgrade Project Risk& Opportunity Registry, rev 22 9/11/2013 R21 Revisions shown in blue. VL= 90% L= 60% U= 25% VU= 5%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    these areas early with site surveys and as-builts Jun-2014 Titus open VU Negligible Low manager's experience= 25% VU= 5% R22 Revisions shown in pink. 86 Project Manager's Updated Number Affecte d Job Job Title Risk Description Mitigation Plan Corrective Action if Risk Occurs (task id if appl) Deadline to Retire

  15. SelfConfiguring Heterogeneous Server Clusters Taliver Heath y , Bruno Diniz yz , Enrique V. Carrera y , Wagner Meira Jr. z , and Ricardo Bianchini y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Ricardo

    Horizonte, Brazil ftaliver,vinicio,ricardobg@cs.rutgers.edu fdiniz,meirag@dcc.ufmg.br Abstract Previous consume 29% less energy than an energy­ oblivious server, with only a negligible loss in throughput. The results also show that our server conserves more than twice as much energy as an energy­conscious server

  16. Test, 27-302, Friday, Nov. 22nd Q1. [20 points

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollett, Anthony D.

    a diagram if you can. A1. (a) Military transformations require larger driving forces because the temperature nucleation occurs along the triple lines between grain boundaries. Assume that nuclei occur at a high enough density on the triple lines that the precipitates join up in a negligible amount of time

  17. COLE POLYTECHNIQUE Dpartement de gnie physique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meunier, Michel

    depth of the electromagnetic wave in the material is given by : 2 . Reminder : Generalized Ampere's Law : t D JH Faraday's Law : B E t Skin depth : 1 Re k où k . #12;Examen général de synthèse - Partie L and of negligeable mass. The gravitational field is vertically oriented downward and constant

  18. Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube pn diode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perebeinos, Vasili

    of up to 1,000, and resulting in zero threshold current, negligible self-heating and high carrier and Phaedon Avouris1 * Electrically driven light emission from carbon nanotubes1­8 could be used in nanoscale electric fields and currents have either been necessary for electroluminescence4­8 , or have been an unde

  19. Dynamic and Quasi-static Measurements of PBXN-5 and Comp-B Geoffrey W. Brown1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    steel changes negligibly. Molybdenum grease was used to lubricate the sample ends. Samples were tested at Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conference June 1-4, 2009 Albuquerque New Mexico USA ©2009 Society frame (MTS model 880). Specimens were compressed between polished tungsten carbide platens lubricated

  20. August 31, 2000 1 EE371: Advanced VLSI Circuit Design David Harris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, David Money

    August 31, 2000 1 EE371: Advanced VLSI Circuit Design David Harris Interconnect Delay Modeling delay (ps/µm) as a function of process parameters at the optimal sizing. First order analysis We begin is negligible · Inverters are sized for equal rise and fall times (faster results may be possible with unequal

  1. 2-Source Extractors Under Computational Assumptions and Cryptography with Defective Randomness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard

    that for any distribution X {0, 1}n with (n) min-entropy, a circuit of size poly(nlog n ) cannot invert f(X), except with negligible probability. A concrete candidate may be the exponentiation function, over Grant CCF-0634811 and THECB ARP Grant 003658-0113-2007. §Institute for Advanced Study, arao

  2. 2Source Extractors Under Computational Assumptions and Cryptography with Defective Randomness #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard

    that for any distribution X # {0, 1} n with# n) min­entropy, a circuit of size poly(n log n ) cannot invert f(X), except with negligible probability. A concrete candidate may be the exponentiation function, over by NSF Grant CCF­0634811 and THECB ARP Grant 003658­0113­2007. § Institute for Advanced Study, arao

  3. Recycling flows in eMergy evaluation: A Mathematical Paradox? N.Y. Amponsah, O. Le Corre1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 Recycling involving recycling or reuse of waste. If waste exergy (its residual usefulness) is not negligible, wastes could serve as input to another process or be recycled. In cases of continuous waste recycle or reuse

  4. Figure 2: The mercury jet target geometry. The proton beam and mercury jet cross at z=-37.5 cm.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    that the meson production loss is negligible (beta functions of 0.3m or greater. ENERGY DEPOSITION by the focusing of the proton beam. The energy deposition in the capture system is determined and the shielding. These muons are first produced by focusing a proton beam on to a liquid mercury target, where low-energy pions

  5. 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim COMMUNICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    lifetimes greater than 3­4 years. Here we present a detailed operating lifetime study of encapsulated solar and degradation of bulk heterojunction solar cells (BHJs) based on poly(para-phenylene vinylene) (PPV)[8 when state-of-the-art encapsulation with a glass-on-glass architecture is used.[16] Assuming negligible

  6. LAPP-EXP-2006-03. LAPP -9 Chemin de Bellevue -BP 110 F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux CEDEX -FRANCE Tel : (33) (0) 4 50 09 16 00 --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Their influence was found to be negligible to contribute to the optical transmission radiation damage in lead tungstate low dose rate radiation damage behaviour E. Auffraya , A. Borisevichb , G. Drobychevc , V Saint Odile, 29-31 March, 2006. Abstract Shallow traps influence the radiation damage behaviour of lead

  7. AN IMPROVED CRITERION FOR NEW PARTICLE FORMATION IN DIVERSE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to test the validity of Lg as an NPF criterion. Measurements included aerosol size distributions down to 3 the probability that a nucleated particle will grow to a detectable size before being lost by coagulation with the pre-existing aerosol. Cluster-cluster coagulation was shown to contribute negligibly to this survival

  8. Blood lead concentrations in a remote Himalayan population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piomelli, S.; Corash, L.; Corash, M.B.; Seaman, C.; Mushak, P.; Glover, B.; Padgett, R.

    1980-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The lead content in the air at the foothills of the Himalayas in Nepal was found to be negligible. The concentration of lead in the blood of 103 children and adults living in this region was found to average 3.4 micrograms per deciliter, a level substantially lower than that found in industrialized populations.

  9. Desorption efficiencies of toluene and n-butanol in an organic vapor monitor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heaney, Mary Ann

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (contained within the quiescent layer inside the dosimeter); that the collection effic'ency of the adsorbent is unity, and; that the effects of the monitor wa' ls are negligible. (~~ ~ ~-) The term D(A/L) i. , tho samplin- rate for the contaminant...

  10. Stability of ZnMgO oxide in a weak alkaline solution E. Diler1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -dissolution of ZnO is negligible: indeed, both processes reduce significantly the efficiency of photocatalysisO sample. This alloy, thus, constitutes an alternative to the use of ZnO in photocatalysis applications cells, photodetectors, light emitting diodes, magnetic storage and photocatalysis. In some cases, Zn

  11. Chemistry 593: Stirling's Formula David Ronis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronis, David M.

    Chemistry 593: Stirling's Formula © David Ronis McGill University There is a simple way to obtain) Winter, 2014 #12;Chemistry 593 -2- Stirling's Formula which implies that ln(x!)x ln(x) - x + ln[(2 x)1/2 ]. (4') Clearly, for xO(1023 ), the last logarithm is negligible, and the simple form of Stirling

  12. The low-frequency sound speed of fluid-like gas-bearing sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Preston S.

    /s with negligible dispersion between 100 and 400 Hz. The sediment's void fraction and bubble size distribution these and other similar studies, the various models for sound propagation in gassy sediments8­10 have gone largelyThe low-frequency sound speed of fluid-like gas-bearing sediments Preston S. Wilson Applied

  13. Editors: Matt Bishop, bishop@cs.ucdavis.edu Deborah A. Frincke, deborah.frincke@pnl.gov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cyberthreat T he penetration of US national security by foreign agents as well as American citizens is a historical, negligent use of classified data, fraud, unauthor ized access to sensitive informa tion, and illicit to access an organization's infor mation system, data, or network; such authorization implies a de gree

  14. Mathematical Model for Mixing Reactants in a Capillary Microreactor by Transverse Diffusion of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krylov, Sergey

    . The theory uses a single simplifying assumption that the longitudinal diffusion is negligible; this assumption is readily satisfied. We then develop a numerical model of TDLFP and use it to simulate. These requirements can be met by confining the nanoliter-volume reaction mixture in a microfabricated well,5 oil drop

  15. Chemical Engineering Science 61 (2006) 74217435 www.elsevier.com/locate/ces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emulsification vessel is used to generate volume size distribution data under the assumption of negligible drop includes validation of the self-similar assumption. The errors considered include measurement noise, data hydrophobic drugs are encapsulated in oil-in-water emulsions and delivered to patients via oral administration

  16. Contribution of quark-mass-dependent operators to higher twist effects in deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H. [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We look at the contribution of quark-mass-dependent twist-4 operators to the second moments of spin-averaged structure functions and the Bjorken sum rule. Its contribution is non-negligible in the former case due to large Wilson coefficients. We also discuss the values of the twist-4 spin-2 nucleon matrix element within present experimental constraints.

  17. Int. J. Inf. Secur. DOI 10.1007/s10207-007-0042-x

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Michael

    ,24,25,35] have substantially lowered the bar for launching massive distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks unwittingly joining the zombie fleet--given the negligible interference of the DDoS tools on the compromised] and crafted attacks that drive the data structures used in a service imple- mentation into their worst-case

  18. July 28, 2000 Taxes and Quotas for a Stock Pollutant with Multiplicative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    for a non-negligible period. For these pollutants, the environmental damage at a point in time depends of information can occur regardless of whether environmental damages are associated with flows or stocks.4. All these papers conclude that (i) a steeper marginal environmental damage curve, or a flatter

  19. Search for gravitational waves from binary black hole inspiral, merger and ringdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; M. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; R. Adhikari; P. Ajith; B. Allen; G. S. Allen; E. Amador Ceron; R. S. Amin; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; F. Antonucci; M. A. Arain; M. C. Araya; M. Aronsson; Y. Aso; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; D. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; T. Ballinger; S. Ballmer; D. Barker; S. Barnum; F. Barone; B. Barr; P. Barriga; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; B. Behnke; M. G. Beker; A. Belletoile; M. Benacquista; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; S. Birindelli; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; C. Boccara; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; S. Bose; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; M. Boyle; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; R. Budzy?ski; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet-Castell; O. Burmeister; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; J. Cain; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; E. Campagna; P. Campsie; J. Cannizzo; K. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. Capano; F. Carbognani; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglia`; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; O. Chaibi; T. Chalermsongsak; E. Chalkley; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; S. Chelkowski; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; D. Clark; J. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; J. -P. Coulon; D. M. Coward; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; R. M. Culter; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; K. Dahl; S. L. Danilishin; R. Dannenberg; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; K. Das; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; M. Davier; G. Davies; A. Davis; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; M. del Prete; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; P. Devanka; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Díaz; A. Dietz; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; E. E. Doomes; S. Dorsher; E. S. D. Douglas; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; J. Dueck; J. -C. Dumas; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; G. Ely; R. Engel; T. Etzel; M. Evans; T. Evans; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Y. Fan; B. F. Farr; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. Flaminio; M. Flanigan; K. Flasch; S. Foley; C. Forrest; E. Forsi; L. A. Forte; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. Fulda; M. Fyffe; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; J. A. Garofoli; F. Garufi; M. E. Gáspár; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; I. Gholami; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; C. Gill; E. Goetz; L. M. Goggin; G. González; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Greverie; R. Grosso; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; B. Hage; P. Hall; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. -F. Hayau; T. Hayler; J. Heefner; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; E. Hirose; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; D. Hoyland; D. Huet; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; T. Huynh-Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; P. Jaranowski; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; G. Jones; R. Jones; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; J. B. Kanner; E. Katsavounidis; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; H. Kim; P. J. King; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; V. Kondrashov; R. Kopparapu; S. Koranda; I. Kowalska; D. Kozak; T. Krause; V. Kringel; S. Krishnamurthy; B. Krishnan; A. Królak; G. Kuehn; J. Kullman; R. Kumar; P. Kwee; M. Landry; M. Lang; B. Lantz; N. Lastzka; A. Lazzarini; P. Leaci; J. Leong; I. Leonor; N. Leroy; N. Letendre; J. Li; T. G. F. Li; N. Liguori; H. Lin; P. E. Lindquist; N. A. Lockerbie; D. Lodhia; M. Lorenzini; V. Loriette; M. Lormand; G. Losurdo; P. Lu; J. Luan; M. Lubinski; A. Lucianetti; H. Lück; A. D. Lundgren; B. Machenschalk; M. MacInnis; M. Mageswaran; K. Mailand; E. Majorana

    2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first modeled search for gravitational waves using the complete binary black hole gravitational waveform from inspiral through the merger and ringdown for binaries with negligible component spin. We searched approximately 2 years of LIGO data taken between November 2005 and September 2007 for systems with component masses of 1-99 solar masses and total masses of 25-100 solar masses. We did not detect any plausible gravitational-wave signals but we do place upper limits on the merger rate of binary black holes as a function of the component masses in this range. We constrain the rate of mergers for binary black hole systems with component masses between 19 and 28 solar masses and negligible spin to be no more than 2.0 per Mpc^3 per Myr at 90% confidence.

  20. Earth's Inner Core dynamics induced by the Lorentz force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasbleis, M; Cardin, P; Labrosse, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seismic studies indicate that the Earth's inner core has a complex structure and exhibits a strong elastic anisotropy with a cylindrical symmetry. Among the various models which have been proposed to explain this anisotropy, one class of models considers the effect of the Lorentz force associated with the magnetic field diffused within the inner core. In this paper we extend previous studies and use analytical calculations and numerical simulations to predict the geometry and strength of the flow induced by the poloidal component of the Lorentz force in a neutrally or stably stratified growing inner core, exploring also the effect of different types of boundary conditions at the inner core boundary (ICB). Unlike previous studies, we show that the boundary condition that is most likely to produce a significant deformation and seismic anisotropy is impermeable, with negligible radial flow through the boundary. Exact analytical solutions are found in the case of a negligible effect of buoyancy forces in the inne...

  1. Effects of liquid helium bubble formation in a superconducting cavity cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, X.; Wang, E.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We constructed a simple prototype model based on the geometry of the 56 MHz superconducting cavity for RHIC. We studied the formation, in this prototype, of bubbles of liquid helium and their thermal effects on the cavity. We found that due to the low viscosity of the liquid helium, and its small surface tension, no large bubbles formed. The tiny bubbles, generated from most of the area, behaved like light gas travelling in a free space and escaped from the trapping region. The bubbles that were generated in the trapping area, due to its descending geometry, are much bigger than the other bubbles, but due to the liquid flow generated by heating, they still are negligible compared to the size of the trapping region. We expected that the effects of bubbles in our 56 MHz cavity during operation might well be negligible.

  2. A study of flow in stratified reservoirs by use of the thermal analogy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickering, Charles William

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Uren discussed the possible significance of this nonuniformity in his f927 paper on the theoretical aspects of waterflooding, Since this time the problem of vertical permeability variations has been the subject of much discussion and numerous papers... calculations are steady-state flow conditions, unit znobility ratio, linear geometry, average or homogeneous porosity and negligible capillary pressure and gravity effects. 3 Stiles uses these assumptions to derive his waterflood equa- tions and keep...

  3. Axial clad strain behavior of sphere-pac fuel pins 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, James Kelly

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quantitative di f f er ences exist. 17 CHAPTER III STEADY STATE MODELING Introduction This section descr ibes the analytic model developed to predict the axial shear load bearing capacity of a packed particle bed. The goal of this model development... par ticle beds. 36 CHAPTER IV VIBRATIONAL EXPERIMENTS Introduction The model developed in the previous chapter provides a method to predict the axial shear load bearing capacity of a packed particle bed under negligible vibr ation conditions...

  4. "Dark energy" as conformal dynamics of space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Burlankov

    2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The exact solution for dynamic of conform-flat space homogeneous since dynamic equation is given. Conform mode of space metric changing in Global time theory has negative energy density. Swap of energy to this mode from another ones lead to increasing of Universe homogeneity although probability of this swap from local objects is negligibly small. Conform mode is corresponding to "dark energy" in observation astronomy.

  5. Absolute Source Activity Measurement with a Single Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bikit, I.; Nemes, T.; Mrdja, D.; Forkapic, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 4, 21 000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper the activity of {sup 60}Co source was measured using the full absorption, sum and random coincidences (pile up) peaks and the total spectrum area in the gamma spectra. By the exact treatment of the chance coincidence and pile-up events, surprisingly good results were obtained. With the source on the detector end-cap (when the angular correlation effects are negligible), this simple method yields absolute activity values deviating from the reference activity for about 1 percent.

  6. 264 Solutions Manual x Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition Solution: (a) Write the steady flow energy equation from top to bottom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    exiting the tube is negligible because of the low velocity (0.36 m/s). 3.139 The horizontal pump in Fig. P264 Solutions Manual x Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition Solution: (a) Write the steady flow energy g g ggd D D P D U U U Noting that, in a tube, Q VSd2/4, we may eliminate V in favor of Q

  7. The environmental management of a ship channel-harbor complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reavis, Marvin William

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ports EPA Guidelines for Dredge Spoils Environmental Impact Information Required by the EPA to Obtain a Permit to Dredge General Ouality of Surface Runoff From Rural Non Point Discharges Summary of Storm Water Runoff (juality Data 18 22... is contaminated, the cost of disposal area or right-of-way may be prohibitive. Harm (12) found that the decay rate of undesirable materials in sediment in the Houston Ship Channel was negligible. He predicted no improvement in the outlook for future dredging...

  8. The fluctuation induced Hall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, W.; Prager, S.C.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fluctuation induced Hall term, [le][approximately][ovr J] [times] [approximately][ovr B][ge], has been measured in the MST reversed field pinch. The term is of interest as a possible source of current self-generation (dynamo). It is found to be non-negligible, but small in that it can account for less than 25% of the dynamo driven current.

  9. The fluctuation induced Hall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, W.; Prager, S.C.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fluctuation induced Hall term, {le}{approximately}{ovr J} {times} {approximately}{ovr B}{ge}, has been measured in the MST reversed field pinch. The term is of interest as a possible source of current self-generation (dynamo). It is found to be non-negligible, but small in that it can account for less than 25% of the dynamo driven current.

  10. Infrared thermography of a hot air/CO?b2 ?saxisymmetric jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordge, Dennis Noel

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -band absorption constant (Appendix C) Planck's constant isotherm value ratio of specific heats (CgC?) wide-band absorption constant (Appendix C) optical length (Appendix C) wide-band absorption constant (Appendix C) Mach number molecular weight (Appendix C..., compressed air and dry bottled CO, . Some water vapor may have been entrained by the jet from the ambient surroundings but this amount is assumed negligible compared to the mass of the jet. Therefore the effects of water vapor emissions and absorptions...

  11. Comparison of computation methods for CBM production performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mora, Carlos A.

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    . Jensen and Smith?s method assumes the gas stored in the cleat system is negligible (no water saturation effects). Papers by David and Law7, Hower8, and Jalal and Shahab9 showed how numerical compositional simulators with additional features can be used... Study for Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery Processes, Part I: Carbon Dioxide Injection,? paper SPE 75669 presented at the 2002 SPE Technology Symposium, Calgary, 30 April-2 May. 8. Hower, T.L.: ?Coalbed Methane Reservoir Simulation: An Envolving...

  12. Large-scale optimal power flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papalexopoulos, A.D.; Imparato, C.F.; Wu, F.F.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive numerical testing of a second-order OPF solution method was conducted using a 1500 bus network under various loading conditions. The results show that (i) properly implemented second-order OPF solution methods are robust with respect to different starting points, (ii) the decoupled OPF solution is expected to be close to the full OPF solution, and (iii) the effects of discretization of load tap changing (LTC) transformer taps are very small and usually negligible.

  13. Minimizing the consequences of rolling blackouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haslem, J.R. (Mayer, Brown and Platt, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article examines the potential political and legal consequences of rolling blackouts. Those situations under which utilities have been previously determined to be negligent are examined in order to provide ideas for avoiding those situations. Examples of legal decisions for accidental blackouts are also examined. Steps to minimize the political consequences of rolling blackouts are outlined including preparation for responding to questions regarding the situation.

  14. An economic analysis of commerical catfish production in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jambers, Toby Harold

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Texas were personally enumerated i n an effort to insure accurate data . Prominent areas of catfish production were located and total acreage and pond size distribution were determined. Based on relative homogeneity, Texas was divided into six... regions, two of which had negligible production and were therefore not included in the analysis. Texas was also divided into a northern and southern region. In addition, the operations in Texas were divided into size categories where size I was composed...

  15. On Doppler tracking in cosmological spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteo Carrera; Domenico Giulini

    2006-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a rigorous derivation of the general-relativistic formula for the two-way Doppler tracking of a spacecraft in Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker and in McVittie spacetimes. The leading order corrections of the so-determined acceleration to the Newtonian acceleration are due to special-relativistic effects and cosmological expansion. The latter, although linear in the Hubble constant, is negligible in typical applications within the Solar System.

  16. Antimicrobial packaging system for optimization of electron beam irradiation of fresh produce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jaejoon

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . These films can control microbial contamination by reducing the growth rate and maximum growth population, as well as extending the lag period of the target microorganism, and therefore should help to prolong the product shelf life and maintain its safety... with 4 low-dose electron beam irradiation (1-3 kGy) provides a synergistic preservative effect, and therefore one can ensure the microbial safety of minimally processed leafy vegetables with negligible quality loss. The specific objectives are: 1...

  17. Inflation for Bianchi IX model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Bergamini; P. Sedici; P. Verrocchio

    1996-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of Inflation on initial (i.e. at Planck's epoch) large anisotropy of the Universe is studied, considering a more general metric than the isotropic one: the locally rotationally symmetric (L.R.S.) Bianchi IX metric. We find, then, a large set of initial conditions of intrinsic curvature and shear allowing an inflationary epoch that make the anisotropy negligible. These are not trivial because of the non-linearity of the Einstein's equations.

  18. Preliminary investigaton of electromagnetic pulse effects on commercial nuclear power plant systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Strawe, D.F.; Sandberg, S.J.; Jones, V.K.; Rensner, G.D.; Shoup, R.W.; Hanson, R.J.; Williams, C.B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study arrived at the following preliminary conclusions: Diffusion fields inside Seismic Class I buildings are negligible. EMP signal entry points are identifiable. Signal attenuation and distribution can be reasonably modeled. Damage thresholds are substantial for the components (C. 1970) examined. Predicted EMP signals at the critical equipment are less than, or equal to, nominal operating levels. The selected safe shutdown systems examined will not be damaged by EMP.

  19. Achievement and Opportunity Gaps in Mathematics Education in Turkey Compared to European Union Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yetkiner, Zeynep 1978-

    2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    in the study. On the other hand, in Bulgaria, Lithuania, Italy, and Sweden more equitable percentages of poor and wealthy students were taught by qualified mathematics teachers. In another TIMSS 2003 secondary analysis by Caceres (2009), which was conducted... at the individual teacher level as opposed to the national level analyses by Akiba et al., there were negligible correlations between the classroom mean SES and teacher quality in Romania and Sweden at the eighth-grade level. Because Turkey did not participate...

  20. The variability of fly ash and its effects on selected properties of fresh Portland cement/fly ash mortars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKerall, William Carlton

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the needed quality control of concrete . Another source of concern results from the recent development of lignite and sub-bituminous coal as fuel sources. The ash produced from these coals is of a different chemical composition than traditional bituminous... 50 percent to greater than 200 percent of a control test. An exhaustive literature review has revealed neglig1ble information concerning the PAI of sub- b1tuminous and lignite ashes. Research is greatly needed to determine the ash properties...

  1. Self-pumping impurity control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Jeffrey N. (Darien, IL); Mattas, Richard F. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for removing the helium ash from a fusion reactor having a D-T plasma comprises a helium trapping site within the reactor plasma confinement device, said trapping site being formed of a trapping material having negligible helium solubility and relatively high hydrogen solubility; and means for depositing said trapping material on said site at a rate sufficient to prevent saturation of helium trapping.

  2. Origin of the inflationary Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Barvinsky; A. Kamenshchik; C. Kiefer

    1999-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a consistent description of how the inflationary Universe emerges in quantum cosmology. This involves two steps: Firstly, it is shown that a sensible probability peak can be obtained from the cosmological wave function. This is achieved by going beyond the tree level of the semiclassical expansion. Secondly, due to decoherence interference terms between different semiclassical branches are negligibly small. The results give constraints on the particle content of a unified theory.

  3. Numerical simulation of the non-isothermal developing flow of a nonlinear viscoelastic fluid in a rectangular channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikoleris, Teo

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid in a Rectangular Channel (December 1988) Teo Nikoleris, B. S. , Reed College Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. R. Darby An orthogonal collocation finite element program was used to numerically model the hydrodynamicslly and thermally... in negligible increase of Nw~ ~?. Also, the approach of Chang and Finlayson [6], [7] who applied orthogonal collocation finite elements in conjunction with bicubic Hermitian polynomials to approximate various viscoelastic flow problems, also met with little...

  4. Fracture toughness of the IEA heat of F82H ferritic/martensitic stainless steel as a function of loading mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huaxin; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States); Hirth, J.P. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mode I and mixed-mode I/III fracture toughness tests were performed for the IEA heat of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic stainless steel F82H at ambient temperature in order to provide comparison with previous measurements on a small heat given a different heat treatment. The results showed that heat to heat variations and heat treatment had negligible consequences on Mode I fracture toughness, but behavior during mixed-mode testing showed unexpected instabilities.

  5. Implications of Super-Kamiokande atmospheric low-energy data for solar neutrino oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Giunti; C. W. Kim; U. W. Lee; V. A. Naumov

    1999-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the high-Delta m^2 part of the large mixing angle MSW solution of the solar neutrino problem is disfavored by the Super-Kamiokande data for low-energy upward-going events. A quantitative bound is obtained in the three-neutrino scheme with a negligibly small element U_{e3} of the neutrino mixing matrix, as indicated by the result of the CHOOZ long-baseline antinu_e->antinu_e oscillation experiment.

  6. High-speed Laser Micromachining with Copper Bromide Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balchev, I I; Minkovski, N I; Sabotinov, N V; Balchev, Ivaylo I.; Kostadinov, Ivan K.; Minkovski, Nikolai I.; Sabotinov, Nikola V.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the copper bromide (CuBr) laser as an attractive tool in the micro-machining of different materials has been demonstrated. High-quality drilling by trepanning and precision cutting was established on several materials with a negligible heat-affected zone (HAZ). That good performance was a result of the combination of high power visible radiation, short pulses, and close to the diffraction-limited laser beam quality with high-speed galvo scanner beam steering.

  7. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    . Assumptions 1 This is a steady-flow process and thus the mass flow rate of dry air remains constant during energy changes are negligible. Properties The inlet and the exit states of the air are completely the psychrometric chart (Figure A-31) to be airdry/kgm905.0 airdryO/kgHkg0292.0 airdrykJ/kg8.106 3 1 21 1 v h

  8. A study of flow in stratified reservoirs by use of the thermal analogy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickering, Charles William

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be considered as having negligible slope indicating a constant diffusivity. Having the measured diffusivities of several layered systems, it was desired to find a satisfactory method for calculating the dif- fusivities oi' the same systems. In doing so, two... Two Metals on Diffusivity. 32 A and B-The Change in Temperature Differential Across a Layered System. TAB LES Physical Properties of Some Metals, Alloys, and Rubbe r. 38 Comparison of Calculated and Experimental Diffusivitie s. 39 ABSTRACT A...

  9. Oxidation of propylene in the presence of catalysts containing copper compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodham, John Frank

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : lo Homogeneity of catalyst mass. 2. Reproducibility of catalytic properties. 3. Negligible catalytic activity toward the formation of organic compounds other than carbonyl compounds. o h Minimum formation of compounds other than acrolein, carbon... hydrocarbons are available in the theses and dissertations of Sanderson (3F ) , Looney (26), Burns (6)P Dunlop (9)? Woodham (45), Perkins (30)j and Billingsley (4)0 In order to avoid repetition of the material covered in the exhaustive surveys presented...

  10. Inertial currents in the Caribbean Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saylor, James H

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conveniently by applying boundary layer analysis to the vortlcity equation. Munk' s circulation theory divides naturally into two primary regions. I) An interior region in which the lateral-stress terms are negligible and ln which, for zonal winds... of the Problem The problem studied is that of the westward intensification of the wind-driven ocean circulation ln the Caribbean Sea, A rectangular sea is envisaged as representative of the Caribbean Sea with the eastern end in communication with the Atlantic...

  11. Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

  12. Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duggan, Ruth [SNL

    2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

  13. Main effects of the Earth's rotation on the stationary states of ultra-cold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayeul Arminjon

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The relativistic corrections in the Hamiltonian for a particle in a uniformly rotating frame are discussed. They are shown to be negligible in the case of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) in the Earth's gravity. The effect, on the energy levels of UCN, of the main term due to the Earth's rotation, i.e. the angular-momentum term, is calculated. The energy shift is found proportional to the energy level itself.

  14. Location of Leaks in Pressure Testable Direct Burial Steam Distribution Conduits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sittel, M. G.; Messock, R. K.

    are ~xcavated for repair. We have successfully used this system at several locations, and in a variety of soil conditions. Tracer gas leak testing provides an effective and inexpensive method to evaluate underground conduit systems. Performed on a regular... containing all equipment to accomplish the testing is also described. ~iAACERGAS Sulfur hexaflouride (SF6) has been chosen as a tracer gas because: a) it is chemically inert, non-toxic, and has negligible pollution potential; b) it is highly...

  15. Comparison of radiological dose pathways for tank farm accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1996-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This calculation note documents an evaluation of the doses from submersion and ground shine due to a release of tank farm radioactive materials, and a comparison of these doses to the doses from inhalation of the materials. The submersion and ground shine doses are insignificant compared to the inhalation doses. The doses from resuspension are also shown to be negligible for the tank farm analysis conditions.

  16. 1) Laura Secord was making solid spherical cannon balls of radius R for General Brock during the war of 1812. She placed three of them on her smooth level floor. Each was in contact with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    of the above. 8 , f i ~ e n d c M Corn/- Cam, 45a4-3p k c d -* #12;2) A rigid metal pipe packed with recycled as point masses, all collisions are elastic, and air resistance is negligible. Find the ratio hllhz, where uses identical bulbs connectedto a 12 V battery as shown, list the bulbs in order of increasing

  17. Isotope Ratio Triangulation: A Method for Determining Uranium Isotope Ratios and Application to the Search for Uranium Isotope Anomalies in the Mineral Titanite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Joseph Roger

    2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    and the small mass difference between 238U and 235U, mass-dependent fractionation in high- temperature geologic systems (e.g., magmatic and regional metamorphic settings) was previously thought to be negligible (Stirling, Andersen, Potter, et al. 2007). Recent... by a change in oxidation state, this type of fractionation is density dependent and mass independent (Stirling, Andersen, Potter, et al. 2007, Stirling, Andersen, Warthmann, et al. 2007). Brennecka et al. (2010) showed that uranium deposited in low...

  18. A simplified procedure for estimation of mixture permeances from unary permeation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, Rajamani; van Baten, Jasper M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Maxwell–Stefan (M–S) diffusion equations as a basis, we derive simple analytic expression for the estimation of component permeances of mixtures across micro- and mesoporous membranes on the basis of unary permeation data. The analytic procedure uses two simplifying assumptions: (1) downstream pressures are negligibly small in comparison to upstream pressures, and (2) adsorption equilibrium within the pores can be described by Henry law coefficients. Two limiting scenarios are considered in estimating the M–S exchange coefficients, Ð{sub ij}: (1) correlations negligible, and (2) correlations dominant. In the correlations negligible scenario, the permeances of each component in the mixture equal that of the corresponding pure components. For the correlations dominant scenario, the permeances in the mixture are significantly different from the pure component values; the differences being dictated not only by mobilities of the species within the pores, but also by the adsorption equilibrium. The results of this study underlines the strong influence of diffusional correlations on the mixture permeances and permeation selectivities.

  19. Environmental Effects for Gravitational-wave Astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrico Barausse; Vitor Cardoso; Paolo Pani

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The upcoming detection of gravitational waves by terrestrial interferometers will usher in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. This will be particularly true when space-based detectors will come of age and measure the mass and spin of massive black holes with exquisite precision and up to very high redshifts, thus allowing for better understanding of the symbiotic evolution of black holes with galaxies, and for high-precision tests of General Relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. Such ambitious goals require that astrophysical environmental pollution of gravitational-wave signals be constrained to negligible levels, so that neither detection nor estimation of the source parameters are significantly affected. Here, we consider the main sources for space-based detectors -- the inspiral, merger and ringdown of massive black-hole binaries and extreme mass-ratio inspirals -- and account for various effects on their gravitational waveforms, including electromagnetic fields, cosmological evolution, accretion disks, dark matter, "firewalls" and possible deviations from General Relativity. We discover that the black-hole quasinormal modes are sharply different in the presence of matter, but the ringdown signal observed by interferometers is typically unaffected. The effect of accretion disks and dark matter depends critically on their geometry and density profile, but is negligible for most sources, except for few special extreme mass-ratio inspirals. Electromagnetic fields and cosmological effects are always negligible. We finally explore the implications of our findings for proposed tests of General Relativity with gravitational waves, and conclude that environmental effects will not prevent the development of precision gravitational-wave astronomy.

  20. Loss of particles through a clad breach in a simulated sphere-pac fuel pin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunderland, Dion Julian

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fault . '" suff ic' ently low so as to be negligible. Fur i herr;or . , thc loss potential for spher e-pac pins after the initial approach to power appe. r s to be no differ ent than for pellet pins. ACKNOWLEDGENENTS The author would like... f illed with the lar ge splier e fr action Rig 3 loaded with both large and small spheres, standing in its containment basin 12 Close-up view of the fixed cnack in Rig 2, shown with the segmented plug in place 1 3 Close-up view of the variable...

  1. Model for l/f Flux Noise in SQUIDs and Qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roger H. Koch; David P. DiVincenzo; John Clarke

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a model for 1/f flux noise in superconducting devices (f is frequency). The noise is generated by the magnetic moments of electrons in defect states which they occupy for a wide distribution of times before escaping. A trapped electron occupies one of the two Kramers-degenerate ground states, between which the transition rate is negligible at low temperature. As a result, the magnetic moment orientation is locked. Simulations of the noise produced by randomly oriented defects with a density of 5*10^17 m^-2 yield 1/f noise magnitudes in good agreement with experiments.

  2. K0 photoproduction on the deuteron and the extraction of the elementary amplitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Salam; K. Miyagawa; T. Mart; C. Bennhold; W. Gloeckle

    2006-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The photoproduction of K0 on the deuteron has been investigated with the inclusion of YN and KN final-state interaction (FSI), as well as the pion-mediated process gamma d --> pi NN --> KYN. The YN rescattering effects for the inclusive cross section are found to be large in the threshold regions. Polarization observables show sizable FSI effects at larger kaon and hyperon angles. It is shown that the extraction of the elementary gamma N --> KY amplitude is possible in the quasi-free scattering region where FSI effects are negligible. Furthermore, the cross sections in this region are large, indicating that measurements in this kinematical region are favored.

  3. Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements IncorporatingSolar Assisted Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

    2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper expands on prior Berkeley Lab work on integrated simulation of building energy systems by the addition of active solar thermal collecting devices, technology options not previously considered (Siddiqui et al 2005). Collectors can be used as an alternative or additional source of hot water to heat recovery from reciprocating engines or microturbines. An example study is presented that evaluates the operation of solar assisted cooling at a large mail sorting facility in southern California with negligible heat loads and year-round cooling loads. Under current conditions solar thermal energy collection proves an unattractive option, but is a viable carbon emission control strategy.

  4. Radiative $?_{Q}^{*}\\rightarrow?_{Q}?$ and $?_{Q}^{*}\\rightarrow?^{\\prime}_{Q}?$ transitions in light cone QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. M. Aliev; K. Azizi; H. Sundu

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments associated with the radiative $\\Omega_{Q}^{*}\\rightarrow\\Omega_{Q}\\gamma$ and $\\Xi_{Q}^{*}\\rightarrow\\Xi^{\\prime}_{Q}\\gamma$ transitions with $Q=b$ or $c$ in the framework of light cone QCD sum rules. It is found that the corresponding quadrupole moments are negligibly small while the magnetic dipole moments are considerably large. A comparison of the results on the considered multipole moments as well as corresponding decay widths with the predictions of the vector dominance model is performed.

  5. An ultra-thin diamond membrane as a transmission particle detector and vacuum window for external microbeams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakši?, M. [Division of Experimental Physics, Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)] [Division of Experimental Physics, Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pomorski, M. [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)] [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Kada, W. [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Iwamoto, N.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)] [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Several applications of external microbeam techniques demand a very accurate and controlled dose delivery. To satisfy these requirements when post-sample ion detection is not feasible, we constructed a transmission single-ion detector based on an ultra-thin diamond membrane. The negligible intrinsic noise provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and enables a hit-detection efficiency of close to 100%, even for energetic protons, while the small thickness of the membrane limits beam spreading. Moreover, because of the superb mechanical stiffness of diamond, this membrane can simultaneously serve as a vacuum window and allow the extraction of an ion microbeam into the atmosphere.

  6. Relativistic Point Coupling Model for Vibrational Excitations in the Continuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ring, P.; Daoutidis, J. [Physics Department Technical University Munich, 85748 Garching (Germany); Litvinova, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An implementation of the relativistic random phase approximation with the proper treatment of the continuum has been developed for the relativistic point coupling model and applied to investigate collective excitations in spherical nuclei. The results are compared with the spectral implementation of the same model. In heavy nuclei, where the escape width is negligible, we find an excellent agreement between both methods in the region of giant resonance and some discrepancies in the region of low-lying pygmy resonance. The differences are more pronounced in light nuclei due to the larger values of the escape widths.

  7. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  8. A study of W(+)W(?)? events at LEP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Graham Wallace; OPAL Collaboration; Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Å kesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.

    2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    of strahlung from the W-pairs (WSR), and the im- ntation of O(?) electroweak NL corrections. e KORALW program [8] is used to simulate the round from four-fermion final states which are patible with coming from the decays of two W- s (e.g., e+e? ? qq¯µ+µ?? ). e... two-fermion background processes, e+e? ? ? qq¯ and e+e? ? Z0/? ? ?+??, are sim- using KK2F [19]. The background in the ?? event selection from multi-peripheral two- n diagrams was found to be negligible. addition, the RacoonWW program [5] is used...

  9. Submarine diagenesis in Lower Cretaceous coral-rudist reefs, Mural Limestone, southeastern Arizona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Scott Lewis

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon isotope values (d 3C? = 2. 5 '/ ) and a 0. 3X Mg enrichment over original low-Mg calcite rudi st shells support the interpretation of these peloidal features as former Mg-calcite submar1ne cements. Primary porosity in the reef core was neglig1... for selected reef-rock components. . 68 73 82 28 Mg vs. Ca f' or selected reef-rock components. . . 84 29 Graph of the oxygen isotopic equilibrium relationship between temperature, calcite, and water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 30 Chart of cement...

  10. The elastic anisotropy of marble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gebhard, Susan Nash

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on acoustic anisotropy in marble has been shown to be negligable in four naturally-deformed samples. Compressional-wave velocities in each of the samples were calculated from the single crystal elastic constants of calcite and the orien- tat1ons... thanks to my husband, Fred Tubb, for his patience and support. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant OCN 7817919 and Office of Naval Research contract N-00014- 80-0-0013. To my mother and father, for al1...

  11. One-shot rates for entanglement manipulation under non-entangling maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Nilanjana Datta

    2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain expressions for the optimal rates of one- shot entanglement manipulation under operations which generate a negligible amount of entanglement. As the optimal rates for entanglement distillation and dilution in this paradigm, we obtain the max- and min-relative entropies of entanglement, the two logarithmic robustnesses of entanglement, and smoothed versions thereof. This gives a new operational meaning to these entanglement measures. Moreover, by considering the limit of many identical copies of the shared entangled state, we partially recover the recently found reversibility of entanglement manipu- lation under the class of operations which asymptotically do not generate entanglement.

  12. Computational methods for solving the algebraic eigenvalue vector problem for real symmetric matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowling, Maurice John

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be improved by detecting off-diagonal elements which are negligible to machine accuracy. If such an element is present, it can be set equal to zero and the matrix de-couples or splits into the direct sum of smaller tridiagonal submatrices. The eigenvalues... -6. 7933040 -3. 2062270 0. 3407565 3. 7684130 7. 0000090 9. 9640010 12. 5934900 14. 8299100 16. 6233500 17. 9337300 18. 7320400 16. 6231300 16. 6232700 17. 9336700 17. 9337400 18. 7318800 18, 7319400 -28. 7319000 -27. 9336500 -26...

  13. Can a spectator scalar field enhance inflationary tensor mode?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomohiro Fujita; Jun'ichi Yokoyama; Shuichiro Yokoyama

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the possibility of enhancing the inflationary tensor mode by introducing a spectator scalar field with a small sound speed which induces gravitational waves as a second order effect. We analytically obtain the power spectra of gravitational waves and curvature perturbation induced by the spectator scalar field. We found that the small sound speed amplifies the curvature perturbation much more than the tensor mode and the current observational constraint forces the induced gravitational waves to be negligible compared with those from the vacuum fluctuation during inflation.

  14. Higgs boson decay to mu mubar gamma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Abbasabadi; Wayne W. Repko

    2000-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Higgs boson decay, H -> mu mubar gamma, is studied in the Standard Model at the tree and one-loop levels. It is shown that for Higgs boson masses above 110 GeV, the contribution to the radiative width from the one-loop level exceeds the contribution from the tree level, and for Higgs boson masses above 140 GeV, it even exceeds the contribution from the tree level decay H -> mu mubar. We also show that the contributions to the radiative decay width from the interference terms between the tree and one-loop diagrams are negligible.

  15. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT #s 46000606120, 46000722120, AND 46000808120

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot #s 46000706120, 46000722120, and 460008081120 qualification and verification samples met each of the selected specification requirements that were tested with the exception of a few pails being marginally below the lower weight percent solids limit. These deviations from the specifications are viewed as negligible since the corresponding density of the slurries indicates no appreciable shortage of MST solids. Therefore, SRNL recommends acceptance and use of these pails.

  16. Collective Langevin Dynamics of Flexible Cytoskeletal Fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francois Nedelec; Dietrich Foethke

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a numerical method to simulate mechanical objects in a viscous medium at a scale where inertia is negligible. Fibers, spheres and other voluminous objects are represented with points. Different types of connections are used to link the points together and in this way create composite mechanical structures. The motion of such structures in a Brownian environment is described by a first-order multivariate Langevin equation. We propose a computationally efficient method to integrate the equation, and illustrate the applicability of the method to cytoskeletal modeling with several examples.

  17. Contribution of the Reaction Ny-]Nnk to Antikaon Production in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Che Ming.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy spectrum can also be understood qualitatively. ' There is another process NY ?+NNK which may also contribute to the production of antikaons in heavy-ion collisions. Since the threshold energies for this process are -455 MeV and -635 MeV for Y...=X and Y=A, respectively, and are larger than those for the process m Y?+KN, which are ?120 MeV and -215 MeV for Y=X and Y=A, respectively, one might intuitively think that the contribution from the reaction NY~NNK is negligible. To ensure...

  18. Radiation in Lorentz violating electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Montemayor; L. F. Urrutia

    2004-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron radiation is analyzed in the classical effective Lorentz invariance violating model of Myers-Pospelov. Within the full far-field approximation we compute the electric and magnetic fields, the angular distribution of the power spectrum and the total emitted power in the m-th harmonic, as well as the polarization. We find the appearance of rather unexpected and large amplifying factors, which go together with the otherwise negligible naive expansion parameter. This opens up the possibility of further exploring Lorentz invariance violations by synchrotron radiation measurements in astrophysical sources where these amplifying factors are important.

  19. Unruh radiation: from black holes to elementary particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahar Hod

    2005-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We advocate the idea that Unruh's quantum radiation, whose theoretical discovery was originally motivated by the physics of black holes, may have important implications on the structure and dynamics of elementary particles. To that end, we analyze the Unruh radiation effect experienced by an accelerated particle in atomic and nuclear systems. For atomic systems, the effect is negligible as compared to the characteristic energy of the system. On the other hand, it is found that a quark inside a nucleon may experience Unruh radiation whose energy is of the same order of magnitude as the quark's own mass.

  20. Monolithic interconnected module with a tunnel junction for enhanced electrical and optical performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Wilt, David M. (Bay Village, OH)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMS), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

  1. On the contribution of plasminos to the shear viscosity of a hot and dense Yukawa-Fermi gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Sadooghi; F. Taghinavaz

    2015-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the standard Green-Kubo formalism, we determine the shear viscosity $\\eta$ of a hot and dense Yukawa-Fermi gas. In particular, we study the effect of particle and plasmino excitations on thermal properties of the fermionic part of the shear viscosity, and explore the effects of thermal corrections to particle masses on bosonic and fermionic shear viscosities, $\\eta_b$ and $\\eta_f$. It turns out that the effects of plasminos on $\\eta_f$ become negligible with increasing (decreasing) temperature (chemical potential).

  2. The Nature of Subproton Scale Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, C H K; Xia, Q; Perez, J C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of subproton scale fluctuations in the solar wind is an open question, partly because two similar types of electromagnetic turbulence can occur: kinetic Alfven turbulence and whistler turbulence. These two possibilities, however, have one key qualitative difference: whistler turbulence, unlike kinetic Alfven turbulence, has negligible power in density fluctuations. In this Letter, we present new observational data, as well as analytical and numerical results, to investigate this difference. The results show, for the first time, that the fluctuations well below the proton scale are predominantly kinetic Alfven turbulence, and, if present at all, the whistler fluctuations make up only a small fraction of the total energy.

  3. Scalar Higgs boson production in a fusion of two off-shell gluons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. S. Pasechnik; O. V. Teryaev; A. Szczurek

    2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The amplitude for scalar Higgs boson production in a fusion of two off-shell gluons is calculated including finite (not infinite) masses of quarks in the triangle loop. In comparison to the effective Lagrangian approach, we have found a new term in the amplitude. The matrix element found can be used in the kt-factorization approach to the Higgs boson production. The results are compared with the calculations for on-shell gluons. Small deviations from the cos(phi)^2-dependence are predicted. The off-shell effects found are practically negligible.

  4. Beam-turning magnet design and test for the Recirculating Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crow, J.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Platt, R.C. (Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed and tested a system for applying a ramped vertical magnetic field for turning the electron beam in the IFR Recirculating Linear Accelerator. The field is highly uniform over two Gaussian beam radii, and can be adjusted for a large radial gradient for increased energy bandwidth. The system includes shielding of the current-carrying rods to protect the pulser from REB induced fields and to reduce the effect of REB images on the beam transport to negligible levels. The system has been tested on the IBEX accelerator with > 95% peak current transport and > 90% charge transport through a 90{degree} turn. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Why are the effective equations of loop quantum cosmology so accurate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Rovelli; Edward Wilson-Ewing

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We point out that the relative Heisenberg uncertainty relations vanish for non-compact spaces in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology. As a consequence, for sharply peaked states quantum fluctuations in the scale factor never become important, even near the bounce point. This shows why quantum back-reaction effects remain negligible and explains the surprising accuracy of the effective equations in describing the dynamics of sharply peaked wave packets. This also underlines the fact that minisuperspace models ---where it is global variables that are quantized--- do not capture the local quantum fluctuations of the geometry.

  6. Experimental performance evaluation of line-focus sun trackers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.C.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two sun trackers have been tested for tracking accuracy on an sun tracker. Both performed well during the entire test period. Their tracking performance as a function of insolation level was established, and their overall tracking accuracy (rms tracking error) was calculated. Both the flux-line and the shadowband tracker were found to have an effective rms error of about 1 milliradian. This information was used to determine the impact that the two trackers have on the annual energy performance of typical parabolic trough concentrating collectors. One milliradian rms tracking errors were found to result in negligibly small annual performance losses.

  7. An ab initio molecular orbital study of metal nitrosyl bond angles in iron complexes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawkins, Tommy Wayne

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the berding process. Negligible transfer of charge, as determined by total charge population, between sntal and ligsnd is observed as in the (FeN0) case. The cyanide ligands appear to equally share a de- 6 ficit of about one charge unit. At the linear Fe...I An ab initio molecular orbital study of the series [Fe(NO)CN)4] (N = 1, 2, 3) and [Fe(NO)Z(CN)ZN)] is made with emphasis on the effect of iron nitrosyl bond angle on electronic structure. In the [FeNO} 6 1- case, [Fe(NO)(CN)4] , there is a potential...

  8. Photon emission from bare quark stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Zakharov

    2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the photon emission from the electrosphere of a quark star. It is shown that at temperatures T\\sim 0.1-1 MeV the dominating mechanism is the bremsstrahlung due to bending of electron trajectories in the mean Coulomb field of the electrosphere. The radiated energy for this mechanism is much larger than that for the Bethe-Heitler bremsstrahlung. The energy flux from the mean field bremsstrahlung exceeds the one from the tunnel e^{+}e^{-} pair creation as well. We demonstrate that the LPM suppression of the photon emission is negligible.

  9. The use of the probability distribution function to analyze surface temperature fluctuations in pool boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Chau Qui

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    accepted. 3. Mass-transfer model: As early as 1952, the possi- 1. 1 bi) ity of mass transfer across the bubble was visualized oy Snyder and presented at a conference in 1856 for the ca. , e of subcool ed nucleate boiling in forced convection l qf. He... heat transfer in forced convection, found negligible latent heat transport compared to the total heat transferred from the heated surface. Ruling out the latent heat transport as major factor, they attributed the high heat transfer in boiling...

  10. Analysis of transport and thermal properties of THz quantum cascade lasers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callebaut, Hans (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Kumar, Sushil (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Williams, Benjamin S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Hu, Qing (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Reno, John Louis

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a self-consistent modeling of a 3.4-THz intersubband laser device. An ensemble Monte Carlo simulation, including both carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering, is used to predict current density, population inversion, gain, and electron temperature. However, these two scattering mechanisms alone appear to be insufficient to explain the observed current density. In addition, the insufficient scattering yields a gain that is slightly higher than inferred from experiments. This suggests the presence of a non-negligible scattering mechanism which is unaccounted for in the present calculations.

  11. Vacuum leak detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jr., David (7 Brown's La., Bellport, NY 11713)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  12. Process for forming silicon carbide films and microcomponents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamza, Alex V. (Livermore, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Moalem, Mehran (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon carbide films and microcomponents are grown on silicon substrates at surface temperatures between 900 K and 1700 K via C.sub.60 precursors in a hydrogen-free environment. Selective crystalline silicon carbide growth can be achieved on patterned silicon-silicon oxide samples. Patterned SiC films are produced by making use of the high reaction probability of C.sub.60 with silicon at surface temperatures greater than 900 K and the negligible reaction probability for C.sub.60 on silicon dioxide at surface temperatures less than 1250 K.

  13. Process for forming silicon carbide films and microcomponents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamza, A.V.; Balooch, M.; Moalem, M.

    1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon carbide films and microcomponents are grown on silicon substrates at surface temperatures between 900 K and 1700 K via C{sub 60} precursors in a hydrogen-free environment. Selective crystalline silicon carbide growth can be achieved on patterned silicon-silicon oxide samples. Patterned SiC films are produced by making use of the high reaction probability of C{sub 60} with silicon at surface temperatures greater than 900 K and the negligible reaction probability for C{sub 60} on silicon dioxide at surface temperatures less than 1250 K. 5 figs.

  14. Robust Broadcast-Communication Control of Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Konstantin; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The anticipated increase in the number of plug-in electric vehicles (EV) will put additional strain on electrical distribution circuits. Many control schemes have been proposed to control EV charging. Here, we develop control algorithms based on randomized EV charging start times and simple one-way broadcast communication allowing for a time delay between communication events. Using arguments from queuing theory and statistical analysis, we seek to maximize the utilization of excess distribution circuit capacity while keeping the probability of a circuit overload negligible.

  15. Results of First Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ACP and IRIS are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The first outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from January 28 to February 8, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of IRIS was within 1 W/m2. A difference of 5 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG).

  16. Improved Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: Superconducting Wires for Direct-Drive Wind Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACT Project: Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a low-cost superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a high-performance superconducting wire that can handle significantly more electrical current, and will demonstrate an advanced manufacturing process that has the potential to yield a several-fold reduction in wire costs while using a using negligible amount of rare earth material. This design has the potential to make a wind turbine generator lighter, more powerful, and more efficient, particularly for offshore applications.

  17. Dispersion retrieval from multi-level ultra-deep reactive-ion-etched microstructures for terahertz slow-wave circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baik, Chan-Wook, E-mail: cw.baik@samsung.com; Young Ahn, Ho; Kim, Yongsung; Lee, Jooho; Hong, Seogwoo; Hee Choi, Jun; Kim, Sunil; Hun Lee, Sang; Min Kim, Jong; Hwang, Sungwoo [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yeon Jun, So; Yu, SeGi [Department of Physics, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lawrence Ives, R. [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, California 94404-1010 (United States)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-level microstructure is proposed for terahertz slow-wave circuits, with dispersion relation retrieved by scattering parameter measurements. The measured return loss shows strong resonances above the cutoff with negligible phase shifts compared with finite element analysis. Splitting the circuit into multi levels enables a low aspect ratio configuration that alleviates the loading effect of deep-reactive-ion etching on silicon wafers. This makes it easier to achieve flat-etched bottom and smooth sidewall profiles. The dispersion retrieved from the measurement, therefore, corresponds well to the theoretical estimation. The result provides a straightforward way to the precise determination of dispersions in terahertz vacuum electronics.

  18. A linearly constrained adaptive algorithm for seismic array processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byun, Bok Sub

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -tap pzocessor nap be apyrozinated bp the single-tap processor Q(oyt) ~ 5 K(KW"X) (?) For the single-tap ossa equation (5) beoonee I(y) - s(ya)t + t)()). (14) Insertion of equations (5) and (14) into equation (15) yields Q(opt) ~ P"5 [1 + (Bt "K) /B(s (gd... requirement of the optimum constrained filter (11) ~ Assuming that the noise sources produced within the processor sre negligible, measure- ment of the input correlation matrix 5 for a given fitting interval J requires approximately N MJ operations...

  19. Electronic band structure imaging of three layer twisted graphene on single crystal Cu(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marquez Velasco, J. [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece) [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece); Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Kelaidis, N.; Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Tsoutsou, D.; Tsipas, P.; Speliotis, Th.; Pilatos, G.; Likodimos, V.; Falaras, P.; Dimoulas, A., E-mail: dimoulas@ims.demokritos.gr [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece); Raptis, Y. S. [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Few layer graphene (FLG) is grown on single crystal Cu(111) by Chemical Vapor Deposition, and the electronic valence band structure is imaged by Angle-Resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy. It is found that graphene essentially grows polycrystalline. Three nearly ideal Dirac cones are observed along the Cu ?{sup ¯}K{sup ¯} direction in k-space, attributed to the presence of ?4° twisted three layer graphene with negligible interlayer coupling. The number of layers and the stacking order are compatible with Raman data analysis demonstrating the complementarity of the two techniques for a more accurate characterization of FLG.

  20. Radiative Thermal Noise for Transmissive Optics in Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheila Dwyer; Stefan W. Ballmer

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative losses have traditionally been neglected in the calculation of thermal noise of transmissive optical elements because for the most commonly used geometries they are small compared to losses due to thermal conduction. We explore the use of such transmissive optical elements in extremely noise-sensitive environments such as the arm cavities of future gravitational-wave interferometers. This drives us to a geometry regime where radiative losses are no longer negligible. In this paper we derive the thermo-refractive noise associated with such radiative losses and compare it to other known sources of thermal noise.

  1. Disappearance of criticality in a branched-chain thermal explosion with heat loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okoya, S.S. [Department of Mathematics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, 220005 (Nigeria)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Branched-chain thermal explosions involving simplified initiation, branching, and termination of chains, as well as heat exchange with the surroundings, are considered, but it is assumed that consumption of fuel is negligible for combustion in a mixture of H{sub 2}+O{sub 2} that covers nth Arrhenius kinetics for the chain-branching step. In particular, the effect of heat loss on the problem is considered, Mostly analytical investigations of the simplified model are presented using standard Semenov's techniques. The analytical method provides expressions for criticality and the transition points. Also, the different qualitative effects of varying the dimensionless parameters are investigated.

  2. Solid-Liquid Interfacial Premelting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian Bostian

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid-liquid miscibility gap, negligible solubility of Pb in the Al solid phase, and a large melting point separa- tion (600 K for Pb and 933 K for Al). We have previously reported results from MD simulations on this system at 625 K, a temperature just... undergoes a roughening transition about 100 K below the melting point of Al. Simulation details.—In our simulations of the Al-Pb solid-liquid interface, we employ a classical many-body potential developed by Landa et al. [42] to model the inter- atomic...

  3. Core-Corona Separation in Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaus Werner

    2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Simple geometrical considerations show that the collision zone in high energy nuclear collisions may be divided into a central part (``core''), with high energy densities, and a peripheral part (``corona''), with smaller energy densities, more like in pp or pA collisions. We present calculations which allow to separate these two contributions, and which show that the corona contribution is quite small (but not negligible) for central collisions, but gets increasingly important with decreasing centrality. We will discuss consequences concerning results obtained in heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).

  4. How Nuclear Diffuseness Affects RHIC Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaus Werner

    2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact that nuclei have diffuse surfaces (rather than being simple spheres) has dramatic consequences on the interpretation of RHIC heavy-ion data. The effect is quite small (but not negligible) for central collisions, but gets increasingly important with decreasing centrality. One may actually divide the collision zone into a central part ("core"), with expected high energy densities, and a peripheral part ("corona"), with smaller energy densities, more like in pp or pA collisions. We will discuss that many complicated "features" observed at RHIC become almost trivial after subtracting the corona background. We are focussing on AuAu collisions at 200 GeV.

  5. Core-Corona Separation in Ultrarelativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, Klaus [SUBATECH, University of Nantes-IN2P3/CNRS-EMN, Nantes 44000 (France)

    2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Simple geometrical considerations show that the collision zone in high energy nuclear collisions may be divided into a central part ('core'), with high energy densities, and a peripheral part ('corona'), with smaller energy densities, more like in pp or pA collisions. We present calculations that allow us to separate these two contributions, and which show that the corona contribution is quite small (but not negligible) for central collisions, but gets increasingly important with decreasing centrality. We will discuss consequences concerning results obtained in heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN Super Proton Synchrotron.

  6. Fundamental mode oscillation of a buried ridge waveguide laser array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukai, S.; Lindsey, C.; Katz, J.; Kapon, E.; Rav-Noy, Z.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1984-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An eight-element phase-locked array of index-guided separate confinement ridge AlGaAs diode lasers is fabricated. In this array the absorption of light in the region between lasers is negligible and the gain profile across the array is nearly uniform. Unlike most other arrays, this array oscillates in its fundamental mode. Stable radiation patterns of near diffraction-limited single narrow beam with 1.6/sup 0/ width are obtained. The beam width approaches the theoretical limit for the present array structure.

  7. Doping suppression and mobility enhancement of graphene transistors fabricated using an adhesion promoting dry transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheol Shin, Woo; Hun Mun, Jeong; Yong Kim, Taek; Choi, Sung-Yool; Jin Cho, Byung, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taeshik; Kim, Taek-Soo, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the facile dry transfer of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on copper film to a functional device substrate. High quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to oxidized silicon substrate was achieved by exploiting the beneficial features of a poly(4-vinylphenol) adhesive layer involving a strong adhesion energy to graphene and negligible influence on the electronic and structural properties of graphene. The graphene field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the dry transfer process exhibit excellent electrical performance in terms of high FET mobility and low intrinsic doping level, which proves the feasibility of our approach in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  8. Impact of graphene polycrystallinity on the performance of graphene field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiménez, David; Chaves, Ferney [Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Escola d'Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Cummings, Aron W.; Van Tuan, Dinh [ICN2, Institut Català de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Kotakoski, Jani [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Roche, Stephan [ICN2, Institut Català de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08070 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used a multi-scale physics-based model to predict how the grain size and different grain boundary morphologies of polycrystalline graphene will impact the performance metrics of graphene field-effect transistors. We show that polycrystallinity has a negative impact on the transconductance, which translates to a severe degradation of the maximum and cutoff frequencies. On the other hand, polycrystallinity has a positive impact on current saturation, and a negligible effect on the intrinsic gain. These results reveal the complex role played by graphene grain boundaries and can be used to guide the further development and optimization of graphene-based electronic devices.

  9. Adsorption of silver dimer on graphene - A DFT study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Gagandeep, E-mail: gaganj1981@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India and Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran, Mohali-140307, Punjab (India); Gupta, Shuchi [Department of Physics and Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India and University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh -160014 (India); Rani, Pooja; Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics and Centre of Advanced Studies in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study of the adsorption of silver dimer (Ag{sub 2}) on graphene using SIESTA (Spanish Initiative for Electronic Simulations with Thousands of Atoms) package, in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The adsorption energy, geometry, and charge transfer of Ag2-graphene system are calculated. The minimum energy configuration for a silver dimer is parallel to the graphene sheet with its two atoms directly above the centre of carbon-carbon bond. The negligible charge transfer between the dimer and the surface is also indicative of a weak bond. The methodology demonstrated in this paper may be applied to larger silver clusters on graphene sheet.

  10. Systematic relativistic quantum effects on screening of fusion rates in white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirish M. Chitanvis

    2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic electron degeneracy effects are dominant in ultra-dense plasmas (UDP), such as those found in white dwarfs. These effects can be treated systematically by obtaining an expansion of the screening length in inverse powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. In general, our theory leads to an ${\\cal O}(10)$ effect on the enhancement of fusion rates in white dwarfs. Further, it is shown analytically for these stellar conditions that Bose statistics of nuclei have a negligible effect on the screening length, in consonance with Monte Carlo simulations found in literature.

  11. Systematic quantum effects on screening of fusion rates in white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirish M. Chitanvis

    2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron degeneracy effects are dominant in ultra-dense plasmas (UDP), such as those found in white dwarfs. These effects can be treated systematically by obtaining an expansion of the screening length in inverse powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. The theory exhibits Thomas-Fermi-like screening in an appropriate regime. In general, our theory leads to an ${\\cal O}(1)$ effect on the enhancement of fusion rates in white dwarfs. Further, it is shown analytically for these stellar conditions that Bose statistics of nuclei have a negligible effect on the screening length, in consonance with Monte Carlo simulations found in literature.

  12. Electron transfer in a two-level system within a Cole-Davidson vitreous bath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarea, Mehdi, E-mail: m-zarea@northwestern.edu; Ratner, Mark A.; Wasielewski, Michael R. [Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center, Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)] [Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center, Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study electron transfer (ET) in a two level quantum system coupled to a glassy viscous bath. The bath is modeled by the Cole-Davidson (CD) spectral density. The ET in this model is compared to the ET in a normal Drude-Debye (DD) model. It is shown that at low temperatures and when the coupling to the bath is weak, the viscous bath preserves the quantum coherence for a longer time. However in the strong coupling regime, the tunneling rate is higher in the CD. In the classical high temperature limit the difference between the CD and DD models is negligible.

  13. Enhanced retained dose uniformity in NiTi spinal correction rod treated by three-dimensional mesh-assisted nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Q. Y.; Hu, T.; Kwok, Dixon T. K.; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to the nonconformal plasma sheath in plasma immersion ion implantation of a rod sample, the retained dose can vary significantly. The authors propose to improve the implant uniformity by introducing a metal mesh. The depth profiles obtained with and without the mesh are compared and the implantation temperature at various locations is evaluated indirectly by differential scanning calorimeter. Our results reveal that by using the metal mesh, the retained dose uniformity along the length is greatly improved and the effects of the implantation temperature on the localized mechanical properties of the implanted NiTi shape memory alloy rod are nearly negligible.

  14. Analysis of the spectroscopy of a hybrid system composed of a superconducting flux qubit and diamond NV centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Cai; Y. Matsuzaki; K. Kakuyanagi; H. Toida; X. Zhu; N. Mizuochi; K. Nemoto; K. Semba; W. J. Munro; S. Saito; H. Yamaguchi

    2015-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid system that combines the advantages of a superconducting flux qubit and an electron spin ensemble in diamond is one of the promising devices to realize quantum information processing. Exploring the properties of the superconductor diamond system is essential for the efficient use of this device. When we perform spectroscopy of this system, significant power broadening is observed. However, previous models to describe this system are known to be applicable only when the power broadening is negligible. Here, we construct a new approach to analyze this system with strong driving, and succeed to reproduce the spectrum with the power broadening. Our results provide an efficient way to analyze this hybrid system.

  15. Cosmic-Ray Hardenings in the Light of AMS-02

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohira, Yutaka; Ioka, Kunihito

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent precise observations of cosmic rays (CRs) by AMS-02 experiment clearly show (1) harder spectra of helium and carbon compared to protons by $\\propto R^{0.08}$, and (2) concave breaks in proton and helium spectra at a rigidity $R \\sim 300$ GV. In particular the helium and carbon spectra are exactly similar, pointing to the same acceleration site. We examine possible interpretations of these features and identify a chemically enriched region, that is, superbubbles as the most probable origin of Galactic CRs. We further show that CRs originate primarily from the supernova ejecta in the superbubble core, mixed with negligible interstellar medium, and predict similar spectra for heavy nuclei.

  16. Fermi-level depinning and contact resistance reduction in metal/n-Ge junctions by insertion of W-encapsulating Si cluster films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, Naoya [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Uchida, Noriyuki [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Kanayama, Toshihiko [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge junctions and a significant reduction of specific contact resistivity of n-Ge by inserting an ultra-thin semiconducting Si-rich W silicide film (WSi{sub n}, n?=?12–14) composed of W-encapsulating Si clusters. Dependence of the specific contact resistivity on the electron Schottky barrier height followed the ideal exponential relation for various contact metal species. This result indicates that the insertion of the WSi{sub n} film provides a negligible contribution to contact resistivity because its tunneling resistance is very low owing to the low offset of the conduction band edge of Ge.

  17. Training of a smoke detecting domestic security dog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, Douglas Walter

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is negligible in respect to the dog's olfactory threshold. Dogs seemed to react to a complex of odors (crushed plants, soil bacteria, leather, and shoe oil), the human odor apparently playing a minimal role. An apparatus was constructed by Menzel and Menzel.... ) Lever-press panel (LPP). E. ) Nose-push panel (NPP). F. ) Manually operated work cue. G. ) Fans were small TV camera blowers used to exhaust odors from checkpoint panels. H, ) Remote switching box allows manual control of power to all equipment from a...

  18. A hyperbolic problem with non-local constraint describing ion-rearrangement in a model for ion-lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Scrobogna; Juan J. L. Velázquez

    2015-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study the Fokker-Plank equation arising in a model which describes the charge and discharge process of ion-lithium batteries. In particular we focus our attention on slow reaction regimes with non-negligible entropic effects, which triggers the mass-splitting transition. At first we prove that the problem is globally well-posed. After that we prove a stability result under some hypothesis of improved regularity and a uniqueness result for the stability under some additional condition of

  19. Simulations of NSTX with a Liquid Lithium Divertor Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. P. Stotler, R. Maingi, H.W. Kugel, A. Yu. Pigarov, T.D. Rognlien, V.A. Soukhanovskii

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The UEDGE edge plasma transport code is used to model the effect of the reduced recycling provided by the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) module that will be installed in NSTX. UEDGE's transport coefficients are calibrated against an existing NSTX shot using midplane and divertor diagnostic data. The LLD is then incorporated into the simulations as a reduction in the recycling coefficient over the outer divertor. Heat transfer calculations performed using the resulting heat flux profiles indicate that lithium evaporation will be negligible for pulse lengths < 2 s at low (? 2 MW) input power. At high input power (? 7 MW), the pulse length may have to be restricted.

  20. Effects of guy wires on SWECS tower dynamics. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C P; Pykkonen, K R; Sexton, J H

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Flats (RF) Supporting Research and Technology (SRT) study for tower testing/analysis has led to some useful information concerning the effect of tower guy pretension on small wind system tower dynamics. The effect of guy-wire pretension on tower natural frequencies is usually considered negligible if the guy: (1) has no sag caused by gravity, and (2) the tension is not approaching the tower buckling load. At the rf test center it was found that, for the test tower even when these conditions were avoided, the guy fundamental frequency must be 30% greater than the tower fundamental frequency to maintain the fundamental's characteristics.

  1. Oil spill response resources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muthukrishnan, Shankar

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be proven that there was gross negligence on their part while they were responding to the spill. Criminal penalties under OPA-90 for failure to notify, violation of vessel inspection, manning, and operation requirements have made OPA-90 a real powerful... of the ecosystem. The size of the ecosystem is an important consideration. It is not microscopic, but is large enough to include the major plant and animal communities (Harm 1991). Consideration of the overall, long-term impact of a particular spill must take...

  2. Axionic dark energy and a composite QCD axion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihn E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Nilles, Hans Peter, E-mail: jekim@ctp.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: nilles@th.physik.uni-bonn.de [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115, Bonn (Germany)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the idea that the model-independent (MI) axion of string theory is the source of quintessential dark energy. The scenario is completed with a composite QCD axion from hidden sector squark condensation that could serve as dark matter candidate. The mechanism relies on the fact that the hidden sector anomaly contribution to the composite axion is much smaller than the QCD anomaly term. This intuitively surprising scenario is based on the fact that below the hidden sector scale {Lambda}{sub h} there are many light hidden sector quarks. Simply, by counting engineering dimensions the hidden sector instanton potential can be made negligible compared to the QCD anomaly term.

  3. -delayed proton emission branches in 43Cr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomorski, M. [University of Warsaw; Miernik, K. [University of Warsaw; Dominik, W. [University of Warsaw; Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Czyrkowski, H. [University of Warsaw; Cwiok, Mikolaj [Warsaw University; Darby, Iain [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabrowski, Ryszard [Warsaw University; Ginter, T. N. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Korgul, A. [University of Warsaw; Kusmierz, W. [University of Warsaw; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rajabali, M. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Stolz, A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The + decay of very neutron-deficient 43Cr was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of -delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81 4)%, (7.1 0.4)%, and (0.08 0.03)%, respectively. 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the -3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12 4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

  4. Experimental investigation of an oscillating circular piston positive displacement flowmeter: II - Leakage flows and wear tests.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Charlotte E; Baker, Roger C; Hutchings, Ian M

    viscosities were mixtures of white spirit and multigrade motor oil. The values achieved for viscosity and resultant density are set out in Part I of this paper [1 Table 3]. To assess the effect of density change, white spirit, motor oil, water and salt water... flow rates was negligible. This suggests that the difference in the leakage f #8;#1; #8;Figure 5 Percentage leakage with the 316 SS circular piston with and without Molykote low friction coating in a water flow. #12;3.4 Effect of lubrication holes...

  5. Top quark production at the Tevatron at NNLO.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos; Vogt, Ramona

    to the subleading terms. The average of the two kinematics results is just above the NLO cross sections for both energies. Our results using the CTEQ6M NLO parton densities [10] are similar. At ? S = 1.8 TeV, averaging over the NNLO 1PI and PIM results with the two... that differences with our previous estimates in [6, 7] have as much to do with the use of the new parton densities as with the inclusion of the new subleading terms. We also note that the scale dependence of the NNLO cross section is negligible [1...

  6. Measurement of wind set-up on an open coast 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, William Howard

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gives a value of . * ? 3 2 ?32.6 x 10 . Palmen and Laurila obtained Y N 2.4 x 10 , having assumed that the bottom stress was negligible in comparison to the surface stress. This degree of agreement is remarkable if not unique. Francis (1951) reports... are by Francis (1951)> Keulegan (1951), and Van Dorn (1953)* Van Dorn's study is based on data from a model yacht pond, while those of Francis and Keulegan are strictly laboratory tests. Francis finds shear stress values that are generally smaller than those...

  7. On the mirror instability in the presence of electron temperature anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, E. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., 119991 Moscow, Russia and Space Research Institute, 84/31 Profsoyuznaya St., 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L. [Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Computation of the mirror instability growth rate in an ion-electron bi-Maxwellian plasma is revisited, starting from the low-frequency kinetic theory. The role of the electron finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on the instability quenching is shown to possibly be dominant, even near threshold where the smallest unstable scales significantly exceed the electron gyroscale. Validation of the results by comparison with predictions of the fully kinetic whamp software is also presented. The influence of the electron temperatures on the ion FLR effects very near threshold, where the electron kinetic effects are negligible, is also pointed out.

  8. Stationary light in cold atomic gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gor Nikoghosyan; Michael Fleischhauer

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss stationary light created by a pair of counter-propagating control fields in Lambda-type atomic gases with electromagnetically induced transparency for the case of negligible Doppler broadening. In this case the secular approximation used in the discussion of stationary light in hot vapors is no longer valid. We discuss the quality of the effective light-trapping system and show that in contrast to previous claims it is finite even for vanishing ground-state dephasing. The dynamics of the photon loss is in general non exponential and can be faster or slower than in hot gases.

  9. Vapor-liquid equilibria of coal-derived liquids; 3: Binary systems with tetralin at 200 mmHg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco, B.; Beltran, S.; Cabezas, J.L. (University Coll., Burgos (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Coca, J. (Univ. of Oviedo (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data are reported for binary systems of tetralin with p-xylene, [gamma]-picoline, piperidine, and pyridine; all systems were measured at 26.66 kPa (200 mmHg) with a recirculation still. Liquid-phase activity coefficients were correlated using the Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations. Vapor-phase nonidealities were found negligible under the experimental conditions of this work, and deviations of the liquid phase from the ideal behavior, as described by Raoult's law, were found to be slightly positive for all the systems.

  10. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhead, S. D., E-mail: S.Rhead@warwick.ac.uk; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Shah, V. A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Reparaz, J. S. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sotomayor Torres, C. M. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ?4 ?m spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

  11. Frequency sweep for a beam system with local unilateral contact modeling satellite solar arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazim, Hamad

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to save mass of satellite solar arrays, the flexibility of the panels becomes not negligible and they may strike each other; this may damage the structure. To prevent this, rubber snubbers are mounted at well chosen points of the structure and they act as one sided linear spring; as a negative consequence, the dynamic of these panels becomes nonlinear. The finite element approximation is used to solve partial differential equations governing the structural dynamic. Frequency sweep has been performed numerically to study the dynamic behavior. Non linear normal modes are under study

  12. Recovery of Mo/Si multilayer coated optical substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Sherry L. (Pleasanton, CA); Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA)

    1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Mo/Si multilayers are removed from superpolished ZERODUR and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. The two step dry etching process removes SiO.sub.2 overlayer with a fluroine-containing gas and then moves molybdenum and silicon multilayers with a chlorine-containing gas. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates.

  13. Recovery of Mo/Si multilayer coated optical substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, S.L.; Vernon, S.P.; Stearns, D.G.

    1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Mo/Si multilayers are removed from superpolished ZERODUR and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. The two step dry etching process removes SiO{sub 2} overlayer with a fluroine-containing gas and then moves molybdenum and silicon multilayers with a chlorine-containing gas. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates. 5 figs.

  14. Jet quenching with running coupling including radiative and collisional energy losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Zakharov

    2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the nuclear modification factor for RHIC and LHC conditions accounting for the radiative and collisional parton energy loss with the running coupling constant.We find that the RHIC data can be explained both in the scenario with the chemically equilibrium quark-gluon plasma and purely gluonic plasma with slightly different thermal suppression of the coupling constant. The role of the parton energy gain due to gluon absorption is also investigated. Our results show that the energy gain gives negligible effect.

  15. Studies of multichannel photothermal refraction for the measurement of absolute absorptivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klatt, L.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multichannel crossed-beam photothermal refraction experiments have been performed. Iron(II)-phenanthroline in methanol was the test solute. The response as a function of concentration exhibited a nonlinear relationship, which does not agree with the current theoretical description of the phenomena. Although photophysical and photochemical processes were not totally eliminated as possible causes of the nonlinear concentration response, arguments are presented which indicate, for the experimental conditions employed in this study, that these processes are negligible. It is proposed that the heat transfer model must be modified to include refractive index gradients in both the radial and axial coordinates of the pump laser beam. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  16. LoanSTAR Energy Auditing: Update and Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffington, W. M.; Athar, A.; Britton, A. J.; Nutter, D. W.; Stuewe, C.

    that more lucrative, shorter payback projects were most often selected for accomplishment in the early days. AUDIT RESULTS During the recent five-month period between July 31 and December 31, 1991, 15 detailed audit reports covering 10.9 million square... $ Annual Savings, million $/yr Payback, yrs ECRMs 46.1 13.7 3.4 M&Os negligible 0.2 0.1 Combined 46.1 13.9 3.3 A total of 58 LoanSTAR detailed audit reports covering 28.3 million square feet and 425 buildings have been accepted. The total includes...

  17. Effects of Spatial Variations in Packing Fraction on Reactor Physics Parameters in Pebble-Bed Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William K. Terry; A. M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema; Michael Scott McKinley

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The well-known spatial variation of packing fraction near the outer boundary of a pebble-bed reactor core is cited. The ramifications of this variation are explored with the MCNP computer code. It is found that the variation has negligible effects on the global reactor physics parameters extracted from the MCNP calculations for use in analysis by diffusion-theory codes, but for local reaction rates the effects of the variation are naturally important. Included is some preliminary work in using first-order perturbation theory for estimating the effect of the spatial variation of packing fraction on the core eigenvalue and the fision density distribution.

  18. Importance of the Doppler Effect to the Determination of the Deuteron Binding Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yongkyu Ko; Myung Ki Cheoun; Il-Tong Cheon

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The deuteron binding energy extracted from the reaction ${}^1H(n,\\gamma){}^2H$ is reviewed with the exact relativistic formula, where the initial kinetic energy and the Doppler effect are taken into account. We find that the negligible initial kinetic energy of the neutron could cause a significant uncertainty which is beyond the errors available up to now. Therefore, we suggest an experiment which should include the detailed informations about the initial kinetic energy and the detection angle. It could reduce discrepancies among the recently reported values about the deuteron binding energy and pin down the uncertainty due to the Doppler broadening of $\\gamma$ ray.

  19. Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nachab, A. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, BP 120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

    2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon can be a non negligible component of the background. In order to reduce the radon level in the gas mixture, it has been necessary first to cover the NEMO 3 detector with an airtight tent and then to install a radon-free air factory. With the use of sensitive radon detectors, the level of radon at the exit of the factory and inside the tent is continuously controlled. These radon levels are discussed within the NEMO 3 context.

  20. Fields of an ultrashort tightly-focused laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jian-Xing; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic fields of an ultrashort, tightly focused, laser pulse in vacuum are derived from scalar and vector potentials, using on equal footing two small parameters connected with the waist size of the laser beam and its duration. Compared with fields derived from a complex-source-point approach and a Lax series expansion approach, the derived fields are shown to be well-behaved and accurate even in the subcycle pulse regime. Terms stemming from the scalar potential are shown to be non-negligible and could significantly influence laser-matter interactions, in particular, direct electron acceleration in vacuum by an ultrashort laser pulse.

  1. Effect of temperature, prey density, vegetation, and BTI on development and predation by Psorophora ciliata (Fabricius)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwood, Donald Wayne

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Garcia et al. (1981) to be an effective biological larvicide for mosquito control, while exhibiting negligible impact on non-target organisms. The direct (toxicity) and indirect (prey elimination) influence of BTI on the predatory larvae of P. ci...-prey relationship includes synchrony in hatching and development. Horsfall (1955) observed a development time of approximately 5 days for P. ciliata in fields in Illinois, whereas NcHugh and Olson (1982) showed a development time of 4 to 6 days for P. columbiae...

  2. Congestion management in electricity networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmberg, Pärr; Lazarczyk, Ewa

    2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

     comparison of market designs    Another strand of literature compares different pricing strategies for real markets; often the  system  in  place  with  an  optimal  electricity  dispatch  based  on  LMP.  Bernard  and  Guertin  (2002)  simulate  a  three?node  model  of  Hydro...  possibilities are negligible  in most electric power networks, so demand and supply  must be instantly balanced. The consequence is that transmission constraints and how they  are managed often have a large influence on market prices. The European Union’s regulation  1228...

  3. Multiparty data hiding of quantum information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayden, Patrick; Leung, Debbie; Smith, Graeme [Institute for Quantum Information, Caltech 107-81, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present protocols for multiparty data hiding of quantum information that implement all possible threshold access structures. Closely related to secret sharing, data hiding has a more demanding security requirement: that the data remain secure against unrestricted attacks via local operation and classical communication. In the limit of hiding a large amount of data, our protocols achieve an asymptotic rate of one hidden qubit per local physical qubit. That is, each party holds a share that is the same size as the hidden state to leading order, with accuracy and security parameters incurring an overhead that is asymptotically negligible. The data-hiding states have very unusual entanglement properties, which we briefly discuss.

  4. Electronic Instability in a Zero-Gap Semiconductor: The Charge-Density Wave in (TaSe4)2I

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tournier-Colletta, C.; Moreschini, L.; Autès, G.; Moser, S.; Crepaldi, A.; Berger, H.; Walter, A. L.; Kim, K. S.; Bostwick, A.; Monceau, P.; Rotenberg, E.; Yazyev, O. V.; Grioni, M.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a comprehensive study of the paradigmatic quasi-1D compound (TaSe4)2I performed by means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and first-principles electronic structure calculations. We find it to be a zero-gap semiconductor in the nondistorted structure, with non-negligible interchain coupling. Theory and experiment support a Peierls-like scenario for the charge-density wave formation below TCDW=263??K, where the incommensurability is a direct consequence of the finite interchain coupling. The formation of small polarons, strongly suggested by the ARPES data, explains the puzzling semiconductor-to-semiconductor transition observed in transport at TCDW.

  5. Optical losses of Al-free lasers for {lambda}=0.808 and 0.98 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, H.; Diaz, J.; Lane, B.; Razeghi, M. [Center for Quantum Devices, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] [Center for Quantum Devices, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we study the origin of the optical losses in Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs ({lambda}=0.808 {mu}m) and InGaAs/GaAs/InGaP ({lambda}=0.980 {mu}m) lasers. Theoretical modeling and the experimental results indicate that the scattering of the laser beam by refractive index fluctuation in the alloys is the dominant loss in our lasers, and the loss due to the free-carrier absorption and scattering by interface roughness are negligible. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

  7. Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Esquivel-Sirvent

    2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

  8. Current Status of the R-Matrix Code SAMMY, with Emphasis on the Relationship to ENDF Formats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Nancy M [ORNL] [ORNL; Leal, Luiz C [ORNL] [ORNL; Sayer, Royce O [ORNL] [ORNL; Derrien, Herve [ORNL] [ORNL; Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL] [ORNL; Arbanas, Goran [ORNL] [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last decade, advances in evaluations of neutron-induced cross sections in the resolved resonance region have surpassed the ability of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF) to make use of those evaluations. At the higher energies used in new evaluations, effects that in the past were deemed to be negligible are now important. There is also a great demand for including uncertainty information in ENDF files. In this paper, we describe recently approved ENDF formats to accommodate new evaluations and their implementation in SAMMY. Other new features of the SAMMY code, available in the 2006 Revision 7 release, are also described.

  9. Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liolios, T E

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern for the neighboring countries, about the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study a worst-case scenario is assumed mainly to assess the risk for Greece and other neighboring countries of Yugoslavia at similar distances . The risk of the weapons currently in use is proved to be negligible at distances greater than 100 Km. For shorter distances classified data of weapons composition are needed to obtain a reliable assessment.

  10. Covalent features in the hydrogen bond of a water dimer: molecular orbital analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Bo; Dai, Xing; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Rui-Qin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The covalent-like characteristics of hydrogen bonds offer a new perspective on intermolecular interactions. Here, using density functional theory and post-Hartree-Fock methods, we reveal that there are two bonding molecular orbitals (MOs) crossing the O and H atoms of the hydrogen-bond in water dimer. Energy decomposition analysis also shows a non-negligible contribution of the induction term. These results illustrate the covalent-like character of the hydrogen bond between water molecules, which contributes to the essential understanding of ice, liquid water, related materials, and life sciences.

  11. Energy Saving Through High Frequency Electric Resistance Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udall, H. N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flows in a conductor for the current density to be greater at the surface than at the center. At low frequencies such as 60 Hz this effect is negligible except in the case of very large conductors; how ever, as the frequency increases so the "skin ef... of HF current as of HF current as seen in a seen on an isolated pair of conductors conductor effective depth of current flow is very shallow. The skin effect in an isolated single conductor carr~ing 400 KHz high-frequency current is shown in Figur 1...

  12. Robust broadcast-communication control of electric vehicle charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The anticipated increase in the number of plug-in electric vehicles (EV) will put additional strain on electrical distribution circuits. Many control schemes have been proposed to control EV charging. Here, we develop control algorithms based on randomized EV charging start times and simple one-way broadcast communication allowing for a time delay between communication events. Using arguments from queuing theory and statistical analysis, we seek to maximize the utilization of excess distribution circuit capacity while keeping the probability of a circuit overload negligible.

  13. Non-LTE metal abundances in V652 Her and HD144941

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Przybilla; M. F. Nieva; U. Heber; C. S. Jeffery

    2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Two evolutionary scenarios are proposed for the formation of extreme helium stars: a post-AGB star suffering from a late thermal pulse, or the merger of two white dwarfs. An identification of the evolutionary channel for individual objects has to rely on surface abundances. We present preliminary results from a non-LTE analysis of CNO, Mg and S for two unique objects, V652 Her and HD144941. Non-LTE abundance corrections for these elements range from negligible values to ~0.7 dex. Non-LTE effects typically lead to systematic shifts in the abundances relative to LTE and reduce the uncertainties.

  14. Smokeless Control of Flare Steam Flow Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agar, J.; Balls, B. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 FLARE GAS FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT "Accurate measurement of the very low flow rates which are normally present is very difficult" 0, p 15-8). "It is generally considered too...-04-91 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 to calibration conditions. Turndown is 40:1 and pressure loss is negligible. APPLICATION FLOW RATE The mass flow meter described has been applied to a wide...

  15. Tilting the Primordial Power Spectrum with Bulk Viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James E. Lidsey

    1993-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the context of the cold dark matter model, current observations suggest that inflationary models which generate a tilted primordial power spectrum with negligible gravitational waves provide the most promising mechanism for explaining large scale clustering. The general form of the inflationary potential which produces such a spectrum is a hyperbolic function and is interpreted physically as a bulk viscous stress contribution to the energy-momentum of a perfect baryotropic fluid. This is equivalent to expanding the equation of state as a truncated Taylor series. Particle physics models which lead to such a potential are discussed.

  16. MASSIVE SATELLITES OF CLOSE-IN GAS GIANT EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, Timothy A.; Johnson, Robert E. [Engineering Physics Program, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Mendez, Rolando; Arras, Phil; Skrutskie, Michael F., E-mail: tac2z@virginia.ed, E-mail: rem5d@cms.mail.virginia.ed, E-mail: arras@virginia.ed, E-mail: rej@virginia.ed, E-mail: mfs4n@virginia.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the orbits, tidal heating and mass loss from satellites around close-in gas giant exoplanets. The focus is on large satellites which are potentially observable by their transit signature. We argue that even Earth-size satellites around hot Jupiters can be immune to destruction by orbital decay; detection of such a massive satellite would strongly constrain theories of tidal dissipation in gas giants, in a manner complementary to orbital circularization. The star's gravity induces significant periodic eccentricity in the satellite's orbit. The resulting tidal heating rates, per unit mass, are far in excess of Io's and dominate radioactive heating out to planet orbital periods of months for reasonable satellite tidal Q. Inside planet orbital periods of about a week, tidal heating can completely melt the satellite. Lastly, we compute an upper limit to the satellite mass loss rate due to thermal evaporation from the surface, valid if the satellite's atmosphere is thin and vapor pressure is negligible. Using this upper limit, we find that although rocky satellites around hot Jupiters with orbital periods less than a few days can be significantly evaporated in their lifetimes, detectable satellites suffer negligible mass loss at longer orbital periods.

  17. First principles studies of proton conduction in KTaO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Sung Gu; Sholl, David S., E-mail: david.sholl@chbe.gatech.edu [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    KTaO{sub 3} (KTO) is a useful prototypical perovskite for examining the mechanisms of proton transport in perovskites. Previously, Gomez et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 194701 (2007)] reported density functional theory (DFT) calculations describing proton hopping in defect-free KTO. We use DFT calculations to extend that work in two directions, namely, understanding isotope effects in low and high temperature proton transport and the role of native point defects in KTO. At cryogenic temperatures, quantum tunneling plays a vital role in the net hopping of protons in KTO. At the elevated temperature characteristic of applications involving proton-conducting perovskites, tunneling is negligible but zero point energy effects still lead to non-negligible isotope effects for H{sup +}, D{sup +}, and T{sup +}. We also use DFT to characterize the populations of relevant point defects in KTO as a function of experimental conditions, and to examine the migration of protons that are close in proximity to these defects. This information gives useful insight into the overall transport rates of protons through KTO under a variety of external environments. We also assess the overall diffusivity of protons in KTO at various ranges of oxygen vacancy concentrations by performing kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Thermophoretically augmented mass-, momentum-, and energy-transfer rates in high particle mass-loaded laminar forced convection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H.M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In all previous treatments of thermophoretically-modified aerosol particle transport, even those which attempt to allow for variable host-gas properties, it has been explicitly (or implicitly) assumed that the particle mass fraction is small enough to neglect the influence of the suspended particles on the host-gas momentum-density- and energy-density-fields. However, in high-intensity material-processing applications, particle mass loadings often exceed 1/3, and the thermophoretically enhanced particle mass-deposition flux itself modifies the local-mixture velocity and temperature fields in the vicinity of the deposition surface. A self-consistent pseudo- single-phase mixture (diffusion) approximation which exploits the fact that the volume fraction of suspended particles is negligible even when the particle mass fraction is quite near unity is introduced to calculate the fully coupled problem of mass-, energy- and momentum diffusion for laminar boundary (LBL) flow of a combustion-gas mixture containing submicron particles of appreciable thermophoretic diffusivity but negligible Brownian diffusion. It is shown that thigh particles mass loading systematically increase the wall fluxes of momentum (shear stress), heat and particle mass, much like those effects associated with massive suction in single-phase LBL-theory.

  19. Laser machining of explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  20. Health risk assessment of environmental exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; de Rooij, C.G. (Dow Europe, Horgen (Switzerland))

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1986 a survey was published by CEFIC on the occurrence of chlorinated solvents in ambient air, in surface water, and in ground water. The present article concentrates on 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-T), and puts into perspective the environmental occurrence and the toxicity. Critical toxicological data are briefly discussed. As no evidence of a carcinogenic effect of 1,1,1-T is apparent, the no-adverse-effect levels in chronic inhalation exposure in rats (875 ppm) and mice (1500 ppm) form the basis for the estimation of potential risk to human health. Environmental exposure to 1,1,1-T is mainly via the atmosphere (120 micrograms/day); the contributions of drinking water (2 micrograms/day) and food (3 micrograms/kg) are negligible. Safety margins are calculated by comparing the no-adverse-effect levels in rat and mouse studies with the total body burden. Safety margins are also calculated after converting no-adverse-effect levels into estimated internal dose levels by physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. Safety margins vary with the starting point, but are of the order of 10(5) for the general population and more than 10(4) for the population close to industrial activities. It may be concluded that the risk of a potential health effect resulting from environmental exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane is negligible. 43 references.

  1. Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp.

  2. Method and apparatus for powering an electrodeless lamp with reduced radio frequency interference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, J.E.

    1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrodeless lamp waveguide structure includes tuned absorbers for spurious RF signals. A lamp waveguide with an integral frequency selective attenuation includes resonant absorbers positioned within the waveguide to absorb spurious out-of-band RF energy. The absorbers have a negligible effect on energy at the selected frequency used to excite plasma in the lamp. In a first embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are affixed to the sidewalls of the waveguide at approximately one quarter wavelength of the spurious signal from an end wall of the waveguide. The positioning of the lossy material optimizes absorption of power from the spurious signal. In a second embodiment, one or more thin slabs of lossy magnetic material are used in conjunction with band rejection waveguide filter elements. In a third embodiment, one or more microstrip filter elements are tuned to the frequency of the spurious signal and positioned within the waveguide to couple and absorb the spurious signal's energy. All three embodiments absorb negligible energy at the selected frequency and so do not significantly diminish the energy efficiency of the lamp. 18 figs.

  3. Effects of $?_{6}$ deformation and low-lying vibrational bands on heavy-ion fusion reactions at sub-barrier energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamanna Rumin; Kouichi Hagino; Noboru Takigawa

    1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study fusion reactions of $^{16}$O with $^{154}$Sm, $^{186}$W and $^{238}$U at sub-barrier energies by a coupled-channels framework. We focus especially on the effects of $\\beta_{6}$ deformation and low-lying vibrational excitations of the target nucleus. It is shown that the inclusion of $\\beta_{6}$ deformation leads to a considerable improvement of the fit to the experimental data for all of these reactions. For the $^{154}$Sm and $^{238}$U targets, the octupole vibration significantly affects the fusion barrier distribution. The effect of $\\beta$ band is negligible in all the three reactions, while the $\\gamma$ band causes a non-negligible effect on the barrier distribution at energies above the main fusion barrier. We compare the optimum values of the deformation parameters obtained by fitting the fusion data with those obtained from inelastic scatterings and the ground state mass calculations. We show that the channel coupling of high multipolarity beyond the quadrupole coupling is dominated by the nuclear coupling and hence higher order Coulomb coupling does not much influence the optimum values of $\\beta_4$ and $\\beta_6$ parameters. We also discuss the effect of two neutron transfer reactions on the fusion of $^{16}$O with $^{238}$U.

  4. Effect of MLC leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Sen; Li, Guangjun; Wang, Maojie; Jiang, Qinfeng; Zhang, Yingjie [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Wei, Yuquan, E-mail: yuquawei@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To compare dosimetric differences between the simulating plans and the clinical plans with evaluation parameters, 6 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected for simulation of systematic and random MLC leaf position errors, collimator rotation angle errors, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for systematic MLC leaf position errors in response to field size. When the systematic MLC position errors were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm, respectively, the maximum values of the mean dose deviation, observed in parotid glands, were 4.63%, 8.69%, and 18.32%, respectively. The dosimetric effect was comparatively small for systematic MLC shift errors. For random MLC errors up to 2 mm and collimator and gantry rotation angle errors up to 0.5°, the dosimetric effect was negligible. We suggest that quality control be regularly conducted for MLC leaves, so as to ensure that systematic MLC leaf position errors are within 0.5 mm. Because the dosimetric effect of 0.5° collimator and gantry rotation angle errors is negligible, it can be concluded that setting a proper threshold for allowed errors of collimator and gantry rotation angle may increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment time.

  5. Reconstructing the Profile of Time-Varying Magnetic Fields With Quantum Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easwar Magesan; Alexandre Cooper; Honam Yum; Paola Cappellaro

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum systems have shown great promise for precision metrology thanks to advances in their control. This has allowed not only the sensitive estimation of external parameters but also the reconstruction of their temporal profile. In particular, quantum control techniques and orthogonal function theory have been applied to the reconstruction of the complete profiles of time-varying magnetic fields. Here, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis of the reconstruction method based on the Walsh functions, highlighting the relationship between the orthonormal Walsh basis, sensitivity of field reconstructions, data compression techniques, and dynamical decoupling theory. Specifically, we show how properties of the Walsh basis and a detailed sensitivity analysis of the reconstruction protocol provide a method to characterize the error between the reconstructed and true fields. In addition, we prove various results about the negligibility function on binary sequences which lead to data compression techniques in the Walsh basis and a more resource-efficient reconstruction protocol. The negligibility proves a fruitful concept to unify the information content of Walsh functions and their dynamical decoupling power, which makes the reconstruction method robust against noise.

  6. Functional requirements for component films in a solar thin-film photovoltaic/thermal panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, David [Power and Energy Research Group, School of Engineering, Northumbria University, Ellison Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The functional requirements of the component films of a solar thin-film photovoltaic/thermal panel were considered. Particular emphasis was placed on the new functions, that each layer is required to perform, in addition to their pre-existing functions. The cut-off wavelength of the window layer, required for solar selectivity, can be achieved with charge carrier concentrations typical of photovoltaic devices, and thus does not compromise electrical efficiency. The upper (semiconductor) absorber layer has a sufficiently high thermal conductivity that there is negligible temperature difference across the film, and thus negligible loss in thermal performance. The lower (cermet) absorber layer can be fabricated with a high ceramic content, to maintain high solar selectivity, without significant increase in electrical resistance. A thin layer of molybdenum-based cermet at the top of this layer can provide an Ohmic contact to the upper absorber layer. A layer of aluminium nitride between the metal substrate and the back metal contact can provide electrical isolation to avoid short-circuiting of series-connected cells, while maintaining a thermal path to the metal substrate and heat extraction systems. Potential problems of differential contraction of heated films and substrates were identified, with a recommendation that fabrication processes, which avoid heating, are preferable. (author)

  7. The solar photospheric abundance of europium. Results from CO5BOLD 3-D hydrodynamical model atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mucciarelli; E. Caffau; B. Freytag; H. -G. Ludwig; P. Bonifacio

    2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. Europium is an almost pure r-process element, which may be useful as a reference in nucleocosmochronology. Aims. To determine the photospheric solar abundance using CO5BOLD 3-D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. Methods. Disc-centre and integrated-flux observed solar spectra are used. The europium abundance is derived from the equivalent width measurements. As a reference 1D model atmospheres have been used, in addition. Results. The europium photospheric solar abundance is 0.52 +- 0.02 in agreement with previous determinations. We also determine the photospheric isotopic fraction of Eu(151) to be 49 % +- 2.3 % from the intensity spectra and 50% +-2.3 from the flux spectra. This compares well to the the meteoritic isotopic fraction 47.8%. We explore the 3D corrections also for dwarfs and sub-giants in the temperature range ~5000 K to ~6500 K and solar and 1/10--solar metallicities and find them to be negligible for all the models investigated. Conclusions. Our photospheric Eu abundance is in good agreement with previous determinations based on 1D models. This is in line with our conclusion that 3D effects for this element are negligible in the case of the Sun.

  8. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary. The second type will treat heated jets entering a model plenum. Unheated MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique which will not even handle constant properties properly. The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of CFD solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing and turbulence models for typical NGNP plenum geometries in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. As indicated by the scaling studies, in normal full power operation of a typical NGNP conceptual design, buoyancy influences should be negligible in the lower plenum. The MIR experiment will simulate flow features of the paths of jets as they mix in flowing through the array of posts in a lower plenum en route to the single exit duct. Conceptual designs for such experiments are described.

  9. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Spears, Mike; Sullivan, Douglas; Mendell, Mark

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluated the ozone removal performance of moderate-cost particle filters containing activated carbon when installed in a commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. Filters containing 300 g of activated carbon per 0.09 m2 of filter face area were installed in two 'experimental' filter banks within an office building located in Sacramento, CA. The ozone removal performance of the filters was assessed through periodic measurements of ozone concentrations in the air upstream and downstream of the filters. Ozone concentrations were also measured upstream and downstream of a 'reference' filter bank containing filters without any activated carbon. The filter banks with prefilters containing activated carbon were removing 60percent to 70percent of the ozone 67 and 81 days after filter installation. In contrast, there was negligible ozone removal by the reference filter bank without activated carbon.

  10. Impact of electron irradiation on electron holographic potentiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J. B.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M. [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Berger, D. [Technische Universität Berlin, Zentraleinrichtung für Elektronenmikroskopie, Strae des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Knauer, A.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibnitz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Koslow, I.; Kneissl, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibnitz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While electron holography in the transmission electron microscope offers the possibility to measure maps of the electrostatic potential of semiconductors down to nanometer dimensions, these measurements are known to underestimate the absolute value of the potential, especially in GaN. We have varied the dose rates of electron irradiation over several orders of magnitude and observed strong variations of the holographically detected voltages. Overall, the results indicate that the electron beam generates electrical currents within the specimens primarily by the photovoltaic effect and due to secondary electron emission. These currents have to be considered for a quantitative interpretation of electron holographic measurements, as their negligence contributes to large parts in the observed discrepancy between the measured and expected potential values in GaN.

  11. Effective Temperature of Non-equilibrium Dense Matter in Holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hironori Hoshino; Shin Nakamura

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study properties of effective temperature of non-equilibrium steady states by using the anti-de Sitter spacetime/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. We consider non-equilibrium systems with a constant flow of current along an electric field, in which the current is carried by both the doped charges and those pair created by the electric field. We find that the effective temperature agrees with that of the Langevin systems if we take the limit where the pair creation is negligible. The effect of pair creation raises the effective temperature whereas the current by the doped charges contributes to lower the effective temperature in a wide range of the holographic models.

  12. A full dimensional investigation of infrared spectroscopy of the RbCs dimer using the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huihui; Yang, Yonggang, E-mail: ygyang@sxu.edu.cn; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The geometry and infrared absorption spectrum of (RbCs){sub 2} have been studied by full dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. For this purpose, the potential energy and dipole moment surfaces are generated by means of a cluster expansion with all two and three mode correlations, and fitted to analytical expressions with negligible deviations. Accordingly, the ground state (RbCs){sub 2} has a diamond geometry with D{sub 2h} symmetry. The infrared spectrum with frequencies up to 120 cm{sup ?1}, exhibits rich details of the fundamentals, overtones, and combination bands; the highest fundamental frequency of (RbCs){sub 2} is only 40.26 cm{sup ?1}. The present study unravels important details of the interactions between the widely investigated ultracold RbCs molecules.

  13. A novel design for monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design for the fabrication of Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion described in this paper utilizes a novel, interdigitated contacting scheme that increases the flexibility in the size of the component cells and hence the output current and voltage of the module. This flexibility is gained at the expense of only minimally increased grid obscuration. Because the design uses the grid fingers of the component cells as the interconnect structure, the area of the device used for this purpose becomes negligible. In this paper the authors report on the specifics of the design as well as issues related to the fabrication of the modules. Preliminary performance data for representative modules also are offered.

  14. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  15. No Collective Neutrino Flavor Conversions during the Supernova Accretion Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Saviano, Ninetta; Tomas, Ricard [II Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Fischer, Tobias [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform a dedicated study of the supernova (SN) neutrino flavor evolution during the accretion phase, using results from recent neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations. In contrast to what was expected in the presence of only neutrino-neutrino interactions, we find that the multiangle effects associated with the dense ordinary matter suppress collective oscillations. The matter suppression implies that neutrino oscillations will start outside the neutrino decoupling region and therefore will have a negligible impact on the neutrino heating and the explosion dynamics. Furthermore, the possible detection of the next galactic SN neutrino signal from the accretion phase, based on the usual Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the SN mantle and Earth matter effects, can reveal the neutrino mass hierarchy in the case that the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} is not very small.

  16. Cryogenic Test of a Coaxial Coupling Scheme for Fundamental and Higher Order Modes in Superconducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.K. Sekutowicz, P. Kneisel

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coaxial coupling device located in the beam pipe of the TESLA type superconducting cavities provides for better propagation of Higher Order Modes (HOMs) and their strong damping in appropriate HOM couplers. Additionally, it also provides efficient coupling for fundamental mode RF power into the superconducting cavity. The whole coupling device can be designed as a detachable system. If appropriately dimensioned, the magnetic field can be minimized to a negligible level at the flange position. This scheme, presented previously*, provides for several advantages: strong HOM damping, flangeable solution, exchangeability of the HOM damping device on a cavity, less complexity of the superconducting cavity, possible cost advantages. This contribution will describe the results of the first cryogenic test.

  17. Schwarzschild-type solution in an effective gravitational theory with local Galilean invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. R. Cuzinatto; P. J. Pompeia; M. de Montigny; F. C. Khanna

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a Schwarzschild-type exact external solution for a theory of gravity admitting local Galilean invariance. In order to realize the Galilean invariance we need to adopt a five-dimensional manifold. The solution for the gravitational field equations obeys a Birkhoff-like theorem. Three classic tests of general relativity are analyzed in detail: the perihelion shift of the planet Mercury, the deflection of light by the Sun, and the gravitational redshift of atomic spectral lines. The Galilean version of these tests exhibits an additional parameter $b$ related to the fifth-coordinate. This constant $b$ can be estimated by a comparison with observational data. We observe that the Galilean theory is able to reproduce the results traditionally predicted by general relativity in the limit of negligible $b$. This shows that the tests are not specifically Lorentz invariant.

  18. Nonlocal microscopic theory of quantum friction between parallel metallic slabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despoja, Vito [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Apto. 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Echenique, Pedro M. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Apto. 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Sunjic, Marijan [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new derivation of the friction force between two metallic slabs moving with constant relative parallel velocity, based on T=0 quantum-field theory formalism. By including a fully nonlocal description of dynamically screened electron fluctuations in the slab, and avoiding the usual matching-condition procedure, we generalize previous expressions for the friction force, to which our results reduce in the local limit. Analyzing the friction force calculated in the two local models and in the nonlocal theory, we show that for physically relevant velocities local theories using the plasmon and Drude models of dielectric response are inappropriate to describe friction, which is due to excitation of low-energy electron-hole pairs, which are properly included in nonlocal theory. We also show that inclusion of dissipation in the nonlocal electronic response has negligible influence on friction.

  19. The strategy of APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency in forming the model of public acceptance of Croatian Waste Management Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klika, M.C.; Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Lokner, V. [APO, Zagreb (Croatia)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of basic elements related to public participation in hazardous and radioactive waste management in Croatia are underlined in the paper. Most of them are created or led by the APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency. Present efforts in improvement of public participation in the field of hazardous and radioactive waste management are important in particular due to negligible role of public in environmentally related issues during former Yugoslav political system. For this reason it is possible to understand the public fearing to be deceived or neglected again. Special attention is paid to the current APO editions related to public information and education in the field of hazardous and radioactive waste management. It is important because only the well-informed public can present an active and respectful factor in hazardous and radioactive waste management process.

  20. First XMM-Newton observations of a Cataclysmic Variable I: Timing studies of OY Car

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavin Ramsay; Tracey Poole; Keith Mason; France Cordova; William Priedhorsky; Alice Breeveld; Rudi Much; Julian Osborne; Dirk Pandel; Stephen Potter; Jennifer West; Peter Wheatley

    2000-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present XMM-Newton observations of the eclipsing, disc accreting, cataclysmic variable OY Car which were obtained as part of the performance verification phase of the mission. The star was observed 4 days after an outburst and then again 5 weeks later when it was in a quiescent state. There is a quasi-stable modulation of the X-rays at ~2240 sec, which is most prominent at the lowest energies. We speculate that this may be related to the spin period of the white dwarf. The duration of the eclipse ingress and egress in X-rays is 20--30 sec. This indicates that the bulk of the X-ray emission originates from the boundary layer which has a negligible height above the surface of the white dwarf. The eclipse profile implies a white dwarf of mass M_{1}=0.9-1.1Msun and a secondary star of M_{2}=0.08-0.11Msun.

  1. Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W Carlsen; Urairisa Phathanapirom; Eric Schneider; John S. Collins; Roderick G. Eggert; Brett Jordan; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. Ault; Alan G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn; William G. Halsey; Mark Sutton; Clay E. Easterly; Ryan P. Manger; C. Wilson McGinn; Stephen E. Fisher; Brent W. Dixon; Latif Yacout

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FEFC processes, unlike many of the proposed fuel cycles and technologies under consideration, involve mature operational processes presently in use at a number of facilities worldwide. This report identifies significant impacts resulting from these current FEFC processes and activities. Impacts considered to be significant are those that may be helpful in differentiating between fuel cycle performance and for which the FEFC impact is not negligible relative to those from the remainder of the full fuel cycle. This report: • Defines ‘representative’ processes that typify impacts associated with each step of the FEFC, • Establishes a framework and architecture for rolling up impacts into normalized measures that can be scaled to quantify their contribution to the total impacts associated with various fuel cycles, and • Develops and documents the bases for estimates of the impacts and costs associated with each of the representative FEFC processes.

  2. The Role of Primary 16O as a Neutron Poison in AGB stars and Fluorine primary production at Halo Metallicities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallino, R; Cristallo, S; Straniero, O

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of a historical bug in the s-post-process AGB code obtained so far by the Torino group forced us to reconsider the role of primary 16O in the 13C-pocket, produced by the 13C(a, n)16O reaction, as important neutron poison for the build up of the s-elements at Halo metallicities. The effect is noticeable only for the highest 13C-pocket efficiencies (cases ST*2 and ST). For Galactic disc metallicities, the bug effect is negligible. A comparative analysis of the neutron poison effect of other primary isotopes (12C, 22Ne and its progenies) is presented. The effect of proton captures, by 14N(n, p)14C, boosts a primary production of Fluorine in Halo AGB stars, with [F/Fe] comparable to [C/Fe], without affecting the s-elements production.

  3. Surrogate Guderley Test Problem Definition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The surrogate Guderley problem (SGP) is a 'spherical shock tube' (or 'spherical driven implosion') designed to ease the notoriously subtle initialization of the true Guderley problem, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity. In this problem (similar to the Guderley problem), an infinitely strong shock wave forms and converges in one-dimensional (1D) cylindrical or spherical symmetry through a polytropic gas with arbitrary adiabatic index {gamma}, uniform density {rho}{sub 0}, zero velocity, and negligible pre-shock pressure and specific internal energy (SIE). This shock proceeds to focus on the point or axis of symmetry at r = 0 (resulting in ostensibly infinite pressure, velocity, etc.) and reflect back out into the incoming perturbed gas.

  4. Low frequency forces on tubular spaceframe towers: Analysis of Cognac data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conte, J.P. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Marshall, P.W. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objective of the study presented here was to identify if field data collected from the Cognac platform can be used to discriminate between the empirical Wheeler and Delta stretching schemes to approximate near surface kinematics, in terms of the low-frequency forces which are potentially important in the design of compliant towers. Previous studies focusing on the peak hydrodynamic forces, as used for the design of fixed platforms, have shown a significant difference between predictions based on Wheeler and Delta stretching. The cognac field data indicate that the low-frequency force components are not negligible and are significantly correlated to the wave envelope process. Simulation studies based on a vertical rigid cylinder subjected to Hurricane Frederic sea states show significant differences in applied low-frequency drag forces obtained using Wheeler versus Delta stretching.

  5. Absence of exchange interaction between localized magnetic moments and conduction-electrons in diluted Er{sup 3+} gold-nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesseux, G. G., E-mail: lesseux@ifi.unicamp.br; Urbano, R. R. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Iwamoto, W. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFU, 38400-902 Uberlândia, Minas Gerais (Brazil); García-Flores, A. F. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, UFABC, 09210-971 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Rettori, C. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, UFABC, 09210-971 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) of diluted Er{sup 3+} magnetic ions in Au nanoparticles (NPs) is reported. The NPs were synthesized by reducing chloro triphenyl-phosphine gold(I) and erbium(III) trifluoroacetate. The Er{sup 3+} g-value along with the observed hyperfine splitting indicate that the Er{sup 3+} impurities are in a local cubic symmetry. Furthermore, the Er{sup 3+} ESR spectra show that the exchange interaction between the 4f and the conduction electrons (ce) is absent or negligible in Au{sub 1–x}Er{sub x} NPs, in contrast to the ESR results in bulk Au{sub 1–x}Er{sub x}. Therefore, the nature of this interaction needs to be reexamined at the nano scale range.

  6. Crystal growth kinetics in Lennard-Jones and Weeks-Chandler-Andersen systems along the solid-liquid coexistence line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ronald

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kinetics of crystal-growth is investigated along the solid-liquid coexistence line for the (100), (110) and (111) orientations of the Lennard-Jones and Weeks-Chandler-Andersen fcc crystal-liquid interface, using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. A slowing down of the growth kinetics along the coexistence line is observed, which is mostly a temperature effect, with other quantities such as the melting pressure and liquid self-diffusion coefficient having a negligible impact. The growth kinetics of the two potentials become similar at large values of the melting temperature and pressure, when both resemble a purely repulsive soft-sphere potential. Classical models of crystallization from the melt are in reasonable qualitative agreement with our simulation data. Finally, several one-phase empirical melting/freezing rules are studied with respect to their validity along the coexistence line.

  7. Reaction network and kinetics for the catalytic oxidation of toluene over V sub 2 O sub 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, J.; Andersson, L.T. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of three methyl-diphenylmethane isomers and of bibenzyl, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde, which are intermediates in the catalytic oxidation of toluene over V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, has been studied to elucidate the reaction network and relative importance of various reactions. Selectivity dependences reveal that the network is composed mainly of three parallel reaction routes: (1) side-chain oxidation with consecutive reactions, (2) oxidative coupling with both parallel and consecutive reactions, and (3) carbon oxide formation. Coupling products are not negligible, with an initial selectivity of 29% (400{degree}C). Anthraquinone is produced mainly from o-methyl-diphenylmethane conditions and catalyst used. Selectivity dependences suggested product lumping and a simplified network. Kinetic analysis of this reaction network indicates that higher temperatures favor route 2 over route 1. The same initial intermediates for route 1 of side-chain oxidation and for route 2 of oxidative coupling are suggested.

  8. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

  9. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  10. Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Adam M; Knill, Emanuel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

  11. Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam M. Meier; Bryan Eastin; Emanuel Knill

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

  12. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Lab.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  13. Neutrino Magnetic Moment, CP Violation and Flavor Oscillations in Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehlivan, Y; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider collective oscillations of neutrinos, which are emergent nonlinear flavor evolution phenomena instigated by neutrino-neutrino interactions in astrophysical environments with sufficiently high neutrino densities. We investigate the symmetries of the problem in the full three flavor mixing scheme and in the exact many-body formulation by including the effects of CP violation and neutrino magnetic moment. We show that, similar to the two flavor scheme, several dynamical symmetries exist for three flavors in the single-angle approximation if the net electron background in the environment and the effects of the neutrino magnetic moment are negligible. Moreover, we show that these dynamical symmetries are present even when the CP symmetry is violated in neutrino oscillations. We explicitly write down the constants of motion through which these dynamical symmetries manifest themselves in terms of the generators of the SU(3) flavor transformations. We also show that the effects due to the CP-violating Dir...

  14. Sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation: The role of O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, frequency, and power density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.W.; Hung, H.M.; Lin, A.; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

    1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone as functions of applied frequencies and applied power are investigated. Experiments are performed over the frequency range of 205--1,078 kHz. The higher overall reaction rates are observed at 358 and 618 kHz and then at 205 and 1,078 kHz. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant, k{sub 0}, for MTBE degradation increases with increasing power density up to 250 W L{sup {minus}1}. A linear dependence of the first-order rate constant, k{sub O{sub 3}}, for the simultaneous degradation of O{sub 3} on power density is also observed. Naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) is shown to have a negligible effect on observed reaction rates.

  15. Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. I. Cross Validation of Polarization Measurements by Impedance Spectroscopy and Current-Potential Sweep

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xiao Dong; Pederson, Larry R.; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to address three issues in solid oxide fuel cells: (1) cross-validation of the polarization of a single cell measured using both dc and ac approaches, (2) the precise determination of the total areal specific resistance (ASR), and (3) understanding cathode polarization with LSCF cathodes. The ASR of a solid oxide fuel cell is a dynamic property, meaning that it changes with current density. The ASR measured using ac impedance spectroscopy (low frequency interception with real Z´ axis of ac impedance spectrum) matches with that measured from a dc IV sweep (the tangent of dc i-V curve). Due to the dynamic nature of ASR, we found that an ac impedance spectrum measured under open circuit voltage or on a half cell may not represent cathode performance under real operating conditions, particularly at high current density. In this work, the electrode polarization was governed by the cathode activation polarization; the anode contribution was negligible.

  16. Gas lasers with wave-chaotic resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Zaitsev

    2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiclassical multimode laser theory is extended to gas lasers with open two-dimensional resonators of arbitrary shape. The Doppler frequency shift of the linear-gain coefficient leads to an additional linear coupling between the modes, which, however, is shown to be negligible. The nonlinear laser equations simplify in the special case of wave-chaotic resonators. In the single-mode regime, the intensity of a chaotic laser, as a function of the mode frequency, displays a local minimum at the frequency of the atomic transition. The width of the minimum scales with the inhomogeneous linewidth, in contrast to the Lamb dip in uniaxial resonators whose width is given by the homogeneous linewidth.

  17. Transport properties of a meson gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fernandez-Fraile; A. Gomez Nicola

    2007-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present recent results on a systematic method to calculate transport coefficients for a meson gas (in particular, we analyze a pion gas) at low temperatures in the context of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Our method is based on the study of Feynman diagrams with a power counting which takes into account collisions in the plasma by means of a non-zero particle width. In this way, we obtain results compatible with analysis of Kinetic Theory with just the leading order diagram. We show the behavior with temperature of electrical and thermal conductivities and shear and bulk viscosities, and we discuss the fundamental role played by unitarity. We obtain that bulk viscosity is negligible against shear viscosity near the chiral phase transition. Relations between the different transport coefficients and bounds on them based on different theoretical approximations are also discussed. We also comment on some applications to heavy-ion collisions.

  18. NIF: IFE applications, waste management and environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Kirchner, F.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Miley, G.H.; Petra, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Fusion Studies Lab.

    1996-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Although many energy sources have been suggested for the future, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been demonstrated as scientifically feasible and deserves support for continued development. The National Ignition Facility (NIF), proposed by US DOE, is a next step in that direction. NIF would use ICF technology to achieve ignition and energy gain that would allow the development and continued support of national security and other civilian applications including inertial fusion energy power plants. NIF would also guarantee US leadership in dense plasma research. Four sites are being considered for NIF: LLNL, Los Alamos, Sandia, and two NTS sites. An environmental evaluation was performed which considered all impacts. This paper provides the results of the waste management analyses conducted on the proposed NIF sites. Overall, the proposed construction and operation of NIF should qualify it as a low-hazard, non-nuclear radiological facility with minor onsite and negligible offsite environmental impacts.

  19. Polarization diagnostics of proton beams in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiri Stepan

    2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the problem of proton beam bombardment of solar chromosphere considering the self-consistent NLTE polarized radiation transfer in hydrogen lines. Several observations indicate a linear polarization of the H-alpha line of the order of 5% or higher and preferentially in radial direction. This polarization is often explained as anisotropic collisional excitation of the n=3 level by vertical proton beams. Our calculations indicate that deceleration of the proton beam with initial power-law energy distribution together with increased electron and proton densities in the H-alpha forming layers lead to a negligible line polarization. Thus the proton beams seem not to be a good candidate for explanation of the observed polarization degree. On the other hand, the effect of electric return currents could perhaps provide a better explanation of the observed linear polarization. We report the new calculations of this effect.

  20. Heating and Ionization of the Primordial Intergalactic Medium by High Mass X-ray Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knevitt, Gillian; Power, Chris; Bolton, James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the influence of High Mass X-ray Binaries on their high redshift environments. Using a one-dimensional radiative transfer code, we predict the ionization and temperature profiles surrounding a coeval stellar population, composed of main sequence stars and HMXBs, at various times after its formation. We consider both uniform density surroundings, and a cluster embedded in a 10^8 solar mass NFW halo. HMXBs in a constant density environment produce negligible enhanced ionization because of their high-energy SEDs and short lifetimes. In this case, HMXBs only marginally contribute to the local heating rate. For NFW profiles, radiation from main sequence stars cannot prevent the initially ionized volume from recombining since it is unable to penetrate the high density galactic core. However, HMXB photons stall recombinations behind the front, keeping it partially ionized for longer. The increased electron density in these partially ionized regions promotes further cooling, resulting in lower IGM temp...

  1. Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shi; Goh, Teck Wee; Sum, Tze Chien, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Sabba, Dharani; Chua, Julianto; Mathews, Nripan [Energy Research Institute @NTU (ERI-N), Research Techno Plaza, X-Frontier Block, Level 5, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Huan, Cheng Hon Alfred, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16–16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy level alignment at the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}, facilitating hole transfer from CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.

  2. Revisiting the cosmological bias due to local gravitational redshifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Zhiqi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent article by Wojtak {\\it et al} (arXiv:1504.00178) pointed out that the local gravitational redshift, despite its smallness ($\\sim 10^{-5}$), can have a noticeable ($\\sim 1\\%$) systematic effect on our cosmological parameter measurements. The authors studied a few extended cosmological models (non-flat $\\Lambda$CDM, $w$CDM, and $w_0$-$w_a$CDM) with a mock supernova dataset. We repeat this calculation and find that the $\\sim 1\\%$ biases are due to strong degeneracy between cosmological parameters. When Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data are added to break the degeneracy, the biases due to local gravitational redshift are negligible ($\\lesssim 0.1 \\sigma$).

  3. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  4. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bivins, S.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an are monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  5. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2007-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  6. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2001-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the DOE Standard Radiological Control, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2000 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  7. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2002-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2001 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  8. Evaluating and Minimizing Distributed Cavity Phase Errors in Atomic Clocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ruoxin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform 3D finite element calculations of the fields in microwave cavities and analyze the distributed cavity phase errors of atomic clocks that they produce. The fields of cylindrical cavities are treated as an azimuthal Fourier series. Each of the lowest components produces clock errors with unique characteristics that must be assessed to establish a clock's accuracy. We describe the errors and how to evaluate them. We prove that sharp structures in the cavity do not produce large frequency errors, even at moderately high powers, provided the atomic density varies slowly. We model the amplitude and phase imbalances of the feeds. For larger couplings, these can lead to increased phase errors. We show that phase imbalances produce a novel distributed cavity phase error that depends on the cavity detuning. We also design improved cavities by optimizing the geometry and tuning the mode spectrum so that there are negligible phase variations, allowing this source of systematic error to be dramatically reduced.

  9. Using long-baseline interferometric gravitational waves detectors for high precision measures of the gravitational acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Corda

    2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A derivation of the optical axis lenght fluctations due by tilts of the mirrors of the Fabry-Perot cavity of long-baseline interferometers for the detection of gravitational waves in presence of the gravitational field of the earth is discussed. By comparing with the typical tilt-induced noises it is shown that this potential signal, which is considered a weak source of noise, is negligible for the first generation of gravitational waves interferometers, but, in principle, this effect could be used for high precision measures of the gravitational acceleration if advanced projects will achieve an high sensitivity. In that case the precision of the misure could be higher than the gravimeter realized by the Istituto di Metrologia ``Gustavo Colonnetti''.

  10. Evaluating and Minimizing Distributed Cavity Phase Errors in Atomic Clocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruoxin Li; Kurt Gibble

    2010-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform 3D finite element calculations of the fields in microwave cavities and analyze the distributed cavity phase errors of atomic clocks that they produce. The fields of cylindrical cavities are treated as an azimuthal Fourier series. Each of the lowest components produces clock errors with unique characteristics that must be assessed to establish a clock's accuracy. We describe the errors and how to evaluate them. We prove that sharp structures in the cavity do not produce large frequency errors, even at moderately high powers, provided the atomic density varies slowly. We model the amplitude and phase imbalances of the feeds. For larger couplings, these can lead to increased phase errors. We show that phase imbalances produce a novel distributed cavity phase error that depends on the cavity detuning. We also design improved cavities by optimizing the geometry and tuning the mode spectrum so that there are negligible phase variations, allowing this source of systematic error to be dramatically reduced.

  11. Is Dark Energy Abnormally Weighting?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Fuzfa; J. -M. Alimi

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new interpretation of dark energy in terms of an \\textit{Abnormally Weighting Energy} (AWE). This means that dark energy does not couple to gravitation in the same way as ordinary matter, yielding a violation of the weak and strong equivalence principles on cosmological scales. The resulting cosmological mechanism accounts for the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae in terms of both cosmic acceleration and variation of the gravitational constant while still accounting for the present tests of general relativity. This explanation allows to build dark energy models (i) without violation of the strong energy condition $p<-\\rho c^2/3$ (ii) with non-negligible direct couplings to gravitation and (iii) natural convergence mechanism toward general relativity.

  12. Rigorous theory of nuclear fusion rates in a plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowell S. Brown; David C. Dooling; Dean L. Preston

    2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Real-time thermal field theory is used to reveal the structure of plasma corrections to nuclear reactions. Previous results are recovered in a fashion that clarifies their nature, and new extensions are made. Brown and Yaffe have introduced the methods of effective quantum field theory into plasma physics. They are used here to treat the interesting limiting case of dilute but very highly charged particles reacting in a dilute, one-component plasma. The highly charged particles are very strongly coupled to this background plasma. The effective field theory proves that this mean field solution plus the one-loop term dominate; higher loop corrections are negligible even though the problem involves strong coupling. Such analytic results for very strong coupling are rarely available, and they can serve as benchmarks for testing computer models.

  13. On Scale-Dependent Cosmic Shear Systematic Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitching, T D; Cropper, M; Hoekstra, H; Hood, R K E; Massey, R; Niemi, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate the impact that realistic scale-dependence systematic effects may have on cosmic shear tomography. We model spatially varying residual ellipticity and size variations in weak lensing measurements and propagate these through to predicted changes in the uncertainty and bias of cosmological parameters. We show that the survey strategy - whether it is regular or randomised - is an important factor in determining the impact of a systematic effect: a purely randomised survey strategy produces the smallest biases, at the expense of larger parameter uncertainties, and a very regularised survey strategy produces large biases, but unaffected uncertainties. However, by removing, or modelling, the affected scales (l-modes) in the regular cases the biases are reduced to negligible levels. We find that the integral of the systematic power spectrum is not a good metric for dark energy performance, and we advocate that systematic effects should be modelled accurately in real space, where they ent...

  14. On how nanomechanical systems can minimize dissipation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Muratore-Ginanneschi; Kay Schwieger

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Information processing machines at the nanoscales are unavoidably affected by thermal fluctuations. Efficient design requires understanding how nanomachines can operate at minimal energy dissipation. In this letter we focus on mechanical systems controlled by smoothly varying potential forces. We show that optimal control equations come about in a natural way if the energy cost to manipulate the potential is taken into account. When such cost becomes negligible, the optimal control strategy can be constructed by transparent geometrical methods and recovers the solution of optimal mass transport equations in the overdamped limit. Our equations are equivalent to hierarchies of kinetic equations of a form well-known in the theory of dilute gases. From our results, optimal strategies for energy efficient nanosystems may be devised

  15. Testing dissipative magnetosphere model light curves and spectra with FERMI pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brambilla, Gabriele; Harding, Alice K; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the emission properties of a dissipative pulsar magnetosphere model introduced by Kalapotharakos et al. (2014), comparing its high energy light curves and spectra, due to curvature radiation, with data collected by the Fermi LAT. The magnetosphere structure is assumed to be near the force-free solution. The accelerating electric field, inside the light-cylinder, is assumed to be negligible, while outside the light-cylinder it rescales with a finite conductivity ({\\sigma}). In our approach we calculate the corresponding high energy emission by integrating the trajectories of test particles that originate from the stellar surface, taking into account both the accelerating electric field components and the radiation reaction forces. First we explore the parameter space assuming different value sets for the stellar magnetic field, stellar period, and conductivity. We show that the general properties of the model are in a good agreement with observed emission characteristics of young {\\gamma}-ray pulsar...

  16. Kinetic mix mechanisms in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hoffman, N.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Betti, R.; Yu Glebov, V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Bellei, C.; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock-driven implosions of thin-shell capsules, or “exploding pushers,” generate low-density, high-temperature plasmas in which hydrodynamic instability growth is negligible and kinetic effects can play an important role. Data from implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells with hydroequivalent D{sup 3}He gas fills ranging from pure deuterium to pure {sup 3}He [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135001 (2014)] were obtained to evaluate non-hydrodynamic fuel-shell mix mechanisms. Simulations of the experiments including reduced ion kinetic models support ion diffusion as an explanation for these data. Several additional kinetic mechanisms are investigated and compared to the data to determine which are important in the experiments. Shock acceleration of shell deuterons is estimated to introduce mix less than or comparable to the amount required to explain the data. Beam-target mechanisms are found to produce yields at most an order of magnitude less than the observations.

  17. Accuracy Test for Link Prediction in terms of Similarity Index: The Case of WS and BA Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Min-Woo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Link prediction is a technique that uses the topological information in a given network to infer the missing links in it. Since past research on link prediction has primarily focused on enhancing performance for given empirical systems, negligible attention has been devoted to link prediction with regard to network models. In this paper, we thus apply link prediction to two network models: The Watts-Strogatz (WS) model and Barab\\'asi-Albert (BA) model. We attempt to gain a better understanding of the relation between accuracy and each network parameter (mean degree, the number of nodes and the rewiring probability in the WS model) through network models. Six similarity indices are used, with precision and area under the ROC curve (AUC) value as the accuracy metrics. We observe a positive correlation between mean degree and accuracy, and size independence of the AUC value.

  18. Energy band modulation of graphane by hydrogen-vacancy chains: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Bi-Ru [Department of Natural science, Center for General Education, Chang Gung University, Kueishan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Chih-Kai, E-mail: ckyang@nccu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated a variety of configurations of hydrogen-vacancy chains in graphane by first-principles density functional calculation. We found that graphane with two zigzag H-vacancy chains segregated by one or more H chain is generally a nonmagnetic conductor or has a negligible band gap. However, the same structure is turned into a semiconductor and generates a magnetic moment if either one or both of the vacancy chains are blocked by isolated H atoms. If H-vacancy chains are continuously distributed, the structure is similar to a zigzag graphene nanoribbon embedded in graphane. It was also found that the embedded zigzag graphene nanoribbon is antiferromagnetic, and isolated H atoms left in the 2-chain nanoribbon can tune the band gap and generate net magnetic moments. Similar effects are also obtained if bare carbon atoms are present outside the nanoribbon. These results are useful for designing graphene-based nanoelectronic circuits.

  19. Gas film lubrication equations for very small clearances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobehart, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Reyna, L.G. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the hard disk magnetic recording technology, the slider carrying the magnetic elements is supported above the magnetic disk by a self-acting air bearing, which produces the load support. A lubricating film must support a required load with suitably small frictional energy losses and without introducing undesirable instabilities. Under submicron clearance conditions, gas film flow can not be described with continuum models since the molecular mean free path is not negligible compared with the clearance. Accurate results for the load-carrying capacity of gas films for arbitrary Knudsen number are very important since they strongly influence the design of the flying head slider and, consequently, the performance of the magnetic disk storage unit. Here we generalize the previous lubrication equations for arbitrary Knudsen number, accommodation coefficient and a small inclination of the slider relative to the magnetic disk surface.

  20. Transients from Zel'dovich initial conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Valageas

    2002-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the error implied by the use of the Zel'dovich approximation to set up the initial conditions at a finite redshift zi in numerical simulations. Using a steepest-descent method developed in a previous work we derive the probability distribution P(delta_R) of the density contrast in the quasi-linear regime. This also provides its dependence on the redshift zi at which the simulation is started. Thus, we find that the discrepancy with the exact pdf (defined by the limit zi->infinity) is negligible after the scale factor has grown by a factor a/a_i>5, for scales which were initially within the linear regime with sigma_i>0.1. This shows that the use of the Zel'dovich approximation to implement the initial conditions is sufficient for practical purposes since these are not very severe constraints.

  1. Release of U(VI) from spent biosorbent immobilized in cement concrete blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkobachar, C.; Iyengar, L.; Mishra, U.K.; Chauhan, M.S. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India)] [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with cementation as the method for the disposal of spent biosorbent, Ganoderma lucidum (a wood rotting macrofungi) after it is used for the removal of Uranium. Results on the uranium release during the curing of cement-concrete (CC) blocks indicated that placing the spent sorbent at the center of the blocks during their casting yields better immobilization of uranium as compared to the homogeneous mixing of the spent sorbent with the cement. Short term leach tests indicated that the uranium release was negligible in simulated seawater, 1.8% in 0.2 N sodium carbonate and 6.0% in 0.2 N HCl. The latter two leachates were used to represent the extreme environmental conditions. It was observed that the presence of the spent biosorbent up to 5% by weight did not affect the compressive strength of CC blocks. Thus cementation technique is suitable for the immobilization of uranium loaded biosorbent for its ultimate disposal.

  2. Energy Momentum Pseudo-Tensor of Relic Gravitational Wave in Expanding Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daiqin Su; Yang Zhang

    2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the energy-momentum pseudo-tensor of gravitational wave, and examine the one introduced by Landau-Lifshitz for a general gravitational field and the effective one recently used in literature. In short wavelength limit after Brill-Hartle average, both lead to the same gauge invariant stress tensor of gravitational wave. For relic gravitational waves in the expanding universe, we examine two forms of pressure, $p_{gw}$ and $\\mathcal{P}_{gw}$, and trace the origin of their difference to a coupling between gravitational waves and the background matter. The difference is shown to be negligibly small for most of cosmic expansion stages starting from inflation. We demonstrate that the wave equation is equivalent to the energy conservation equation using the pressure $\\mathcal{P}_{gw}$ that includes the mentioned coupling.

  3. 202-328-5000 www.rff.orgSector Effects of the Shale Gas Revolution in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This paper reviews the impact of the shale gas revolution on the sectors of electricity generation, transportation, and manufacturing in the United States. Natural gas is being substituted for other fuels, particularly coal, in electricity generation, resulting in lower greenhouse gas emissions from this sector. The use of natural gas in the transportation sector is currently negligible but is projected to increase with investments in refueling infrastructure and natural gas vehicle technologies. Petrochemical and other manufacturing industries have responded to lower natural gas prices by investing in domestically located manufacturing projects. This paper also speculates on the impact of a possible shale gas boom in China. Key Words: shale gas, electricity, transportation, and manufacturing JEL Classification Numbers: L71, L9, Q4 © 2013 Resources for the Future. All rights reserved. No portion of this paper may be reproduced without permission of the authors. Discussion papers are research materials circulated by their authors for purposes of information and discussion.

  4. Performance of a copper-lithium alloy as an impurity control system surface material for a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, J.N.; Krauss, A.R.; Mattas, R.F.; DeWald, A.B.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper-lithium alloy was evaluated as a surface material for the impurity control system of the INTOR reactor. Both the medium edge temperature limiter regime and the low edge temperature divertor regime were examined. The analysis used TRIM code data to predict sputtering coefficients for copper-lithium with a 1.5 monolayer coverage of lithium. The REDEP code was used to evaluate the erosion performance for INTOR. Other properties such as fabrication and thermal performance were also briefly assessed. It was found, from the standpoint of erosion, that copper-lithium is a very good candidate material for the medium edge temperature regime, and also works well in the low edge temperature regime. For the medium edge temperature regime, the use of copper-lithium results in an almost negligible erosion rate over the entire limiter surface.

  5. Non-Standard Higgs Decays in U(1) Extensions of the MSSM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Athron; M. Muhlleitner; R. Nevzorov; A. G. Williams

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In U(1) extensions of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model there is a simple mechanism that leads to a heavy Z' boson with a mass which is substantially larger than the supersymmetry breaking scale. This mechanism may also result in a pseudoscalar state that is light enough for decays of the 125 GeV Standard Model-like Higgs boson into a pair of such pseudoscalars to be kinematically allowed. We study these decays within E6 inspired supersymmetric models with an exact custodial symmetry that forbids tree-level flavor-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. We argue that the branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson decays into a pair of the light pseudoscalar states may not be negligibly small.

  6. Search for Supersymmetry in pp Collisions at 7 TeV in Events with Jets and Missing Transverse Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CMS Collaboration

    2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for supersymmetry with R-parity conservation in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35 inverse picobarns collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The search is performed in events with jets and significant missing transverse energy, characteristic of the decays of heavy, pair-produced squarks and gluinos. The primary background, from standard model multijet production, is reduced by several orders of magnitude to a negligible level by the application of a set of robust kinematic requirements. With this selection, the data are consistent with the standard model backgrounds, namely t t-bar, W + jet and Z + jet production, which are estimated from data control samples. Limits are set on the parameters of the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. These limits extend those set previously by experiments at the Tevatron and LEP colliders.

  7. Analysis of core damage frequency due to external events at the DOE (Department of Energy) N-Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambright, J.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Daniel, S.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Baxter, J.T. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Johnson, J.J.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.O.; Mraz, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Conoscente, J.P. (EQE, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Brosseau, D.A. (ERCE, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A complete external events probabilistic risk assessment has been performed for the N-Reactor power plant, making full use of all insights gained during the past ten years' developments in risk assessment methodologies. A detailed screening analysis was performed which showed that all external events had negligible contribution to core damage frequency except fires, seismic events, and external flooding. A limited scope analysis of the external flooding risk indicated that it is not a major risk contributor. Detailed analyses of the fire and seismic risks resulted in total (mean) core damage frequencies of 1.96E-5 and 4.60E-05 per reactor year, respectively. Detailed uncertainty analyses were performed for both fire and seismic risks. These results show that the core damage frequency profile for these events is comparable to that found for existing commercial power plants if proposed fixes are completed as part of the restart program. 108 refs., 85 figs., 80 tabs.

  8. Continuum Free-Energy formulation for a class of Lattice Boltzmann multiphase models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sbragaglia; H. Chen; X. Shan; S. Succi

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the Shan-Chen (SC) model for non-ideal lattice fluids can be made compliant with a pseudo free-energy principle by simple addition of a gradient force, whose expression is uniquely specified in terms of the fluid density. This additional term is numerically shown to provide fairly negligible effects on the system evolution during phase-separation. To the best of our knowledge, these important properties of the SC model were not noted before. The approach developed in the present work is based on a continuum analysis: further extensions, more in line with a discrete lattice theory (X. Shan, {\\it Phys Rev E}, {\\bf 77} 066702 (2008)) can be envisaged for the future.

  9. The beaming pattern of external Compton emission from relativistic outflows: The case of anisotropic distribution of electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelner, S. R.; Lefa, E.; Rieger, F. M.; Aharonian, F. A., E-mail: Stanislav.Kelner@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The beaming pattern of radiation emitted by a relativistically moving source, such as jets in microquasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts, is a key issue for understanding acceleration and radiation processes in these objects. In this paper, we introduce a formalism based on a solution of the photon transfer equation to study the beaming patterns for emission produced by electrons accelerated in the jet and the upscattering photons of low-energy radiation fields of external origin (the so-called external Compton scenario). The formalism allows us to treat non-stationary, non-homogeneous, and anisotropic distributions of electrons, but assuming homogeneous/isotropic and non-variable target photon fields. We demonstrate the non-negligible impact of the anisotropy in the electron distribution on angular and spectral characteristics of the EC radiation.

  10. Constraints on the relic neutrino abundance and implications for cosmological neutrino mass limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Nicole F.; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors examine a mechanism which can lead to flavor transformation of neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries in the early universe, a process which is unavoidable when the neutrino mixing angles are large. This sets the best limit on the lepton number of the universe, and hence on the relic neutrino abundance. They also consider the consequences for the relic neutrino abundance if extra neutrino interactions are allowed, e.g., the coupling of the neutrinos to a light (compared to m{sub {nu}}) boson. For a wide range of couplings not excluded by other considerations, the relic neutrinos would annihilate to bosons at late times, and thus make a negligible contribution to the matter density today. This mechanism evades the neutrino mass limits arising from large scale structure.

  11. On the minimum dark matter mass testable by neutrinos from the Sun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busoni, Giorgio; Simone, Andrea De; Huang, Wei-Chih, E-mail: giorgio.busoni@sissa.it, E-mail: andrea.desimone@sissa.it, E-mail: wei-chih.huang@sissa.it [SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a limitation on extracting bounds on the scattering cross section of dark matter with nucleons, using neutrinos from the Sun. If the dark matter particle is sufficiently light (less than about 4 GeV), the effect of evaporation is not negligible and the capture process goes in equilibrium with the evaporation. In this regime, the flux of solar neutrinos of dark matter origin becomes independent of the scattering cross section and therefore no constraint can be placed on it. We find the minimum values of dark matter masses for which the scattering cross section on nucleons can be probed using neutrinos from the Sun. We also provide simple and accurate fitting functions for all the relevant processes of GeV-scale dark matter in the Sun.

  12. Proton radioactivity described by covariant density functional theory with Similarity Renormalization Group method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang Zhao; Jian Min Dong; Jun Ling Song; Wen Hui Long

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Half-life of proton radioactivity of spherical proton emitters is studied within the scheme of covariant density functional (CDF) theory, and for the first time the potential barrier that prevents the emitted proton is extracted with the similarity renormalization group (SRG) method, in which the spin-orbit potential along with the others that turn out to be non-negligible can be derived automatically. The spectroscopic factor that is significant is also extracted from the CDF calculations. The estimated half-lives are found in good agreement with the experimental values, which not only confirms the validity of the CDF theory in describing the proton-rich nuclei, but also indicates the prediction power of present approach to calculate the half-lives and in turn to extract the structural information of proton emitters.

  13. Neutrino-nucleus reactions and their role for supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasi, K G; Martínez-Pinedo, G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The description of nuclear reactions induced by supernova neutrinos has witnessed significant progress during the recent years. At the energies and momentum transfers relevant for supernova neutrinos neutrino-nucleus cross sections are dominated by allowed transitions, however, often with non-negligible contributions from (first) forbidden transitions. For several nuclei allowed Gamow-Teller strength distributions could be derived from charge-exchange reactions and from inelastic electron scattering data. Importantly the diagonalization shell model has been proven to accurately describe these data and hence became the appropriate tool to calculate the allowed contributions to neutrino-nucleus cross sections for supernova neutrinos. Higher multipole contributions are usually calculated within the framework of the Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation, which describes the total strength and the position of the giant resonances quite well. This manuscript reviews the recent progress achieved in calculating su...

  14. Quantum-mechanical calculation of carrier distribution in MOS accumulation and strong inversion layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chien-Wei; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering/ Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)] [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering/ Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a statistical physics model of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and propose an accurate approximation method for calculating the quantum-mechanical effects of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure in accumulation and strong inversion regions. We use an exponential surface potential approximation in solving the quantization energy levels and derive the function of density of states in 2D to 3D transition region by applying uncertainty principle and Schrödinger equation in k-space. The simulation results show that our approximation method and theory of density of states solve the two major problems of previous researches: the non-negligible error caused by the linear potential approximation and the inconsistency of density of states and carrier distribution in 2D to 3D transition region.

  15. Fingerprints of Disorder Source in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Pei-liang; Katsnelson, M I; De Raedt, H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a systematic study of the electronic, transport and optical properties of disordered graphene including the next-nearest-neighbor hopping. We show that this hopping has a non-negligible effect on resonant scattering but is of minor importance for long-range disorder such as charged impurities, random potentials or hoppings induced by strain fluctuations. Different types of disorder can be recognized by their fingerprints appearing in the dc conductivity, carrier mobility, optical spectroscopy and Landau level spectrum. By matching our calculations to the experimental observations, we conclude that the long-range disorder potential induced by strain is the most important source of disorder in high-quality graphene on a substrate.

  16. Generation of circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, Stephon; Ochoa, Joseph; Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041 (United States); Department of Physics, Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15208 (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard cosmological model, which includes only Compton scattering photon interactions at energy scales near recombination, results in zero primordial circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this paper we consider a particular renormalizable and gauge-invariant standard model extension coupling photons to an external vector field via a Chern-Simons term, which arises as a radiative correction if gravitational torsion couples to fermions. We compute the transport equations for polarized photons from a Boltzmann-like equation, showing that such a coupling will source circular polarization of the microwave background. For the particular coupling considered here, the circular polarization effect is always negligible compared to the rotation of the linear polarization orientation, also derived using the same formalism. We note the possibility that limits on microwave background circular polarization may probe other photon interactions and related fundamental effects such as violations of Lorentz invariance.

  17. On the persistent X-ray emission from the soft gamma-ray repeaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Usov

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    It is suggested that the persistent X-ray emission from the soft gamma-ray repeaters is the thermal radiation of neutron stars which is enhanced by a factor of 10 or more due to the effect of a very strong magnetic field on the thermal structure of the neutron star envelope. For the thermal luminosity to be consistent with the persistent X-ray luminosity, the field strength at the neutron star surface has to be of the order of $10^{15}$ G. If it is confirmed that the soft gamma-ray repeaters are neutron stars with negligible accretion, then the presence of such a strong magnetic field is inevitable.

  18. Single molecule thermodynamics of ATP synthesis by F$_1$-ATPase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoichi Toyabe; Eiro Muneyuki

    2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    F$_\\mathrm{o}$F$_1$-ATP synthase is a factory for synthesizing ATP in virtually all cells. Its core machinery is the subcomplex F$_1$-motor (F$_1$-ATPase) and performs the reversible mechanochemical coupling. Isolated F$_1$-motor hydrolyzes ATP, which is accompanied by unidirectional rotation of its central $\\gamma$-shaft. When a strong opposing torque is imposed, the $\\gamma$-shaft rotates in the opposite direction and drives the F$_1$-motor to synthesize ATP. This mechanical-to-chemical free-energy transduction is the final and central step of the multistep cellular ATP-synthetic pathway. Here, we determined the amount of mechanical work exploited by the F$_1$-motor to synthesize an ATP molecule during forced rotations using methodology combining a nonequilibrium theory and single molecule measurements of responses to external torque. We found that the internal dissipation of the motor is negligible even during rotations far from a quasistatic process.

  19. Uniform wafer-scale synthesis of graphene on evaporated Cu (111) film with quality comparable to exfoliated monolayer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Li; Lee, Jongho; Chou, Harry; McDonnell, Stephen J; Ferrer, Domingo A; Babenco, Matias; Wallace, Robert M; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Ruoff, Rodney S; Akinwande, Deji

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monolayer graphene has been grown on crystallized Cu (111) films on standard oxidized Si 100 mm wafers. The monolayer graphene demonstrates high uniformity (>97% coverage), with immeasurable defects (>95% defect-negligible) across the entire wafer. Key to these results is the phase transition of evaporated copper films from amorphous to crystalline at the growth temperature as corroborated by X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Noticeably, phase transition of copper film is observed on technologically ubiquitous oxidized Si wafer where the oxide is a standard amorphous thermal oxide. Ion mass spectroscopy indicates that the copper films can be purposely hydrogen-enriched during a hydrogen anneal which subsequently affords graphene growth with a sole carbonaceous precursor for low defect densities. Owing to the strong hexagonal lattice match, the graphene domains align to the Cu (111) domains, suggesting a pathway for increasing the graphene grains by maximizing the copper grain sizes. Fabr...

  20. Separate determination of the amplitude of thermal vibrations and static atomic displacements in titanium carbide by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khidirov, I., E-mail: khidirov@inp.uz; Parpiev, A. S. [Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Uzbekistan)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The amplitude of thermal (dynamic) atomic vibrations and meansquare static atomic displacements in titanium carbide TiC{sub x} (x = 0.97, 0.88, 0.70) have been separately determined by measuring neutron diffraction patterns at two temperatures (T{sub 1} = 300 K and T{sub 2} = 80 K). The static lattice distortions in stoichiometric titanium carbide are experimentally found to be negligible. In the TiC{sub x} homogeneity range, the amplitude {radical}u{sup 2}{sub dyn} of thermal atomic vibrations significantly increases with a decrease in the carbon concentration. The Debye temperature has been determined for the first time in the TiC{sub x} homogeneity range at both room and liquid-nitrogen temperatures.

  1. Continuum Electrodynamics of a Piecewise-Homogeneous Linear Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crenshaw, Michael E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy--momentum tensor and the tensor continuity equation serve as the conservation laws of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum for a continuous flow. Previously, we derived equations of motion for macroscopic electromagnetic fields in a homogeneous linear dielectric medium that is draped with a gradient-index antireflection coating (J. Math Phys. 55, 042901 (2014) ). These results are consistent with the electromagnetic tensor continuity equation in the limit that reflections and the accompanying surface forces are negligible thereby satisfying the condition of an unimpeded flow in a thermodynamically closed system. Here, we take the next step and derive equations of motion for the macroscopic fields in the limiting case of a piecewise-homogeneous simple linear dielectric medium. The presence of radiation surface forces on the interface between two different homogeneous linear materials means that the energy--momentum formalism must be modified to treat separate homogeneous media in which the ...

  2. Quantum anti-Zeno effect in artificial quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qing Ai; Jie-Qiao Liao; C. P. Sun

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study a quantum anti-Zeno effect (QAZE) purely induced by repetitive measurements for an artificial atom interacting with a structured bath. This bath can be artificially realized with coupled resonators in one dimension and possesses photonic band structure like Bloch electron in a periodic potential. In the presence of repetitive measurements, the pure QAZE is discovered as the observable decay is not negligible even for the atomic energy level spacing outside of the energy band of the artificial bath. If there were no measurements, the decay would not happen outside of the band. In this sense, the enhanced decay is completely induced by measurements through the relaxation channels provided by the bath. Besides, we also discuss the controversial golden rule decay rates originated from the van Hove's singularities and the effects of the counter-rotating terms.

  3. Understanding and engineering of NiGe/Ge junction formed by phosphorus ion implantation after germanidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Hiroshi, E-mail: oka@asf.mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Modulation of the effective electron Schottky barrier height (eSBH) of NiGe/Ge contacts induced by phosphorus ion implantation after germanide formation was investigated by considering local inhomogeneity in the eSBH. Systematic studies of NiGe/Ge contact devices having various germanide thicknesses and ion implantation areas indicated the threshold dopant concentration at the NiGe/Ge interface required for eSBH modulation and negligible dopant diffusion even at NiGe/Ge interface during drive-in annealing, leading to variation in the eSBH between the bottom and sidewall portions of the NiGe regions. Consequently, this method makes it possible to design source/drain contacts with low-resistivity Ohmic and ideal rectifying characteristics for future Ge-based transistors.

  4. Internal dissipation and heat leaks in quantum thermodynamic cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Daniel Alonso

    2015-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The direction of the steady-state heat currents across a generic quantum system connected to multiple baths may be engineered so as to realize virtually any thermodynamic cycle. In spite of their versatility such continuous energy-conversion systems are generally unable to operate at maximum efficiency due to non-negligible sources of irreversible entropy production. In this paper we introduce a minimal model of irreversible absorption chiller. We identify and characterize the different mechanisms responsible for its irreversibility, namely heat leaks and internal dissipation, and gauge their relative impact in the overall cooling performance. We also propose reservoir engineering techniques to minimize these detrimental effects. Finally, by looking into a known three-qubit embodiment of the absorption cooling cycle, we illustrate how our simple model may help to pinpoint the different sources of irreversibility naturally arising in more complex practical heat devices.

  5. Impacts of new coal-using technologies on coal markets and electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, C.H.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICF's Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) was used to make forecasts on the impact of new coal technologies and markets and utilities. The new technologies include the gasifier/ combined cycle (GCC), the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC), and the retrofit of synthetic coal-fluids on advanced combined cycle capacity. National production by the year 2000 will increase slightly. Impact of technology will be negligible due to the offsetting effects of GCC (it uses less coal) and synthetic coal fluids. Regional production will increase in synthetic coal fluid regions, decrease in sulphur coal regions. In utilities, coal additions by GCC are favored in the east, by AFBC in the west. SO/sub 2/ emissions will start to decline in 1995, NOx emissions will continue to rise, but not as sharply. Overall costs of utilities are expected to fall slightly by the year 2010.

  6. Observed physical processes in mechanical tests of PBX9501 and recomendations for experiments to explore a possible plasticity/damage threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buechler, Miles A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This memo discusses observations that have been made in regards to a series of monotonic and cyclic uniaxial experiments performed on PBX9501 by Darla Thompson under Enhanced Surveilance Campaign support. These observations discussed in Section Cyclic compression observations strongly suggest the presence of viscoelastic, plastic, and damage phenomena in the mechanical response of the material. In Secton Uniaxial data analysis and observations methods are discussed for separating out the viscoelastic effects. A crude application of those methods suggests the possibility of a critical stress below which plasticity and damage may be negligible. The threshold should be explored because if it exists it will be an important feature of any constitutive model. Additionally, if the threshold exists then modifications of experimental methods may be feasible which could potentially simplify future experiments or provide higher quality data from those experiments. A set of experiments to explore the threshold stress are proposed in Section Exploratory tests program for identifying threshold stress.

  7. Toward crystal design in organic conductors and superconductors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiser, U.

    1999-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have seen that many different types of intermolecular interactions in organic conducting cation radical salts. Hydrogen bonding between the donor molecules and the anions is weak but not negligible. The ionic Madelung energy is insufficient to completely intersperse anions and cations, thus the layers favored by the van der Waals interactions remain intact. The search for new conducting and superconducting salts has been mainly by trial-and-error methods, even though simple substitutions have been employed in order to obtain isostructural analogs of successful (e.g., superconducting) salts. However, even seemingly minor substitutions sometimes destroy the packing type, and different crystal structures result. Simulations with the aim at predicting crystal structures have not succeeded, mainly because the different interaction types are of comparable energy, and the delocalized and partial charges render the calculations of the ionic terms extremely unreliable. Clearly, the development of suitable crystal modeling techniques with predictive capabilities is one of the great needs of the field.

  8. Effects of Nb doping level on the electronic transport, photoelectric effect and magnetoresistance across La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J. F., E-mail: jifewang@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); College of Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 (China); Jiang, Y. C.; Gao, J., E-mail: jugao@hku.hk [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Chen, M. G. [College of Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 (China)] [College of Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 (China)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Heterojunctions composed of La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} and Nb doped SrTiO{sub 3} were fabricated, and the effects of the Nb doping level on their electronic transport, photoelectric effect, and magnetoresistance were investigated. A lower doping concentration of Nb led to better rectifying properties and higher open circuit voltages. The I-V curves for La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3}/0.7?wt.?% Nb-SrTiO{sub 3} showed a negligible response to magnetic fields for all temperatures, whereas La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3}/0.05?wt.?% Nb-SrTiO{sub 3} exhibited distinct magnetoresistance, which depended on both the bias voltage and temperature. These results are discussed with the assistance of conventional semiconductor theories.

  9. Inclusive Pion Double Charge Exchange above 0.5 GeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Vicente-Vacas; M. Kh. Khankhasayev; S. G. Mashnik

    1994-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A cascade model has been developed to study pion induced multichannel reactions (quasielastic, SCX, DCX, absorption and pion production) at pion energies above 0.5 GeV. Special attention has been paid to pion double charge exchange. Pion production is a determinant feature in the high energy pion nucleus reactions, and the DCX signal not related to pion production is sizeable only at forward angles and for high energy outgoing pions. The contribution to DCX of the conventional mechanism, with two quasielastic SCX steps decreases very fast as a function of the energy and reaches very low values at energies above 0.7 GeV. This opens the opportunity of having sizeable contributions of exotic mechanisms that are negligible at the delta resonance energies.

  10. Fission Barriers of Compound Superheavy Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Pei; W. Nazarewicz; J. A. Sheikh; A. K. Kerman

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. In this work, we investigate the isentropic fission barriers by means of the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory. The relationship between isothermal and isentropic descriptions is demonstrated. Calculations have been carried out for $^{264}$Fm, $^{272}$Ds, $^{278}$112, $^{292}$114, and $^{312}$124. For nuclei around $^{278}$112 produced in "cold fusion" reactions, we predict a more rapid decrease of fission barriers with excitation energy as compared to the nuclei around $^{292}$114 synthesized in "hot fusion" experiments. This is explained in terms of the difference between the ground-state and saddle-point temperatures. The effect of the particle gas is found to be negligible in the range of temperatures studied.

  11. Collective Deceleration: Toward a Compact Beam Dump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H.-C.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt.; Tajima, T.; Habs, D.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt. /Munich U.; Chao, A.W.; /SLAC; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. Quantenopt.

    2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increasing development of laser accelerators, the electron energy is already beyond GeV and even higher in near future. Conventional beam dump based on ionization or radiation loss mechanism is cumbersome and costly, also has radiological hazards. We revisit the stopping power of high-energy charged particles in matter and discuss the associated problem of beam dump from the point of view of collective deceleration. The collective stopping length in an ionized gas can be several orders of magnitude shorter than the Bethe-Bloch and multiple electromagnetic cascades stopping length in solid. At the mean time, the tenuous density of the gas makes the radioactivation negligible. Such a compact and non-radioactivating beam dump works well for short and dense bunches, which is typically generated from laser wakefield accelerator.

  12. Dark Energy in the Dark Ages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric V. Linder

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-negligible dark energy density at high redshifts would indicate dark energy physics distinct from a cosmological constant or ``reasonable'' canonical scalar fields. Such dark energy can be constrained tightly through investigation of the growth of structure, with limits of \\la2% of total energy density at z\\gg1 for many models. Intermediate dark energy can have effects distinct from its energy density; the dark ages acceleration can be constrained to last less than 5% of a Hubble e-fold time, exacerbating the coincidence problem. Both the total linear growth, or equivalently \\sigma_8, and the shape and evolution of the nonlinear mass power spectrum for zenergy behavior over the entire range z=0-1100.

  13. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on the Nearshore Environment: A Month-Long Study in Monterey Bay CA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Magalen, Jason; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified version of an indust ry standard wave modeling tool, SNL - SWAN, was used to perform model simulations for hourly initial wave conditio ns measured during the month of October 2009. The model was run with an array of 50 wave energy converters (WECs) and compared with model runs without WECs. Maximum changes in H s were found in the lee of the WEC array along the angles of incident wave dire ction and minimal changes were found along the western side of the model domain due to wave shadowing by land. The largest wave height reductions occurred during observed typhoon conditions and resulted in 14% decreases in H s along the Santa Cruz shoreline . Shoreline reductions in H s were 5% during s outh swell wave conditions and negligible during average monthly wave conditions.

  14. Fluid dynamics, particulate segregation, chemical processes, and natural ore analog discussions that relate to the potential for criticality in Hanford tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an in-depth review of the potential for nuclear criticality to occur in Hanford defense waste tanks during past, current and future safe storage and maintenance operations. The report also briefly discusses the potential impacts of proposed retrieval activities, although retrieval was not a main focus of scope. After thorough review of fluid dynamic aspects that focus on particle segregation, chemical aspects that focus on solubility and adsorption processes that might concentrate plutonium and/or separate plutonium from the neutron absorbers in the tank waste, and ore-body formation and mining operations, the interdisciplinary team has come to the conclusion that there is negligible risk of nuclear critically under existing storage conditions in Hanford site underground waste storage tanks. Further, for the accident scenarios considered an accidental criticality is incredible.

  15. Method of making dense, conformal, ultra-thin cap layers for nanoporous low-k ILD by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing (Albuquerque, NM); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Barrier layers and methods for forming barrier layers on a porous layer are provided. The methods can include chemically adsorbing a plurality of first molecules on a surface of the porous layer in a chamber and forming a first layer of the first molecules on the surface of the porous layer. A plasma can then be used to react a plurality of second molecules with the first layer of first molecules to form a first layer of a barrier layer. The barrier layers can seal the pores of the porous material, function as a diffusion barrier, be conformal, and/or have a negligible impact on the overall ILD k value of the porous material.

  16. Study on LiCl waste salt treatment process by layer melt crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Layer melt crystallization operated in a static mode has been applied to separate Group I and II chlorides from surrogate LiCl waste salt. The effects of operating conditions such as crystal growing rate(or flux) and initial impurity concentration on separation (or concentration) of cesium, strontium and barium involved in a LiCl melts were analyzed. In a layer crystallization process, separation was impaired by occlusion of impurities and by residual melt adhering to LiCl crystal after at the end of the process. The crystal growth rate strongly affects the crystal structure, therefore the separation efficiency, while the effect of the initial Cs and Sr concentration in LiCl molten salt was nearly negligible. (authors)

  17. Use of the WECC WAMS in Wide Area Probing Tests for Validation of System Performance & Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, John F.; Mittelstadt, William; Martin, Kenneth E.; Burns, J. W.; Lee, Harry; Pierre, John W.; Trudnowski, Daniel

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 2005 and 2006 the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) performed three major tests of western system dynamics. These tests used a Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based primarily on Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) to determine response to events including the insertion of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph braking resistor, probing signals, and ambient events. Test security was reinforced through real-time analysis of wide area effects, and high-quality data provided dynamic profiles for interarea modes across the entire western interconnection. The tests established that low-level optimized pseudo-random ±20-MW probing with the Pacific DC Intertie (PDCI) roughly doubles the apparent noise that is natural to the power system, providing sharp dynamic information with negligible interference to system operations. Such probing is an effective alternative to use of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph dynamic brake, and it is under consideration as a standard means for assessing dynamic security.

  18. Two-step build-up of a thermoreversible polymer network: From early local to late collective dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Souguir; O. Ronsin; C. Caroli; T. Baumberger

    2015-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We probe the mechanisms at work in the build-up of thermoreversible gel networks, with the help of hybrid gelatin gels containing a controlled density of irreversible, covalent crosslinks (CL), which we quench below the physical gelation temperature. The detailed analysis of the dependence on covalent crosslink density of both the shear modulus and optical activity evolutions with time after quench enables us to identify two stages of the physical gelation process, separated by a temperature dependent crossover modulus: (i) an early nucleation regime during which rearrangements of the triple-helix CL play a negligible role, (ii) a late, logarithmic aging one, which is preserved, though slowed down, in the presence of irreversible CL. We show that aging is fully controlled by rearrangements and discuss the implication of our results in terms of the switch from an early, local dynamics to a late, cooperative long-range one.

  19. Predictions of the poloidal asymmetries and transport frequencies in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bae, C., E-mail: cbae@nfri.re.kr; Lee, S. G.; Terzolo, L. [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Stacey, W. M. [Fusion Research Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)] [Fusion Research Center, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The extended neoclassical rotation theory formulated in Miller flux surface geometry enables unprecedented neoclassical calculations of the poloidal asymmetries in density, rotation velocities, electrostatic potential along the flux surfaces, and of the inertial (Reynolds stress) and gyroviscous transport frequencies, which are strong functions of these asymmetries. This paper presents such calculations of the poloidal asymmetries and non-negligible inertial and gyroviscous transport frequencies in two KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 094006 (2011)] Neutral Beam Injection H-mode discharges. The in-out asymmetries in the velocities are an order of magnitude larger than their up-down asymmetries. The magnitudes of the predicted inertial and gyroviscous transport frequencies depend on the magnitudes of the density and velocity asymmetries. The neoclassically predicted density asymmetries are shown to correspond with the reported measurements in tokamaks and the predicted carbon toroidal velocities agree very well with the measurements in KSTAR.

  20. Cosmological Perturbations in an Inflationary Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karim A. Malik

    2001-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    After introducing gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory we give an improved set of governing equations for multiple fluids including energy transfer. Having defined adiabatic and entropic perturbations we derive the ``conservation law'' for the curvature perturbation on large scales using only the energy conservation equation. We then investigate the dynamics of assisted inflation. By choosing an appropriate rotation in field space we can write down explicitly the potential for the weighted mean field along the scaling solution and for fields orthogonal to it. This allows us to present analytic solutions describing homogeneous and inhomogeneous perturbations about the attractor solution without resorting to slow-roll approximations. Finally we analyze the simplest model of preheating analytically, and show that in linear perturbation theory the effect of preheating on the amplitude of the curvature perturbation on large scales is negligible. We end with some concluding remarks, possible extensions and an outlook to future work.

  1. Kinetic mix mechanisms in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Hoffman, N.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; et al

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock-driven implosions of thin-shell capsules, or ''exploding pushers,'' generate low-density, high-temperature plasmas in which hydrodynamic instability growth is negligible and kinetic effects can play an important role. Data from implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells with hydroequivalent D3He gas fills ranging from pure deuterium to pure 3He [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135001 (2014)] were obtained to evaluate non-hydrodynamic fuel-shell mix mechanisms. Simulations of the experiments including reduced ion kinetic models support ion diffusion as an explanation for these data. Several additional kinetic mechanisms are investigated and compared to the data to determine which are important inmore »the experiments. Shock acceleration of shell deuterons is estimated to introduce mix less than or comparable to the amount required to explain the data. Beam-target mechanisms are found to produce yields at most an order of magnitude less than the observations« less

  2. First results from the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey: Constraints on the z=6 quasar luminosity function and the quasar contribution to reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris J. Willott; Xavier Delfosse; Thierry Forveille; Philippe Delorme; Stephen D. J. Gwyn

    2005-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present preliminary results of a new quasar survey being undertaken with multi-colour optical imaging from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The current data consists of 3.83 sq. deg. of imaging in the i' and z' filters to a 10 sigma limit of z'-3.2 at 95% confidence. We find that the comoving space-density of quasars brighter than M_1450=-23.5 declines by a factor >25 from z=2 to z=6, mirroring the decline observed for high-luminosity quasars. We consider the contribution of the quasar population to the ionizing photon density at z=6 and the implications for reionization. We show that the current constraints on the quasar population give an ionizing photon density <<30% that of the star-forming galaxy population. We conclude that active galactic nuclei make a negligible contribution to the reionization of hydrogen at z~6.

  3. Crumb rubber feasibility report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cumberland County supply region generates approximately 58,000 tons of scrap tires each year, equivalent to 45,000 tons of rubber after processing. Approximately 8,000 tons per year are in concentrated locations and can be easily collected. The costs of collection for the remainder vary significantly. Given current markets, economically feasible processes (ambient technology) can reprocess approximately 65 to 75 percent of the 37,000 tons into a marketable product. A processing plant sized for this supply would process 120 tons per day, a viable plant by industry standards. The end uses for whole tires constitute a negligible market, aside from the retreader market. Crumbed rubber is the major development efforts, there are potentially large opportunities in North Carolina.

  4. Modulated active charge exchange fast ion diagnostic for the C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Clary, R.; Dettrick, S. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Deichuli, P.; Kondakov, A.; Murakhtin, S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A diagnostic technique for measuring the fast-ion energy distribution in a field-reversed configuration plasma was developed and tested on the C-2 experiment. A deuterium neutral beam modulated at 22 kHz is injected into the plasma, producing a localized charge-exchange target for the confined fast protons. The escaping fast neutrals are detected by a neutral particle analyzer. The target beam transverse size ({approx}15 cm) defines the spatial resolution of the method. The equivalent current density of the target beam is {<=}0.15 A/cm{sup 2}, which corresponds to a neutral density ({approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) that highly exceeds the background neutral density in the core of C-2. The deuterium fast-ions due to the target beam (E{approx}27 keV), are not confined in C-2 and thus make a negligible contribution to the measured signals.

  5. Influence of Atomic Layer Deposition Temperatures on TiO2/n-Si MOS Capacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Daming [Kansas State University; Hossain, T [Kansas State University; Garces, N. Y. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; Nepal, N. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Eddy, C.R., Jr. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; Edgar, J H [Kansas State University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the influence of temperature on the structure, composition, and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited on n-type silicon (100) by atomic layer deposition (ALD). TiO2 layers around 20nm thick, deposited at temperatures ranging from 100 to 300 C, were studied. Samples deposited at 250 C and 200 C had the most uniform coverage as determined by atomic force microscopy. The average carbon concentration throughout the oxide layer and at the TiO2/Si interface was lowest at 200 C. Metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) were fabricated, and profiled by capacitance-voltage techniques. Negligible hysteresis was observed from a capacitance-voltage plot and the capacitance in the accumulation region was constant for the sample prepared at a 200 C ALD growth temperature. The interface trap density was on the order of 1013 eV-1cm-2 regardless of the deposition temperature.

  6. Magnetic anisotropies in epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/GaAs(100) patterned structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W., E-mail: xiaotur@gmail.com; Zhang, D.; Yuan, S. J.; Huang, Z. C.; Zhai, Y. [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Wong, P. K. J. [NanoElectronics Group, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 (Singapore); Wu, J. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Xu, Y. B. [Spintronics and Nanodevice Laboratory, Department of Electronics, University of York, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies on epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} rings in the context of spin-transfer torque effect have revealed complicated and undesirable domain structures, attributed to the intrinsic fourfold magnetocrystalline anisotropy in the ferrite. In this Letter, we report a viable solution to this problem, utilizing a 6-nm-thick epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin film on GaAs(100), where the fourfold magnetocrystalline anisotropy is negligible. We demonstrate that in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} planar wires patterned from our thin film, such a unique magnetic anisotropy system has been preserved, and relatively simple magnetic domain configurations compared to those previous reports can be obtained.

  7. Electron transport in carbon nanotube/RbAg{sub 4}I{sub 5} film composite nanostructures modulated by optical field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Guowei; Zhu, Jia-Lin [State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wei, Jinquan [Key Lab for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhang-wei@iapcm.ac.cn, E-mail: jlsun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009(28), Beijing 100088 (China); Sun, Jia-Lin, E-mail: zhang-wei@iapcm.ac.cn, E-mail: jlsun@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the transport properties of mixed ionic-electronic conductors made of carbon nanotube/RbAg{sub 4}I{sub 5} film composite nanostructures in the presence of optical fields. The formation of ion-electron bound states (IEBSs) due to Coulomb interactions results in significant conductance decrease. The wavelength-dependent and power-dependent dynamic responses show that the effect of photo-induced dissociation of IEBSs is pronounced in the visible region and negligible in near-infrared region. Our results lead to a deeper understanding of the impact of ion-electron interactions (IEIs) on transport and are expected to open up a way for designing new-type photodetectors based on IEIs.

  8. Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

  9. Bethe Ansatz and Ordinary Differential Equation Correspondence for Degenerate Gaudin Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omar El Araby; Vladimir Gritsev; Alexandre Faribault

    2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we generalize the numerical approach to Gaudin models developed earlier by us to degenerate systems showing that their treatment is surprisingly convenient from a numerical point of view. In fact, high degeneracies not only reduce the number of relevant states in the Hilbert space by a non negligible fraction, they also allow to write the relevant equations in the form of sparse matrix equations. Moreover, we introduce a new inversion method based on a basis of barycentric polynomials which leads to a more stable and efficient root extraction which most importantly avoids the necessity of working with arbitrary precision. As an example we show the results of our procedure applied to the Richardson model on a square lattice.

  10. Fatigue flaw growth assessment and inclusion of stratification to the LBB assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samohyl, P.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the LBB requires also fatigue flaw growth assessment. This analysis was performed for PWR nuclear power plants types VVER 440/230, VVER 440/213c, VVER 1000/320. Respecting that these NPP`s were designed according to Russian codes that differ from US codes it was needed to compare these approaches. Comparison with our experimental data was accomplished, too. Margins of applicability of the US methods and their modifications for the materials used for construction of Czech and Slovak NPP`s are shown. Computer code accomplishing the analysis according to described method is presented. Some measurement and calculations show that thermal stratifications in horizontal pipelines can lead to additive loads that are not negligible and can be dangerous. An attempt to include these loads induced by steady-state stratification was made.

  11. {sup 1}H NMR electron-nuclear cross relaxation in thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su Tining; Taylor, P. C.; Ganguly, G.; Carlson, D. E.; Bobela, D. C.; Hari, P. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); BP Solar, Toano, Virginia 23168 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the spin-lattice relaxation of the dipolar order in {sup 1}H NMR in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). We find that the relaxation is dominated by the cross relaxation between the hydrogen nuclei and the paramagnetic states. The relaxation is inhomogeneous, and can be described as a stretched exponential function. We proposed a possible mechanism for this relaxation. This mechanism applies to a rather broad range of paramagnetic states, including the deep neutral defects (dangling bonds), the light-induced metastable defects, the defects created by doping, and the singly occupied, localized band-tail states populated by light at low temperatures. The cross relaxation is only sensitive to the bulk spin density, and the surface spins have a negligible effect on the relaxation.

  12. Type Ia Supernova Intrinsic Magnitude Dispersion and the Fitting of Cosmological Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Alex G

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    I present an analysis for fitting cosmological parameters from a Hubble Diagram of a standard candle with unknown intrinsic magnitude dispersion. The dispersion is determined from the data themselves, simultaneously with the cosmological parameters. This contrasts with the strategies used to date. The advantages of the presented analysis are that it is done in a single fit (it is not iterative), it provides a statistically founded and unbiased estimate of the intrinsic dispersion, and its cosmological-parameter uncertainties account for the intrinsic dispersion uncertainty. Applied to Type Ia supernovae, my strategy provides a statistical measure to test for sub-types and assess the significance of any magnitude corrections applied to the calibrated candle. Parameter bias and differences between likelihood distributions produced by the presented and currently-used fitters are negligibly small for existing and projected supernova data sets.

  13. Scale dependence of f{sub NL} in N-flation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Qing-Guo, E-mail: huangqg@itp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adopting the horizon-crossing approximation, we derive the spectral index of f{sub NL} in general N-flation model. Axion N-flation model is taken as a typical model for generating a large f{sub NL} which characterizes the size of local form bispectrum. We find that its tilt n{sub f{sub N{sub L}}} is negligibly small when all inflatons have the same potential, but a negative detectable n{sub f{sub N{sub L}}} can be achieved in the axion N-flation with different decay constants for different inflatons. The measurement of n{sub f{sub N{sub L}}} can be used to support or falsify the axion N-flation in the near future.

  14. Self-field effects on instability of wave modes in a two-stream free-electron laser with an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohsenpour, Taghi, E-mail: mohsenpour@umz.ac.ir; Rezaee Rami, Omme Kolsoum [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Free electron lasers (FEL) play major roles in the Raman Regime, due to the charge and current densities of the beam self-field. The method of perturbation has been applied to study the influence of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. A dispersion relation for two-stream free electron lasers with a helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field has been found. This dispersion relation is solved numerically to investigate the influence of self-fields on the FEL coupling and the two-stream instability. It was found that self-fields can produce very large effects on the FEL coupling, but they have almost negligible effects on two-stream instability.

  15. High performance organic field-effect transistors with ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly onto the organic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, S., E-mail: shimpei@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Häusermann, R. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan) [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Chiba, D. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 322-0012 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimamura, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Batlogg, B. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)] [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have produced stable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with an ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly on top of rubrene single crystals by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We find that ALD is a gentle deposition process to grow thin films without damaging rubrene single crystals, as results these devices have a negligibly small threshold voltage and are very stable against gate-bias-stress, and the mobility exceeds 1 cm{sup 2}/V s. Moreover, the devices show very little degradation even when kept in air for more than 2 months. These results demonstrate thin HfO{sub 2} layers deposited by ALD to be well suited as high capacitance gate dielectrics in OFETs operating at small gate voltage. In addition, the dielectric layer acts as an effective passivation layer to protect the organic semiconductor.

  16. Controlled motion of Janus particles in periodically phase-separating binary fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeaki Araki; Shintaro Fukai

    2015-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We numerically investigate the propelled motions of a Janus particle in a periodically phase-separating binary fluid mixture. In this study, the surface of the particle tail prefers one of the binary fluid components and the particle head is neutral in the wettability. During the demixing period, the more wettable phase is selectively adsorbed to the particle tail. Growths of the adsorbed domains induce the hydrodynamic flow in the vicinity of the particle tail, and this asymmetric pumping flow drives the particle toward the particle head. During the mixing period, the particle motion almost ceases because the mixing primarily occurs via diffusion and the resulting hydrodynamic flow is negligibly small. Repeating this cycle unboundedly moves the Janus particle toward the head. The dependencies of the composition and the repeat frequency on the particle motion are discussed.

  17. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Adámek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.

  18. Analytical Energy Gradients in Range-Separated Hybrid Density Functional Theory with Random Phase Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mussard, Bastien; Ángyán, János G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytical forces have been derived in the Lagrangian framework for several random phase approximation (RPA) correlated total energy methods based on the range separated hybrid (RSH) approach, which combines a short-range density functional approximation for the short-range exchange-correlation energy with a Hartree-Fock-type long-range exchange and RPA long-range correlation. The RPA correlation energy has been expressed as a ring coupled cluster doubles (rCCD) theory. The resulting analytical gradients have been implemented and tested for geometry optimization of simple molecules and intermolecular charge transfer complexes, where intermolecular interactions are expected to have a non-negligible effect even on geometrical parameters of the monomers.

  19. Impact of contact and access resistances in graphene field-effect transistors on quartz substrates for radio frequency applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramón, Michael E., E-mail: michael.ramon@utexas.edu, E-mail: hemacp@utexas.edu; Movva, Hema C. P., E-mail: michael.ramon@utexas.edu, E-mail: hemacp@utexas.edu; Fahad Chowdhury, Sk.; Parrish, Kristen N.; Rai, Amritesh; Akinwande, Deji; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Magnuson, Carl W.; Ruoff, Rodney S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Materials Science and Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    High-frequency performance of graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) has been limited largely by parasitic resistances, including contact resistance (R{sub C}) and access resistance (R{sub A}). Measurement of short-channel (500?nm) GFETs with short (200?nm) spin-on-doped source/drain access regions reveals negligible change in transit frequency (f{sub T}) after doping, as compared to ?23% f{sub T} improvement for similarly sized undoped GFETs measured at low temperature, underscoring the impact of R{sub C} on high-frequency performance. DC measurements of undoped/doped short and long-channel GFETs highlight the increasing impact of R{sub A} for larger GFETs. Additionally, parasitic capacitances were minimized by device fabrication using graphene transferred onto low-capacitance quartz substrates.

  20. Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements and Analysis of Bypass Data for a Scaled 6mm Gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.R. Wolf; T.E. Conder; R.R. Schultz

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched Index of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for the flow ratios between coolant channels and bypass gaps in the interstitial regions of typical prismatic standard fuel element (SFE) or upper reflector block geometries of typical Modular High-temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (MHTGR) in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments will use optical techniques, primarily particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the INL Matched Index of Refraction (MIR) flow system.

  1. Signatures of Granulation in the Spectra of K-Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Ramirez; C. Allende Prieto; D. L. Lambert; M. Asplund

    2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Very high resolution (R>150,000) spectra of a small sample of nearby K-dwarfs have been acquired to measure the line asymmetries and central wavelength shifts caused by convective motions present in stellar photospheres. This phenomenon of granulation is modeled by 3D hydrodynamical simulations but they need to be confronted with accurate observations to test their realism before they are used in stellar abundance studies. We find that the line profiles computed with a 3D model agree reasonably well with the observations. The line bisectors and central wavelength shifts on K-dwarf spectra have a maximum amplitude of only about 200 m/s and we have been able to resolve these granulation effects with a very careful observing strategy. By computing a number of iron lines with 1D and 3D models (assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium), we find that the impact of 3D-LTE effects on classical iron abundance determinations is negligible.

  2. Cell body rocking is a dominant mechanism for flagellar synchronization in a swimming algae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Veikko; Howard, Jonathon; Friedrich, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas swims with two flagella, which can synchronize their beat. Synchronized beating is required to swim both fast and straight. A long-standing hypothesis proposes that synchronization of flagella results from hydrodynamic coupling, but the details are not understood. Here, we present realistic hydrodynamic computations and high-speed tracking experiments of swimming cells that show how a perturbation from the synchronized state causes rotational motion of the cell body. This rotation feeds back on the flagellar dynamics via hydrodynamic friction forces and rapidly restores the synchronized state in our theory. We calculate that this `cell body rocking' provides the dominant contribution to synchronization in swimming cells, whereas direct hydrodynamic interactions between the flagella contribute negligibly. We experimentally confirmed the coupling between flagellar beating and cell body rocking predicted by our theory. We propose that the interplay of flagellar beating a...

  3. Evolution of Primordial Black Holes in a radiation and phantom energy environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel C. Guariento; J. E. Horvath; P. S. Custódio; J. A. de Freitas Pacheco

    2007-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we extend previous work on the evolution of a Primordial Black Hole (PBH) to address the presence of a dark energy component with a super-negative equation of state as a background, investigating the competition between the radiation accretion, the Hawking evaporation and the phantom accretion, the latter two causing a decrease on black hole mass. It is found that there is an instant during the matter-dominated era after which the radiation accretion becomes negligible compared to the phantom accretion. The Hawking evaporation may become important again depending on a mass threshold. The evaporation of PBHs is quite modified at late times by these effects, but only if the Generalized Second Law of thermodynamics is violated.

  4. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  5. The effect of tungsten and molybdenum additions on the cavitation corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel (DSS) in seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Hashem, A.; Abdullah, A.; Shalaby, H.M. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cavitation corrosion studies were conducted on two duplex stainless steel (DSS) specimens of which one was containing tungsten and more molybdenum than the other. Experiments were conducted in seawater using an ultrasonically-induced cavitation facilities. The rate of mass-loss, free corrosion potential, and microscopic examinations were compared for the two alloys in the presence and absence of cavitation. There was negligible mass loss for the two alloys under stagnant conditions. However, some differences were observed between the two alloys with respect to mass-loss, corrosion potential and morphology of attacked areas. The alloy containing tungsten and mover molybdenum experienced more loss in weight regardless of their more noble corrosion potential during cavitation. This difference in behavior was explained in terms of the effect of the alloying elements on the microstructure of the alloys and their susceptibility to absorb the impact energy of cavitation.

  6. Kinetics of gasification of black liquor char by steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; van Heiningen, A.R.P. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McGill Univ., Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Montreal, Quebec (CA))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the steam gasification kinetics of kraft black liquor char that were studied in a thermogravimetric analysis reactor. The effect of steam and hydrogen concentration on gasification rate can be described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetics. An activation energy of 210 kJ/mol was obtained. Methane formation was negligible, and H{sub 2}S was the major gaseous sulfur-containing product obtained over the temperature range studied, 873-973 K. The CO{sub 2} concentration was higher than calculated for the water-shift reaction at equilibrium. A gasification mechanism is proposed whereby CO{sub 2} is one of the primary gasification products.

  7. Magnetization plateaus of dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Y. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M., E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike spin ice on pyrochlore lattice, the spin ice structure on kagome lattice retains net magnetic charge, indicating non-negligible dipolar interaction in modulating the spin ice states. While it is predicted that the dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice exhibits a ground state with magnetic charge order and ?3?×??3 spin order, our work focuses on the magnetization plateau of this system. By employing the Wang-Landau algorithm, it is revealed that the lattice exhibits the fantastic three-step magnetization in response to magnetic field h along the [10] and [01] directions, respectively. For the h//[1 0] case, an additional ?3/6M{sub s} step, where M{sub s} is the saturated magnetization, is observed in a specific temperature range, corresponding to a new state with charge order and short-range spin order.

  8. Black Holes are neither Particle Accelerators nor Dark Matter Probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean T. McWilliams

    2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that maximally spinning black holes can serve as particle accelerators, reaching arbitrarily high center-of-mass energies. Despite several objections regarding the practical achievability of such high energies, and demonstrations past and present that such large energies could never reach a distant observer, interest in this problem has remained substantial. We show that, unfortunately, a maximally spinning black hole can never serve as a probe of high energy collisions, even in principle and despite the correctness of the original diverging energy calculation. Black holes can indeed facilitate dark matter annihilation, but the most energetic photons can carry little more than the rest energy of the dark matter particles to a distant observer, and those photons are actually generated relatively far from the black hole where relativistic effects are negligible. Therefore, any strong gravitational potential could probe dark matter equally well, and an appeal to black holes for facilitating such collisions is unnecessary.

  9. Tensile tests of niobium material for SRF cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, G.; Dhanaraj, N.; Cooley, L.; Hicks, D.; Hahn, E.; Burk, D.; Muranyi, W.; Foley, N.; Edwards, H.; Harms, E.; Champion, M.; /Fermilab /Michigan State U.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical tests of cavity-grade niobium samples were conducted to provide engineering information for the certification of 3rd-harmonic superconducting radio-frequency cavities and cryomodules. Large changes of mechanical properties occur throughout the cavity fabrication process due to the cold work introduced by forming, the heating introduced by electron beam welding, and the recovery of cold work during the anneal used to degas hydrogen after chemical processing. Data is provided here to show the different properties at various stages of fabrication, including both weld regions and samples from the bulk niobium far away from the weld. Measurements of RRR were used to assure that any contamination during annealing was negligible.

  10. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay CA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Grace Chang; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A n indust ry standard wave modeling tool was utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters and wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deploym ent scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that b oth wave height and near - bottom orbital velocity we re subject to the largest pote ntial variations, each decreas ed in sensitivity as transmission coefficient increase d , as number and spacing of WEC devices decrease d , and as the deployment location move d offshore. Wave direction wa s affected consistently for all parameters and wave perio d was not affected (or negligibly affected) by varying model parameters or WEC configuration .

  11. Evaluation of two-stage system for neutron measurement aiming at increase in count rate at Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Fusion Neutronics Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinohara, K., E-mail: shinohara.koji@jaea.go.jp; Ochiai, K.; Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Ishii, K.; Kitajima, S. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Baba, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sasao, M. [Organization for Research Initiatives and Development, Doshisha University, Kyoto 602-8580 (Japan)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to increase the count rate capability of a neutron detection system as a whole, we propose a multi-stage neutron detection system. Experiments to test the effectiveness of this concept were carried out on Fusion Neutronics Source. Comparing four configurations of alignment, it was found that the influence of an anterior stage on a posterior stage was negligible for the pulse height distribution. The two-stage system using 25 mm thickness scintillator was about 1.65 times the count rate capability of a single detector system for d-D neutrons and was about 1.8 times the count rate capability for d-T neutrons. The results suggested that the concept of a multi-stage detection system will work in practice.

  12. A flexible scintillation light apparatus for rare event searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonvicini, Valter; Cremonesi, Oliviero; Cucciati, Giacomo; Gironi, Luca; Pavan, Maura; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compelling experimental evidences of neutrino oscillations and their implication that neutrinos are massive particles have given neutrinoless double beta decay a central role in astroparticle physics. In fact, the discovery of this elusive decay would be a major breakthrough, unveiling that neutrino and antineutrino are the same particle and that the lepton number is not conserved. It would also impact our efforts to establish the absolute neutrino mass scale and, ultimately, understand elementary particle interaction unification. All current experimental programs to search for neutrinoless double beta decay are facing with the technical and financial challenge of increasing the experimental mass while maintaining incredibly low levels of spurious background. The new concept described in this paper could be the answer which combines all the features of an ideal experiment: energy resolution, low cost mass scalability, isotope choice flexibility and many powerful handles to make the background negligible. The ...

  13. The spectral index and its running in axionic curvaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that a sizable running spectral index suggested by the recent SPT data can be explained in the axionic curvaton model with a potential that consists of two sinusoidal contributions of different height and period. We find that the running spectral index is generically given by dn{sub s}/dln k ? 2?/?N (n{sub s}?1), where ?N is the e-folds during one period of modulations. In the string axiverse, axions naturally acquire a mass from multiple contributions, and one of the axions may be responsible for the density perturbations with a sizable running spectral index via the curvaton mechanism. We note that the axionic curvaton model with modulations can also accommodate the red-tilted spectrum with a negligible running, without relying on large-field inflation.

  14. Simulation of the Dynamic Inefficiency of the CMS Pixel Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Márton Bartók

    2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pixel Detector is the innermost part of the CMS Tracker. It therefore has to prevail in the harshest environment in terms of particle fluence and radiation. There are several mechanisms that may decrease the efficiency of the detector. These are mainly caused by data acquisition (DAQ) problems and/or Single Event Upsets (SEU). Any remaining efficiency loss is referred to as the dynamic inefficiency. It is caused by various mechanisms inside the Readout Chip (ROC) and depends strongly on the data occupancy. In the 2012 data, at high values of instantaneous luminosity the inefficiency reached 2\\% (in the region closest to the interaction point) which is not negligible. In the 2015 run higher instantaneous luminosity is expected, which will result in lower efficiencies; therefore this effect needs to be understood and simulated. A data-driven method has been developed to simulate dynamic inefficiency, which has been shown to successfully simulate the effects.

  15. A likelihood method to cross-calibrate air-shower detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dembinski, H P; Mari?, I C; Roth, M; Veberi?, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed statistical treatment of the energy calibration of hybrid air-shower detectors, which combine a surface detector array and a fluorescence detector, to obtain an unbiased estimate of the calibration curve. The special features of calibration data from air showers prevent unbiased results, if a standard least-squares fit is applied to the problem. We develop a general maximum-likelihood approach, based on the detailed statistical model, to solve the problem. Our approach was developed for the Pierre Auger Observatory, but the applied principles are general and can be transferred to other air-shower experiments, even to the cross-calibration of other observables. Since our general likelihood function is expensive to compute, we derive two approximations with significantly smaller computational cost. In the recent years both have been used to calibrate data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We demonstrate that these approximations introduce negligible bias when they are applied to simulated t...

  16. The ATLAS Event Service: A New Approach to Event Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calafiura, Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration; Guan, Wen; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ATLAS Event Service (ES) implements a new fine grained approach to HEP event processing, designed to be agile and efficient in exploiting transient, short-lived resources such as HPC hole-filling, spot market commercial clouds, and volunteer computing. Input and output control and data flows, bookkeeping, monitoring, and data storage are all managed at the event level in an implementation capable of supporting ATLAS-scale distributed processing throughputs (about 4M CPU-hours/day). Input data flows utilize remote data repositories with no data locality or pre­staging requirements, minimizing the use of costly storage in favor of strongly leveraging powerful networks. Object stores provide a highly scalable means of remotely storing the quasi-continuous, fine grained outputs that give ES based applications a very light data footprint on a processing resource, and ensure negligible losses should the resource suddenly vanish. We will describe the motivations for the ES system, its unique features and capabi...

  17. The over 20 year operating experience with carbon steel tubings at Abu Attifel Field. Problems and solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheldi, T. [ENI-AGIP Div., Milan (Italy); Rumash, K. [AGIP Oil, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Bazzoni, B. [Cescor srl, Milan (Italy)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abu Attifel onshore oil field (Libya) was discovered in 1968 and put in production in November 1972. The total average production is nowadays about 140,000 BOPD (22,260 m{sup 3}/d) with 46 producing wells. All the production wells were originally completed with carbon steel tubing, although the produced fluids contain CO{sub 2}-4% in the gas phase. After several years of production with minor downhole corrosion problems, several corrosion failures started to occur in the nineties at extremely high corrosion rate. In some cases corrosion attacks occurred although the water cut was negligible (lower than 1%). A detailed corrosion study was initiated to investigate the problem in order to identify the most critical production wells and the priority of intervention for well; this paper reports the corrosion assessment results and the actions undertaken to control the corrosion. A occurred corrosion events is also reported.

  18. Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Bela; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as $45.5\\,M_\\odot$. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  19. Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bela Szilagyi; Jonathan Blackman; Alessandra Buonanno; Andrea Taracchini; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Mark A. Scheel; Tony Chu; Lawrence E. Kidder; Yi Pan

    2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as $45.5\\,M_\\odot$. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  20. Variation in chlorobenzoate catabolism by Pseudomonas putida P111 as a consequence of genetic alterations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, V.; Focht, D.D. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)); Hernandez, B.S. (Univ. of Panama (Panama))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chlorobenzoates are key intermediates in the degradative pathways of polychlorinated biphenyls and benzoate herbicides. Bacteria that cometabolize these pollutants generally accumulate chlorobenzoates because they are not able to grow on them. Special interest has been focused on ortho-chlorobenzoates because they are more refractory to biodegradation. In all of these studies the enzyme responsible for the first attack on the ortho-chlorobenzoates possesses minimal or negligible activity with meta- or para-chlorobenzoates. This study reports evidence for the existence of two separate benzoate dioxygenases in Pseudomonas putida P111 and for the transpostional nature of the clc operon, on the basis of genetic investigations of different phenotypic variants of this strain. 42 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.