National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for negative stock change

  1. Evaluation of negative ion distribution changes by image processing diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, K. Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Distributions of hydrogen Balmer-α (H{sub α}) intensity and its reduction behavior close to a plasma grid (PG) surface have been observed by a spectrally selective imaging system in an arc discharge type negative hydrogen ion source in National Institute for Fusion Science. H{sub α} reduction indicates a reduction of negative hydrogen ions because the mutual neutralization process between H{sup +} and H{sup −} ions causes the dominant excitation process for H{sub α} emission in the rich H{sup −} condition such as in ionic plasma. We observed a significant change in H{sub α} reduction distribution due to change in the bias voltage, which is used to suppress the electron influx. Small H{sub α} reduction in higher bias is likely because the production of negative ions is suppressed by the potential difference between the plasma and PG surface.

  2. Jim Stock

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     James H. Stock is a member of the Council of Economic Advisers and is responsible for offering the President objective advice on the formulation of economic policy.  Stock was previously...

  3. Stock Photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stock-Photos Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors Technology & Innovation...

  4. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks ...

  5. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type",6,"Monthly","82015","1151956"...

  6. U.S. Climate Change Science Program Scientific Assessment of...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... stocks dominate (e.g., Chavez et al., 2003). * ENSO events negatively affect zooplankton and fish stocks, resulting in a collapse of anchovy stocks in offshore ecosystems of Peru. ...

  7. Property:StockSymbol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    StockSymbol Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:StockSymbol&oldid173773...

  8. Recent Trends in Crude Oil Stock Levels

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This article, the third in a series of three on petroleum stocks, attempts to identify the components of the decline in the EIA crude oil stock data.

  9. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume II, Steelhead Stock Summaries, Stock Transfer Guidelines, Information Needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Philip J.

    1985-07-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of wild and hatchery-raised steelhead trout stocks in the Columbia River Basin. (ACR)

  10. "ENDING STOCKS OF CRUDE OIL (excluding SPR)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ENDING STOCKS OF CRUDE OIL (excluding SPR)" "Sourcekey","WCESTP11","WCESTP11","WCESTP21","... 1) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly East Coast ...

  11. Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Census Division June 30, 2014 March 31, 2014 June 30, 2013 Percent Change (June 30) 2014 versus 2013 Middle Atlantic 547 544 857 -36.2 East North Central 1,130 963 1,313 -13.9 South

  12. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Haowei; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiping; Gilbert, Jack A.; Sun, Xin; Wu, Linwei; Lin, Qiaoyan; Hu, Yigang; Li, Xiangzhen; He, Zhili; et al

    2015-02-17

    Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition that offsets increased grass productivity. Yet, a multi-decadal survey indicated that the surface soil C stock in Tibetan alpine grasslands remained relatively stable. To investigate this inconsistency, we analyzed the feedback responses of soil microbial communities to simulated warming by soil transplant in Tibetan grasslands. Microbial functional diversity decreased in response to warming, whereas microbial community structure did not correlate with changes in temperature. The relative abundance of catabolic genes associated with nitrogen (N) and C cycling decreased with warming, most notablymore » in genes encoding enzymes associated with more recalcitrant C substrates. By contrast, genes associated with C fixation increased in relative abundance. The relative abundance of genes associated with urease, glutamate dehydrogenase and ammonia monoxygenase (ureC, gdh and amoA) were significantly correlated with N2O efflux. These results suggest that unlike arid/semiarid grasslands, Tibetan grasslands maintain negative feedback mechanisms that preserve terrestrial C and N pools. To examine whether these trends were applicable to the whole plateau, we included these measurements in a model and verified that topsoil C stocks remained relatively stable. Thus, by establishing linkages between microbial metabolic potential and soil biogeochemical processes, we conclude that long-term C loss in Tibetan grasslands is ameliorated by a reduction in microbial decomposition of recalcitrant C substrates.« less

  13. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Haowei; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiping; Gilbert, Jack A.; Sun, Xin; Wu, Linwei; Lin, Qiaoyan; Hu, Yigang; Li, Xiangzhen; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-02-17

    Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition that offsets increased grass productivity. Yet, a multi-decadal survey indicated that the surface soil C stock in Tibetan alpine grasslands remained relatively stable. To investigate this inconsistency, we analyzed the feedback responses of soil microbial communities to simulated warming by soil transplant in Tibetan grasslands. Microbial functional diversity decreased in response to warming, whereas microbial community structure did not correlate with changes in temperature. The relative abundance of catabolic genes associated with nitrogen (N) and C cycling decreased with warming, most notably in genes encoding enzymes associated with more recalcitrant C substrates. By contrast, genes associated with C fixation increased in relative abundance. The relative abundance of genes associated with urease, glutamate dehydrogenase and ammonia monoxygenase (ureC, gdh and amoA) were significantly correlated with N2O efflux. These results suggest that unlike arid/semiarid grasslands, Tibetan grasslands maintain negative feedback mechanisms that preserve terrestrial C and N pools. To examine whether these trends were applicable to the whole plateau, we included these measurements in a model and verified that topsoil C stocks remained relatively stable. Thus, by establishing linkages between microbial metabolic potential and soil biogeochemical processes, we conclude that long-term C loss in Tibetan grasslands is ameliorated by a reduction in microbial decomposition of recalcitrant C substrates.

  14. CBECS 2012: Building Stock Results

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A Look at the U.S. Commercial Building Stock: Results from EIA's 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) CBECS 2012 - Release date: March 4, 2015 What is a commercial building? The CBECS includes buildings greater than 1,000 square feet that devote more than half of their floorspace to activity that is not residential, manufacturing, industrial, or agricultural. The 2012 CBECS collected building characteristics data from more than 6,700 U.S. commercial buildings. This report

  15. Commercial Building Stock Assessment: Findings and Opportunities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NORTHWEST ENERGY EFFICIENCY ALLIANCE 2014 Commercial Building Stock Assessment: BPA Brown Bag May 20, 2015 Christopher Frye Senior Manager, Market Research and Evaluation Aaron...

  16. Method and apparatus for forming flues on tubular stock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, D.E.; Carson, C.

    1979-12-21

    The present invention is directed to a die mechanism utilized for forming flues on long, relatively narrow tubular stock. These flues are formed by displacing a die from within the tubular stock through perforations previously drilled through the tubular stock at selected locations. The drawing of the die upsets the material to form the flue of the desired configuration. The die is provided with a lubricating system which enables the lubricant to be dispensed uniformly about the entire periphery of the die in contact with the material being upset so as to assure the formation of the flues. Further, the lubricant is dispensed from within the die onto the peripheral surface of the latter at pressures in the range of about 2000 to 10,000 psi so as to assure the adequate lubrication of the die during the drawing operation. By injecting the lubricant at such high pressures, low viscosity liquid, such as water and/or alcohol, may be efficiently used as a lubricant and also provides a mechanism by which the lubricant may be evaporated from the surface of the flues at ambient conditions so as to negate the cleansing operations previously required prior to joining the flues to other conduit mechanisms by fusion welding and the like.

  17. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-07-02

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing the heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in Earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a data setmore » with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, and 500 m and 1, 2, 5, and 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83–0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 m to ~ 500 m

  18. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-01-27

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a dataset with reasonablemore » fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, 500 m, 1, 2, 5, 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83–0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 to ~ 500 m, and remained

  19. A quantum mechanical model for the relationship between stock price and stock ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotfas, Liviu-Adrian

    2012-11-01

    The trade of a fixed stock can be regarded as the basic process that measures its momentary price. The stock price is exactly known only at the time of sale when the stock is between traders, that is, only in the case when the owner is unknown. We show that the stock price can be better described by a function indicating at any moment of time the probabilities for the possible values of price if a transaction takes place. This more general description contains partial information on the stock price, but it also contains partial information on the stock owner. By following the analogy with quantum mechanics, we assume that the time evolution of the function describing the stock price can be described by a Schroedinger type equation.

  20. Tianjin Lishen Battery Joint stock Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lishen Battery Joint stock Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianjin Lishen Battery Joint-stock Co Ltd Place: Tianjin, Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300384 Product:...

  1. Ryazan Metal Ceramics Instrumentation Plant Joint Stock Co RMCIP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ryazan Metal Ceramics Instrumentation Plant Joint Stock Co RMCIP JSC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ryazan Metal Ceramics Instrumentation Plant Joint Stock Co (RMCIP JSC) Place:...

  2. Hubei Shenzhou New Energy Power Generation Stock Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hubei Shenzhou New Energy Power Generation Stock Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hubei Shenzhou New Energy Power Generation Stock Co Ltd Place: Hubei Province, China...

  3. Shandong Jinjing Science Technology Stock Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jinjing Science Technology Stock Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shandong Jinjing Science & Technology Stock Co Ltd Place: Zibo, Shandong Province, China Zip: 255200...

  4. Negative ion generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, Regan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  5. Negative ion generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  6. Effect of hydroprocessing on lubricant base stock composition and product performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galiano-Roth, A.S.; Page, N.M.

    1994-08-01

    Conventional lubricant base stock manufacture via solvent refining involves the physical separation of lube molecules while hydroprocessing changes the chemical structures of these molecules. Sulfur, nitrogen, and aromatic compounds are reduced to very low levels, compared to conventional refining. These changes in composition naturally affect product performance. Lube oil oxidation stability is increased but inferior solvency characteristics are apparent. This paper summarizes the effect of hydroprocessing unit configuration (one vs. two stage), hydrogen pressure, and hydrotreating temperature on lube base stock composition (sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics). Base stock aromatic composition, as evaluated by ultraviolet spectroscopy, is related to lube oil oxidation stability in a phenol-based antioxidant formulation. Solvency problems observed for the formulated products can be improved with additive modifications. 8 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Tianjin B M Science Technology Joint Stock Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Science Technology Joint Stock Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianjin B&M Science & Technology Joint Stock, Ltd Place: China Product: China-based maker of cathode material...

  8. Table 2. U.S. Biodiesel production, sales, and stocks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production, sales, and stocks" "million gallons" "Period","B100 production",,"Sales of B100",,"Sales of B100 included in biodiesel blends",,"Ending stocks of ...

  9. Negative electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  10. Crude oil as refinery feed stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boduszynski, M.M.; Farrell, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper gives a brief overview of the integrated oil refinery. It illustrates that crude oil refining involves {open_quotes}molecular tailoring,{close_quotes} where feed stock molecules are {open_quotes}tailored{close_quotes} through catalytic processing to make products with the most desirable composition. Chemical composition of crude oil as refinery feed stock is discussed. The emphasis is on the understanding of molecular transformations which occur in refinery processes to manufacture light transportation fuels. Diesel fuel manufacturing is used as an example. Recent environmental legislation in the United States has necessitated a significant upgrade in the quality of diesel fuel used for highway transportation. Examples are given to illustrate the impact that petroleum chemistry may have on the industry`s response to government regulations.

  11. RenewableEnergyStocks com | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Washington State Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Investor and industry portal for the renewable energy sector. References: RenewableEnergyStocks.com1 This article...

  12. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition...

  13. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  14. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  15. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  16. Heavy crudes, stocks pose desalting problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartley, D.

    1982-02-02

    The design of electrostatic desalters for crudes lighter than 30 API is well established and is no longer considered a problem. However, since 1970, the number of desalting applications involving heavy crudes (less than 20 API), syncrudes, and residual fuels has increased markedly. These stocks present unique problems that require additional design considerations. All produced crude oils, including synthetic crude from shale, tar sands, and coal liquefaction, contain impurities that adversely affect production and refining processes, the equipment used in these processes, and the final products. The most common of these impurities are water, salt, solids, metals, and sulfur. The desalting process consists of (1) adding water with a low salt content (preferably fresh) to the feedstock; (2) adequately mixing this added water with the feedstock, which already contains some quantities of salty water, sediment, and/or crystalline salt; and (3) extracting as much water as possible from the feedstock.

  17. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delmore, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  18. Improved negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  19. iStock_000018654807XSmall.jpg | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information iStock_000018654807XSmall

  20. Revised Propane Stock Levels for 6/7/13

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised Propane Stock Levels for 6713 Release Date: June 19, 2013 Following the release of the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) for the week ended June 7, 2013, EIA...

  1. Advisory on the reporting error in the combined propane stocks...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Advisory on the reporting error in the combined propane stocks for PADDs 4 and 5 Release Date: June 12, 2013 The U.S. Energy Information Administration issued the following...

  2. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  3. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  4. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Hiskes, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  5. Structures with negative index of refraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soukoulis, Costas M.; Zhou, Jiangfeng; Koschny, Thomas; Zhang, Lei; Tuttle, Gary

    2011-11-08

    The invention provides simplified negative index materials (NIMs) using wire-pair structures, 4-gap single ring split-ring resonator (SRR), fishnet structures and overleaf capacitor SRR. In the wire-pair arrangement, a pair of short parallel wires and continuous wires are used. In the 4-gap single-ring SRR, the SRRs are centered on the faces of a cubic unit cell combined with a continuous wire type resonator. Combining both elements creates a frequency band where the metamaterial is transparent with simultaneously negative .di-elect cons. and .mu.. In the fishnet structure, a metallic mesh on both sides of the dielectric spacer is used. The overleaf capacitor SRR changes the gap capacities to small plate capacitors by making the sections of the SRR ring overlap at the gaps separated by a thin dielectric film. This technique is applicable to conventional SRR gaps but it best deploys for the 4-gap single-ring structures.

  6. Wuhan Linuo Solar Energy Group Stock Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Linuo Solar Energy Group Stock Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wuhan Linuo Solar Energy Group Stock Co Ltd Place: Wuhan, Hubei Province, China Zip: 430015 Sector: Solar...

  7. Stocks, Flows, and Prospects of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loschel, Andrea; Johnston, John; Delucchi, Mark A; Demayo, Trevor N; Gautier, Donald L; Greene, David L; Ogden, Joan; Rayner, Steve; Worrell, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of future energy systems have typically focused on energy sufficiency and climate change issues. While the potential supply of energy services will probably not constrain us in the immediate future, there are limits imposed on the energy system by climate change considerations, which, in turn, are inextricably bound up with land, water, and nonrenewable mineral resources issues. These could pose constraints to energy systems that may not have been fully accounted for in current analyses. There is a pressing lack of knowledge on the boundaries that will impact a sustainable energy system. A more integrated view of energy sustainability is necessary to ensure the well-being of current and future generations. This chapter proposes a set of measures related to sustainability within the context of selected energy scenarios and develops a methodology to define and measure relevant quantities and important links to other resource areas.

  8. Stocks, Flows, and Prospects of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loschel, Andrea; Johnston, John; Delucchi, Mark A; Demayo, Trevor N; Gautier, Donald L; Greene, David L; Ogden, Joan; Rayner, Steve; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of future energy systems have typically focused on energy suffi ciency and climate change issues. While the potential supply of energy services will probably not constrain us in the immediate future, there are limits imposed on the energy system by climate change considerations, which, in turn, are inextricably bound up with land, water, and nonrenewable mineral resources issues. These could pose constraints to energy systems that may not have been fully accounted for in current analyses. There is a pressing lack of knowledge on the boundaries that will impact a sustainable energy system. A more integrated view of energy sustainability is necessary to ensure the well-being of current and future generations. This chapter proposes a set of measures related to sustainability within the context of selected energy scenarios and develops a methodology to define and measure relevant quantities and important links to other resource areas.

  9. Spectroscopic Evidence for Negative Electronic Compressibility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopic Evidence for Negative Electronic Compressibility in a Quasi-three-dimensional Spin-orbit Correlated Metal Tuesday, June 30, 2015 Negative compressibility is a sign of...

  10. Negative mass solitons in gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-03-15

    We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Z{sub p} spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordstroem metrics.

  11. Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material to provide fuels or chemical feed stock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Dennis A.

    1980-01-01

    A process is disclosed for hydrocracking coal or other carbonaceous material to produce various aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, phenol and cresols in variable relative concentrations while maintaining a near constant maximum temperature. Variations in relative aromatic concentrations are achieved by changing the kinetic severity of the hydrocracking reaction by altering the temperature profile up to and quenching from the final hydrocracking temperature. The relative concentration of benzene to the alkyl and hydroxyl aromatics is increased by imposing increased kinetic severity above that corresponding to constant heating rate followed by immediate quenching at about the same rate to below the temperature at which dehydroxylation and dealkylation reactions appreciably occur. Similarly phenols, cresols and xylenes are produced in enhanced concentrations by adjusting the temperature profile to provide a reduced kinetic severity relative to that employed when high benzene concentrations are desired. These variations in concentrations can be used to produce desired materials for chemical feed stocks or for fuels.

  12. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  13. Device for translating negative film image to a line scan

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, G. Wayne

    1998-05-19

    A negative film reader records high-resolution optical density changes across negative film radiographic images to allow precise image dimensions to be determined. A laser light source capable of high-resolution focusing is passed through an intensity control filter, focused by a lens, and reflected off a mirror to focus in the plane of the negative film. The light transmitted through the film is collected by a second lens and directed to a photo diode detector which senses the transmitted intensity. The output of the photo diode signal amplifier is sent to the Y-axis input of an X-Y recorder. The film sample is transported in a plane perpendicular to the beam axis by means of a slide. The film position is monitored, with the signal amplified and recorded as the X-axis on the X-Y recorder. The linear dimensions and positions of image components can be determined by direct measurement of the amplified recording.

  14. Electrochemical cell and negative electrode therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with the positive and negative electrodes separated by a molten salt electrolyte with the negative electrode comprising a particulate mixture of lithium-aluminum alloy and electrolyte and an additive selected from graphitized carbon, Raney iron or mixtures thereof. The lithium-aluminum alloy is present in the range of from about 45 to about 80 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is present in an amount not less than about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode. The additive of graphitized carbon is present in the range of from about 1 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the Raney iron additive is present in the range of from about 3 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode.

  15. Negative resistance in an organic thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehara, S. ); Takagi, T. ); Yoshida, T.; Inaba, H.; Naito, H.; Okuda, M. )

    1992-08-20

    This paper reports that the negative resistance of the tunneling currents was observed in a semiconducting organic thin film on a graphite substrate by an STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy). This negative resistance may be understood by the theory of a molecular resonance tunneling effect.

  16. The rule of the stock distribution with large bell in blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Yuncai

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes in detail, starting from the basic equation of materials falling from a two bell furnace top system, how a number of mathematical expressions which govern the stock distribution of the throat were derived. An analysis was then made by applying these equations on topics, such as stockline levels, charging sequences, stock grain size, large bell angle and batch weight. This demonstrates that a reasonable two bells top charging system and practice could be established theoretically. Furthermore, character numbers for stock distribution, such as E{sub B} and D{sub K}, were developed for a possible computer application.

  17. 120 years of U.S. residential housing stock and floor space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moura, Maria Cecilia P.; Smith, Steven J.; Belzer, David B.; Zhou, Wei -Xing

    2015-08-11

    Residential buildings are a key driver of energy consumption and also impact transportation and land-use. Energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for one-fifth of total U.S. energy consumption and energy-related CO₂ emissions, with floor space a major driver of building energy demands. In this work a consistent, vintage-disaggregated, annual long-term series of U.S. housing stock and residential floor space for 1891–2010 is presented. An attempt was made to minimize the effects of the incompleteness and inconsistencies present in the national housing survey data. Over the 1891–2010 period, floor space increased almost tenfold, from approximately 24,700 to 235,150 million square feet, corresponding to a doubling of floor space per capita from approximately 400 to 800 square feet. While population increased five times over the period, a 50% decrease in household size contributed towards a tenfold increase in the number of housing units and floor space, while average floor space per unit remains surprisingly constant, as a result of housing retirement dynamics. In the last 30 years, however, these trends appear to be changing, as household size shows signs of leveling off, or even increasing again, while average floor space per unit has been increasing. GDP and total floor space show a remarkably constant growth trend over the period and total residential sector primary energy consumption and floor space show a similar growth trend over the last 60 years, decoupling only within the last decade.

  18. 120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto de Moura, Maria C.; Smith, Steven J.; Belzer, David B.

    2015-08-11

    Energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for one-fifth of total U.S. energy consumption and energy-related CO2 emissions. Floor space is a major driver of building energy demand. This paper develops a historical time series of total residential floor space for 1891-2010 and examines the role of socio-economic drivers GDP, population and household size on floor space. Using primarily data from the U.S. Census Bureau, we develop new construction and vintage-disaggregated housing stock for three building types, and address various data inconsistency issues. An examination of the long-term relationship of GDP and total residential floor space shows a remarkably constant trend over the period. While population increases five times over the period, a 50% decrease in household size contributes towards a tenfold increase in the number of housing units and floor space, while average floor space per unit remains surprisingly constant, as a result of housing retirement dynamics. In the last 30 years, however, these trends appear to be changing, as household size shows signs of leveling off, or even increasing again, while average floor space per unit has been increasing. Total residential sector primary energy consumption and floor space show a similar growth trend over the last 60 years.

  19. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-10-28

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor- depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current- induced resistive state.

  20. Negative differential resistance in GaN tunneling hot electron transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhichao; Nath, Digbijoy; Rajan, Siddharth

    2014-11-17

    Room temperature negative differential resistance is demonstrated in a unipolar GaN-based tunneling hot electron transistor. Such a device employs tunnel-injected electrons to vary the electron energy and change the fraction of reflected electrons, and shows repeatable negative differential resistance with a peak to valley current ratio of 7.2. The device was stable when biased in the negative resistance regime and tunable by changing collector bias. Good repeatability and double-sweep characteristics at room temperature show the potential of such device for high frequency oscillators based on quasi-ballistic transport.

  1. Negative hydrogen ion production in a helicon plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoso, J. Corr, C. S.; Manoharan, R.; O'Byrne, S.

    2015-09-15

    In order to develop very high energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for applications, such as plasma heating in fusion devices, it is necessary first to develop high throughput negative ion sources. For the ITER reference source, this will be realised using caesiated inductively coupled plasma devices, containing either hydrogen or deuterium discharges, operated with high rf input powers (up to 90 kW per driver). It has been suggested that due to their high power coupling efficiency, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially obviate the need for caesiation due to the high plasma densities achievable. Here, we present measurements of negative ion densities in a hydrogen discharge produced by a helicon device, with externally applied DC magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 8.5 mT at 5 and 10 mTorr fill pressures. These measurements were taken in the magnetised plasma interaction experiment at the Australian National University and were performed using the probe-based laser photodetachment technique, modified for the use in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. A peak in the electron density is observed at ∼3 mT and is correlated with changes in the rf power transfer efficiency. With increasing magnetic field, an increase in the negative ion fraction from 0.04 to 0.10 and negative ion densities from 8 × 10{sup 14 }m{sup −3} to 7 × 10{sup 15 }m{sup −3} is observed. It is also shown that the negative ion densities can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of an external DC magnetic field.

  2. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLellan, Holly

    2003-03-01

    Lake Whatcom, Washington kokanee have been stocked in Lake Roosevelt since 1987 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining fishery. Success has been limited by low recruitment to the fishery, low adult returns to hatcheries, and a skewed sex ratio. It was hypothesized that a stock native to the upper Columbia River might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom stock. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Post smolts from each stock were released from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance was evaluated using three measures; (1) number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to 86 tributaries sampled and, (3) the number of returns to the creel. In two repeated experiments, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appeared to be capable of providing a run of three-year old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. Less than 10 three-years olds from either stock were collected during the study period. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek and to other tributaries in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Lake Whatcom stock in both 2000 and 2001. However, preliminary data from the Spokane Tribe of Indians indicated that a large number of both stocks were precocial before they were stocked. The small number of hatchery three-year olds collected indicated that the current hatchery rearing and stocking methods will continue to produce a limited jacking run largely composed of precocious males and a small number of three-year olds. No kokanee from the study were collected during standard lake wide creel surveys. Supplemental creel data, including fishing derbies, test fisheries, and angler diaries, indicated anglers harvested two-year-old hatchery kokanee a month after release. The majority of the two-year old kokanee harvested

  3. Carrier heating and negative photoconductivity in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyman, J. N.; Stein, J. D.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Banman, A. R.; Massari, A. M.; Robinson, J. T.

    2015-01-07

    We investigated negative photoconductivity in graphene using ultrafast terahertz techniques. Infrared transmission was used to determine the Fermi energy, carrier density, and mobility of p-type chemical vapor deposition graphene samples. Time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity measurements using a tunable mid-infrared pump probed these samples at photon energies between 0.35 eV and 1.55 eV, approximately one-half to three times the Fermi energy of the samples. Although interband optical transitions in graphene are blocked for pump photon energies less than twice the Fermi energy, we observe negative photoconductivity at all pump photon energies investigated, indicating that interband excitation is not required to observe this effect. Our results are consistent with a thermalized free-carrier population that cools by electron-phonon scattering, but are inconsistent with models of negative photoconductivity based on population inversion.

  4. Negative electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John T.; Fransson, Linda M.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2005-02-15

    A negative electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell. The electrode has an intermetallic compound as its basic structural unit with the formula M.sub.2 M' in which M and M' are selected from two or more metal elements including Si, and the M.sub.2 M' structure is a Cu.sub.2 Sb-type structure. Preferably M is Cu, Mn and/or Li, and M' is Sb. Also disclosed is a non-aqueous electrochemical cell having a negative electrode of the type described, an electrolyte and a positive electrode. A plurality of cells may be arranged to form a battery.

  5. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coco, Isabelle; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  6. Is the negative glow plasma of a direct current glow discharge negatively charged?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanov, E. A.; Saifutdinov, A. I.; Demidov, V. I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2015-02-15

    A classic problem in gas discharge physics is discussed: what is the sign of charge density in the negative glow region of a glow discharge? It is shown that traditional interpretations in text-books on gas discharge physics that states a negative charge of the negative glow plasma are based on analogies with a simple one-dimensional model of discharge. Because the real glow discharges with a positive column are always two-dimensional, the transversal (radial) term in divergence with the electric field can provide a non-monotonic axial profile of charge density in the plasma, while maintaining a positive sign. The numerical calculation of glow discharge is presented, showing a positive space charge in the negative glow under conditions, where a one-dimensional model of the discharge would predict a negative space charge.

  7. 120 years of U.S. residential housing stock and floor space

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moura, Maria Cecilia P.; Smith, Steven J.; Belzer, David B.; Zhou, Wei -Xing

    2015-08-11

    Residential buildings are a key driver of energy consumption and also impact transportation and land-use. Energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for one-fifth of total U.S. energy consumption and energy-related CO₂ emissions, with floor space a major driver of building energy demands. In this work a consistent, vintage-disaggregated, annual long-term series of U.S. housing stock and residential floor space for 1891–2010 is presented. An attempt was made to minimize the effects of the incompleteness and inconsistencies present in the national housing survey data. Over the 1891–2010 period, floor space increased almost tenfold, from approximately 24,700 to 235,150 million squaremore » feet, corresponding to a doubling of floor space per capita from approximately 400 to 800 square feet. While population increased five times over the period, a 50% decrease in household size contributed towards a tenfold increase in the number of housing units and floor space, while average floor space per unit remains surprisingly constant, as a result of housing retirement dynamics. In the last 30 years, however, these trends appear to be changing, as household size shows signs of leveling off, or even increasing again, while average floor space per unit has been increasing. GDP and total floor space show a remarkably constant growth trend over the period and total residential sector primary energy consumption and floor space show a similar growth trend over the last 60 years, decoupling only within the last decade.« less

  8. Effects of discharge chamber length on the negative ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bong-Ki; An, YoungHwa; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    In a volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source, control of electron temperature is essential due to its close correlation with the generation of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region as well as the generation of negative hydrogen ions by dissociative attachment in the extraction region. In this study, geometric effects of the cylindrical discharge chamber on negative ion generation via electron temperature changes are investigated in two discharge chambers with different lengths of 7.5 cm and 11 cm. Measurements with a radio-frequency-compensated Langmuir probe show that the electron temperature in the heating region is significantly increased by reducing the length of the discharge chamber due to the reduced effective plasma size. A particle balance model which is modified to consider the effects of discharge chamber configuration on the plasma parameters explains the variation of the electron temperature with the chamber geometry and gas pressure quite well. Accordingly, H{sup −} ion density measurement with laser photo-detachment in the short chamber shows a few times increase compared to the longer one at the same heating power depending on gas pressure. However, the increase drops significantly as operating gas pressure decreases, indicating increased electron temperatures in the extraction region degrade dissociative attachment significantly especially in the low pressure regime. It is concluded that the increase of electron temperature by adjusting the discharge chamber geometry is efficient to increase H{sup −} ion production as long as low electron temperatures are maintained in the extraction region in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources.

  9. Cesium injection system for negative ion duoplasmatrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Maasaki (Oho, JA); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY); Sluyters, Theodorus J (East Patchogue, NY)

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinally extending, foraminous cartridge means having a cylindrical side wall forming one flat, circular, tip end surface and an opposite end; an open-ended cavity, and uniformly spaced orifices for venting the cavity through the side wall in the annulus of a plasma ring for uniformly ejecting cesium for coating the flat, circular, surface. To this end, the cavity is filled with a cesium containing substance and attached to a heater in a hollow-discharge duoplasmatron. By coating the flat circular surface with a uniform monolayer of cesium and locating it in an electrical potential well at the end of a hollow-discharge, ion duoplasmatron source of an annular hydrogen plasma ring, the negative hydrogen production from the duoplasmatron is increased. The negative hydrogen is produced on the flat surface of the cartridge and extracted by the electrical potential well along a trajectory coaxial with the axis of the plasma ring.

  10. Calibrated Blade-Element/Momentum Theory Aerodynamic Model of the MARIN Stock Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goupee, A.; Kimball, R.; de Ridder, E. J.; Helder, J.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.

    2015-04-02

    In this paper, a calibrated blade-element/momentum theory aerodynamic model of the MARIN stock wind turbine is developed and documented. The model is created using open-source software and calibrated to closely emulate experimental data obtained by the DeepCwind Consortium using a genetic algorithm optimization routine. The provided model will be useful for those interested in validating interested in validating floating wind turbine numerical simulators that rely on experiments utilizing the MARIN stock wind turbine—for example, the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30’s Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continued, with Correlation project.

  11. EM Rockets Past Target for Donations to Stock Food Banks | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Rockets Past Target for Donations to Stock Food Banks EM Rockets Past Target for Donations to Stock Food Banks November 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis EMCBC Director Jack Craig, left to right, EM Executive Assistant Jillian Carter, who is EM's Feds Feed Families representative, and Senior Advisor for Environmental Management David Huizenga pause for a photo Nov. 8. Craig holds the "Teamwork Award" he and his staff received. EMCBC Director Jack Craig, left to right, EM Executive

  12. DOE Accepts Bids for Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Accepts Bids for Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks DOE Accepts Bids for Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks February 3, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today has awarded contracts to three companies who successfully bid for the purchase of 984,253 barrels of heating oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve. Awardee Amount Morgan Stanley 500,000 barrels Shell Trading U.S. Company 250,000 barrels George E. Warren Corporation 234,253

  13. DOE Completes Sale of Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Completes Sale of Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks DOE Completes Sale of Northeast Home Heating Oil Stocks February 10, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today has awarded contracts to four companies who successfully bid for the purchase of 1,000,000 barrels of heating oil from the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve storage sites in Groton and New Haven, CT. Hess Groton Terminal, Groton, CT Shell Trading U.S. Company 150,000 barrels Sprague

  14. California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks Describes system for fueling truck ...

  15. Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves by Periodic Resonator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves by Periodic Resonator Arrays Prev Next Title: Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves by Periodic Resonator Arrays Authors: Hu,...

  16. Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

  17. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  18. Single-resonator double-negative metamaterial

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Johnson, William A.; Ihlefeld, Jon; Ginn, III, James C.; Clem, Paul G.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2016-06-21

    Resonances can be tuned in dielectric resonators in order to construct single-resonator, negative-index metamaterials. For example, high-contrast inclusions in the form of metallic dipoles can be used to shift the first electric resonance down (in frequency) to the first magnetic resonance, or alternatively, air splits can be used to shift the first magnetic resonance up (in frequency) near the first electric resonance. Degenerate dielectric designs become especially useful in infrared- or visible-frequency applications where the resonator sizes associated with the lack of high-permittivity materials can become of sufficient size to enable propagation of higher-order lattice modes in the resulting medium.

  19. The production and destruction of negative ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pegg, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Single photon absorption-single electron detachment from few-electron atomic negative ions was studied. A crossed beam apparatus is being used to perform energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopic measurements following photodetachment. Forward-directed electrons were collected and energy analyzed. The kinetic energies and yields of the photoelectrons were obtained by fitting the spectral peaks to Gaussian functions. Electron affinities, asymmetry parameters and cross sections are determined from these measurements. A ratio method in which the cross section for the ion of interest is measured relative to that of a reference ion was used. The study of the photodetachment of Li[sup [minus

  20. CS Chang

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CS Chang CS Chang FES Requirements Worksheet 1.1. Project Information - Center for Plasma Edge Simulation Document Prepared By CS Chang Project Title Center for Plasma Edge...

  1. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavenago, M.; Minarello, A.; Sattin, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Laterza, B.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.; and others

    2015-04-08

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135?mA at ?60?kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2?MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  2. Negative ion extraction from hydrogen plasma bulk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.

    2013-10-15

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model has been developed and used to study low electronegative magnetized hydrogen plasma. A configuration characterized by four electrodes is used: the left electrode is biased at V{sub l} = −100 V, the right electrode is grounded, while the upper and lower transversal electrodes are biased at an intermediate voltage V{sub ud} between 0 and −100 V. A constant and homogeneous magnetic field is applied parallel to the lateral (left/right) electrodes. It is shown that in the magnetized case, the bulk plasma potential is close to the transversal electrodes bias inducing then a reversed sheath in front of the right electrode. The potential drop within the reversed sheath is controlled by the transversal electrodes bias allowing extraction of negative ions with a significant reduction of co-extracted electron current. Furthermore, introducing plasma electrodes, between the transversal electrodes and the right electrode, biased with a voltage just above the plasma bulk potential, increases the negative ion extracted current and decreases significantly the co-extracted electron current. The physical mechanism on basis of this phenomenon has been discussed.

  3. Negative hydrogen ion yields at plasma grid surface in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wada, M.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2015-04-08

    Negative hydrogen (H{sup ?}) ion yield from the plasma grid due to incident hydrogen ions and neutrals has been evaluated with the surface collision cascade model, ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) coupled to a negative surface ionization models. Dependence of negative ion fractions upon the velocity component normal to the surface largely affect the calculation results of the final energy and angular distributions of the H{sup ?} ions. The influence is particularly large for H{sup ?} ions desorbed from the surface due to less than several eV hydrogen particle implact. The present calculation predicts that H{sup ?} ion yield can be maximized by setting the incident angle of hydrogen ions and neutrals to be 65 degree. The Cs thickness on the plasma grid should also affect the yields and mean energies of surface produced H{sup ?} ions by back scattering and ion induced desorption processes.

  4. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1984-02-13

    A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

  5. The utilization of excess wind-electric power from stock water pumping systems to heat a sector of the stock tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nydahl, J.E.; Carlson, B.O.

    1996-12-31

    On the high plains, a wind-electric stock water pumping system produces a significant amount of excess power over the winter months due to intense winds and the decreased water consumption by cattle. The University of Wyoming is developing a multi-tasking system to utilize this excess energy to resistively heat a small sector of the stock tank at its demonstration/experimental site. This paper outlines the detailed heat transfer analysis that predicted drinking water temperature and icing conditions. It also outlines the optimization criteria and the power produced by the Bergey 1500 wind electric system. Results show that heating a smaller insulated tank inserted into the larger tank would raise the drinking water temperature by a maximum of 6.7 {degrees}C and eliminate icing conditions. The returns associated with the additional cattle weight gain, as a result of the consumption of warmer water, showed that system modification costs would be recovered the first year. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. U.S. stock market interaction network as learned by the Boltzmann machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borysov, Stanislav S.; Roudi, Yasser; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2015-12-07

    Here, we study historical dynamics of joint equilibrium distribution of stock returns in the U.S. stock market using the Boltzmann distribution model being parametrized by external fields and pairwise couplings. Within Boltzmann learning framework for statistical inference, we analyze historical behavior of the parameters inferred using exact and approximate learning algorithms. Since the model and inference methods require use of binary variables, effect of this mapping of continuous returns to the discrete domain is studied. The presented results show that binarization preserves the correlation structure of the market. Properties of distributions of external fields and couplings as well as the market interaction network and industry sector clustering structure are studied for different historical dates and moving window sizes. We demonstrate that the observed positive heavy tail in distribution of couplings is related to the sparse clustering structure of the market. We also show that discrepancies between the model’s parameters might be used as a precursor of financial instabilities.

  7. Operating a redox flow battery with a negative electrolyte imbalance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Quoc; Chang, On; Durairaj, Sumitha

    2015-03-31

    Loss of flow battery electrode catalyst layers during self-discharge or charge reversal may be prevented by establishing and maintaining a negative electrolyte imbalance during at least parts of a flow battery's operation. Negative imbalance may be established and/or maintained actively, passively or both. Actively establishing a negative imbalance may involve detecting an imbalance that is less negative than a desired threshold, and processing one or both electrolytes until the imbalance reaches a desired negative level. Negative imbalance may be effectively established and maintained passively within a cell by constructing a cell with a negative electrode chamber that is larger than the cell's positive electrode chamber, thereby providing a larger quantity of negative electrolyte for reaction with positive electrolyte.

  8. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  9. Threshold photodetachment spectroscopy of negative ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitsopoulos, T.N.

    1991-12-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development and application of high resolution threshold photodetachment spectroscopy of negative ions. Chapter I deals with the principles of our photodetachment technique, and in chapter II a detailed description of the apparatus is presented. The threshold photodetachment spectra of I{sup {minus}}, and SH{sup {minus}}, presented in the last sections of chapter II, indicated that a resolution of 3 cm{sup {minus}1} can be achieved using our technique. In chapter III the threshold photodetachment spectroscopy study of the transition state region of I + HI and I + Di reactions is discussed. Our technique probes the transition state region directly, and the results of our study are the first unambiguous observations of reactive resonances in a chemical reaction. Chapters IV, V and VI are concerned with the spectroscopy of small silicon and carbon clusters. From our spectra we were able to assign electronic state energies and vibrational frequencies for the low lying electronics states of Si{sub n} (n=2,3,4), C{sub 5} and their corresponding anions.

  10. Estimating Monthly 1989-2000 Data for Generation, Consumption, and Stocks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly Energy Review, Section 7: Estimating Monthly 1989-2000 Data for Generation, Consumption, and Stocks For 1989-2000, monthly and annual data were collected for electric utilities; however, during this time period, only annual data were collected for independent power producers, commercial plants, and industrial plants. To obtain 1989-2000 monthly estimates for the Electric Power, Commercial, and Industrial Sectors, electric utility patterns were used for each energy source (MonthX =

  11. Annual Stock Assessment - CWT [Coded Wire Tag program] (USFWS), Annual Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pastor, Stephen M.

    2009-07-21

    In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began funding the evaluation of production groups of juvenile anadromous fish not being coded-wire tagged for other programs. These groups were the 'Missing Production Groups'. Production fish released by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) without representative coded-wire tags during the 1980s are indicated as blank spaces on the survival graphs in this report. This program is now referred to as 'Annual Stock Assessment - CWT'. The objectives of the 'Annual Stock Assessment' program are to: (1) estimate the total survival of each production group, (2) estimate the contribution of each production group to fisheries, and (3) prepare an annual report for USFWS hatcheries in the Columbia River basin. Coded-wire tag recovery information will be used to evaluate the relative success of individual brood stocks. This information can also be used by salmon harvest managers to develop plans to allow the harvest of excess hatchery fish while protecting threatened, endangered, or other stocks of concern. All fish release information, including marked/unmarked ratios, is reported to the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC). Fish recovered in the various fisheries or at the hatcheries are sampled to recover coded-wire tags. This recovery information is also reported to PSMFC. This report has been prepared annually starting with the report labeled 'Annual Report 1994'. Although the current report has the title 'Annual Report 2007', it was written in fall of 2008 using data available from RMIS that same year, and submitted as final in January 2009. The main objective of the report is to evaluate survival of groups which have been tagged under this ongoing project.

  12. Resource recovery from urban stock, the example of cadmium and tellurium from thin film module recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, F.-G.; Holm, O.; Berger, W.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► The semiconductor layer on thin-film photovoltaic modules can be removed from the glass-plate by vacuum blast cleaning. ► The separation of blasting agent and semiconductor can be performed using flotation with a valuable yield of 55%. ► PV modules are a promising source for the recovery of tellurium in the future. - Abstract: Raw material supply is essential for all industrial activities. The use of secondary raw material gains more importance since ore grade in primary production is decreasing. Meanwhile urban stock contains considerable amounts of various elements. Photovoltaic (PV) generating systems are part of the urban stock and recycling technologies for PV thin film modules with CdTe as semiconductor are needed because cadmium could cause hazardous environmental impact and tellurium is a scarce element where future supply might be constrained. The paper describes a sequence of mechanical processing techniques for end-of-life PV thin film modules consisting of sandblasting and flotation. Separation of the semiconductor material from the glass surface was possible, however, enrichment and yield of valuables in the flotation step were non-satisfying. Nevertheless, recovery of valuable metals from urban stock is a viable method for the extension of the availability of limited natural resources.

  13. Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Enhanced stability at a lower cost Lowers cost for enhanced stability capability. A new class of intermetallic material for the negative electrode that offers a significantly higher volumetric and gravimetric capacity and improves battery stability and safety. PDF icon negative_electrodes

  14. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plateau 376-7435 Class of Change I - Signatories X II - Executive Manager III - Project Manager Change Title Modify Tri-Party Agreement Milestone Series M-015 in...

  15. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plateau 376-7435 Class of Change X I - Signatories II - Executive Manager III - Project Manager Change Title Modify Tri-Party Agreement Milestone Series M-020 in...

  16. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-02-01 Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form Do not use blue ink. Type or print using black ink. Date 2/11/2002 Originator Phone P. M. Knollmeyer, Assistant Manager Central Plateau 376-7435 Class of Change [X] I - Signatories [ ] II - Executive Manager [ ] III - Project Manager Change Title Modification of the M-016 Series Milestones Description/Justification of Change The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (TPA) contains commitments for the U.S.

  17. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13-02-01 Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form Do not use blue ink. Type or print using black ink. Date 2/11/2002 Originator Phone P. M. Knollmeyer, Assistant Manager Central Plateau 376-7435 Class of Change [X] I - Signatories [ ] II - Executive Manager [ ] III - Project Manager Change Title Modification of the Central Plateau 200 Area Non-Tank Farm Remedial Action Work Plans (M-013 Series Milestones) Description/Justification of Change The Hanford Federal Facility

  18. CS Chang

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CS Chang CS Chang FES Requirements Worksheet 1.1. Project Information - Center for Plasma Edge Simulation Document Prepared By CS Chang Project Title Center for Plasma Edge Simulation Principal Investigator CS Chang Participating Organizations New York University, ORNL, PPPL, LBNL, MIT, Columbia U., Rutgers U. Lehigh U., Georgia Tech, Auburn U., U. Colorado, U. California at Irvine, Caltech, Hinton Associates Funding Agencies DOE SC DOE NSA NSF NOAA NIH Other: 2. Project Summary & Scientific

  19. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  20. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  1. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operation and Maintenance, 2006-2007 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellman, Jake; Dykstra, Tim

    2009-05-11

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance (DV Fisheries) project is an ongoing resident fish program that serves to partially mitigate the loss of anadromous fish that resulted from downstream construction of the hydropower system. The project's goals are to enhance subsistence fishing and educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes and provide resident fishing opportunities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View, Lake Billy Shaw, and Sheep Creek Reservoirs, the program is also designed to maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, to provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and to offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period are divided into operations and maintenance plus monitoring and evaluation. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs and stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles and equipment, and outhouses. Monitoring and evaluation activities included creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, control of encroaching exotic vegetation, and community outreach and education. The three reservoirs are monitored in terms of water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir was very unproductive this year as a fishery. Fish morphometric and water quality data indicate that the turbidity is severely impacting trout survival. Lake Billy Shaw was very productive as a fishery and received good ratings from anglers. Mountain View was also productive and anglers reported a high number of quality sized fish. Water quality

  2. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operation and Maintenance, 2005-2006 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellman, Jake; Dykstra, Tim

    2009-05-11

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance (DV Fisheries) project is an ongoing resident fish program designed to enhance both subsistence fishing, educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes, and recreational fishing facilities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View, Lake Billy Shaw, and Sheep Creek Reservoirs, the program also intends to afford and maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, to provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and to offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period are divided into operations and maintenance plus monitoring and evaluation. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs and stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles and equipment, and outhouses. Monitoring and evaluation activities included creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, control of encroaching exotic vegetation, and community outreach and education. The three reservoirs are monitored in terms of water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir was the least productive as a result of high turbidity levels and constraining water quality parameters. Lake Billy Shaw trout were in poorer condition than in previous years potentially as a result of water quality or other factors. Mountain View Reservoir trout exhibit the best health of the three reservoirs and was the only reservoir to receive constant flows of water.

  3. Structures with Negative Refractive Index for Applications in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This Return to Search Structures with Negative Refractive Index for Applications in Optics and Nanophotonics Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology...

  4. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis...

  5. Production of negative hydrogen ions on metal grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, H.; Kawata, K.

    2015-03-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced on a nickel grid with positive-ion irradiation. In order to investigate the production mechanism, a copper grid without the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms and positive helium ions without negative ionization are used for comparison. Positive hydrogen ions reflected on the metal surface obtain two electrons from the surface and become negatively ionized. It is found that the production yield of negative ions by desorption ionization of chemisorbed hydrogen atoms seems to be small, and the production is a minor mechanism.

  6. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (Hsup -) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a ...

  7. Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Enhanced stability at a lower cost Lowers cost for enhanced stability ...

  8. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLellan, Holly; Scholz, Allan

    2002-03-01

    Lake Roosevelt has been stocked with Lake Whatcom stock kokanee since 1989 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining recreational fishery. Due to low return numbers, it was hypothesized a stock of kokanee, native to the upper Columbia River, might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom strain. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Matched pair releases of Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee were made from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance between Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee was evaluated using three performance measures; (1) the number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to other tributaries and (3) the number of returns to the creel. Kokanee were collected during five passes through the reservoir via electrofishing, which included 87 tributary mouths during the fall of 2000 and 2001. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Whatcom stock in 2000 ({chi}{sup 2} = 736.6; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01) and 2001 ({chi}{sup 2} = 156.2; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01). Reservoir wide recoveries of age two kokanee had similar results in 2000 ({chi}{sup 2} = 735.3; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01) and 2001 ({chi}{sup 2} = 150.1; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01). Six Lake Whatcom and seven Meadow Creek three year olds were collected in 2001. The sample size of three year olds was too small for statistical analysis. No kokanee were collected during creel surveys in 2000, and two (age three kokanee) were collected in 2001. Neither of the hatchery kokanee collected were coded wire tagged, therefore stock could not be distinguished. After two years of monitoring, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appear to be capable of providing a run of three-year-old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. The small number of

  9. Growth in global oil inventories slows, drawdown in stocks expected in late 2017

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Growth in global oil inventories slows, drawdown in stocks expected in late 2017 The growth in global oil inventories is expected to slow in response to stronger growth in world oil demand, with inventories now expected to be drawn down during the second half of next year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said oil inventories will grow by just under 1 million barrels per day this year. Inventories will continue to grow during the first half of 2017 though

  10. U.S. stock market interaction network as learned by the Boltzmann machine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borysov, Stanislav S.; Roudi, Yasser; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2015-12-07

    Here, we study historical dynamics of joint equilibrium distribution of stock returns in the U.S. stock market using the Boltzmann distribution model being parametrized by external fields and pairwise couplings. Within Boltzmann learning framework for statistical inference, we analyze historical behavior of the parameters inferred using exact and approximate learning algorithms. Since the model and inference methods require use of binary variables, effect of this mapping of continuous returns to the discrete domain is studied. The presented results show that binarization preserves the correlation structure of the market. Properties of distributions of external fields and couplings as well as themore » market interaction network and industry sector clustering structure are studied for different historical dates and moving window sizes. We demonstrate that the observed positive heavy tail in distribution of couplings is related to the sparse clustering structure of the market. We also show that discrepancies between the model’s parameters might be used as a precursor of financial instabilities.« less

  11. Survey of Potential Glass Compositions for the Immobilisation of the UK's Separated Plutonium Stocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Mike T.; Scales, Charlie R.; Bingham, Paul A.; Hand, Russell J.

    2007-07-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has taken over ownership of the majority of the UK's separated civil plutonium stocks, which are expected to exceed 100 metric tons by 2010. Studies to technically underpin options development for the disposition of these stocks, for example by immobilization or re-use as fuel, are being carried out by Nexia Solutions on behalf of NDA. Three classes of immobilization matrices have been selected for investigation by means of previous studies and stakeholder dialogue: ceramic or crystalline waste-forms, storage MOx, and vitreous or glass-based waste-forms. This paper describes the preliminary inactive experimental program for the vitrification option, with results from a wide range of glass compositions along with conclusions on their potential use for plutonium immobilization. Following review, four glass systems were selected for preliminary investigation: borosilicate, lanthanide borosilicate, aluminosilicate and phosphate glasses. A broad survey of glass properties was completed in order to allow meaningful evaluation, e.g. glass formulation, waste loading, chemical durability, thermal properties, and viscosity. The program was divided into two parts, with silicate and phosphate glasses being investigated by Nexia Solutions and the Immobilisation Science Laboratory (ISL) at the University of Sheffield respectively. (authors)

  12. Technology Prioritization: Transforming the U.S. Building Stock to Embrace Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Farese, Philip; Abramson, Alexis; Phelan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Buildings sector is responsible for about 40% of the national energy expenditures. This is due in part to wasteful use of resources and limited considerations made for energy efficiency during the design and retrofit phases. Recent studies have indicated the potential for up to 30-50% energy savings in the U.S. buildings sector using currently available technologies. This paper discusses efforts to accelerate the transformation in the U.S. building energy efficiency sector using a new technology prioritization framework. The underlying analysis examines building energy use micro segments using the Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook and other publically available information. The tool includes a stock-and-flow model to track stock vintage and efficiency levels with time. The tool can be used to investigate energy efficiency measures under a variety of scenarios and has a built-in energy accounting framework to prevent double counting of energy savings within any given portfolio. This tool is developed to inform decision making and estimate long term potential energy savings for different market adoption scenarios.

  13. Climate Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is fighting climate change with research, clean fossil energy technology, domestic renewable energy development and more energy efficient appliances, homes, businesses and vehicles.

  14. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change Log Change Log NERSC-8 / Trinity Benchmarks Change Log 09/03/2013 Correction applied to MiniDFT web-page (to remove inconsistency with MiniDFT README). Capability Improvement measurements do not require 10,000 MPI ranks per k-point. 08/06/2013 Various pages have changed to remove "draft" status 08/02/2013 Correction added to FLOP Counts for "Small" Single-Node Miniapplication Tests page 07/12/2013 README files updated for IOR benchmark to correct an error in wording

  15. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC-8 Trinity Benchmarks Change Log 09032013 Correction applied to MiniDFT web-page ... results spreadsheet (linked on SSP web page); clarification to benchmark run rules ...

  16. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    1987-01-01

    A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- ions that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- ions to spin polarize the H.sup.- ions and produce first and second populations or groups of ions, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the ions in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- ions, without neutralizing the ions in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- ions each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of ions are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- ions away from the group of neutralized ions, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- ion beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.

  17. Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    While information exists on high energy negative particle channeling there has been little study of the challenges of negative particle bending and channeling collimation. Partly this is because negative dechanneling lengths are relatively much shorter. Electrons are not particularly useful for investigating negative particle channeling effects because their material interactions are dominated by channeling radiation. Another important factor is that the current central challenge in channeling collimation is the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where both beams are positive. On the other hand in the future the collimation question might reemerge for electon-positron or muon colliders. Dechanneling lengths increase at higher energies so that part of the negative particle experimental challenge diminishes. In the article different approaches to determining negative dechanneling lengths are reviewed. The more complicated case for axial channeling is also discussed. Muon channeling as a tool to investigate dechanneling is also discussed. While it is now possible to study muon channeling it will probably not illuminate the study of negative dechanneling.

  18. Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    ecause it takes time to establish institutional change, federal agencies need multiyear plans that continuously work to achieve, reinforce, and improve significant and persistent sustainability goals.

  19. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  20. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chastagner, P.

    1993-04-20

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system is described having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  1. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change Log Change Log Crossroads/NERSC-9 Benchmarks Change Log 05/25/2016 Updated to latest version 3.0 release of the HPCG distribution. For the APEX benchmark, the -DHPCG_CONTIGUOUS_ARRAYS flag is now used which improves the baseline performance on Edison significantly. Please refer to the updated SSI spreadsheet for the new baseline value. 05/17/2016 Updated source distribution. README.APEX now states to use "Grind Time" as the figure of merit. Failed to do this on the 5/10/2016

  2. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and O&M, Annual Progress Report 2007-2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellman, Jake; Perugini, Carol

    2009-02-20

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance Project (DV Fisheries) is an ongoing resident fish program that serves to partially mitigate the loss of anadromous fish that resulted from downstream construction of the federal hydropower system. The project's goals are to enhance subsistence fishing and educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes and provide fishing opportunities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View (MVR), Lake Billy Shaw (LBS), and Sheep Creek Reservoirs (SCR), the program is also designed to: maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period fall into three categories: operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and public outreach. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include maintaining fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs, stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles, equipment, and restroom facilities. Monitoring and evaluation activities include creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, and control of encroaching exotic vegetation. Public outreach activities include providing environmental education to school children, providing fishing reports to local newspapers and vendors, updating the website, hosting community environmental events, and fielding numerous phone calls from anglers. The reservoir monitoring program focuses on water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir and Lake Billy Shaw had less than productive trout growth due to water quality

  3. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Date: M-16-04-04 Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form Do not use blue ink. Type or print using black ink. May 27, 2004 Originator: K. A. Klein Phone:...

  4. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whealton, John H.; Stirling, William L.

    1986-01-01

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  5. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

    1985-03-04

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  6. California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks Describes system for fueling truck fleet with biomethane generated from anaerobic digestion of organic waste it collects p-10_edgar.pdf (364.34 KB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles Technical Workshop: Annual Merit Review Lessons Learned on Alternative Transportation

  7. Geology of the Source Physics Experiment Site, Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, M., Prothro, L. B., Obi, C.

    2012-03-15

    A test bed for a series of chemical explosives tests known as Source Physics Experiments (SPE) was constructed in granitic rock of the Climax stock, in northern Yucca Flat at the Nevada National Security Site in 2010-2011. These tests are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's National Center for Nuclear Security. The test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves, and will provide data that will improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. Abundant geologic data are available for the area, primarily as a result of studies performed in conjunction with the three underground nuclear tests conducted in the Climax granite in the 1960s and a few later studies of various types. The SPE test bed was constructed at an elevation of approximately 1,524 meters (m), and consists of a 91.4-centimeter (cm) diameter source hole at its center, surrounded by two rings of three 20.3-cm diameter instrument holes. The inner ring of holes is positioned 10 m away from the source hole, and the outer ring of holes is positioned 20 m from the source hole. An initial 160-m deep core hole was drilled at the location of the source hole that provided information on the geology of the site and rock samples for later laboratory testing. A suite of geophysical logs was run in the core hole and all six instruments holes to obtain matrix and fracture properties. Detailed information on the character and density of fractures encountered was obtained from the borehole image logs run in the holes. A total of 2,488 fractures were identified in the seven boreholes, and these were ranked into six categories (0 through 5) on the basis of their degree of openness and continuity. The analysis presented here considered only the higher-ranked fractures (ranks 2 through 5), of which there were 1,215 (approximately 49 percent of all fractures identified from

  8. Magnetic Response and Negative Refractive Index of Metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koschny, Th.; Zhou, J.; Soukoulis, C.M.

    2007-05-04

    We study the scaling of negative magnetic response of the SRR from microwave to upper THz frequencies. We show, that the linear scaling breaks down for SRR sizes below the order of 1 {micro}m. This breakdown is due to the contribution of the finite electron mass to the inductance of the effective LC oscillator. While at microwave frequencies metals can be treated as near-perfect conductors, close to optical frequencies they rather constitute lossy negative dielectrics. We also study the scaling of the losses in SRR as well as the higher order excitations or plasmon modes and their magnetic response. We discuss the non-resonant diamagnetic response of the SRR and the corresponding corrections to the shape of the frequency dependent effective permeability of the metamaterial. We discuss the connection of recently suggested alternative negative index metamaterial designs in a unified picture.

  9. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  10. Bimolecular reaction dynamics from photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradforth, S.E.

    1992-11-01

    The transition state region of a neutral bimolecular reaction may be experimentally investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy of an appropriate negative ion. The photoelectron spectrum provides information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the short lived transition state and may be used to develop model potential energy surfaces that are semi-quantitative in this important region. The principles of bound [yields] bound negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy are illustrated by way of an example: a full analysis of the photoelectron bands of CN[sup [minus

  11. Photodetachment of hydrogen negative ions with screened Coulomb interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song Bin; Chen, Xiang Jun; Wang, Jian Guo; Janev, R. K.; Qu, Yi Zhi

    2010-06-15

    The effects of Coulomb interaction screening on photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions below the n =2 excitation threshold is investigated by using the R-matrix method with pseudostates. The contributions of Feshbach and shape resonances to H{sup -} photodetachment cross section are presented when screening length (D) varies from D = {infinity} to D = 4.6 a.u. It is found that the interaction screening has dramatic effects on the photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions in the photoelectron energy region around the n = 2 excitation threshold by strongly affecting the evolution of near-threshold resonances.

  12. Electrostatic plasma lens for focusing negatively charged particle beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, A. A.; Dobrovolskiy, A. M.; Dunets, S. M.; Litovko, I. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.

    2012-02-15

    We describe the current status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating intense negatively charged particle beams, electrons, and negative ions. The physical principle of this kind of plasma lens is based on magnetic isolation electrons providing creation of a dynamical positive space charge cloud in shortly restricted volume propagating beam. Here, the new results of experimental investigations and computer simulations of wide-aperture, intense electron beam focusing by plasma lens with positive space charge cloud produced due to the cylindrical anode layer accelerator creating a positive ion stream towards an axis system is presented.

  13. Resident Fish Stock above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connor, Jason M.; McLellan, Jason G.; Butler, Chris

    2003-09-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The

  14. Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connor, Jason M.; McLellan, Jason G.; Butler, Chris

    2006-02-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The

  15. Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connor, Jason M.; McLellan, Jason G.; O'Connor, Dick

    2003-01-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC). The NPPC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPPC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area and the Columbia Basin Blocked Area Management Plan (1998

  16. Resident Fish Stock above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connor, Jason M.; McLellan, Jason G.; Butler, Chris

    2005-11-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The

  17. Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crossley, Brian; Lockwood, Jr., Neil W.; McLellan, Jason G.

    2001-01-01

    The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, commonly known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (blocked area). The three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the blocked area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information housed in a central location will allow managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP (NWPPC program measure 10.8B.26) is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the blocked area and the Columbia Basin blocked area management plan (1998). The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of blocked area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the blocked area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. The use of common collection and analytical tools is essential to the process of streamlining joint management decisions. In 1999 and 2000 the project

  18. Asset Recovery of Hazardous Materials Beneficial Reuse of Radiologically Encumbered Lead Stocks ''Getting the Lead Out''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2003-01-23

    Underutilized and surplus lead stocks and leaded components are a common legacy environmental problem across much of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. While seeking to dispose of these items through its Environmental Management Program, DOE operational programs continue to pursue contemporary mission requirements such as managing and/or storing radioactive isotopes that require lead materials for shielding. This paradox was identified in late 1999 when DOES policies for managing scrap metal were assessed. In January 2000, the Secretary of Energy directed the National Center of Excellence for Materials Recycle (NMR) to develop and implement a comprehensive lead reuse program for all of DOE. Fluor Hanford, contractor for DOE Richland Operations, subsequently contacted NMR to pilot lead reclamation and reuse at the Hanford Site, This relationship resulted in the development of a beneficial reuse pathway for lead reclaimed from spent fuel transport railcars being stored at Hanford. The 1.3 million pounds of lead in the railcars is considered radiologically encumbered due to its prior use. Further, the material was considered a mixed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) low-level radioactive waste that would require expensive storage or macro encapsulation to meet land disposal restrictions prior to burial. Working closely with Flour Hanford and the Office of Air, Water, and Radiation (EH-412), NMR developed a directed reuse pathway for this and other radiologically encumbered lead When derived supplemental release limits were used, the lead recovered from these railcars became eligible for reuse in shielding products to support DOE and commercial nuclear industry operations. Using this disposition pathway has saved Hanford one third of the cost of disposing of the lead and the cost of acquiring additional lead for nuclear shielding applications. Furthermore, the environmental costs associated with mining and producing new lead for shielding products and

  19. Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382 428 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J. [ITER- India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2011-09-26

    The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H{sup -}, when hydrogen particles (H and/or H{sub x}{sup +}) strike these surfaces.A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

  20. Towards a Very Low Energy Building Stock: Modeling the U.S. Commercial Building Sector to Support Policy and Innovation Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffey, Brian; Borgeson, Sam; Selkowitz, Stephen; Apte, Josh; Mathew, Paul; Haves, Philip

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the origin, structure and continuing development of a model of time varying energy consumption in the US commercial building stock. The model is based on a flexible structure that disaggregates the stock into various categories (e.g. by building type, climate, vintage and life-cycle stage) and assigns attributes to each of these (e.g. floor area and energy use intensity by fuel type and end use), based on historical data and user-defined scenarios for future projections. In addition to supporting the interactive exploration of building stock dynamics, the model has been used to study the likely outcomes of specific policy and innovation scenarios targeting very low future energy consumption in the building stock. Model use has highlighted the scale of the challenge of meeting targets stated by various government and professional bodies, and the importance of considering both new construction and existing buildings.

  1. STOCK: Structure mapper and online coarse-graining kit for molecular simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevc, Staš; Junghans, Christoph; Praprotnik, Matej

    2015-03-15

    We present a web toolkit STructure mapper and Online Coarse-graining Kit for setting up coarse-grained molecular simulations. The kit consists of two tools: structure mapping and Boltzmann inversion tools. The aim of the first tool is to define a molecular mapping from high, e.g. all-atom, to low, i.e. coarse-grained, resolution. Using a graphical user interface it generates input files, which are compatible with standard coarse-graining packages, e.g. VOTCA and DL_CGMAP. Our second tool generates effective potentials for coarse-grained simulations preserving the structural properties, e.g. radial distribution functions, of the underlying higher resolution model. The required distribution functions can be provided by any simulation package. Simulations are performed on a local machine and only the distributions are uploaded to the server. The applicability of the toolkit is validated by mapping atomistic pentane and polyalanine molecules to a coarse-grained representation. Effective potentials are derived for systems of TIP3P (transferable intermolecular potential 3 point) water molecules and salt solution. The presented coarse-graining web toolkit is available at http://stock.cmm.ki.si.

  2. STOCK: Structure mapper and online coarse-graining kit for molecular simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bevc, Staš; Junghans, Christoph; Praprotnik, Matej

    2015-03-15

    We present a web toolkit STructure mapper and Online Coarse-graining Kit for setting up coarse-grained molecular simulations. The kit consists of two tools: structure mapping and Boltzmann inversion tools. The aim of the first tool is to define a molecular mapping from high, e.g. all-atom, to low, i.e. coarse-grained, resolution. Using a graphical user interface it generates input files, which are compatible with standard coarse-graining packages, e.g. VOTCA and DL_CGMAP. Our second tool generates effective potentials for coarse-grained simulations preserving the structural properties, e.g. radial distribution functions, of the underlying higher resolution model. The required distribution functions can be providedmore » by any simulation package. Simulations are performed on a local machine and only the distributions are uploaded to the server. The applicability of the toolkit is validated by mapping atomistic pentane and polyalanine molecules to a coarse-grained representation. Effective potentials are derived for systems of TIP3P (transferable intermolecular potential 3 point) water molecules and salt solution. The presented coarse-graining web toolkit is available at http://stock.cmm.ki.si.« less

  3. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation Creston National Fish Hatchery, FY 2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooley, Sharon

    2009-03-20

    A total of 350,000, M012 strain, westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) eggs were received from Montana Fish Wildlife & Parks (MFWP), Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in June of 2005 to accomplish this fishery management objective. These eggs were incubated, hatched and reared entirely inside the hatchery nursery building using a protected well water supply. Fish grew according to schedule and survival was excellent. The hatchery achieved a 0.78 feed fed to pounds gained conversion ratio for this group of WCT. Not all of the progenies from this fish lot were used for Hungry Horse Dam Fishery Mitigation Implementation. Some were used for other regional fishery management projects. Westslope cutthroat trout were reared using approved fish culture techniques as recommended in the USFWS Fish Hatchery Management Handbook and also utilizing a regimen adapted for hatchery specific site conditions. The fish health for these WCT was very good. Survival from first feeding fry stage to stocking was 79%. The hatchery had an annual fish health inspection performed by the USFWS Bozeman Fish Health Center in mid March of 2006. This inspection found all fish lots at Creston to be disease free. The Montana State Fish Health Board has placed the hatchery under a limited quarantine since May of 2005 due to an epizootic of Furunculosis. This classification has allowed the Creston NFH to stock disease free fish in locations approved by regional fish managers. The hatchery has been working with the State Fish Pathologist to remove the limited quarantine classification from the facility. Although fish health for all station fish lots remains disease free, MFWP has asserted it will not remove the limited quarantine until the new influent water treatment system, including the ultraviolet disinfection unit, is running full time, year round. The USFWS is working to secure the additional funding necessary to operate the treatment building year round. Distribution of the WCT took place from March

  4. The sheath structure around a negatively charged rocket payload

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubert, T.; Gilchrist, B.E.; Banks, P.M.; Williamson, P.R. ); Mandell, M.J.; Katz, I. ); Sasaki, S.; Oyama, K.I. ); Raitt, W.J.; Meyers, N.B. )

    1990-05-01

    The sheath structure around a rocket payload charged up to 460 V negative relative to the ambient ionospheric plasma is investigated experimentally and by computer simulations. In one of the experimental modes, the voltage between the payloads was increased linearly from 0 to 460 V in 2.5 s. In this case the tethered mother/daughter functioned as a double probe, the negative probe (mother) reaching large negative potentials, while the positive probe (daughter) stayed close to the ambient plasma potential. A floating probe array was mounted on the mother with probes located, 25, 50, 75, and 100 cm from the rocket surface. The internal impedance of the array was smaller than the probe/plasma impedance, which influenced the potential measurements. However, the measurements contain signatures, which the authors interpret as resulting from the outward expansion of the ion sheath with increasing negative mother potential. This conclusion is substantiated by NASCAP/LEO computer simulations of space charge limited flow. At high potentials, the observed ion current flowing to the mother increased more strongly with bias potential than found from the simulations. It is suggested that the enhancement of the current is generated by secondary electrons emitted by the ions bombarding the payload skin. The effects of the motion of the mother (540-580 m/s) and of the ambient magnetic field have been assessed by the code. It was estimated that the ion current to the mother was increased by 20% relative to a stationary payload, while the incorporation of a magnetic field had no practical influence on the simulation results.

  5. Forecast Change

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Forecast Change 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 from 2015 United States Usage (kWh) 3,444 3,354 3,129 3,037 3,151 3,302 4.8% Price (cents/kWh) 12.06 12.09 12.58 13.04 12.95 12.84 -0.9% Expenditures $415 $405 $393 $396 $408 $424 3.9% New England Usage (kWh) 2,122 2,188 2,173 1,930 1,992 2,082 4.5% Price (cents/kWh) 15.85 15.50 16.04 17.63 18.64 18.37 -1.5% Expenditures $336 $339 $348 $340 $371 $382 3.0% Mid-Atlantic Usage (kWh) 2,531 2,548 2,447 2,234 2,371 2,497 5.3% Price (cents/kWh) 16.39 15.63

  6. Studies of transition states and radicals by negative ion photodetachment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metz, R.B.

    1991-12-01

    Negative ion photodetachment is a versatile tool for the production and study of transient neutral species such as reaction intermediates and free radicals. Photodetachment of the stable XHY{sup {minus}} anion provides a direct spectroscopic probe of the transition state region of the potential energy surface for the neutral hydrogen transfer reaction X + HY {yields} XH + Y, where X and Y are halogen atoms. The technique is especially sensitive to resonances, which occur at a specific energy, but the spectra also show features due to direct scattering. We have used collinear adiabatic simulations of the photoelectron spectra to evaluate trail potential energy surfaces for the biomolecular reactions and have extended the adiabatic approach to three dimensions and used it to evaluate empirical potential energy surfaces for the I + Hl and Br + HI reactions. In addition, we have derived an empirical, collinear potential energy surface for the Br + HBr reaction that reproduces our experimental results and have extended this surface to three dimensions. Photodetachment of a negative ion can be also used to study neutral free radicals. We have studied the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2} by photoelectron spectroscopy of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, determining the electron affinity of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2}, gaining insight on the bonding of the {sup 2}B{sub 1} ground state and observing the {sup 2}A{sub 2} excited state for the first time. Negative ion photodetachment also provides a novel and versatile source of mass-selected, jet-cooled free radicals. We have studied the photodissociation of CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2} at 270, 235, and 208 nm, obtaining information on the dissociation products by measuring the kinetic energy release in the photodissociation.

  7. Investigation of structural changes in residential electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chern, W.S.; Bouis, H.E.

    1982-09-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of aggregate national residential electricity demand coefficients over time. The hypothesis is maintained that the aggregate residential demand is the sum of various end-use demand components. Since the end-use composition changes over time, the demand relationship may change as well. Since the end-use composition differs among regions, the results obtained from this study can be used for making inferences about regional differences in electricity demand relationships. There are two additional sources for a possible structural change. One is that consumers may react differently to declining and rising prices, secondly, the impact of the 1973 oil embargo may have shifted demand preferences. The electricity demand model used for this study is presented. A moving regression method was employed to investigate changes in residential electricity demand over time. The statistical results show a strikingly consistent pattern of change for most of the structural variables. The most important finding of this study is that the estimated structure of residential electricity demand changes systematically over time as a result of changes in the characteristics (both durability and saturation level) of the stock of appliances. Furthermore, there is not strong evidence that the structural changes in demand occurred due to either the reversal of the declining trend of electricity prices or the impact of the 1973 oil embarge. (LCL)

  8. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, M.; Kaun, T.

    1984-01-20

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical c

  9. Recent Progress in the Negative-Ion-Based Neutral Beam Injectors in Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Oka, Y.; Asano, E.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.; Kaneko, O.

    2009-03-12

    Negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (negative-NBI) system has been operated for 10 years in Large Helical Device (LHD). The injection power has been increased year by year, according to the improvement of the negative ion sources. Up to now, every injector achieves the designed injection energy and power of 180 keV-5 MW with hydrogen beams, and the total injection power exceeds 16 MW with three injectors. In the multi-round aperture grounded grid (GG), the diameter of a round aperture has been enlarged for higher GG transparency. Then, the GG heat load is reduced, as well as in the multi-slotted GG, and the voltage holding ability in the beam acceleration was improved. As a result, the beam energy is raised and the injection power is increased. To improve the anisotropic property of the beamlet convergence condition between the perpendicular and the parallel directions to the slots in the multi-slotted GG, a round-shape aperture of the steering grid (SG) has been changed to a racetrack shape. As a result, the difference of the beamlet conversion condition is much mitigated, and the injection efficiency (port-transmission efficiency) is improved, leading to 188 keV-6.4 MW injection. The Cs consumption is observed to be proportional to the tungsten evaporation from filaments. The Cs behavior is investigated with optical emission spectroscopy. During the beam extraction, the Cs recycling is dominated by Cs on the backplate, which is evaporated into the plasma by the backstreaming positive ions, and the wall surfaces should be loss regions for the supplied Cs.

  10. It`s material strength, not a negative Grueneisen gamma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinz, K.H.P.H.; Moss, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    Hydrocode simulations of CORRTEX data (shock position as a function of time) require a model for the material properties of the medium in which the explosion occurs. Prior to the BULLION underground nuclear test, Furnish performed gun experiments on core samples that were taken from a satellite hole near the working point. The authors have analyzed some of these data and constructed a constitutive model that is consistent with the gun data. The model consists of a Mie-Grueneisen equation of state that is parameterized using the Hugoniot, a Grueneisen gamma that is only volume dependent, and a pressure dependent strength model. Previous analyses of these particular experiments have ignored material strength, because of its lack of influence on numerical simulations of the CORRTEX data. However, if strength is excluded, negative gammas are required to fit Furnish`s data, but these negative gammas give an extremely poor fit to the CORRTEX field data. The simple model, which includes strength, has a positive volume dependent gamma. The model fits Furnish`s laboratory data and the measured experimental CORRTEX data. What is remarkable about the model is that all of the parameters in it can be obtained from the gun data, indicating that laboratory experiments of this type (and perhaps others) on core samples are potentially more useful than believed previously.

  11. Bimolecular reaction dynamics from photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradforth, S.E.

    1992-11-01

    The transition state region of a neutral bimolecular reaction may be experimentally investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy of an appropriate negative ion. The photoelectron spectrum provides information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the short lived transition state and may be used to develop model potential energy surfaces that are semi-quantitative in this important region. The principles of bound {yields} bound negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy are illustrated by way of an example: a full analysis of the photoelectron bands of CN{sup {minus}}, NCO{sup {minus}} and NCS{sup {minus}}. Transition state photoelectron spectra are presented for the following systems Br + HI, Cl + HI, F + HI, F + CH{sub 3}0H,F + C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH,F + OH and F + H{sub 2}. A time dependent framework for the simulation and interpretation of the bound {yields} free transition state photoelectron spectra is subsequently developed and applied to the hydrogen transfer reactions Br + HI, F + OH {yields} O({sup 3}P, {sup 1}D) + HF and F + H{sub 2}. The theoretical approach for the simulations is a fully quantum-mechanical wave packet propagation on a collinear model reaction potential surface. The connection between the wavepacket time evolution and the photoelectron spectrum is given by the time autocorrelation function. For the benchmark F + H{sub 2} system, comparisons with three-dimensional quantum calculations are made.

  12. Phonon anharmonicity and negative thermal expansion in SnSe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Dipanshu; Hong, Jiawang; Li, Chen W.; May, Andrew F.; Porter, Wallace; Hu, Michael Y.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Delaire, Olivier

    2016-08-09

    In this paper, the anharmonic phonon properties of SnSe in the Pnma phase were investigated with a combination of experiments and first-principles simulations. Using inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS), we have measured the phonon dispersions and density of states (DOS) and their temperature dependence, which revealed a strong, inhomogeneous shift and broadening of the spectrum on warming. First-principles simulations were performed to rationalize these measurements, and to explain the previously reported anisotropic thermal expansion, in particular the negative thermal expansion within the Sn-Se bilayers. Including the anisotropic strain dependence of the phonon free energy,more » in addition to the electronic ground state energy, is essential to reproduce the negative thermal expansion. From the phonon DOS obtained with INS and additional calorimetry measurements, we quantify the harmonic, dilational, and anharmonic components of the phonon entropy, heat capacity, and free energy. Finally, the origin of the anharmonic phonon thermodynamics is linked to the electronic structure.« less

  13. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, William K.; Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  14. A rapid compression machine study of the oxidation of propane in the negative temperature coefficient regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S.M.; Curran, H.J.; Metcalfe, W.K.; Healy, D.; Simmie, J.M.; Bourque, G.

    2008-04-15

    The oxidation of propane has been studied in the temperature range 680-970 K at compressed gas pressures of 21, 27, and 37 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. These data are consistent with other experiments presented in the literature for alkane fuels in that, when ignition delay times are plotted as a function of temperature, a characteristic negative coefficient behavior is observed. In addition, these data were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that qualitatively the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio and pressure, predicting that fuel-rich, high-pressure mixtures ignite fastest, while fuel-lean, low-pressure mixtures ignite slowest. Moreover, reactivity as a function of temperature is well captured, with the model predicting negative temperature coefficient behavior similar to the experiments. Quantitatively the model is faster than experiment for all mixtures at the lowest temperatures (650-750 K) and is also faster than experiment throughout the entire temperature range for fuel-lean mixtures. (author)

  15. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Evaluation of Limiting Factors for Stocked Kokanee and Rainbow Trout in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, Casey; Polacek, Matt

    2009-03-01

    Hatchery supplementation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka and rainbow trout O. mykiss has been the primary mitigation provided by Bonneville Power Administration for loss of anadromous fish to the waters above Grand Coulee Dam (GCD). The hatchery program for rainbow trout has consistently met management goals and provided a substantial contribution to the fishery; however, spawner returns and creel survey results for kokanee have been below management goals. Our objective was to identify factors that limit limnetic fish production in Lake Roosevelt by evaluating abiotic conditions, food limitations, piscivory, and entrainment. Dissolved oxygen concentration was adequate throughout most of the year; however, levels dropped to near 6 mg/L in late July. For kokanee, warm water temperatures during mid-late summer limited their nocturnal distribution to 80-100 m in the lower section of the reservoir. Kokanee spawner length was consistently several centimeters longer than in other Pacific Northwest systems, and the relative weights of rainbow trout and large kokanee were comparable to national averages. Large bodied daphnia (> 1.7 mm) were present in the zooplankton community during all seasons indicating that top down effects were not limiting secondary productivity. Walleye Stizostedion vitreum were the primary piscivore of salmonids in 1998 and 1999. Burbot Lota lota smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, and northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis preyed on salmonids to a lesser degree. Age 3 and 4 walleye were responsible for the majority (65%) of the total walleye consumption of salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling indicated that reservoir wide consumption by walleye could account for a 31-39% loss of stocked kokanee but only 6-12% of rainbow trout. Size at release was the primary reason for differential mortality rates due to predation. Entrainment ranged from 2% to 16% of the monthly abundance estimates of limnetic fish, and could account for 30% of total

  16. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Novosselov, Igor V.; Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmller, Hans; Sorensen, Christopher M.; Stipe, Christopher B.

    2014-06-16

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (?g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in ?g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in ?g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ?10{sup 6}?s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  17. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  18. Models of radiofrequency coupling for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavenago, M.; Petrenko, S.

    2012-02-15

    Radiofrequency heating for ICP (inductively coupled plasma) ion sources depends on the source operating pressure, the presence or absence of a Faraday shield, the driver coil geometry, the frequency used, and the magnetic field configuration: in negative ion source a magnetic filter seems necessary for H{sup -} survival. The result of single particle simulations showing the possibility of electron acceleration in the preglow regime and for reasonable driver chamber radius (15 cm) is reported, also as a function of the static external magnetic field. An effective plasma conductivity, depending not only from electron density, temperature, and rf field but also on static magnetic field is here presented and compared to previous models. Use of this conductivity and of multiphysics tools for a plasma transport and heating model is shown and discussed for a small source.

  19. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-09-26

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1x10{sup 18}/m{sup 3}, at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  20. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt Annual Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLellan, Holly J.; Scholz, Allan T.

    2001-07-01

    Lake Roosevelt has been stocked with Whatcom stock kokanee since 1989 to mitigate for anadromous salmon losses caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The primary objective of the hatchery plantings was to create a self-sustaining recreational fishery. Due to low return numbers, it was hypothesized a native stock of kokanee might perform better than the coastal Whatcom strain. Therefore, kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Matched pair releases of Whatcom stock and Meadow Creek kokanee were made from Sherman Creek in late June 2000. Stock performance between Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee was evaluated through three performance measures (1) returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) returns to other tributaries, indicating availability for angler harvest, and (3) returns to the creel. A secondary objective was to evaluate the numbers collected at downstream fish passage facilities. Age 2 kokanee were collected during five passes through the reservoir, which included 89 tributaries between August 17th and November 7th, 2000. Sherman Creek was sampled once a week because it was the primary egg collection location. A total of 2,789 age 2 kokanee were collected, in which 2,658 (95%) were collected at Sherman Creek. Chi-square analysis indicated the Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek in significantly higher numbers compared to the Whatcom stock ({chi}{sup 2} = 734.4; P < 0.01). Reservoir wide recoveries indicated similar results ({chi}{sup 2} = 733.1; P < 0.01). No age 2 kokanee were collected during creel surveys. Age 3 kokanee are expected to recruit to the creel in 2001. No age 2 kokanee were collected at the fish passage facilities due to a 170 mm size restriction at the fish passage centers. Age 3 kokanee are expected to be collected at the fish passage centers during 2001. Stock performance cannot be properly evaluated until 2001, when

  1. Robust activation method for negative electron affinity photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulhollan, Gregory A.; Bierman, John C.

    2011-09-13

    A method by which photocathodes(201), single crystal, amorphous, or otherwise ordered, can be surface modified to a robust state of lowered and in best cases negative, electron affinity has been discovered. Conventional methods employ the use of Cs(203) and an oxidizing agent(207), typically carried by diatomic oxygen or by more complex molecules, for example nitrogen trifluoride, to achieve a lowered electron affinity(404). In the improved activation method, a second alkali, other than Cs(205), is introduced onto the surface during the activation process, either by co-deposition, yo-yo, or sporadic or intermittent application. Best effect for GaAs photocathodes has been found through the use of Li(402) as the second alkali, though nearly the same effect can be found by employing Na(406). Suitable photocathodes are those which are grown, cut from boules, implanted, rolled, deposited or otherwise fabricated in a fashion and shape desired for test or manufacture independently supported or atop a support structure or within a framework or otherwise affixed or suspended in the place and position required for use.

  2. Negative terahertz conductivity in disordered graphene bilayers with population inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svintsov, D.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2015-03-16

    The gapless energy band spectra make the structures based on graphene and graphene bilayer with the population inversion to be promising media for the interband terahertz (THz) lasing. However, a strong intraband absorption at THz frequencies still poses a challenge for efficient THz lasing. In this paper, we show that in the pumped graphene bilayer, the indirect interband radiative transitions accompanied by scattering of carriers by disorder can provide a substantial negative contribution to the THz conductivity (together with the direct interband transitions). In the graphene bilayer on high-? substrates with point charged defects, these transitions substantially compensate the losses due to the intraband (Drude) absorption. We also demonstrate that the indirect interband contribution to the THz conductivity in a graphene bilayer with the extended defects (such as the charged impurity clusters) can surpass by several times the fundamental limit associated with the direct interband transitions, and the Drude conductivity as well. These predictions can affect the strategy of the graphene-based THz laser implementation.

  3. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  4. Global Failure Criteria for Positive/Electrolyte/Negative Structure of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

    2009-07-15

    Due to mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of various layers in the positive/electrolyte/negative (PEN) structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), thermal stresses and warpage on the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. In order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC, it is necessary to develop failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures based on the initial flaws occurred during cell sintering and stack assembly. In this paper, the global relationship between the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warped cells caused by the temperature changes as well as mechanical flattening process is established so that possible failure of SOFC PEN structures may be predicted deterministically by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warped cells.

  5. change_address_111609

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CHANGE OF ADDRESS and EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION TO: HUMAN RESOURCES DATE: Z# Social Security # Print First Name Print Middle Name or Initial Print Last Name (Currently in Payroll System) Complete appropriate changes: NAME CHANGE: Print Name Change to ADDRESS CHANGE: Mailing Address City State Zip TELEPHONE NUMBER CHANGE: FROM Area Code and # TO Area Code and # Cell Area Code and # Home phone Message phone EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION CHANGE: Name Relationship Day Phone Evening Phone Address City State

  6. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; et al

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates throughmore » a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XB’s characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using λpump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains from the dissociation of exciton XA is involved in the creation of this trion with a binding energy ~ 10 meV with respect to XA. The absorption peak that corresponds to trion T2 appears when λpump > 2.4 eV, which is just

  7. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates through a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XB’s characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using λpump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains

  8. Radiative lifetimes of metastable states of negative ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Pontus; Fritioff, Karin; Sandstroem, Joakim; Collins, Gerard; Hanstorp, Dag; Ellmann, Anna; Schef, Peter; Lundin, Peter; Mannervik, Sven; Royen, Peder; Froese Fischer, K. Charlotte; Oesterdahl, Fabian; Rostohar, Danijela; Pegg, David J.; Gibson, N. D.; Danared, Haakan; Kaellberg, Anders

    2006-03-15

    We present a technique for measuring the radiative lifetimes of metastable states of negative ions that involves the use of a heavy-ion storage ring. The method has been applied to investigate the radiative decay of the np{sup 3} {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} levels of Te{sup -}(n=5) and Se{sup -}(n=4) and the 3p{sup 3} {sup 2}D state of Si{sup -} for which the J=3/2 and 5/2 levels were unresolved. All of these states are metastable and decay primarily by emission of E2 and M1 radiation. Multi Configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations of rates for the transitions in Te{sup -} and Se{sup -} yielded lifetimes of 0.45 s and 4.7 s, respectively. The measured values agree well with these predicted values. In the case of the {sup 2}D state of Si{sup -}, however, our measurement was only able to set a lower limit on the lifetime. The upper limit of the lifetime that can be measured with our apparatus is set by how long the ions can be stored in the ring, a limit determined by the rate of collisional detachment. Our lower limit of 1 min for the lifetime of the {sup 2}D state is consistent with both the calculated lifetimes of 162 s for the {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} level and 27.3 h for the {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} level reported by O'Malley and Beck and 14.5 h and 12.5 h, respectively, from our Breit-Pauli calculations.

  9. Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Steeper, Richard R.; Splitter, Derek A; Kalaskar, Vickey B; Pihl, Josh A; Daw, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed. The other experimental facility, located at Sandia National Laboratories, uses a dump valve to capture the exhaust from a single NVO event for analysis. Results from the two experiments are in excellent trend-wise agreement and indicate that the reforming process under low-O2 conditions produces substantial concentrations of H2, CO, methane, and other short-chain hydrocarbon species. The concentration of these species is found to be strongly dependent on fuel injection timing and injected fuel type, with weaker dependencies on NVO duration and initial temperature, indicating that NVO reforming is kinetically slow. Further, NVO reforming does not require a large energy input from the engine, meaning that it is not thermodynamically expensive. The implications of these results on HCCI and other forms of combustion are discussed in detail.

  10. Study of the negative ion extraction mechanism from a double-ion plasma in negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, I.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.

    2015-04-08

    We have developed a 2D3V-PIC model of the extraction region, aiming to clarify the basic extraction mechanism of H{sup −} ions from the double-ion plasma in H{sup −} negative ion sources. The result shows the same tendency of the H{sup −} ion density n{sub H{sup −}} as that observed in the experiments, i.e.,n{sub H{sup −}} in the upstream region away from the plasma meniscus (H{sup −} emitting surface) has been reduced by applying the extraction voltage. At the same time, relatively slow temporal oscillation of the electric potential compared with the electron plasma frequency has been observed in the extraction region. Results of the systematic study using a 1D3V-PIC model with the uniform magnetic field confirm the result that the electrostatic oscillation is identified to be lower hybrid wave. The effect of this oscillation on the H{sup −} transport will be studied in the future.

  11. Acceleration of 500 keV Negative Ion Beams By Tuning Vacuum Insulation Distance On JT-60 Negative Ion Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.; Tobari, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2011-09-26

    Acceleration of a 500 keV beam up to 2.8 A has been achieved on a JT-60U negative ion source with a three-stage accelerator by overcoming low voltage holding which is one of the critical issues for realization of the JT-60SA ion source. In order to improve the voltage holding, preliminary voltage holding tests with small-size grids with uniform and locally intense electric fields were carried out, and suggested that the voltage holding was degraded by both the size and local electric field effects. Therefore, the local electric field was reduced by tuning gap lengths between the large size grids and grid support structures of the accelerator. Moreover, a beam radiation shield which limited extension of the minimum gap length was also optimized so as to reduce the local electric field while maintaining the shielding effect. These modifications were based on the experiment results, and significantly increased the voltage holding from <150 kV/stage for the original configuration to 200 kV/stage. These techniques for improvement of voltage holding should also be applicable to other large ion sources accelerators such as those for ITER.

  12. A bottom-up engineering estimate of the aggregate heating andcooling loads of the entire U.S. building stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yu Joe; Brodrick, Jim

    2000-08-01

    A recently completed project for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building Equipment combined DOE-2 results for a large set of prototypical commercial and residential buildings with data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) residential and commercial energy consumption surveys (RECS, CBECS) to estimate the total heating and cooling loads in U.S. buildings attributable to different shell components such as windows, roofs, walls, etc., internal processes, and space-conditioning systems. This information is useful for estimating the national conservation potentials for DOE's research and market transformation activities in building energy efficiency. The prototypical building descriptions and DOE-2 input files were developed from 1986 to 1992 to provide benchmark hourly building loads for the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and include 112 single-family, 66 multi-family, and 481 commercial building prototypes. The DOE study consisted of two distinct tasks : (1) perform DOE-2 simulations for the prototypical buildings and develop methods to extract the heating and cooling loads attributable to the different building components; and (2) estimate the number of buildings or floor area represented by each prototypical building based on EIA survey information. These building stock data were then multiplied by the simulated component loads to derive aggregated totals by region, vintage, and building type. The heating and cooling energy consumption of the national building stock estimated by this bottom-up engineering approach was found to agree reasonably well with estimates from other sources, although significant differences were found for certain end-uses. The main added value from this study, however, is the insight it provides about the contributing factors behind this energy consumption, and what energy savings can be expected from efficiency improvements for different building components by region, vintage, and building type.

  13. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-10-13

    We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H = 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes as functions of temperature each show two anomalies: a broad dome-like maximum below 20 K and a relatively sharp peak at higher temperature. As a result, observed behaviors are unique among other binary and mixed lanthanide compounds.

  14. Size scaling of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fantz, U. Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-08

    The RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source (H{sup −}, D{sup −}) for the international fusion experiment ITER has a width of 0.9 m and a height of 1.9 m and is based on a ⅛ scale prototype source being in operation at the IPP test facilities BATMAN and MANITU for many years. Among the challenges to meet the required parameters in a caesiated source at a source pressure of 0.3 Pa or less is the challenge in size scaling of a factor of eight. As an intermediate step a ½ scale ITER source went into operation at the IPP test facility ELISE with the first plasma in February 2013. The experience and results gained so far at ELISE allowed a size scaling study from the prototype source towards the ITER relevant size at ELISE, in which operational issues, physical aspects and the source performance is addressed, highlighting differences as well as similarities. The most ITER relevant results are: low pressure operation down to 0.2 Pa is possible without problems; the magnetic filter field created by a current in the plasma grid is sufficient to reduce the electron temperature below the target value of 1 eV and to reduce together with the bias applied between the differently shaped bias plate and the plasma grid the amount of co-extracted electrons. An asymmetry of the co-extracted electron currents in the two grid segments is measured, varying strongly with filter field and bias. Contrary to the prototype source, a dedicated plasma drift in vertical direction is not observed. As in the prototype source, the performance in deuterium is limited by the amount of co-extracted electrons in short as well as in long pulse operation. Caesium conditioning is much harder in deuterium than in hydrogen for which fast and reproducible conditioning is achieved. First estimates reveal a caesium consumption comparable to the one in the prototype source despite the large size.

  15. Assessment of boreal forest historical C dynamics in Yukon River Basin: relative roles of warming and fire regime change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Fengming [ORNL; Yi, Shuhua [Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS; McGuire, A. David [University of Alaska; Johnson, Kristopher D [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Liang, Jingjing [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Harden, Jennifer [USGS, Menlo Park, CA; Kasischke, Eric S. [University of Maryland, College Park; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service

    2012-01-01

    Carbon (C) dynamics of boreal forest ecosystems have substantial implications for efforts to mitigate the rise of atmospheric CO2 and may be substantially influenced by warming and changing wildfire regimes. In this study we applied a large-scale ecosystem model that included dynamics of organic soil horizons and soil organic matter characteristics of multiple pools to assess forest C stock changes of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in Alaska, USA, and Canada from 1960 through 2006, a period characterized by substantial climate warming and increases in wildfire. The model was calibrated for major forests with data from long-term research sites and evaluated using a forest inventory database. The regional assessment indicates that forest vegetation C storage increased by 46 Tg C, but that total soil C storage did not change appreciably during this period. However, further analysis suggests that C has been continuously lost from the mineral soil horizon since warming began in the 1970s, but has increased in the amorphous organic soil horizon. Based on a factorial experiment, soil C stocks would have increased by 158 Tg C if the YRB had not undergone warming and changes in fire regime. The analysis also identified that warming and changes in fire regime were approximately equivalent in their effects on soil C storage, and interactions between these two suggests that the loss of organic horizon thickness associated with increases in wildfire made deeper soil C stocks more vulnerable to loss via decomposition. Subbasin analyses indicate that C stock changes were primarily sensitive to the fraction of burned forest area within each subbasin and that boreal forest ecosystems in the YRB are currently transitioning from being sinks to sources at ;0.7% annual area burned. We conclude that it is important for international mitigation efforts focused on controlling atmospheric CO2 to consider how climate warming and changes in fire regime may concurrently affect the CO2 sink

  16. CONFIGURATION CHANGE PROPOSAL (CCP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Change Request | Domain Name Server (DNS) Change | | This change request form is to share information on domain name server changes, new requirements, modifications, or enhancements within the DOE Headquarters programmatic and office management areas. This change request should be forwarded to the Domain Management Team (DL-Domain.Management@hq.doe.gov) for validation, review and discussion. Detailed instructions are available at https://powerpedia.energy.gov/wiki/Domain_change_process. |

  17. Climatic change due to solar irradiance changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Raper, S.C.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Solar irradiance reconstructions back to 1874 are used to estimate the effect of the Sun on global-mean temperature. The importance of the history effect of the Sun on global-mean temperature. The importance of the history effect, whereby recent temperature changes may be influenced significantly by past forcing changes, is evaluated. Modelled temperature changes are shown to be relatively insensitive to model uncertainties. The overall range of modelled temperature variations is extremely small, 0.05C.

  18. Bioenergy and Land Use Change

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-07-26

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratoy has developed a new system dynamics global LUC model intended to examine LUC attributed to biofuel production. The model represents major global, stocks, flows and produces results under different food and biofuel demand assumptions, with flexible regional divisions. This model is not intended to generate precise numerical estimates, but instead to provide insights into the drivers and dynamic interactions of LUC, population, dietary choices, and biofuel policy.

  19. Climate Change Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing the Impact of Climate Change on America's Water, Land, and Other Natural and Cultural Resources Energy and Climate Change Council DOI Climate Science Centers ...

  20. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality ...

  1. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...

  2. SPRUCE: Spruce and Peatland Responses under Climatic and Environmental Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    SPRUCE is an experiment to assess the response of northern peatland ecosystems to increases in temperature and exposures to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. It is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a Picea mariana [black spruce] - Sphagnum spp. bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. It is an ecosystem considered especially vulnerable to climate change, and anticipated to be near its tipping point with respect to climate change. Responses to warming and interactions with increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are anticipated to have important feedbacks on the atmosphere and climate, because of the high carbon stocks harbored by such ecosystems.[copied from http://mnspruce.ornl.gov/] While some data files are restricted to access by project members only, others are available for public download now, even as research is being actively conducted.

  3. Positive and negative ion beam merging system for neutral beam production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2005-12-13

    The positive and negative ion beam merging system extracts positive and negative ions of the same species and of the same energy from two separate ion sources. The positive and negative ions from both sources pass through a bending magnetic field region between the pole faces of an electromagnet. Since the positive and negative ions come from mirror image positions on opposite sides of a beam axis, and the positive and negative ions are identical, the trajectories will be symmetrical and the positive and negative ion beams will merge into a single neutral beam as they leave the pole face of the electromagnet. The ion sources are preferably multicusp plasma ion sources. The ion sources may include a multi-aperture extraction system for increasing ion current from the sources.

  4. Tribal Climate Change Webinars: BIA's Climate Change Competitive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tribal Climate Change Webinars: BIA's Climate Change Competitive Award Process Overview Tribal Climate Change Webinars: BIA's Climate Change Competitive Award Process Overview...

  5. ARM - Climate Change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Climate Change A Student's Guide to Global Climate Change ...

  6. Characteristics of ion acoustic solitary waves in a negative ion plasma with superthermal electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouhani, M. R.; Ebne Abbasi, Z.

    2012-11-15

    The behavior of ion acoustic solitons in a plasma including positive and negative ions and kappa distributed electrons is studied, using both small amplitude and arbitrary amplitude approaches. The existence regions of compressive and rarefactive solitons will depend on negative to positive ion density ratio ({nu}) and kappa parameter as well as positive to negative ion mass ratio (Q). The numerical analysis of Sagdeev potential shows that for a chosen plasma with fixed Q, the existence regime of compressive solitons is decreased (increased) by increasing density ratio (kappa parameter), while for rarefactive solitons these conditions are quite opposite. Additionally, the possibility of propagation of both compressive and rarefactive subsonic solitons is investigated. It is found that by increasing negative ions, the existence domains of subsonic solitons are decreased, so that in excess of negative ions subsonic solitons will not propagate even at the presence of superthermal electrons. Indeed, there is a critical negative ion density ratio for all values of kappa, above that only supersonic solitons are observed. Furthermore, in addition to the previous results based on Cairns-distributed electrons [R. A. Cairns et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2709 (1995)], which predicted that both compressive and rarefactive solitons can coexist simultaneously, we have also found the regions of {nu} and {kappa} in which either positive or negative potentials are permitted (i.e., not together). This research will be helpful in understanding the properties of space and laboratory plasmas containing negative ions with energetic electrons.

  7. Infrastructure Institutional Change Principle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Research shows that changes in infrastructure prompt changes in behavior (for better or worse). Federal agencies can modify their infrastructure to promote sustainability-oriented behavior change, ideally in ways that make new behaviors easier and more desirable to follow than existing patterns of behavior.

  8. Experimental evidence on removing copper and light-induced degradation from silicon by negative charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulfrad, Yacine Lindroos, Jeanette; Yli-Koski, Marko; Savin, Hele; Wagner, Matthias; Wolny, Franziska

    2014-11-03

    In addition to boron and oxygen, copper is also known to cause light-induced degradation (LID) in silicon. We have demonstrated previously that LID can be prevented by depositing negative corona charge onto the wafer surfaces. Positively charged interstitial copper ions are proposed to diffuse to the negatively charged surface and consequently empty the bulk of copper. In this study, copper out-diffusion was confirmed by chemical analysis of the near surface region of negatively/positively charged silicon wafer. Furthermore, LID was permanently removed by etching the copper-rich surface layer after negative charge deposition. These results demonstrate that (i) copper can be effectively removed from the bulk by negative charge, (ii) under illumination copper forms a recombination active defect in the bulk of the wafer causing severe light induced degradation.

  9. Recent DOE Directives Changes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2009, the Department of Energy (DOE) manuals were revised and issued to correspond with the following recent Contractor Requirements Documents (CRDs) changes to the following Directives: DOE M 205.1-8 Administrative Change 1—Cyber Security Incident Management Manual; DOE M 205.1-7 Administrative Change 1—Security Controls for Unclassified Information Systems Manual; DOE M 205.1-6 Administrative Change 1—Media Sanitization Manual; DOE M 205.1-5 Administrative Change 1—Cyber Security Process Requirements Manual

  10. The Unified North American Soil Map and Its Implication on the Soil Organic Carbon Stock in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shishi; Wei, Yaxing; Post, Wilfred M; Cook, Robert B; Schaefer, Kevin; Thornton, Michele M

    2013-01-01

    The Unified North American Soil Map (UNASM) was developed to provide more accurate regional soil information for terrestrial biosphere modeling. The UNASM combines information from state-of-the-art U.S. STATSGO2 and Soil Landscape of Canada (SLCs) databases. The area not covered by these datasets is filled with the Harmonized World Soil Database version 1.1 (HWSD1.1). The UNASM contains maximum soil depth derived from the data source as well as seven soil attributes (including sand, silt, and clay content, gravel content, organic carbon content, pH, and bulk density) for the top soil layer (0-30 cm) and the sub soil layer (30-100 cm) respectively, of the spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees in latitude and longitude. There are pronounced differences in the spatial distributions of soil properties and soil organic carbon between UNASM and HWSD, but the UNASM overall provides more detailed and higher-quality information particularly in Alaska and central Canada. To provide more accurate and up-to-date estimate of soil organic carbon stock in North America, we incorporated Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD) into the UNASM. The estimate of total soil organic carbon mass in the upper 100 cm soil profile based on the improved UNASM is 347.70 Pg, of which 24.7% is under trees, 14.2% is under shrubs, and 1.3% is under grasses and 3.8% under crops. This UNASM data will provide a resource for use in land surface and terrestrial biogeochemistry modeling both for input of soil characteristics and for benchmarking model output.

  11. In situ analyses on negative ions in the sputtering process to deposit Al-doped ZnO films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsukamoto, Naoki; Watanabe, Daisuke; Saito, Motoaki; Sato, Yasushi; Oka, Nobuto; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2010-07-15

    The origin of high energy negative ions during deposition of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films by dc magnetron sputtering of an AZO (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: 2.0 wt %) target was investigated by in situ analyses using the quadrupole mass spectrometer combined with the electrostatic energy analyzer. High energy negative oxygen (O{sup -}) ions which possessed the kinetic energy corresponding to the cathode sheath voltage were detected. The maximum flux of the O{sup -} ions was clearly observed at the location opposite to the erosion track area on the target. The flux of the O{sup -} ions changed hardly with increasing O{sub 2} flow ratio [O{sub 2}/(Ar+O{sub 2})] from 0% to 5%. The kinetic energy of the O{sup -} ions decreased with decreasing cathode sheath voltage from 403 to 337 V due to the enhancement of the vertical maximum magnetic field strength at the cathode surface from 0.025 to 0.100 T. The AZO films deposited with the lower O{sup -} bombardment energy showed the higher crystallinity and improved the electrical conductivity.

  12. Permeability barrier of Gram-negative cell envelopes and approaches to bypass it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zgurskaya, Helen I.; López, Cesar A.; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram

    2015-09-18

    Gram-negative bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Species that have acquired multidrug resistance and cause infections that are effectively untreatable present a serious threat to public health. The problem is broadly recognized and tackled at both the fundamental and applied levels. This article summarizes current advances in understanding the molecular bases of the low permeability barrier of Gram-negative pathogens, which is the major obstacle in discovery and development of antibiotics effective against such pathogens. Gaps in knowledge and specific strategies to break this barrier and to achieve potent activities against difficult Gram-negative bacteria are also discussed.

  13. Climate Change Response

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Interior Climate Change Response "From the Everglades to the Great Lakes to Alaska and everywhere in between, climate change is a leading threat to natural and cultural resources across America, and tribal communities are often the hardest hit by severe weather events such as droughts, floods and wildfires" - Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell "Impacts of climate change are increasingly evident for American Indian and Alaska Native communities and, in some cases, threaten

  14. Lab announces security changes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab announces security changes Lab announces security changes The Laboratory is implementing several changes to its security procedures as the result of a recent security assessment conducted jointly by the Department of Defense and Department of Energy. February 23, 2012 Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Contact Kevin Roark Communications Office (505) 665-9202 Email LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, February 23, 2012-Los Alamos National

  15. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality will cause forest and species distributions to change substantially. October 1, 2012 A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the

  16. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality will cause forest and species distributions to change substantially. October 1, 2012 A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the

  17. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality will cause forest and species distributions to change substantially. October 1, 2012 A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the

  18. Sea level changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1987-08-21

    The paper develops an approach to the issues relating to sea level change that will assist the non-scientist and the applied scientist in making the most effective use of our existing and developing knowledge. The human perception of ''sea level'' and how that changes as societies change and develop are discussed. After some practical perspectives on the relationships between societies and sea levels are developed, an approach to developing the best available local prediction of sea level changes is outlined, and finally present knowledge and uncertainties about the future course of events that will influence ''sea level'' as defined in the practical sense is discussed.

  19. Climate Change Webinar Series

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experts will provide findings from the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) and outline federal energy policy objectives, proposals, and actions as they relate to climate change and resilience for...

  20. Change Control Management Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-07-29

    The Guide provides a suggested approach and uniform guidance for managing project and contract changes through applying the requirements of DOE O 413.3B. No cancellation.

  1. Understanding Climate Change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... vapor, changing the impact of the atmosphere on the propagation of radiant energy, particularly radiant energy propagating upwards from the surface, and on the performance of some ...

  2. Study of negative hydrogen ion beam optics using the 3D3V PIC model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, K.; Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.

    2015-04-08

    The mechanism of negative ion extraction under real conditions with the complex magnetic field is studied by using the 3D PIC simulation code. The extraction region of the negative ion source for the negative ion based neutral beam injection system in fusion reactors is modelled. It is shown that the E x B drift of electrons is caused by the magnetic filter and the electron suppression magnetic field, and the resultant asymmetry of the plasma meniscus. Furthermore, it is indicated that that the asymmetry of the plasma meniscus results in the asymmetry of negative ion beam profile including the beam halo. It could be demonstrated theoretically that the E x B drift is not significantly weakened by the elastic collisions of the electrons with neutral particles.

  3. Intermetallic negative electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Fransson, Linda M.; Edstrom, Ester Kristina; Henriksen, Gary

    2004-05-04

    A method of operating an electrochemical cell is disclosed. The cell has an intermetallic negative electrode of Cu.sub.6-x M.sub.x Sn.sub.5, wherein x is .ltoreq.3 and M is one or more metals including Si and a positive electrode containing Li in which Li is shuttled between the positive electrode and the negative electrode during charge and discharge to form a lithiated intermetallic negative electrode during charge. The voltage of the electrochemical cell is controlled during the charge portion of the charge-discharge cycles so that the potential of the lithiated intermetallic negative electrode in the fully charged electrochemical cell is less than 0.2 V but greater than 0 V versus metallic lithium.

  4. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 Degree-Sign C, 13.8 Degree-Sign C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  5. QER- Comment of Claire Chang

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    approx 2/3 natural gas. Increasing this makes us even more vulnerable to swings in fuel prices, especially in rapidly changing geo political climate and as this finite resource becomes increasingly rare. — State & ratepayer funds could be better spent. If these kinds of funds are going to be raised on rate payers, they should go toward expanding energy efficiency programs, increased incentives for decentralized roof-top wind and solar generation, more efficient electric transmission lines, more effective energy storage from big wind and solar generation installations. — Pipeline carries financial burden for landowners. The payment for the easement on your land is a one-time deal and is not much money when weighed against the costs to property value. The presence of gas pipelines has historically had a severe negative impact on property values, rendering the properties it crosses virtually unsellable, no longer eligible for a mortgage, and often negating any insurance policies. — Health and safety are at risk. The bad track record for safety of the gas industry, and Kinder Morgan in particular, does not bode well for the health and safety of the people of the Commonwealth. Leaks are frequent, and they can happen even in underground and underwater sections of this buried pipeline. Off-gassing of carcinogens, neurotoxins and endocrine disrupting chemicals at compressor stations every 40-50 miles are constant. Explosions of a pipeline this size and at this high pressure are catastrophic and the fires are fed by many, many miles worth of fuel between shut-off stations, leading to prolonged, extremely high temperature burn. — Pipeline construction and presence pose unwarranted damage and risks. The track of this proposed pipeline cuts through over 900 personal properties, farms, watersheds, major rivers and protected wetlands and forests, leaving all of them to deal with the presence of a toxic mix of chemicals for the decades its in use and the decaying infrastructure

  6. Effect of nickel grid parameters on production of negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Yokoyama, H.; Takeda, Toshiaki; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Kawata, K.

    2014-06-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a nickel grid. When positive ions passing through the grid are decelerated by an electric field, the extraction current density of passing positive ions is sharply reduced by neutralization and negative ionization of the ions. This phenomenon is found to depend on the specific surface area of the grid and the current density.

  7. Research progress on ionic plasmas generated in an intense hydrogen negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeiri, Y. Tsumori, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.; Sekiguchi, H.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Characteristics of ionic plasmas, observed in a high-density hydrogen negative ion source, are investigated with a multi-diagnostics system. The ionic plasma, which consists of hydrogen positive- and negative-ions with a significantly low-density of electrons, is generated in the ion extraction region, from which the negative ions are extracted through the plasma grid. The negative ion density, i.e., the ionic plasma density, as high as the order of 110{sup 17}m{sup ?3}, is measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy, while the electron density is lower than 110{sup 16}m{sup ?3}, which is confirmed with millimeter-wave interferometer. Reduction of the negative ion density is observed at the negative ion extraction, and at that time the electron flow into the ionic plasma region is observed to conserve the charge neutrality. Distribution of the plasma potential is measured in the extraction region in the direction normal to the plasma grid surface with a Langmuir probe, and the results suggest that the sheath is formed at the plasma boundary to the plasma grid to which the bias voltage is applied. The beam extraction should drive the negative ion transport in the ionic plasma across the sheath formed on the extraction surface. Larger reduction of the negative ions at the beam extraction is observed in a region above the extraction aperture on the plasma grid, which is confirmed with 2D image measurement of the H? emission and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The electron distribution is also measured near the plasma grid surface. These various properties observed in the ionic plasma are discussed.

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to

  9. Commitment Institutional Change Principle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Commitment can be a crucial element that helps federal agencies inject and emphasize sustainability in their organizational culture. Institutions and people change when they have made definite commitments to change, especially when those commitments relate to future conditions. Research shows that explicit commitments improve the rate at which people adopt energy-efficient behaviors.

  10. Time-fractional Gardner equation for ion-acoustic waves in negative-ion-beam plasma with negative ions and nonthermal nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shimin Mei, Liquan; Zhang, Zhengqiang

    2015-05-15

    Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a one-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma consisting of positive ions, negative ions, and nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution that is penetrated by a negative-ion-beam. The classical Gardner equation is derived to describe nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves in the considered plasma system via reductive perturbation technique. We convert the classical Gardner equation into the time-fractional Gardner equation by Agrawal's method, where the time-fractional term is under the sense of Riesz fractional derivative. Employing variational iteration method, we construct solitary wave solutions of the time-fractional Gardner equation with initial condition which depends on the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients. The effect of the plasma parameters on the compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitary waves is also discussed in detail.

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Transfer of 1100 AREA, Southern Rail Connection and Rolling Stock, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the U.S. Department of Energy's proposed action: the transfer of the 1100 Area, southern rail connection and rolling stock to a non-federal entity. Impact information contained herein will be used by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1508.27. This EA was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The following is a description of each section of the EA. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S. Department of Energy is addressing with the proposed action. As necessary, background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. A description with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts is provided. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. Reasonable alternative actions, which would address the Purpose and Need, are described. A no action alternative, as required by 10 CFR 1021, also is described. (4) Affected Environment. This provides a brief description of the locale in which the proposed action takes place, and which may be environmentally impacted. (5) Environmental

  12. Stocks of Conventional Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Nuclear & Uranium Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Status of U.S. nuclear outages (interactive) Nuclear power plants Uranium & nuclear fuel Spent nuclear fuel All nuclear data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Nuclear plants and reactors Projections Recurring Uranium All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud ‹ See all Nuclear Reports State Nuclear Profiles Data for 2010 (See also State Electricity Profiles) | Release Date: April 26, 2012 |

  13. Stocks of Fuel Ethanol

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 07/22/16 07/29/16 08/05/16 08/12/16 08/19/16 08/26/16 View History U.S. 20,390 20,603 20,460 20,425 20,817 20,926 2010-2016 PADD 1 7,399 7,375 6,918 7,488 7,170 7,365 2010-2016 PADD 2 6,478 6,366 6,777 6,754 6,880 6,894 2010-2016 PADD 3 3,713 4,036 3,792 3,201 3,718 3,648 2010-2016 PADD 4 321 330 321 343 346 359 2010-2016 PADD 5 2,479 2,495

  14. Stocks of Reformulated Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    89,599 89,865 91,903 93,744 96,135 98,510 1993-2016 PADD 1 5,149 5,056 5,686 6,572 7,067 6,896 1993-2016 New England 594 594 594 594 594 595 1993-2016 Central Atlantic 2,904 2,774 3,360 3,613 4,088 3,871 1993-2016 Lower Atlantic 1,652 1,687 1,733 2,365 2,385 2,430 1993-2016 PADD 2 28,758 28,751 28,701 28,846 29,088 28,803 1993-2016 PADD 3 52,770 53,081 54,223 54,959 56,526 59,073 1993-2016 PADD's 4 & 5 2,922 2,978 3,293 3,367 3,454 3,738

    39 40 45 40 40 45 1993-2016 PADD 1 21 21 29 28 29

  15. Changing Climate Doug Sisterson Environmental ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change Minds about our Changing Climate Doug Sisterson Environmental Science Division, ... We are regularly confronted with arguments that deny climate change is happening or is a ...

  16. Enforcement Process Overview Changes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SAFETY AND SECURITY ENFORCEMENT PROCESS OVERVIEW CHANGES JULY 2016  The excerpts below show the changes made, in redline/strikeout, from the April 2015 version to the July 2016 version of the Enforcement Process Overview.  The page numbers below refer to page numbers of the July 2016 version of the document.  In the July 2016 version of the document on this website, the areas where these changes have been made are marked by a vertical line in the left margin. Page 25 Interview

  17. Oversight and Change

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Oversight and Change http:nnsa.energy.govourmissionoversightandchange

    Page...

  18. Oversight and Change

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Oversight and Change http:www.nnsa.energy.govourmissionoversightandchange

    Page...

  19. Change Control Management Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-07-29

    The Guide provides a suggested approach and uniform guidance for managing project and contract changes through applying the requirements of DOE O 413.3B. Admin Chg 1 dated 10-22-2015.

  20. Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This course provides an introduction to planning for climate change impacts, with examples of tribes that have been going through the adaptation planning process. The course is intended for tribal...

  1. Chang-F-L

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effect of Droplet Size Distribution on the Determination of Cloud Droplet Effective Radius F.-L. Chang and Z. Li ESSIC/Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland F.-L. Chang Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction Cloud microphysical processes can provide links between cloud radiative effect and hydrological cycle and create several feedback mechanisms linking clouds and climate. For instance, the aerosols can affect the climate through

  2. Negative running of the spectral index, hemispherical asymmetry and the consistency of Planck with large r

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, John

    2014-11-01

    Planck favours a negative running of the spectral index, with the likelihood being dominated by low multipoles l?<50 and no preference for running at higher l. A negative spectral index is also necessary for the 2- Planck upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r to be consistent with values significantly larger than 0.1. Planck has also observed a hemispherical asymmetry of the CMB power spectrum, again mostly at low multipoles. Here we consider whether the physics responsible for the hemispherical asymmetry could also account for the negative running of the spectral index and the consistency of Planck with a large value of r. A negative running of the spectral index can be generated if the hemispherical asymmetry is due to a scale- and space-dependent modulation which suppresses the CMB power spectrum at low multipoles. We show that the observed hemispherical asymmetry at low l can be generated while satisfying constraints on the asymmetry at higher l and generating a negative spectral index of the right magnitude to account for the Planck observation and to allow Planck to be consistent with a large value of r.

  3. Physically consistent simulation of mesoscale chemical kinetics: The non-negative FIS-{alpha} method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, Saswati, E-mail: saswatid@rishi.serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Raha, Soumyendu, E-mail: raha@serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-01

    Biochemical pathways involving chemical kinetics in medium concentrations (i.e., at mesoscale) of the reacting molecules can be approximated as chemical Langevin equations (CLE) systems. We address the physically consistent non-negative simulation of the CLE sample paths as well as the issue of non-Lipschitz diffusion coefficients when a species approaches depletion and any stiffness due to faster reactions. The non-negative Fully Implicit Stochastic {alpha} (FIS {alpha}) method in which stopped reaction channels due to depleted reactants are deleted until a reactant concentration rises again, for non-negativity preservation and in which a positive definite Jacobian is maintained to deal with possible stiffness, is proposed and analysed. The method is illustrated with the computation of active Protein Kinase C response in the Protein Kinase C pathway.

  4. Laser photodetachment diagnostics of a 1/3-size negative hydrogen ion source for NBI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, S.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.

    2015-04-08

    To investigate the flows of charged particles in front of the plasma grid (PG) in a negative hydrogen ion source, the information of the local densities of electrons and negative hydrogen ions (H-) are necessary. For this purpose, the laser photodetachment is applied for pure hydrogen plasmas and Cs-seeded plasma in a 1/3-size negative hydrogen ion source in NIFS-NBI test stand. The H- density obtained by photodetachment is calibrated by the results from cavity ring-down (CRD). The pressure dependence and PG bias dependence of the local H- density are presented and discussed. The results show that H- density increases significantly by seeding Cs into the plasma. In Cs-seeded plasma, relativity exists between the H- ion density and plasma potential.

  5. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanni, Martin T.

    1999-12-17

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents.

  6. Roles of a plasma grid in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacal, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.; McAdams, R.

    2015-04-08

    The plasma grid is electrically biased with respect to other parts of source chamber wall in both volume sources and sources seeded with alkali metals. The roles of the plasma grid in these two kinds of sources will be described. The main functions of the plasma grid in volume sources are: optimizing the extracted negative ion current, reducing the co-extracted electron current, controlling the axial plasma potential profile, recycling the hydrogen atoms to molecules, concentrating the negative ions near its surface and, when biased positive, depleting the electron population near its surface. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with alkali metals. However an additional function appears in the Cs seeded sources, namely direct emission of negative ions under positive ion and neutral hydrogen bombardment.

  7. Negative plasma potential in a multidipole chamber with a dielectric coated plasma boundary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheehan, J. P.; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2012-05-15

    Negative plasma potentials with respect to a grounded wall that was coated with a dielectric have been achieved in an electropositive plasma confined by a multidipole device. A Langmuir probe was used to measure the density and temperatures of the bi-Maxwellian distribution electrons and an emissive probe was used to measure the plasma potential profile near the plasma boundary. For many discharge parameters, the potential profile was that of a typical electropositive sheath, but it was shifted negative due to negative charge accumulated on the plasma-surface boundary. A virtual cathode was observed near the boundary when the neutral pressure, primary electron energy, and/or discharge current were low ({approx}2 x 10{sup -4} Torr, {approx}60 eV, and 80 mA, respectively). The behavior of the sheath potential was shown to be consistent with that predicted by particle balance and a qualitative mechanism for wall charging is presented.

  8. Method for resurrecting negative electron affinity photocathodes after exposure to an oxidizing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulhollan, Gregory A; Bierman, John C

    2012-10-30

    A method by which negative electron affinity photocathodes (201), single crystal, amorphous, or otherwise ordered, can be made to recover their quantum yield following exposure to an oxidizing gas has been discovered. Conventional recovery methods employ the use of cesium as a positive acting agent (104). In the improved recovery method, an electron beam (205), sufficiently energetic to generate a secondary electron cloud (207), is applied to the photocathode in need of recovery. The energetic beam, through the high secondary electron yield of the negative electron affinity surface (203), creates sufficient numbers of low energy electrons which act on the reduced-yield surface so as to negate the effects of absorbed oxidizing atoms thereby recovering the quantum yield to a pre-decay value.

  9. Negative pressures and spallation in water drops subjected to nanosecond shock waves

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stan, Claudiu A.; Willmott, Philip R.; Stone, Howard A.; Koglin, Jason E.; Liang, Mengning; Aquila, Andrew L.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Gumerlock, Karl L.; Blaj, Gabriel; Sierra, Raymond G.; et al

    2016-05-16

    Most experimental studies of cavitation in liquid water at negative pressures reported cavitation at tensions significantly smaller than those expected for homogeneous nucleation, suggesting that achievable tensions are limited by heterogeneous cavitation. We generated tension pulses with nanosecond rise times in water by reflecting cylindrical shock waves, produced by X-ray laser pulses, at the internal surface of drops of water. Depending on the X-ray pulse energy, a range of cavitation phenomena occurred, including the rupture and detachment, or spallation, of thin liquid layers at the surface of the drop. When spallation occurred, we evaluated that negative pressures below –100 MPamore » were reached in the drops. As a result, we model the negative pressures from shock reflection experiments using a nucleation-and-growth model that explains how rapid decompression could outrun heterogeneous cavitation in water, and enable the study of stretched water close to homogeneous cavitation pressures.« less

  10. Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Institutional Change » Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle Because it takes time to establish institutional change, federal agencies need multiyear plans that continuously work to achieve, reinforce, and improve significant and persistent sustainability goals. Sustainability efforts ultimately may fail unless organizational change becomes "the way we do business." This principle is in line with organization research showing

  11. Twenty Five Years of Vibrational Kinetics and Negative Ion Production in H2 Plasmas: Modelling Aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capitelli, M.; De Pascale, O.; Diomede, P.; Gorse, C.; Longo, S.; Pagano, D.; Gicquel, A.; Hassouni, K.

    2005-04-06

    Different approaches to study vibrational kinetics coupled to electron one for modeling different kinds of negative ion sources are presented. In particular two types of sources are investigated. The first one is a classical negative ion source in which the plasma is generated by thermoemitted electrons; in the second one, electrons already present in the mixture are accelerated by an RF field to sufficiently high energy to ionize the gas molecules. For the first kind of ion source a new computational scheme is presented to couple heavy particle and electron kinetics. Moreover models developed for an RF inductive discharge and for a parallel plate discharge are described.

  12. Negative ion beam injection apparatus with magnetic shield and electron removal means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Oscar A.; Chan, Chun F.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1994-01-01

    A negative ion source is constructed to produce H.sup.- ions without using Cesium. A high percentage of secondary electrons that typically accompany the extracted H.sup.- are trapped and eliminated from the beam by permanent magnets in the initial stage of acceleration. Penetration of the magnetic field from the permanent magnets into the ion source is minimized. This reduces the destructive effect the magnetic field could have on negative ion production and extraction from the source. A beam expansion section in the extractor results in a strongly converged final beam.

  13. Modeling of a negative ion source. I. Gas kinetics and dynamics in the expansion region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taccogna, F.; Schneider, R.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2007-07-15

    The vibrational population distribution of the electronic ground state of H{sub 2} in the expansion region of a negative ion source is investigated using a kinetic Monte Carlo model. Operative conditions are referred to the inductively coupled plasma radio frequency negative ion source developed at IPP-Garching. The different excitation and relaxation processes are discussed, both bulk and surface contributions. In particular, due to the relatively high plasma density, the relevant role of direct low energy electron-impact excitation, surface Auger neutralization, and vibration-translation deactivation are recovered. Results of the present model will be used as input data for the neutral source model in the extraction region.

  14. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  15. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  16. Tunable hyperbolic metamaterials utilizing phase change heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Harish N. S.; Menon, Vinod M.; Zhou, You; Ramanathan, Shriram; Narimanov, Evgenii

    2014-03-24

    We present a metal-free tunable anisotropic metamaterial where the iso-frequency surface is tuned from elliptical to hyperbolic dispersion by exploiting the metal-insulator phase transition in the correlated material vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). Using VO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} heterostructures, we demonstrate the transition in the effective dielectric constant parallel to the layers to undergo a sign change from positive to negative as the VO{sub 2} undergoes the phase transition. The possibility to tune the iso-frequency surface in real time using external perturbations such as temperature, voltage, or optical pulses creates new avenues for controlling light-matter interaction.

  17. Phase change compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    Compositions containing crystalline, long chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

  18. Phase change compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1989-01-01

    Compositions containing crystalline, straight chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

  19. Leadership Institutional Change Principle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    For changing behavior among employees, leaders in Federal agencies should visibly communicate their own commitments to sustainability in the workplace. Such visible leadership will help achieve sustainability goals in the short term and continue to provide motivation for long-term benefits.

  20. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Marian; Kaun, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Silicon powder is mixed with powdered electroactive material, such as the lithium-aluminum eutectic, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  1. Method of preparing a negative electrode including lithium alloy for use within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Battles, James E.

    1977-03-08

    A negative electrode that includes a lithium alloy as active material is prepared by briefly submerging a porous, electrically conductive substrate within a melt of the alloy. Prior to solidification, excess melt can be removed by vibrating or otherwise manipulating the filled substrate to expose interstitial surfaces. Electrodes of such as solid lithium-aluminum filled within a substrate of metal foam are provided.

  2. Negative space charge effects in photon-enhanced thermionic emission solar converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Segev, G.; Weisman, D.; Rosenwaks, Y.; Kribus, A.

    2015-07-06

    In thermionic energy converters, electrons in the gap between electrodes form a negative space charge and inhibit the emission of additional electrons, causing a significant reduction in conversion efficiency. However, in Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) solar energy converters, electrons that are reflected by the electric field in the gap return to the cathode with energy above the conduction band minimum. These electrons first occupy the conduction band from which they can be reemitted. This form of electron recycling makes PETE converters less susceptible to negative space charge loss. While the negative space charge effect was studied extensively in thermionic converters, modeling its effect in PETE converters does not account for important issues such as this form of electron recycling, nor the cathode thermal energy balance. Here, we investigate the space charge effect in PETE solar converters accounting for electron recycling, with full coupling of the cathode and gap models, and addressing conservation of both electric and thermal energy. The analysis shows that the negative space charge loss is lower than previously reported, allowing somewhat larger gaps compared to previous predictions. For a converter with a specific gap, there is an optimal solar flux concentration. The optimal solar flux concentration, the cathode temperature, and the efficiency all increase with smaller gaps. For example, for a gap of 3 μm the maximum efficiency is 38% and the optimal flux concentration is 628, while for a gap of 5 μm the maximum efficiency is 31% and optimal flux concentration is 163.

  3. Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balal, N.; Magory, E.; Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.

    2015-10-19

    It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the “abnormal” regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch “nucleus.” An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum.

  4. Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Chen, Deliang; Xu, Jianwei

    2015-03-10

    Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of P/PET (precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) as an aridity index to indicate changes in dryness and wetness in a given area, P/PET was calculated using observed records at 83 stations in the TP, with PET calculated using the Penman–Monteith (PM) algorithm. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979-2011 are analyzed.more » Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter and stations in the semi-humid southeastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range changes at confidence level of 99.9% from two-tail t-test. Temporal correlations also confirm the significant correlation between aridity changes with the three variables, with precipitation being the most dominant driver of P/PET changes at interannual time scale. PET changes are insignificant but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, correlation between PET changes and P/PET changes are significant at confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere melts near the surface. Significant correlation between wind speed changes and aridity changes occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring.« less

  5. Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Chen, Deliang; Xu, Jianwei

    2015-03-10

    Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of P/PET (precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) as an aridity index to indicate changes in dryness and wetness in a given area, P/PET was calculated using observed records at 83 stations in the TP, with PET calculated using the Penman–Monteith (PM) algorithm. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979-2011 are analyzed. Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter and stations in the semi-humid southeastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range changes at confidence level of 99.9% from two-tail t-test. Temporal correlations also confirm the significant correlation between aridity changes with the three variables, with precipitation being the most dominant driver of P/PET changes at interannual time scale. PET changes are insignificant but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, correlation between PET changes and P/PET changes are significant at confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere melts near the surface. Significant correlation between wind speed changes and aridity changes occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring.

  6. ACCO Climate Change Adaptation Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Association of Climate Change Officers (ACCO) is hosting a two-day training workshop titled, "Climate Change Adaptation" to cover climate science, impacts from severe climate events, tools to screen and access vulnerabilities, and strategies to lead organizational change.

  7. NREL Announces Management Changes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Announces Management Changes For more information contact: Bob Noun (303) 275-3062 Golden, Colo., June 27, 1997 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Director Richard Truly announced a reorganization that creates two new management positions at the laboratory. Effective July 1, 1997, Dr. Stanley Bull becomes Associate Director for Research Operations. He will manage the research and development of more than 30 renewable energy technologies such as solar energy, wind energy, fuels

  8. chang-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Relationship Between TOA Albedo and Cloud Optical Depth as Deduced from Models and Collocated AVHRR and ERBE Satellite Observations F.-L. Chang and Z. Li Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada S. A. Ackerman Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Introduction It has long been recognized that clouds have a large influence on the earth's radiation budget and climate. Current cloud and radiation research programs, such as the Clouds and

  9. ChangePoint

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-10-18

    This software allows one to locate the sudden intensity changes in fluorescence time trajectoreis photon by photon. It also automatically calculate the most probable number of intensity levels in the trajectory according to Bayesian statistics measure. This allows an accurate and unbiased analysis and interpretation of experimental data. The code can be applied to analysis of DNA sequencing data, for example, to allow rapid single-molecule and single-base resolution.

  10. Project Summary (2012-2015) – Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkle, Ross; Benscoter, Brian; Comas, Xavier; Sumner, David; DeAngelis, Donald

    2015-04-07

    Carbon Dynamics of the Greater Everglades Watershed and Implications of Climate Change The objectives of this project are to: 1) quantify above- and below-ground carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems along a seasonal hydrologic gradient in the headwaters region of the Greater Everglades watershed; 2) develop budgets of ecosystem gaseous carbon exchange (carbon dioxide and methane) across the seasonal hydrologic gradient; 3) assess the impact of climate drivers on ecosystem carbon exchange in the Greater Everglades headwater region; and 4) integrate research findings with climate-driven terrestrial ecosystem carbon models to examine the potential influence of projected future climate change on regional carbon cycling. Note: this project receives a one-year extension past the original performance period - David Sumner (USGS) is not included in this extension.

  11. Comparison of measured and modelled negative hydrogen ion densities at the ECR-discharge HOMER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauner, D.; Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-08

    As the negative hydrogen ion density n{sub H{sup −}} is a key parameter for the investigation of negative ion sources, its diagnostic quantification is essential in source development and operation as well as for fundamental research. By utilizing the photodetachment process of negative ions, generally two different diagnostic methods can be applied: via laser photodetachment, the density of negative ions is measured locally, but only relatively to the electron density. To obtain absolute densities, the electron density has to be measured additionally, which induces further uncertainties. Via cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), the absolute density of H{sup −} is measured directly, however LOS-averaged over the plasma length. At the ECR-discharge HOMER, where H{sup −} is produced in the plasma volume, laser photodetachment is applied as the standard method to measure n{sub H{sup −}}. The additional application of CRDS provides the possibility to directly obtain absolute values of n{sub H{sup −}}, thereby successfully bench-marking the laser photodetachment system as both diagnostics are in good agreement. In the investigated pressure range from 0.3 to 3 Pa, the measured negative hydrogen ion density shows a maximum at 1 to 1.5 Pa and an approximately linear response to increasing input microwave powers from 200 up to 500 W. Additionally, the volume production of negative ions is 0-dimensionally modelled by balancing H{sup −} production and destruction processes. The modelled densities are adapted to the absolute measurements of n{sub H{sup −}} via CRDS, allowing to identify collisions of H{sup −} with hydrogen atoms (associative and non-associative detachment) to be the dominant loss process of H{sup −} in the plasma volume at HOMER. Furthermore, the characteristic peak of n{sub H{sup −}} observed at 1 to 1.5 Pa is identified to be caused by a comparable behaviour of the electron density with varying pressure, as n{sub e} determines

  12. Institutional Change Process for Sustainability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For establishing institutional change in a federal agency to achieve sustainability or other energy efficiency goals, follow the five-step institutional change process.

  13. Strategies for Achieving Institutional Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many strategies—including those derived from Institutional Change Principles–may be used to effect institutional change in support of energy and sustainability objectives.

  14. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O₃) and fine particulate matter (PM₂̣₅) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth Systemmore » Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O₃ increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM₂̣₅ increases of up to 2 μgm⁻³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.« less

  15. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O₃) and fine particulate matter (PM₂̣₅) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O₃ increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM₂̣₅ increases of up to 2 μgm⁻³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.

  16. Resolving Losses at the Negative Electrode in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Che Nan; Delnick, Frank M; Aaron, D; Mench, Matthew M; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    We present an in situ electrochemical technique for the quantitative measurement and resolution of the ohmic, charge transfer and diffusion overvoltages at the negative electrode of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mathematics describing the complex impedance of the V+2/V+3 redox reaction is derived and matches the experimental data. The voltage losses contributed by each process have been resolved and quantified at various flow rates and electrode thicknesses as a function of current density during anodic and cathodic polarization. The diffusion overvoltage was affected strongly by flow rate while the charge transfer and ohmic losses were invariant. On the other hand, adopting a thicker electrode significantly changed both the charge transfer and diffusion losses due to increased surface area. Furthermore, the Tafel plot obtained from the impedance resolved charge transfer overvoltage yielded the geometric exchange current density, anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes (135 5 and 121 5 mV/decade respectively) and corresponding transfer coefficients = 0.45 0.02 and = 0.50 0.02 in an operating cell.

  17. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phukan, Ananya, E-mail: ananya.phukan26@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Kamrup (M), Assam 782402 (India)

    2014-08-15

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (?{sub D})

  18. Roughening and removal of surface contamination from beryllium using negative transferred-arc cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, R.G.; Hollis, K.J.; Elliott, K.E.

    1997-12-01

    Negative transferred-arc (TA) cleaning has been used extensively in the aerospace industry to clean and prepare surfaces prior to plasma spraying of thermal barrier coatings. This non-line of sight process can improve the bond strength of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate material by cleaning and macroscopically roughening the surface. A variation of this cleaning methodology is also used in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding to cathodically clean the surfaces of aluminum and magnesium prior to welding. Investigations are currently being performed to quantify the degree in which the negative transferred-arc process can clean and roughen metal surfaces. Preliminary information will be reported on the influence of processing conditions on roughening and the removal of carbon and other contaminates from the surface of beryllium. Optical, spectral and electrical methods to quantify cleaning of the surface will also be discussed. Applications for this technology include chemical-free precision cleaning of beryllium components.

  19. Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3 V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H{sup −} current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.

  20. ARM - Engineering Change Request & Engineering Change Order Guidelines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change Request & Engineering Change Order Guidelines Page Contents: Guideline for Starting a Request for a New ARM Product, Capability, or Functionality Engineering Task Tracking Tool Tracking Capabilities Getting Closure, the Baseline Change Request Glossary Engineering Change Request & Engineering Change Order Guidelines Requesting Engineered Products and Services in ARM Guideline for Starting a Request for a New ARM Product, Capability, or Functionality The purpose of this guideline

  1. Structure of the Dominant Negative S17N Mutant of Ras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, N.; Singh, K; Garcia-Diaz, M

    2010-01-01

    The use of the dominant negative mutant of Ras has been crucial in elucidating the cellular signaling of Ras in response to the activation of various membrane-bound receptors. Although several point mutants of Ras exhibit a dominant negative effect, the asparagine to serine mutation at position 17 (S17N) remains the most popular and the most effective at inhibiting the activation of endogenous Ras. It is now widely accepted that the dominant negative effect is due to the ability of the mutant to sequester upstream activators and its inability to activate downstream effectors. Here, we present the crystal structure of RasS17N in the GDP-bound form. In the three molecules that populate the asymmetric unit, the Mg{sup 2+} ion that normally coordinates the {beta}-phosphate is absent because of steric hindrance from the Asn17 side chain. Instead, a Ca{sup 2+} ion is coordinating the {alpha}-phosphate. Also absent from one molecule is electron density for Phe28, a conserved residue that normally stabilizes the nucleotide's guanine base. Except for Phe28, the nucleotide makes conserved interactions with Ras. Combined, the inability of Phe28 to stabilize the guanine base and the absence of a Mg{sup 2+} ion to neutralize the negative charges on the phosphates explain the weaker affinity of GDP for Ras. Our data suggest that the absence of the Mg{sup 2+} should also dramatically affect GTP binding to Ras and the proper positioning of Thr35 necessary for the activation of switch 1 and the binding to downstream effectors, a prerequisite for the triggering of signaling pathways.

  2. Government Decision to Abandon Yucca Mountain Negatively Impacts Central Savannah River Area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Immediate Release Contact: Rick McLeod Monday, November 9, 2009 803.593.9954 x1411 Government Decision to Abandon Yucca Mountain Negatively Impacts Central Savannah River Area AIKEN, SC - The Federal Government's failure to complete construction of its only option for long-term nuclear waste storage at Yucca Mountain in the Nevada desert will result in the Savannah River Site becoming the permanent home to tons of high- level nuclear waste, a local community group says. The SRS Community

  3. Observation of negative differential capacitance (NDC) in Ti Schottky diodes on SiGe islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio; Jantsch, Wolfgang; Tonkikh, Alexander; Zakharov, Nikolay; Werner, Peter

    2013-12-04

    The Negative Differential Capacitance (NDC) effect on Ti Schottky diodes formed on n-type Silicon samples with embedded Germanium Quantum Dots (QDs) is observed and reported. The NDC-effect is detected using capacitance-voltage (CV) method at temperatures below 200 K. It is explained by the capture of electrons in Germanium QDs. Our measurements reveal that each Ge QD captures in average eight electrons.

  4. Method of preparing a negative electrode including lithium alloy for use within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Z.; Olszanski, W.; Battles, J.E.

    1975-12-09

    A negative electrode that includes a lithium alloy as active material is prepared by briefly submerging a porous, electrically conductive substrate within a melt of the alloy. Prior to solidification, excess melt can be removed by vibrating or otherwise manipulating the filled substrate to expose interstitial surfaces. Electrodes of such a solid lithium--aluminum filled within a substrate of metal foam are provided. 1 figure, 1 table.

  5. Low energy milling method, low crystallinity alloy, and negative electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le, Dihn B; Obrovac, Mark N; Kube, Robert Y; Landucci, James R

    2012-10-16

    A method of making nanostructured alloy particles includes milling a millbase in a pebble mill containing milling media. The millbase comprises: (i) silicon, and (ii) at least one of carbon or a transition metal, and wherein the nanostructured alloy particles are substantially free of crystalline domains greater than 50 nanometers in size. A method of making a negative electrode composition for a lithium ion battery including the nanostructured alloy particles is also disclosed.

  6. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knosp, Bernard; Bouet, Jacques; Jordy, Christian; Mimoun, Michel; Gicquel, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  7. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  8. Progress through change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-11-15

    Merger, acquisitions and name changes - it happens in Germany as well. RAG has been undertaking some streamlining that has already impacted mining equipment and materials supply. It acquired the utilities firm E.ON's holding in Degussa on 1 July 2006. It is uncertain whether RAG may opt to sell DBT, one of the world's leading suppliers of underground mining equipment. DBT itself is undergoing some streamlining having sold DBT Maschinenfabrik Scharf and its subsidiaries to the Aurelius Group. The MAN TAKRAF Group has been sold to TAKRAAF Holding GmbH. These and other recent developments amongst Germany's mining equipment manufacturers suppliers are reported. 2 photos.

  9. Application Of The Phase Shifting Diffraction Interferometer For Measuring Convex Mirrors And Negative Lenses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.; Campbell, Eugene W.

    2005-06-21

    To measure a convex mirror, a reference beam and a measurement beam are both provided through a single optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to give a converging wavefront onto the convex mirror under test. A measurement is taken that includes the aberrations of the convex mirror as well as the errors due to two transmissions through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error. A negative lens can also be measured in a similar way. Again, there are two measurement set-ups. A reference beam is provided from a first optical fiber and a measurement beam is provided from a second optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to provide a converging wavefront from the reference beam onto the negative lens under test. The measurement beam is combined with the reference wavefront and is analyzed by standard methods. This measurement includes the aberrations of the negative lens, as well as the errors due to a single transmission through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error.

  10. Evaluation of Negative-Ion-Beam Driver Concepts for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, Larry R.

    2003-03-15

    The feasibility of producing and using atomically neutral heavy ion beams produced from negative ions as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor is evaluated. Bromine and iodine appear to be the most attractive elements for the driver beams. Fluorine and chlorine appear to be the most appropriate feedstocks for initial tests of extractable negative-ion current densities. With regard to ion sources, photodetachment neutralizers, and vacuum requirements for accelerators and beam transport, this approach appears feasible within existing technology, and the vacuum requirements are essentially identical to those for positive-ion drivers except in the target chamber. The principal constraint is that this approach requires harder vacuums in the target chamber than do space-charge-neutralized positive-ion drivers. With realistic (but perhaps pessimistic) estimates of the total ionization cross section, limiting the ionization of a neutral beam to <5% while traversing a 3-m path would require a chamber pressure of no more than 1.3 x 10{sup -5} torr. However, it appears that substantial improvements in the beam spot size on target might be achieved at pressures a factor of 10 or more higher than this. Alternatively, even at still higher chamber pressures that would strongly ionize atomically neutral beams, the negative-ion approach may still have significant appeal, since it precludes the possibly challenging problem of electron contamination of a positive-ion beam during acceleration, drift compression, and focusing.

  11. Evaluation of Negative-Ion-Beam Driver Concepts for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry R. Grisham

    2002-01-14

    We evaluate the feasibility of producing and using atomically neutral heavy ion beams produced from negative ions as drivers for an inertial confinement fusion reactor. Bromine and iodine appear to be the most attractive elements for the driver beams. Fluorine and chlorine appear to be the most appropriate feedstocks for initial tests of extractable negative ion current densities. With regards to ion sources, photodetachment neutralizers, and vacuum requirements for accelerators and beam transport, this approach appears feasible within existing technology, and the vacuum requirements are essentially identical to those for positive ion drivers except in the target chamber. The principal constraint is that this approach requires harder vacuums in the target chamber than do space-charge-neutralized positive ion drivers. With realistic (but perhaps pessimistic) estimates of the total ionization cross section, limiting the ionization of a neutral beam to less than 5% while traversing a four -meter path would require a chamber pressure of no more than 5 x 10{sup -5} torr. Alternatively, even at chamber pressures that are too high to allow propagation of atomically neutral beams, the negative ion approach may still have appeal, since it precludes the possibly serious problem of electron contamination of a positive ion beam during acceleration, drift compression, and focusing.

  12. Landau damping effects on dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty negative-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barman, Arnab; Misra, A. P. E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com

    2014-07-15

    The nonlinear theory of dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) with Landau damping is studied in an unmagnetized dusty negative-ion plasma in the extreme conditions when the free electrons are absent. The cold massive charged dusts are described by fluid equations, whereas the two-species of ions (positive and negative) are described by the kinetic Vlasov equations. A Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with Landau damping, governing the dynamics of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive DAWs, is derived following Ott and Sudan [Phys. Fluids 12, 2388 (1969)]. It is shown that for some typical laboratory and space plasmas, the Landau damping (and the nonlinear) effects are more pronounced than the finite Debye length (dispersive) effects for which the KdV soliton theory is not applicable to DAWs in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of the linear phase velocity, solitary wave amplitudes (in presence and absence of the Landau damping) as well as the Landau damping rate are studied with the effects of the positive ion to dust density ratio (?{sub pd}) as well as the ratios of positive to negative ion temperatures (?) and masses (m)

  13. Multi-dipolar microwave plasmas and their application to negative ion production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bchu, S.; Bs, A.; Lacoste, A.; Aleiferis, S.; Ivanov, A. A. Jr.; Bacal, M.

    2013-10-15

    During the past decade multi-dipolar plasmas have been employed for various purposes such as surface treatments in biomedicine, physical and chemical vapour deposition for hydrogen storage, and applications in mechanical engineering. On the other hand, due to the design and operational mode of these plasma sources (i.e., strong permanent magnets for the electron cyclotron resonance coupling, low working pressure, and high electron density achieved) they are suitable for studying fundamental mechanisms involved in negative ion sources used in magnetically confined fusion and particle accelerators. Thus, this study presents an overview of fundamental results obtained with: (i) a single dipolar source, (ii) a network of seven dipolar plasma sources inserted into a magnetic multipolar chamber (Camembert III), and (iii) four dipolar sources housed in a smaller metallic cylinder (ROSAE III). Investigations with Langmuir probes of electron energy probability functions revealed the variation of the plasma properties versus the radial distance from the axis of a dipolar source in its mid plane and allowed the determination of the proportion between hot and cold electron populations in both chambers. These results are compared with the density of hydrogen negative ions, measured using the photodetachment technique. Electron energy probability functions obtained in these different configurations show the possibility of both hot and cold electron production. The former is a prerequisite for increasing the vibrational level of molecules and the dissociation degree and the latter for producing negative ions via dissociative attachment of the cold electrons or via surface production induced by H atoms.

  14. Application of the phase shifting diffraction interferometer for measuring convex mirrors and negative lenses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.; Campbell, Eugene W.

    2004-03-09

    To measure a convex mirror, a reference beam and a measurement beam are both provided through a single optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to give a converging wavefront onto the convex mirror under test. A measurement is taken that includes the aberrations of the convex mirror as well as the errors due to two transmissions through the positive auxiliary lens. A second, measurement provides the information to eliminate this error. A negative lens can also be measured in a similar way. Again, there are two measurement set-ups. A reference beam is provided from a first optical fiber and a measurement beam is provided from a second optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to provide a converging wavefront from the reference beam onto the negative lens under test. The measurement beam is combined with the reference wavefront and is analyzed by standard methods. This measurement includes the aberrations of the negative lens, as well as the errors due to a single transmission through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error.

  15. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Wuenderlich, D.

    2012-02-15

    Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions.

  16. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-11-11

    An optimized tandem two-chamber negative-ion source system is discussed. In the first chamber high energy (E > 20 eV) electron collisions provide for H/sub 2/ vibrational excitation, while in the second chamber negative ions are formed by dissociative attachment. The gas density, electron density, and system scale length are varied as independent parameters. The extracted negative ion current density passes through a maximum as electron and gas densities are varied. This maximum scales inversely with system scale length, R. The optimum extracted current densities occur for electron densities near nR = 10/sup 13/ electrons cm/sup -2/ and for gas densities, N/sub 2/R, in the range 10/sup 14/ to 10/sup 15/ molecules cm/sup -2/. The extracted current densities are sensitive to the atomic concentration in the discharge. The atomic concentration is parametrized by the wall recombination coefficient, ..gamma.., and scale length, R. As ..gamma.. ranges from 0.1 to 1.0 and for system scale lengths of one centimeter, extracted current densities range from 8.0 to 80. mA cm/sup -2/.

  17. Climate change and forests in India: note from the guest editors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravindtranath, N.H.; Aaheim, Asbjporn

    2010-12-23

    Forestry is one of the most important sectors in the context of climate change. It lies at the center-stage of global mitigation and adaptation efforts. Yet, it is one of the least understood sectors, especially in tropical zones, which constitute a significant portion of the global forests. Recently, there has been a growing interest in forests in addressing global climate change. The IPCC Assessment Report 4 (2007) Chapters related to forests have highlighted the limited number of studies on the impact of climate change on forests at the regional, national and sub-national level, while policy makers need information at these scales. Further, implication of projected climate change on mitigation potential of forest sector is only briefly mentioned in the IPCC report, with limited literature to support the conclusions. India is one among the top ten nations in the world in terms of forest cover. It is also sixth among the tropical countries in terms of forested area. As IPCC Assessment Report 5 work is about to be initiated soon, studies on the impact of climate change on forests as well as the mitigation potential of the forest sector, particularly at regional and national level, will be of great interest to the scientific and policy community. In order to conserve the carbon stored in forests and to reduce CO2 emissions from the forest sector, the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanism is now being finalized under the UNFCCC. In this context, climate change itself may affect the mitigation potential significantly, and it is important to understand how vulnerable the forest carbon stock (biomass and soil) in the tropics is to the projected climate change. In fact, there is a need to study the impact of climate change on forests for all the major forested countries

  18. Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effets on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekoto, Dr Isaac; Peterson, Dr. Brian; Szybist, James P; Northrop, Dr. William

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate. Gas sampling at the end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus, with detailed sample speciation by in-house gas chromatography. The balance of NVO-period input and output energy flows was calculated in terms of fuel energy, work, heat loss, and change in sensible energy. Experiment results were complemented by detailed chemistry single-zone reactor simulations performed at relevant mixing and thermodynamic conditions, with results used to evaluate ignition behavior and expected energy recovery yields. For the intermediate bulk-gas temperatures present during the NVO period (900-1100 K), weak negative temperature coefficient behavior with iso-octane fueling significantly lengthened ignition delays relative to similar ethanol fueled conditions. Faster ethanol ignition chemistry led to lower recovered fuel intermediate yields relative to similar iso-octane fueled conditions due to more complete fuel oxidation. From the energy analysis it was found that increased NVO-period global equivalence ratio, either from lower NVOperiod oxygen

  19. Beijing ChangLi Union Energy Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipality, China Product: China-based technology company that research in zinc-air batteries (fuel cells). References: Beijing ChangLi Union Energy Company1 This article is a...

  20. PKC{eta} is a negative regulator of AKT inhibiting the IGF-I induced proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahaf, Galit; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Koifman, Gabriela; Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Frost, Sigal A.; Livneh, Etta

    2012-04-15

    The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, including breast cancer, and its activation appears to be critical for tumor maintenance. Some malignant cells are dependent on activated AKT for their survival; tumors exhibiting elevated AKT activity show sensitivity to its inhibition, providing an Achilles heel for their treatment. Here we show that the PKC{eta} isoform is a negative regulator of the AKT signaling pathway. The IGF-I induced phosphorylation on Ser473 of AKT was inhibited by the PKC{eta}-induced expression in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells. This was further confirmed in shRNA PKC{eta}-knocked-down MCF-7 cells, demonstrating elevated phosphorylation on AKT Ser473. While PKC{eta} exhibited negative regulation on AKT phosphorylation it did not alter the IGF-I induced ERK phosphorylation. However, it enhanced ERK phosphorylation when stimulated by PDGF. Moreover, its effects on IGF-I/AKT and PDGF/ERK pathways were in correlation with cell proliferation. We further show that both PKC{eta} and IGF-I confer protection against UV-induced apoptosis and cell death having additive effects. Although the protective effect of IGF-I involved activation of AKT, it was not affected by PKC{eta} expression, suggesting that PKC{eta} acts through a different route to increase cell survival. Hence, our studies show that PKC{eta} provides negative control on AKT pathway leading to reduced cell proliferation, and further suggest that its presence/absence in breast cancer cells will affect cell death, which could be of therapeutic value.

  1. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutronmore » reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.« less

  2. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.

  3. Design of the new extraction grid for the NIO1 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veltri, P. Baltador, C.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    NIO1 is a compact source of negative ions jointly developed by RFX and INFN, to study the physics of production and acceleration of H{sup −} beams. Negative ions, up to 120 mA of current, are extracted from a radiofrequency driven plasma, by means of a gridded electrode (plasma grid, PG) featuring 9 apertures arranged in a 3x3 square lattice. The same aperture pattern is replicated in the following electrodes, allowing ion acceleration up to 60 keV. All electrodes are realized in copper, by electro-deposition technique, leaving empty slots in the metal to place magnets and to flow water for the grid cooling. The first set of electrodes was completed, installed in the source and tested. At the same time, an upgrade of the extraction system was carried out, in order to optimize the beam optics and to explore alternative electrostatic configurations. In particular, the accelerator will be modified by completely replacing the EG grid, exploiting the modularity of NIO1. The new electrode will feature other slots in between apertures, to place additional magnets. This allows testing different magnetic configurations, to optimize electron filtering and residual ion deflection. The present paper describes the theoretical activities driving the design of these new extractors, carried out with most updated numerical codes, and exploiting the synergy with the refined modeling of the 40 A ITER negative ion sources, under development at Consorzio RFX. Beam simulations are performed both with tracing codes (SLACCAD and OPERA) and with particle in cell codes (ACCPIC)

  4. Triangular lattice of carbon nanotube arrays for negative index of refraction and subwavelength lensing effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Rybczynski, J.; Wang, D.Z.; Kempa, K.; Ren, Z.F.

    2005-04-11

    Self-assembly of polystyrene microspheres has been utilized in a two-step masking technique to prepare triangular lattices of catalytic nanodots at low cost. Subsequent triangular lattices of aligned carbon nanotubes on a silicon substrate are achieved by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Nickel is used both in the nanodots and in the secondary mask. The triangular lattices of carbon nanotube arrays as two-dimensional photonic crystals show higher geometrical symmetry than the hexagonal lattices previously reported, enabling broader applications including negative index of refraction and subwavelength lensing effect.

  5. Experimental evidence of negative linear compressibility in the MIL-53 metal–organic framework family

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Serra-Crespo, Pablo; Dikhtiarenko, Alla; Stavitski, Eli; Juan-Alcañiz, Jana; Kapteijn, Freek; Coudert, François-Xavier; Gascon, Jorge

    2014-03-24

    Here we report a series of powder X-ray diffraction experiments performed on the soft porous crystals MIL-53(Al) and NH2-MIL-53(Al) in a diamond anvil cell under different pressurization media. Systematic refinements of the obtained powder patterns demonstrate that these materials expand along a specific direction while undergoing total volume reduction under an increasing hydrostatic pressure. The results confirm for the first time the negative linear compressibility behaviour of this family of materials, recently predicted from quantum chemical calculations.

  6. Partial Decay Widths of Negative Parity Baryons in the 1/N{sub c} Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez de Urreta, Emiliano; Scoccola, Norberto; Jayalath, Chandala; Goity, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The partial decay widths of lowest lying negative parity baryons belonging to the 70-plet of SU(6) are analyzed in the framework of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. The channels considered are those with single pseudoscalar meson emission. The analysis is carried out to sub-leading order in 1/N{sub c} and to first order in SU(3) symmetry breaking. Conclusions about the magnitude of SU(3) breaking effects along with predictions for some unknown or poorly determined partial decay widths of known resonances are given.

  7. Experimental Evidence of Negative Linear Compressibility in the MIL-53 Metal-Organic Framework Family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serra-Crespo, Pablo; Dikhtiarenko, Alla; Stavitski, Eli; Juan-Alcaniz, Jana; Kapeteijn, Freek; Coudert, Francois-Xavier; Gascon, Jorge

    2014-03-24

    Here, we report a series of powder X-ray diffraction experiments performed on the soft porous crystals MIL-53(Al) and NH2-MIL-53(Al) in a diamond anvil cell under different pressurization media. Systematic refinements of the obtained powder patterns demonstrate that these materials expand along a specific direction while undergoing total volume reduction under an increasing hydrostatic pressure. Our results confirm for the first time the negative linear compressibility behaviour of this family of materials, recently predicted from quantum chemical calculations.

  8. Experimental Evidence of Negative Linear Compressibility in the MIL-53 Metal-organic Framework Family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serra-Crespo, Pablo; Dikhtiarenko, Alla; Stavitski, Eli; Juan-Alcaniz, Jana; Kapteijn, Freek; Coudert, Francois-Xavier; Gascon, Jorge

    2014-03-24

    Here we report a series of powder X-ray diffraction experiments performed on the soft porous crystals MIL-53(Al) and NH2-MIL-53(Al) in a diamond anvil cell under different pressurization media. Systematic refinements of the obtained powder patterns demonstrate that these materials expand along a specific direction while undergoing total volume reduction under an increasing hydrostatic pressure. Our results confirm for the first time the negative linear compressibility behaviour of this family of materials, recently predicted from quantum chemical calculations.

  9. Method and apparatus for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beene, James R.; Liu, Yuan; Havener, Charles C.

    2008-02-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams. A method of purifying an ion beam includes: inputting the ion beam into a gas-filled multipole ion guide, the ion beam including a plurality of ions; increasing a laser-ion interaction time by collisional cooling the plurality of ions using the gas-filled multipole ion guide, the plurality of ions including at least one contaminant; and suppressing the at least one contaminant by selectively removing the at least one contaminant from the ion beam by electron photodetaching at least a portion of the at least one contaminant using a laser beam.

  10. Three-Body Recombination of {sup 6}Li Atoms with Large Negative Scattering Lengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braaten, Eric; Kang, Daekyoung; Platter, Lucas; Hammer, H.-W.

    2009-08-14

    The three-body recombination rate at threshold for distinguishable atoms with large negative pair scattering lengths is calculated in the zero-range approximation. The only parameters in this limit are the 3 scattering lengths and the Efimov parameter, which can be complex-valued. We provide semianalytic expressions for the cases of 2 or 3 equal scattering lengths, and we obtain numerical results for the general case of 3 different scattering lengths. Our general result is applied to the three lowest hyperfine states of {sup 6}Li atoms. Comparisons with recent experiments provide indications of loss features associated with Efimov trimers near the 3-atom threshold.

  11. Partial decay widths of negative parity baryons in the 1/N{sub c} expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez de Urreta, E. J.; Scoccola, N. N.; Jayalath, C. P.; Goity, J. L.

    2013-03-25

    The partial decay widths of lowest lying negative parity baryons belonging to the 70-plet of SU(6) are analyzed in the framework of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. The channels considered are those with single pseudoscalar meson emission. The analysis is carried out to sub-leading order in 1/N{sub c} and to first order in SU(3) symmetry breaking. Conclusions about the magnitude of SU(3) breaking effects along with predictions for some unknown or poorly determined partial decay widths of known resonances are given.

  12. Negative parity baryon decays in the 1/N{sub c} expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayalath, C.; Goity, J. L.; Gonzalez de Urreta, E.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2011-10-01

    The partial decay widths of lowest lying negative parity baryons belonging to the 70-plet of SU(6) are analyzed in the framework of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. The channels considered are those with single pseudoscalar meson emission. The analysis is carried out to sub-leading order in 1/N{sub c} and to first order in SU(3) symmetry breaking. Conclusions about the magnitude of SU(3) breaking effects along with predictions for some unknown or poorly determined partial decay widths of known resonances are obtained.

  13. Effect of top gate bias on photocurrent and negative bias illumination stress instability in dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eunji; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Park, Min Sang; Jang, Jin

    2015-12-07

    We have studied the effect of top gate bias (V{sub TG}) on the generation of photocurrent and the decay of photocurrent for back channel etched inverted staggered dual gate structure amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Upon 5 min of exposure of 365 nm wavelength and 0.7 mW/cm{sup 2} intensity light with negative bottom gate bias, the maximum photocurrent increases from 3.29 to 322 pA with increasing the V{sub TG} from −15 to +15 V. By changing V{sub TG} from negative to positive, the Fermi level (E{sub F}) shifts toward conduction band edge (E{sub C}), which substantially controls the conversion of neutral vacancy to charged one (V{sub O} → V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+} + e{sup −}/2e{sup −}), peroxide (O{sub 2}{sup 2−}) formation or conversion of ionized interstitial (O{sub i}{sup 2−}) to neutral interstitial (O{sub i}), thus electron concentration at conduction band. With increasing the exposure time, more carriers are generated, and thus, maximum photocurrent increases until being saturated. After negative bias illumination stress, the transfer curve shows −2.7 V shift at V{sub TG} = −15 V, which gradually decreases to −0.42 V shift at V{sub TG} = +15 V. It clearly reveals that the position of electron quasi-Fermi level controls the formation of donor defects (V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+}/O{sub 2}{sup 2−}/O{sub i}) and/or hole trapping in the a-IGZO /interfaces.

  14. Gasoline-like Fuel Effects on High-load, Boosted HCCI Combustion Employing Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated that boosted operation combined with external EGR is a path forward for expanding the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation with the negative valve overlap (NVO) valve strategy. However, the effects of fuel composition with this strategy have not been fully explored. In this study boosted HCCI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), laboratory pressurized intake air, and a fully-variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train. Three fuels with significant compositional differences are investigated: regular grade gasoline (RON = 90.2), 30% ethanol-gasoline blend (E30, RON = 100.3), and 24% iso-butanol-gasoline blend (IB24, RON = 96.6). Results include engine loads from 350 to 800 kPa IMEPg for all fuels at three engine speeds 1600, 2000, and 2500 rpm. All operating conditions achieved thermal efficiency (gross indicated efficiency) between 38 and 47%, low NOX emissions ( 0.1 g/kWh), and high combustion efficiency ( 96.5%). Detailed sweeps of intake manifold pressure (atmospheric to 250 kPaa), EGR (0 25% EGR), and injection timing are conducted to identify fuel-specific effects. The major finding of this study is that while significant fuel compositional differences exist, in boosted HCCI operation only minor changes in operational conditions are required to achieve comparable operation for all fuels. In boosted HCCI operation all fuels were able to achieve matched load-speed operation, whereas in conventional SI operation the fuel-specific knock differences resulted in significant differences in the operable load-speed space. Although all fuels were operable in boosted HCCI, the respective air handling requirements are also discussed, including an analysis of the demanded turbocharger efficiency.

  15. Shifting uses for natural resources in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darwin, R.; Lewandrowski, J. ); Tsigas, M. ); Raneses, A. )

    1994-12-01

    Changes in climate lead to changes in land resources, which in turn lead to changes in the global pattern of economic activity. A number of studies have evaluated effects of climate change on world agricultural systems. Most however used methods that did not permit explicit incorporation of land resources into the analysis. In the present study, the authors are able to link economic activities to land resources which are determined by climate. Also, since farmers adopt the crop mix best suited to alternative climatic conditions and compete with other economic agents for land, this is explicitly taken into account. They use this framework to estimate the impacts of climate change scenarios based on results of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the United Kingdom Meteorological Office, and Oregon State University's general circulation models. The results indicate that, despite negative impacts in some regions, climate change will have a relatively small impact on the long-term ability of global agricultural resources to meet future world food demands. These results depend, however, on the ability to shift crop production to new locations.

  16. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB 50 at low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum ofmoreSAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. Thus, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.less

  17. First-principles study on negative thermal expansion of PbTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Fangfang; Chen, Jun; Xing, Xianran; Xie, Ying; Fu, Honggang

    2013-11-25

    It is well known that perovskite-type PbTiO{sub 3} behaves negative thermal expansion in a wide temperature range from room temperature to Curie temperature (763?K). The present study reports the first-principles study of the anisotropic thermal expansion of PbTiO{sub 3}, in the framework of the density-functional theory and the density-functional perturbation theory. The curve of temperature dependence of the unit cell volume is presented from 20 to 520?K through the calculation of the minimum of total free energy at each temperature point. The negative thermal expansion of PbTiO{sub 3} is calculated without empirical parameters. Furthermore, the distinctive thermodynamic act of PbTiO{sub 3} from expanding to contracting at tetragonal phase is reproduced. The ab-initio calculations reveal that this unique appearance depends on the phonon vibration. The dynamical contributions of various atoms are also calculated to account for the disparate role of Pb-O and Ti-O bond.

  18. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk ; Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A. Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I.; Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

  19. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2–300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the summore » of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.« less

  20. An adaptive grid refinement strategy for the simulation of negative streamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montijn, C. . E-mail: carolynne.montijn@cwi.nl; Hundsdorfer, W. . E-mail: willem.hundsdorfer@cwi.nl; Ebert, U. . E-mail: ute.ebert@cwi.nl

    2006-12-10

    The evolution of negative streamers during electric breakdown of a non-attaching gas can be described by a two-fluid model for electrons and positive ions. It consists of continuity equations for the charged particles including drift, diffusion and reaction in the local electric field, coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The model generates field enhancement and steep propagating ionization fronts at the tip of growing ionized filaments. An adaptive grid refinement method for the simulation of these structures is presented. It uses finite volume spatial discretizations and explicit time stepping, which allows the decoupling of the grids for the continuity equations from those for the Poisson equation. Standard refinement methods in which the refinement criterion is based on local error monitors fail due to the pulled character of the streamer front that propagates into a linearly unstable state. We present a refinement method which deals with all these features. Tests on one-dimensional streamer fronts as well as on three-dimensional streamers with cylindrical symmetry (hence effectively 2D for numerical purposes) are carried out successfully. Results on fine grids are presented, they show that such an adaptive grid method is needed to capture the streamer characteristics well. This refinement strategy enables us to adequately compute negative streamers in pure gases in the parameter regime where a physical instability appears: branching streamers.

  1. Ion-acoustic solitons in negative ion plasma with two-electron temperature distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, M. K.; Tiwari, R. S.; Chawla, J. K.

    2012-06-15

    Ion-acoustic solitons in a warm positive and negative ion species with different masses, concentrations, and charge states with two electron temperature distributions are studied. Using reductive perturbation method, Korteweg de-Vries (KdV) and modified-KdV (m-KdV) equations are derived for the system. The soliton solution of the KdV and m-KdV equations is discussed in detail. It is found that if the ions have finite temperatures, then there exist two types of modes, namely slow and fast ion-acoustic modes. It is also investigated that the parameter determining the nature of soliton (i.e., whether the system will support compressive or rarefactive solitons) is different for slow and fast modes. For the slow mode, the parameter is the relative temperature of the two ion species; whereas for the fast mode, it is the relative concentration of the two ion species. At a critical concentration of negative ions, both compressive and rarefactive solitons coexist. The amplitude and width of the solitons are discussed in detail at critical concentration for m-KdV solitons. The effect of the relative temperature of the two-electron and cold-electron concentration on the characteristics of the solitons are also discussed.

  2. Regional Climate Change Webinar Presentation | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Climate Change Webinar Presentation Regional Climate Change Webinar Presentation Regional Climate Change Webinar presentation dated August 6, 2015. Regional Climate Change Webinar ...

  3. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malapit, Giovanni M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Poral, Matthew D.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  4. Effects of roughness and temperature on low-energy hydrogen positive and negative ion reflection from silicon and carbon surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, N.; Kato, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Wada, M.; Nishiura, M.; Tsumori, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Yamaoka, H.

    2014-02-15

    Angle-resolved energy distribution functions of positive and negative hydrogen ions produced from a rough-finished Si surface under 1 keV proton irradiation have been measured. The corresponding distribution from a crystalline surface and a carbon surface are also measured for comparison. Intensities of positive and negative ions from the rough-finished Si are substantially smaller than those from crystalline Si. The angular distributions of these species are broader for rough surface than the crystalline surface. No significant temperature dependence for positive and negative ion intensities is observed for all samples in the temperature range from 300 to 400 K.

  5. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields

  6. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-10-13

    We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H = 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes as functions of temperature each show two anomalies: a broad dome-like maximum below 20 K and a relatively sharp peak at higher temperature. As a result, observed behaviors are unique among other binary and mixed lanthanide compounds.

  7. Procyanidin dimer B2-mediated IRAK-M induction negatively regulates TLR4 signaling in macrophages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Yang, Mi-So; Song, Du-Sub; School of life sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University 5-ka, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 ; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Byun, Eui-Hong

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Pro B2 elevated the expression of IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. •LPS-induced expression of cell surface molecules was inhibited by Pro B2. •LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was inhibited by Pro B2. •Pro B2 inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB through IRAK-M. •Pro B2 inactivated naïve T cells by inhibiting LPS-induced cytokines via IRAK-M. -- Abstract: Polyphenolic compounds have been found to possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects against inflammation-related diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anti-inflammatory activity are not completely characterized, and many features remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for the down-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction by procyanidin dimer B2 (Pro B2) in macrophages. Pro B2 markedly elevated the expression of the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II) and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p70) were inhibited by Pro B2, and this action was prevented by IRAK-M silencing. In addition, Pro B2-treated macrophages inhibited LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the translocation of nuclear factor κB and p65 through IRAK-M. We also found that Pro B2-treated macrophages inactivated naïve T cells by inhibiting LPS-induced interferon-γ and IL-2 secretion through IRAK-M. These novel findings provide new insights into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and the immune-pharmacological role of Pro B2 in the immune response against the development

  8. Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium; The existence of negatively charged deuteride ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorne, J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1990-11-01

    In this paper cold fusion of deuterium by electrolysis of heavy water onto a palladium (or titanium) cathode is reported. Contrary to the assumption of Fleishmann and Pons that electrochemically compressed D{sup +} exists inside the palladium cathode, the observations of Jones et al. can be partially explained by the simultaneous presence of deuteride D{sup {minus}} and the highly mobile positive deuterium ion D{sup +}. The opposite charges reduce the intranuclear distance and enhance the tunneling fusion rate. Furthermore, alloying of lithium with palladium can stabilize a negatively charged deuteride ion due to the salinelike character of lithium deuteride. The enormous pressure (or fugacity), achieved by the applied electrochemical potential (10{sup 30} atm), is a virtual pressure that would have existed in equilibrium with palladium deuteride (PdD{sub x}). It is speculated that nuclear fusion occurs at the surface, and the PdD{sub x} serves as a reservoir for the supply of deuteride ions.

  9. Study on a negative hydrogen ion source with hot cathode arc discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, S. H. Fang, X.; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 ; Zhang, H. J.; Qian, C.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-15

    A negative hydrogen (H{sup ?}) ion source with hot cathode arc discharge was designed and fabricated as a primary injector for a 10 MeV PET cyclotron at IMP. 1 mA dc H{sup ?} beam with ? {sub N,} {sub RMS} = 0.08 ??mm?mrad was extracted at 25 kV. Halbach hexapole was adopted to confine the plasma. The state of arc discharge, the parameters including filament current, arc current, gas pressure, plasma electrode bias, and the ratio of I{sub e{sup ?}}/I{sub H{sup ?}} were experimentally studied. The discussion on the result, and opinions to improve the source were given.

  10. Indications of negative evolution for the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Ahlers, Markus; Hooper, Dan

    2015-09-14

    Using recent measurements of the spectrum and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays, we consider the sources of these particles. We find that these data strongly prefer models in which the sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays inject predominantly intermediate mass nuclei, with comparatively few protons or heavy nuclei, such as iron or silicon. If the number density of sources per comoving volume does not evolve with redshift, the injected spectrum must be very hard (α≃1) in order to fit the spectrum observed from Earth. Such a hard spectral index would be surprising and difficult to accommodate theoretically. In contrast, much softer spectral indices, consistent with the predictions of Fermi acceleration (α≃2), are favored in models with negative source evolution. Furthermore with this theoretical bias, these observations thus favor models in which the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays are preferentially located within the low-redshift universe.

  11. Low-bias negative differential resistance effect in armchair graphene nanoribbon junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Suchun; Gan, Chee Kwan; Son, Young-Woo; Feng, Yuan Ping; Quek, Su Ying

    2015-01-05

    Graphene nanoribbons with armchair edges (AGNRs) have bandgaps that can be flexibly tuned via the ribbon width. A junction made of a narrower AGNR sandwiched between two wider AGNR leads was recently reported to possess two perfect transmission channels close to the Fermi level. Here, we report that by using a bias voltage to drive these transmission channels into the gap of the wider AGNR lead, we can obtain a negative differential resistance (NDR) effect. Owing to the intrinsic properties of the AGNR junctions, the on-set bias reaches as low as ∼0.2 V and the valley current almost vanishes. We further show that such NDR effect is robust against details of the atomic structure of the junction, substrate, and whether the junction is made by etching or by hydrogenation.

  12. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, ystein; University of Oslo, Oslo

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup ?} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  13. Nonlinear waves in an array of zigzag waveguides with alternating positive and negative refractive indices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazantseva, E V; Maimistov, A I

    2013-09-30

    Interaction of coupled waves propagating in a system of waveguides with alternating positive and negative refractive indices is studied theoretically. The zigzag configuration of the waveguides in the array allows communication not only between the nearest neighbours, but also with the waveguides beyond them. It is shown that the spectrum of linear waves in such a waveguide system has a bandgap. Partial solutions are found to the system of coupled waves corresponding to a stationary electromagnetic field pulse that propagates along the array of tunnel-coupled waveguides as a whole. Investigation of the interaction of nonlinear solitary waves has demonstrated numerically the stability of their relatively weak disturbances and collisions with each other. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)

  14. The production and destruction of negative ions. Progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pegg, D.J.

    1993-04-01

    Single photon absorption-single electron detachment from few-electron atomic negative ions was studied. A crossed beam apparatus is being used to perform energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopic measurements following photodetachment. Forward-directed electrons were collected and energy analyzed. The kinetic energies and yields of the photoelectrons were obtained by fitting the spectral peaks to Gaussian functions. Electron affinities, asymmetry parameters and cross sections are determined from these measurements. A ratio method in which the cross section for the ion of interest is measured relative to that of a reference ion was used. The study of the photodetachment of Li{sup {minus}} was completed, and attention has turned to the photodetachment of the stable ion B{sup {minus}} and the metastable ion Be{sup {minus}}.

  15. Indications of negative evolution for the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Ahlers, Markus; Hooper, Dan

    2015-09-14

    Using recent measurements of the spectrum and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays, we consider the sources of these particles. We find that these data strongly prefer models in which the sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays inject predominantly intermediate mass nuclei, with comparatively few protons or heavy nuclei, such as iron or silicon. If the number density of sources per comoving volume does not evolve with redshift, the injected spectrum must be very hard (??1) in order to fit the spectrum observed from Earth. Such a hard spectral index would be surprising and difficult to accommodate theoretically. In contrast, much softer spectral indices, consistent with the predictions of Fermi acceleration (??2), are favored in models with negative source evolution. Furthermore with this theoretical bias, these observations thus favor models in which the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays are preferentially located within the low-redshift universe.

  16. Negative ion production in the RF multiaperture surface-plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdrashitov, G.; Belchenko, Yu. Dranichnikov, A.; Gorbovsky, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Kolmogorov, V.; Kondakov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A.; Selivanov, A.; Selivanov, P.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Stupishin, N.; Tiunov, M.; Ivanov, A.; Sotnikov, O.; Binderbauer, M.; Putvinski, S.; Smirnov, A.; Sevier, L.

    2015-04-08

    The experiments on negative hydrogen ion beam production in a multi-aperture long-pulse surface-plasma source are described. H- ions are produced on the surface of a plasma grid covered by cesium and illuminated by fast plasma particles. The source uses a radio-frequency driver to generate plasma. A composite magnet system made of external permanent magnets confines and filters electrons in the plasma region, and deflects them in the extraction area. A multiaperture, multi-electrode ion optical system is used for beam formation. The electrode heating and cooling during long pulses is accomplished by circulating a heat transfer fluid through channels drilled in the electrodes bodies. H- ions extraction through a single aperture and 21 apertures was performed and studied. A stable H- beam with the current up to 0.7 A, energy up to 74 kV, and pulse duration up to 7 s was routinely obtained.

  17. Operation of RF driven negative ion source in a pure-hydrogen mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdrashitov, G.; Belchenko, Yu. Gusev, I.; Senkov, D.; Sanin, A.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Kondakov, A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Sotnikov, O.

    2015-04-08

    The production of negative hydrogen ions in the radio-frequency driven long-pulsed source with external antenna is studied. RF drivers with various geometry of external antenna, Faraday shield and magnets at the rear flange were examined. H- beam extraction through the single emission aperture was performed in the source pure-hydrogen mode with no external seed of alkali additives. H- beam with ion emission current density up to 5 mA/cm{sup 2} and energy up to 75 keV was regularly obtained in the 1 s pulses of the pure-hydrogen mode. The regular temporal increase of H- ion production due to deposition of impurities on the plasma grid surface was recorded. The H- emission current density increased up to 9 mA/cm{sup 2} in this case.

  18. Ways to improve the efficiency and reliability of radio frequency driven negative ion sources for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, W.; Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.; Gutmann, P.; Doerfler, J.

    2014-02-15

    Large RF driven negative hydrogen ion sources are being developed at IPP Garching for the future neutral beam injection system of ITER. The overall power efficiency of these sources is low, because for the RF power supply self-excited generators are utilized and the plasma is generated in small cylindrical sources (“drivers”) and expands into the source main volume. At IPP experiments to reduce the primary power and the RF power required for the plasma production are performed in two ways: The oscillator generator of the prototype source has been replaced by a transistorized RF transmitter and two alternative driver concepts, a spiral coil, in which the field is concentrated by ferrites, which omits the losses by plasma expansion and a helicon source are being tested.

  19. Solitary and freak waves in a dusty plasma with negative ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelsalam, U. M.; Moslem, W. M.; Khater, A. H.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-09-15

    It is shown that solitary and freak waves can propagate in a dusty plasma composed of positive and negative ions, as well as nonextensive electrons. The evolution of the solitary waves is described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. However, when the frequency of the carrier wave is much smaller than the ion plasma frequency then the KdV equation is also used to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable modified ion-acoustic wavepackets through the derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation. In order to show that the characteristics of the solitary and freak waves are influenced by the plasma parameters, the relevant numerical analysis of the appropriate nonlinear solutions is presented. The relevance of the present investigation to nonlinear waves in astrophysical plasma environments is discussed.

  20. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo

    2013-07-15

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α{sub 1}-adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy.

  1. Negative ion beam characterisation in BATMAN by mini-STRIKE: Improved design and new measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serianni, G. Brombin, M.; Cervaro, V.; Chitarin, G.; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Fonnesu, N.; Franchin, L.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Molon, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Tollin, M.; Veltri, P.; Bonomo, F.; Cristofaro, S.; De Muri, M.; Franzen, P.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Muraro, A.

    2015-04-08

    The ITER project requires additional heating provided by two injectors of neutral beams resulting from the neutralisation of accelerated negative ions. To study and optimise negative ion production, the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A) is under construction in Padova, with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The SPIDER beam will be characterised by the instrumented calorimeter STRIKE, whose main components are one-directional carbon fibre carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been employed in 2012 as a small-scale version (mini-STRIKE) of the entire system to investigate the features of the beam from BATMAN at IPP-Garching. As the BATMAN beamlets are superposed at the measurement position, about 1m from the grounded grid, an actively cooled copper mask is located in front of the tiles; holes in the mask create an artificial beamlet structure. Recently the mini-STRIKE has been updated, taking into account the results obtained in the first campaign. In particular the spatial resolution of the system has been improved by increasing the number of the copper mask holes. Moreover a custom measurement system has been realized for the thermocouple signals and employed in BATMAN in view of its use in SPIDER. The present contribution gives a description of the new design of the system as well as of the thermocouple measurements system and its field test. A new series of measurements has been carried out in BATMAN. The BATMAN beam characterisation in different experimental conditions is presented.

  2. Modified Korteweg-deVries soliton evolution at critical density of negative ions in an inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Dhananjay K.; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2007-06-15

    Soliton propagation at critical density of negative ions is studied for weakly inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma having positive ions, negative ions, and electrons. A general phase velocity relation is obtained and possible modes are studied for different cases involving different constituents of the plasma. Two types of modes (fast and slow) are found to propagate for the equal mass of the positive and negative ions. However, a limit on the obliqueness of magnetic field is obtained for the propagation of slow mode. For both types of modes, a variable coefficient modified Korteweg-deVries equation with an additional term arisen due to the density gradient is realized, which admits solutions for compressive solitons and rarefactive solitons of the same amplitudes at critical negative ion density. The propagation characteristics of these solitons are studied under the effect of densities of ions, magnetic field, and its obliqueness. The amplitudes of fast and slow wave solitons show their opposite behavior with the negative ion concentration, which is consistent with the variation of phase velocities with the negative ion density.

  3. Climate Change | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science & Innovation » Climate Change Climate Change May 31, 2016 Global Energy Leaders Gather in California to Drive Clean Energy Development and Deployment Goal of meetings will be to expand international collaboration in clean energy research, development, demonstration and deployment to combat climate change. May 27, 2016 Secretary Moniz sits with Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans & Atmosphere and NOAA Administrator Dr. Kathy Sullivan (center) and Energy Department Senior

  4. Climate Change | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Highlights substantial growing efforts to support developing countries in the global response to climate change. Also details the financial assistance, education programs, and ...

  5. Institutional Change Basics for Sustainability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Institutional change integrates technology, policy, and behavior to make new sustainability practices and perspectives become a typical part of how an agency operates.

  6. ARM - Baseline Change Request Guidelines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for changes to instruments, data systems, data processes, datastreams, measurement methods, and facilities. They help ensure that all aspects of the ARM Infrastructure are...

  7. Renewable Energy and Climate Change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy and Climate Change Symposium in Honor of 2009 and 2010 ACS Fellows in ... Engineering Chemistry -- Cellulose and Renewable Materials, Chemicals, Fuels, and Energy ...

  8. Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O

    2011-02-16

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  9. Climate Change and National Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities – with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider climate as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by climate changes (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, changes such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building climate resilience as part of building stability. For the climate change research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of climate change, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and sea level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these changes. The increasing emphasis in climate change science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow climate change impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent climate change impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.

  10. Determine Institutional Change Sustainability Goals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The first step in the institutional change process is defining your federal agency's sustainability goals. That is, decide what outcomes are desired (or required) over what period of time. Behavioral, organizational, and institutional changes typically are means to achieve desired energy, resource, or greenhouse gas emission outcomes. They are not ends in and of themselves.

  11. Social Empowerment Institutional Change Principle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    By creating a context in which workers feel empowered to take action, Federal agencies can promote behaviors and behavior changes that support their sustainability goals. When individuals and organizations believe they can reach desirable social goals, they often do—as is shown in research studies of change.

  12. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    change by sulfur content may not equal total residual fuel oil ending stocks and stock change. LRG Liquefied Refinery Gases. - Not Applicable. Notes: Totals may not equal...

  13. Specific features of the behaviour of targets under negative pressures created by a picosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrosimov, S A; Bazhulin, A P; Voronov, Valerii V; Geras'kin, A A; Krasyuk, Igor K; Pashinin, Pavel P; Semenov, Andrei Yu; Stuchebryukhov, I A; Khishchenko, K V; Fortov, Vladimir E

    2013-03-31

    New experimental data are obtained concerning the character of spallation and the mechanical strength of targets made of aluminium, aluminium - magnesium alloy (AMg6M), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, plexiglass), tantalum, copper, tungsten, palladium, silicon, and lead under the impact of laser radiation with the duration 70 ps. The specific features of the spallation phenomenon, in which the separation of a part of the target substance occurs at the back surface as a result of the effect of negative pressures (tensile stresses) in the substance, are experimentally studied. To determine the time moment of spallation, the electrocontact method of measuring the velocity of the spalled layer is developed and implemented. The obtained results show that the values of spall strength of the studied materials at moderate amplitudes of the shock-wave effect agree with the known literature data, while at higher pressures the growth of spall strength is observed, which is an evidence of the material hardening. The results of the studies demonstrate that the dynamic strength of a substance depends on both the duration and the amplitude of the shock-wave impact on the target. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  14. Negative differential resistance devices by using N-doped graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jing E-mail: liqun@ustc.edu.cn; Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 ; Wang, Weiyi; Li, Qunxiang E-mail: liqun@ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Jinlong; Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026

    2014-04-28

    Recently, extensive efforts have been devoted to the investigations of negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior in graphene. Here, by performing fully self-consistent density functional theory calculations combined with non-equilibrium Green's function technique, we investigate the transport properties of three molecules from conjugated molecule, one-dimension alkane chain, and single molecule magnet, which are sandwiched between two N-doped zigzag and armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). We observe robust NDR effect in all examined molecular junctions including benzene, alkane, and planar four-coordinated Fe complex. Through the analyses of the calculated electronic structures and the bias-dependent transmission coefficients, we find that the narrow density of states of N-doped GNRs and the bias-dependent effective coupling between the discrete frontier molecular orbitals and the subbands of N-doped GNRs are responsible for the observed NDR phenomenon. These theoretical findings imply that N-doped GNRs hold great potential for building NDR devices based on various molecules.

  15. Indications of negative evolution for the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Ahlers, Markus; Hooper, Dan

    2015-09-14

    Using recent measurements of the spectrum and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays, we consider the sources of these particles. We find that these data strongly prefer models in which the sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays inject predominantly intermediate mass nuclei, with comparatively few protons or heavy nuclei, such as iron or silicon. If the number density of sources per comoving volume does not evolve with redshift, the injected spectrum must be very hard (α≃1) in order to fit the spectrum observed from Earth. Such a hard spectral index would be surprising and difficult to accommodate theoretically.more » In contrast, much softer spectral indices, consistent with the predictions of Fermi acceleration (α≃2), are favored in models with negative source evolution. Furthermore with this theoretical bias, these observations thus favor models in which the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays are preferentially located within the low-redshift universe.« less

  16. A discharge with a magnetic X-point as a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsankov, Tsanko; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2011-09-26

    The study presents first results from investigations of a novel low-pressure plasma source, intended for a negative hydrogen ion production. The source utilizes a dc magnetic field, shaped to form a cusp with a magnetic null-point (X-point). Beside the common role of filtering out the high energy electrons, this magnetic field configuration ensures in the present case also an interesting mechanism of coupling the RF power to the plasma. Investigations performed using radio frequency modulation spectroscopy (RFMOS) reveal that the main power coupling to the electrons is confined in the region on one side of the X-point. The modulation of the light intensity indicates also the presence of a strong dc drift close to the plane of the X-point. Several hypothesises for its explanation are raised: an azimuthal diamagnetic drift due to strong axial gradients of the electron energy, the excitation of a standing helicon wave, which couples to the radial magnetic field in the plane of the X-point, or a Trivelpiece-Gould wave which is resonantly absorbed near the plane of the X-point.

  17. Design of a beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic for negative ions radio frequency source SPIDER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaniol, B.; Pasqualotto, R.; Barbisan, M.

    2012-04-15

    A facility will be built in Padova (Italy) to develop, commission, and optimize the neutral beam injection system for ITER. The full scale prototype negative ion radio frequency source SPIDER, featuring up to 100 kV acceleration voltage, includes a full set of diagnostics, required for safe operation and to measure and optimize the beam performance. Among them, beam emission spectroscopy (BES) will be used to measure the line integrated beam uniformity, divergence, and neutralization losses inside the accelerator (stripping losses). In the absence of the neutralization stage, SPIDER beam is mainly composed by H{sup -} or D{sup -} particles, according to the source filling gas. The capability of a spectroscopic diagnostic of an H{sup -} (D{sup -}) beam relies on the interaction of the beam particles with the background gas particles. The BES diagnostic will be able to acquire the H{sub {alpha}} (D{sub {alpha}}) spectrum from up to 40 lines of sight. The system is capable to resolve stripping losses down to 2 keV and to measure beam divergence with an accuracy of about 10%. The design of this diagnostic is reported, with discussion of the layout and its components, together with simulations of the expected performance.

  18. Generalized Bohms criterion and negative anode voltage fall in electric discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Londer, Ya. I.; Ulyanov, K. N.

    2013-10-15

    The value of the voltage fall across the anode sheath is found as a function of the current density. Analytic solutions are obtained in a wide range of the ratio of the directed velocity of plasma electrons v{sub 0} to their thermal velocity v{sub T}. It is shown that the voltage fall in a one-dimensional collisionless anode sheath is always negative. At the small values of v{sub 0}/v{sub T}, the obtained expression asymptotically transforms into the Langmuir formula. Generalized Bohms criterion for an electric discharge with allowance for the space charge density ?(0), electric field E(0), ion velocity v{sub i}(0), and ratio v{sub 0}/v{sub T} at the plasma-sheath interface is formulated. It is shown that the minimum value of the ion velocity v{sub i}{sup *}(0) corresponds to the vanishing of the electric field at one point inside the sheath. The dependence of v{sub i}{sup *} (0) on ?(0), E(0), and v{sub 0}/v{sub T} determines the boundary of the existence domain of stationary solutions in the sheath. Using this criterion, the maximum possible degree of contraction of the electron current at the anode is determined for a short high-current vacuum arc discharge.

  19. Institutional Change for Sustainability | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Institutional Change » Institutional Change for Sustainability Institutional Change for Sustainability Inspire Change with an Awards Program Inspire Change with an Awards Program Report shares 22 stories of FEMP Federal Energy and Water Management Award winners whose projects fostered institutional change in agencies. Read more Promote Institutional Change Promote Institutional Change This magazine article provides practical, evidence-based strategies to promote institutional change. Read more

  20. Role of positive ions on the surface production of negative ions in a fusion plasma reactor type negative ion sourceInsights from a three dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fubiani, G.; Boeuf, J. P. [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France) [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2013-11-15

    Results from a 3D self-consistent Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC MCC) model of a high power fusion-type negative ion source are presented for the first time. The model is used to calculate the plasma characteristics of the ITER prototype BATMAN ion source developed in Garching. Special emphasis is put on the production of negative ions on the plasma grid surface. The question of the relative roles of the impact of neutral hydrogen atoms and positive ions on the cesiated grid surface has attracted much attention recently and the 3D PIC MCC model is used to address this question. The results show that the production of negative ions by positive ion impact on the plasma grid is small with respect to the production by atomic hydrogen or deuterium bombardment (less than 10%)

  1. Numerical experiment to estimate the validity of negative ion diagnostic using photo-detachment combined with Langmuir probing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudini, N.; Sirse, N.; Ellingboe, A. R.; Benallal, R.; Taccogna, F.; Bendib, A.

    2015-07-15

    This paper presents a critical assessment of the theory of photo-detachment diagnostic method used to probe the negative ion density and electronegativity α = n{sub -}/n{sub e}. In this method, a laser pulse is used to photo-detach all negative ions located within the electropositive channel (laser spot region). The negative ion density is estimated based on the assumption that the increase of the current collected by an electrostatic probe biased positively to the plasma is a result of only the creation of photo-detached electrons. In parallel, the background electron density and temperature are considered as constants during this diagnostics. While the numerical experiments performed here show that the background electron density and temperature increase due to the formation of an electrostatic potential barrier around the electropositive channel. The time scale of potential barrier rise is about 2 ns, which is comparable to the time required to completely photo-detach the negative ions in the electropositive channel (∼3 ns). We find that neglecting the effect of the potential barrier on the background plasma leads to an erroneous determination of the negative ion density. Moreover, the background electron velocity distribution function within the electropositive channel is not Maxwellian. This is due to the acceleration of these electrons through the electrostatic potential barrier. In this work, the validity of the photo-detachment diagnostic assumptions is questioned and our results illustrate the weakness of these assumptions.

  2. Soliton propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma at critical density of negative ions: Effects of gyratory and thermal motions of ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Kawata, Shigeo

    2007-10-15

    The effects of gyratory and thermal motions of ions on soliton propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma that contains positive ions, negative ions, and electrons are studied at a critical density of negative ions. Since at this critical negative ion density the nonlinear term of the relevant Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation vanishes, a higher order of nonlinearity is considered by retaining higher-order perturbation terms in the expansion of dependent quantities together with the appropriate set of stretched coordinates. Under this situation, time-dependent perturbation leads to the evolution of modified KdV solitons, which are governed by a modified form of the KdV equation that has an additional term due to the density gradient present in the plasma. On the basis of the solution of this equation and obliquely applied magnetic field, the effects of gyratory and thermal motions of ions are analyzed on the soliton propagation for three cases, n{sub n0}n{sub e0}, together with n{sub n0} (n{sub e0}) as the density of negative ions (electrons). The role of the negative ions in the evolution of the modes and the solitons is also discussed. Under the limiting cases, our calculations reduce to the ones obtained by other investigators in the past. This substantiates the generality of the present analysis.

  3. Studies on soliton energy at critical and noncritical densities of negative ions in an inhomogeneous magnetized warm plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Dhananjay K.; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2007-11-15

    Considering an inhomogeneous plasma having finite-temperature negative and positive ions, and the isothermal electrons in the presence of an external magnetic field, the solitons at noncritical and critical densities of the negative ions are studied through Korteweg-deVries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equations, respectively. The compressive (rarefactive) KdV solitons are found to propagate when the negative ion concentration is less (greater) than the critical density of the negative ions. At the critical density, both the compressive and the rarefactive solitons of equal amplitudes are found to occur. The energies of the compressive KdV soliton and the mKdV solitons are found to increase and that of the rarefactive KdV soliton is found to decrease with the negative ion density. Soliton energy for both the KdV and the mKdV solitons gets lowered under the effect of stronger magnetic field. The effect of ion temperature is to increase the energy of the compressive KdV soliton, whereas the energy of the rarefactive KdV soliton as well as of the mKdV solitons gets decreased. The variation of the energy with the obliqueness of the magnetic field is different for the KdV and the mKdV solitons.

  4. Climate Change Adaptation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Climate Change Adaptation Climate Change Adaptation DOE is adapting to climate change by applying a risk-based resiliency approach to identify and minimize climate-related...

  5. Climate Change Press Release | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Climate Change Press Release Community Leaders Institutes (CLIs) to be conducted to promote awareness of climate change impacts. CLI Climate Change Press Release (118.51 KB) More ...

  6. Climate Change Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Climate Change Assessment Climate Change Assessment Climate Change Assessment 66climornlsalev2mjs.ppt (11.1 MB) More Documents & Publications 2014 Water Power Program Peer ...

  7. Regional Climate Change Webinar Presentation | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Regional Climate Change Webinar presentation dated August 6, 2015. Regional Climate Change Webinar Presentation More Documents & Publications Regional Climate Change Webinar...

  8. Office of Climate Change | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Change Jump to: navigation, search Name: Office of Climate Change Place: United Kingdom Product: UK government organisation that supports analytical work on climate change and the...

  9. Farming: A Climate Change Culprit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Farming: A Climate Change Culprit Farming: A Climate Change Culprit Simulations run at NERSC show impact of land-use change on African monsoon precipitation June 7, 2014 SahelMap Africarough The Sahel region is a narrow swath of semi-arid land that spans the African continent, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east. The low annual precipitation indicates the region is strongly reliant on the monsoon season for water supply. Increased agricultural activity is a rain taker,

  10. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils

  11. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakano, H. Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-04-08

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ∼3000 K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure.

  12. A comparative study of concurrence and negativity of general three-level quantum systems of two particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erol, V.

    2015-03-30

    Quantum entanglement is at the heart of quantum information processing. Ordering the quantum systems due to their entanglement is a popular problem of the field. For two level (qubit) systems of two particles, state ordering has been studied with respect to well-known entanglement measures such as Concurrence, Negativity and Relative Entropy of Entanglement (REE) [1-5]. In this work, we study the state ordering of the three-level quantum systems of two particles with respect to Concurrence and Negativity. In particular, constructing 10K random states and calculating their Concurrences and Negativities, we obtain the orderings of the states and present our results which are interesting when compared to that of two-level systems.

  13. Audience Categorization and Behavior Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program is a tool to use for audience brainstorm and categorization, and assessing desired behavior change.

  14. Multiple Motivations Institutional Change Principle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The multiple motivations principle suggests that a portfolio approach—rather than a single strategy—may be required to achieve change. Research demonstrates that people and institutions adopt new...

  15. Behavior, Energy and Climate Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Behavior, Energy and Climate Change Conference (BECC) is the premier international conference focused on understanding human behavior and decision making so that this knowledge can accelerate the transition to an energy-efficient and low-carbon future.

  16. Management of change lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakubowski, J.A. [Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This paper will describe the development of a computer program that was written to assist production units meet the requirements of the management of chance (MOC) section under the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard, 29 CFR 1910.119 (1). Areas that will be addressed include: the development of a MOC written policy, pilot testing of change control management procedures, training of operational and maintenance personnel to follow these procedures and final implementation of established chance control measures. Practical {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} will be reviewed and a description of the use of an Access{sup {trademark}}program that was written to enhance daily MOC equipment and process changes will be highlighted. This program was designed to expedite the required PSM review of changes and to simultaneously trigger an update of related change documentation such as piping and instrumentation diagrams, equipment files, regulatory permits, and unit operating procedures.

  17. ARM - Predictions of Climate Change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TeachersTopic ListPredictions of Climate Change Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Predictions of Climate Change There are no accurate predictions of what will happen to earth's climate with an increase in greenhouse gases. The climate system is very complex, so that scientists

  18. Changes for the 2012 CBECS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for the 2012 CBECS The proposed design, procedures, and forms for the 2012 CBECS reflect a number of changes from the 2007 CBECS. These changes include:  The sample size for the 2012 CBECS will be 50 percent larger relative to the previous CBECS. The increase in sample size will allow for: o Fewer suppressed cells in published tables, o Better capture of emerging energy phenomena, such as new technologies for on- site electricity generation, o Lower relative standard errors for key statistics

  19. BLOWIN' IN THE WIND: BOTH ''NEGATIVE'' AND ''POSITIVE'' FEEDBACK IN AN OBSCURED HIGH-z QUASAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Mainieri, V.; Brusa, M.; Perna, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Piconcelli, E.; Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Maiolino, R.; Merloni, A; Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Civano, F.

    2015-01-20

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, preventing massive galaxies to overgrow and producing the red colors of ellipticals. On the other hand, some models are also requiring ''positive'' active galactic nucleus feedback, inducing star formation in the host galaxy through enhanced gas pressure in the interstellar medium. However, finding observational evidence of the effects of both types of feedback is still one of the main challenges of extragalactic astronomy, as few observations of energetic and extended radiatively driven winds are available. Here we present SINFONI near infrared integral field spectroscopy of XID2028, an obscured, radio-quiet z = 1.59 QSO detected in the XMM-COSMOS survey, in which we clearly resolve a fast (1500 km s{sup –1}) and extended (up to 13 kpc from the black hole) outflow in the [O III] lines emitting gas, whose large velocity and outflow rate are not sustainable by star formation only. The narrow component of Hα emission and the rest frame U-band flux from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging enable to map the current star formation in the host galaxy: both tracers independently show that the outflow position lies in the center of an empty cavity surrounded by star forming regions on its edge. The outflow is therefore removing the gas from the host galaxy (''negative feedback''), but also triggering star formation by outflow induced pressure at the edges (''positive feedback''). XID2028 represents the first example of a host galaxy showing both types of feedback simultaneously at work.

  20. The mechanism of the effect of a plasma layer with negative permittivity on the antenna radiation field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chunsheng Liu, Hui; Jiang, Binhao; Li, Xueai

    2015-06-15

    A model of a plasma–antenna system is developed to study the mechanism of the effect of the plasma layer on antenna radiation. Results show a plasma layer with negative permittivity is inductive, and thus affects the phase difference between electric and magnetic fields. In the near field of antenna radiation, a plasma layer with proper parameters can compensate the capacitivity of the vacuum and enhance the radiation power. In the far field of antenna radiation, the plasma layer with negative permittivity increases the inductivity of the vacuum and reduces the radiation power.

  1. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  2. PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request - Idaho National...

  3. Incorporating Behavior Change Efforts Into Energy Efficiency...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Behavior Change Efforts Into Energy Efficiency Programs Incorporating Behavior Change Efforts Into Energy Efficiency Programs Better Buildings Residential Network Program ...

  4. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Climate change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    climate-change Climate change en Using powerful computers, physicists uncover mechanism that stabilizes plasma within tokamaks...

  5. Connecticut Prices, Sales Volumes & Stocks

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - - - - - - 1986-2016 Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel (Refiner Sales) NA W W W W W 1984-2016 Kerosene (Refiner Sales) - - - - - - 1984-2016 No. 1 Distillate (Refiner Sales) - - - - - - ...

  6. Stocks of Crude Oil, Commercial

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 07/22/16 07/29/16 08/05/16 08/12/16 08/19/16 08/26/16 View History U.S. 521,133 522,546 523,601 521,093 523,594 525,870 1982-2016 PADD 1 16,960 18,485 17,800 17,063 20,116 20,259 1990-2016 PADD 2 150,663 151,513 153,097 153,005 152,435 151,032 1990-2016 Cushing, Oklahoma 65,215 64,092 65,255 64,531 64,906 63,867 2004-2016 PADD 3 271,100 269,785

  7. U.S. Total Stocks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Ethanol) 731 1,085 836 695 1,070 927 2009-2015 MTBE 561 871 605 452 770 829 1993-2015 Other Oxygenates 170 214 231 243 300 98 1993-2015 Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) ...

  8. Stocks of Crude Oil, Commercial

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    521,133 522,546 523,601 521,093 523,594 525,870 1982-2016 PADD 1 16,960 18,485 17,800 17,063 20,116 20,259 1990-2016 PADD 2 150,663 151,513 153,097 153,005 152,435 151,032 1990-2016 Cushing, Oklahoma 65,215 64,092 65,255 64,531 64,906 63,867 2004-2016 PADD 3 271,100 269,785 272,342 272,124 272,639 275,550 1990-2016 PADD 4 24,523 25,472 25,564 26,384 26,731 26,974 1990-2016 PADD 5 57,888 57,290 54,798 52,517 51,674 52,055

  9. Stocks of Propane/Propylene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    74,129 75,381 77,294 78,351 79,561 82,073 1993-2016 PADD 1 3,434 3,431 3,685 3,276 3,671 3,887 1993-2016 New England 330 328 328 327 328 327 1993-2016 Central Atlantic 1,700 1,679 ...

  10. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    153,155 151,196 153,135 153,257 154,753 158,135 1982-2016 PADD 1 58,175 60,720 61,919 61,846 63,491 63,077 1990-2016 New England 10,627 11,547 11,412 11,329 11,828 11,763 1990-2016 Central Atlantic 34,602 35,869 37,219 37,396 37,908 37,951 1990-2016 Lower Atlantic 12,946 13,304 13,288 13,122 13,754 13,363 1990-2016 PADD 2 30,637 30,058 29,641 29,668 30,209 31,542 1990-2016 PADD 3 46,763 43,491 44,527 44,536 43,558 45,155 1990-2016 PADD 4 3,515 3,565 3,342 3,267 3,076 3,256 1990-2016 PADD 5

  11. Stocks of Total Motor Gasoline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    238,190 235,383 232,659 232,695 232,004 227,793 1990-2016 PADD 1 71,316 70,915 70,125 69,114 67,178 64,894 1990-2016 New England 4,686 4,642 4,674 3,828 4,060 4,067 1990-2016 Central Atlantic 36,633 37,196 36,725 36,533 34,267 33,801 1990-2016 Lower Atlantic 29,996 29,076 28,726 28,752 28,850 27,025 1990-2016 PADD 2 51,564 50,969 48,618 48,362 49,859 51,009 1990-2016 PADD 3 78,585 77,267 76,595 77,958 78,513 76,586 1990-2016 PADD 4 7,648 7,481 7,105 6,973 6,578 6,705 1990-2016 PADD 5 29,077

  12. U.S. Total Stocks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 2,040,557 2,044,571 2,052,479 2,063,340 2,079,200 2,077,498 1956-2016 Crude Oil 1,195,186 1,214,807 1,227,643 1,232,693 1,235,581 1,223,700 1920-2016 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 845,371 829,764 824,836 830,647 843,619 853,798 1993-2016 Pentanes Plus 19,657 20,579 20,401 20,248 20,552 20,935 1981-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 145,255 127,182 134,002 149,984 166,533 190,847 1967-2016 Ethane/Ethylene 33,243

  13. U.S. Refinery Stocks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area: U.S. PADD 1 East Coast Appalachian No. 1 PADD 2 Ind., Ill. and Ky. Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. Okla., Kans., Mo. PADD 3 Texas Inland Texas Gulf Coast La. Gulf Coast N. La., Ark New Mexico PADD 4 PADD 5 Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum

  14. Study of small carbon and semiconductor clusters using negative ion threshold photodetachment spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, C.C.

    1994-08-01

    The bonding and electronics of several small carbon and semiconductor clusters containing less than ten atoms are probed using negative ion threshold photodetachment (zero electron kinetic energy, or ZEKE) spectroscopy. ZEKE spectroscopy is a particularly advantageous technique for small cluster study, as it combines mass selection with good spectroscopic resolution. The ground and low-lying electronic states of small clusters in general can be accessed by detaching an electron from the ground anion state. The clusters studied using this technique and described in this work are C{sub 6}{sup {minus}}/C{sub 6}, Si{sub n}{sup {minus}}/Si{sub n} (n = 2, 3, 4), Ge{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/Ge{sub 2}, In{sub 2}P{sup {minus}}/In{sub 2}P,InP{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/InP{sup 2}, and Ga{sub 2}As{sup {minus}}. The total photodetachment cross sections of several other small carbon clusters and the ZEKE spectrum of the I{sup {minus}}{center_dot}CH{sub 3}I S{sub N}2 reaction complex are also presented to illustrate the versatility of the experimental apparatus. Clusters with so few atoms do not exhibit bulk properties. However, each specie exhibits bonding properties that relate to the type of bonding found in the bulk. C{sub 6}, as has been predicted, exhibits a linear cumulenic structure, where double bonds connect all six carbon atoms. This double bonding reflects how important {pi} bonding is in certain phases of pure carbon (graphite and fullerenes). The symmetric stretch frequencies observed in the C{sub 6}{sup {minus}} spectra, however, are in poor agreement with the calculated values. Also observed as sharp structure in total photodetachment cross section scans was an excited anion state bound by only {approximately}40 cm{sup {minus}1} relative to the detachment continuum. This excited anion state appears to be a valence bound state, possible because of the high electron affinity of C{sub 6}, and the open shell of the anion.

  15. The oxidation of a gasoline surrogate in the negative temperature coefficient region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenhert, David B.; Miller, David L.; Cernansky, Nicholas P.; Owens, Kevin G.

    2009-03-15

    This experimental study investigated the preignition reactivity behavior of a gasoline surrogate in a pressurized flow reactor over the low and intermediate temperature regime (600-800 K) at elevated pressure (8 atm). The surrogate mixture, a volumetric blend of 4.6% 1-pentene, 31.8% toluene, 14.0% n-heptane, and 49.6% 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), was shown to reproduce the low and intermediate temperature reactivity of full boiling range fuels in a previous study. Each of the surrogate components were examined individually to identify the major intermediate species in order to improve existing kinetic models, where appropriate, and to provide a basis for examining constituent interactions in the surrogate mixture. n-Heptane and 1-pentene started reacting at 630 K and 640 K, respectively, and both fuels exhibited a strong negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior starting at 700 and 710 K, respectively. Iso-octane showed a small level of reactivity at 630 K and a weak NTC behavior starting at 665 K. Neat toluene was unreactive at these temperatures. The surrogate started reacting at 630 K and exhibited a strong NTC behavior starting at 693 K. The extent of fuel consumption varied for each of the surrogate constituents and was related to their general autoignition behavior. Most of the intermediates identified during the surrogate oxidation were species observed during the oxidation of the neat constituents; however, the surrogate mixture did exhibit a significant increase in intermediates associated with iso-octane oxidation, but not from n-heptane. While neat toluene was unreactive at these temperatures, in the mixture it reacted with the radical pool generated by the other surrogate components, forming benzaldehyde, benzene, phenol, and ethyl-benzene. The observed n-heptane, iso-octane, and surrogate oxidation behavior was compared to predictions using existing kinetic models. The n-heptane model reasonably predicted the disappearance of the fuel

  16. T-633: BIND RRSIG RRsets Negative Caching Off-by-one Bug Lets Remote Users Deny Service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A remote DNS server can supply very large RRSIG RRsets in a negative response to trigger an off-by-one error in a buffer size check and cause the target requesting named process to crash. A remote user can cause named to crash.

  17. A physics study for negative void reactivity in compact supercritical CO{sub 2}-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.; Hartanto, D.; Lee, J. I.

    2013-07-01

    A compact S-CO{sub 2}-cooled fast reactor which has negative Coolant Void Reactivity (CVR) has been investigated. A negative CVR is important for the gas cooled fast reactor as an inherent safety mechanism to prevent the sudden positive reactivity insertion when the loss of coolant accident happens. An alternative solution to reduce the CVR is investigated in this study by using O-17 instead of O-16 in UO{sub 2} fuel. By using O-17 in the fuel, it is found that the CVR can even be negative. Impacts of the radial reflector on the CVR are also evaluated for the small SCO{sub 2} cooled fast reactor in this study. We have considered a pure lead (Pb) reflector and a lead magnesium eutectic (LME) reflector as alternative radial reflectors of the S-CO 2-cooled fast reactor. It has been shown that, with the LME radial reflector, the CVR can be negative, while the pure lead reflector provides a slightly positive CVR. (authors)

  18. Large-scale optimization-based non-negative computational framework for diffusion equations: Parallel implementation and performance studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chang, Justin; Karra, Satish; Nakshatrala, Kalyana B.

    2016-07-26

    It is well-known that the standard Galerkin formulation, which is often the formulation of choice under the finite element method for solving self-adjoint diffusion equations, does not meet maximum principles and the non-negative constraint for anisotropic diffusion equations. Recently, optimization-based methodologies that satisfy maximum principles and the non-negative constraint for steady-state and transient diffusion-type equations have been proposed. To date, these methodologies have been tested only on small-scale academic problems. The purpose of this paper is to systematically study the performance of the non-negative methodology in the context of high performance computing (HPC). PETSc and TAO libraries are, respectively, usedmore » for the parallel environment and optimization solvers. For large-scale problems, it is important for computational scientists to understand the computational performance of current algorithms available in these scientific libraries. The numerical experiments are conducted on the state-of-the-art HPC systems, and a single-core performance model is used to better characterize the efficiency of the solvers. Furthermore, our studies indicate that the proposed non-negative computational framework for diffusion-type equations exhibits excellent strong scaling for real-world large-scale problems.« less

  19. A collisional radiative model for caesium and its application to an RF source for negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wnderlich, D. Wimmer, C.; Friedl, R.

    2015-04-08

    A collisional radiative (CR) model for caesium atoms in low-temperature, low-pressure hydrogen-caesium plasmas is introduced. This model includes the caesium ground state, 14 excited states, the singly charged caesium ion and the negative hydrogen ion. The reaction probabilities needed as input are based on data from the literature, using some scaling and extrapolations. Additionally, new cross sections for electron collision ionization and three-body recombination have been calculated. The relevance of mutual neutralization of positive caesium ions and negative hydrogen ions is highlighted: depending on the densities of the involved particle species, this excitation channel can have a significant influence on the population densities of excited states in the caesium atom. This strong influence is successfully verified by optical emission spectroscopy measurements performed at the IPP prototype negative hydrogen ion source for ITER NBI. As a consequence, population models for caesium in electronegative low-temperature, low-pressure hydrogen-caesium plasmas need to take into account the mutual neutralization process. The present CR model is an example for such models and represents an important prerequisite for deducing the total caesium density in surface production based negative hydrogen ion sources.

  20. Measurement of production cross sections for negative pions, kaons, and protons at 10, 18, and 24 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amann, J.F.; Macek, R.J.; Sanford, T.W.L.

    1982-10-01

    We report here on a measurement of the 0/sup 0/-production cross sections for low-energy negative secondaries from 10-, 18-, and 24-GeV protons on a variety of targets. Special emphasis is given to determining the dependence of the cross sections on incident proton energy.

  1. Ozone generation by negative direct current corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yehia, Ashraf; Mizuno, Akira

    2013-05-14

    An analytical study was made in this paper for calculating the ozone generation by negative dc corona discharges. The corona discharges were formed in a coaxial wire-cylinder reactor. The reactor was fed by dry air flowing with constant rates at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, and stressed by a negative dc voltage. The current-voltage characteristics of the negative dc corona discharges formed inside the reactor were measured in parallel with concentration of the generated ozone under different operating conditions. An empirical equation was derived from the experimental results for calculating the ozone concentration generated inside the reactor. The results, that have been recalculated by using the derived equation, have agreed with the experimental results over the whole range of the investigated parameters, except in the saturation range for the ozone concentration. Therefore, the derived equation represents a suitable criterion for expecting the ozone concentration generated by negative dc corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors under any operating conditions in range of the investigated parameters.

  2. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 C by the end of the 21st century.

  3. Global change monitoring with lichens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Insarov, G.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental monitoring involves observations and assessment of changes in ecosystems and their components caused by anthropogenetic influence. An ideal monitoring system enables quantification of the contemporary state of the environment and detect changes in it. An important function of monitoring is to assess environment quality of areas that are not affected by local anthropogenic impacts, i.e. background areas. In background areas terrestrial ecosystems are mainly affected by such anthropogenic factors as lowered air pollution and global climate change. Assessment of biotic responses to altered climatic and atmospheric conditions provides an important basis for ecosystem management and environmental decision making. Without the ability to make such assessment, sustainability of ecosystems as a support system for humans remains uncertain.

  4. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodard, C.T.; Stoss, F.W.

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  5. Climate change and the Arctic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate change and the Arctic Climate change and the Arctic WHEN: May 19, 2016 5:30 PM - 7:00 PM WHERE: UnQuarked Wine Room 145 Central Park Square, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 USA CONTACT: Linda Anderman (505) 665-9196 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description Join us for convivial discussion on May 19 at 5:30 p.m. at UnQuarked Cathy Wilson, who heads the Lab's Atmosphere, Climate and Ecosystem Science team, is working to better understand what happens when warming climate

  6. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River estuary. Volume III. An analysis of the validity of the utilities' stock-recruitment curve-fitting exercise and prior estimation of beta technique. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1792

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, S. W.; Goodyear, C. P.; Kirk, B. L.

    1982-03-01

    This report addresses the validity of the utilities' use of the Ricker stock-recruitment model to extrapolate the combined entrainment-impingement losses of young fish to reductions in the equilibrium population size of adult fish. In our testimony, a methodology was developed and applied to address a single fundamental question: if the Ricker model really did apply to the Hudson River striped bass population, could the utilities' estimates, based on curve-fitting, of the parameter alpha (which controls the impact) be considered reliable. In addition, an analysis is included of the efficacy of an alternative means of estimating alpha, termed the technique of prior estimation of beta (used by the utilities in a report prepared for regulatory hearings on the Cornwall Pumped Storage Project). This validation methodology should also be useful in evaluating inferences drawn in the literature from fits of stock-recruitment models to data obtained from other fish stocks.

  7. Quick-change filter cartridge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

  8. Dynamical and thermodynamical modulations of future changes in landfalling atmospheric rivers over North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yang; Lu, Jian; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Qing; Hagos, Samson M.; Qian, Yun

    2015-09-12

    This study examines the changes of landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) over the west coast of North America in response to future warming using model outputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The result reveals a strikingly large magnitude of increase of AR days by the end of the 21st century in the RCP8.5 climate change scenario, with fractional increases ranging between ~50% and 600%, depending on the seasons and the landfall locations. These increases are predominantly controlled by the super-Clausius-Clapeyron rate of increase of atmospheric water vapor with warming, while changes of winds that transport moisture in the ARs, or dynamical effect, mostly counter the thermodynamical effect of increasing water vapor, limiting the increase of AR events in the future. The consistent negative effect of wind changes on AR days during spring and fall can be further linked to the robust poleward shift of the subtropical jet in the North Pacific basin.

  9. 12.0 CHANGES TO THE AGREEMENT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2-1 12.0 CHANGES TO THE AGREEMENT 12.1 INTRODUCTION This section provides the process for changing elements of the Agreement, the Action Plan and its appendices. All changes processed using this section shall be subject to the applicable requirements of Section 10.0 Community Relations/Public Involvement. 12.2 AUTHORITY TO APPROVE CHANGES The appropriate authority level for approval of a change is based on the content of the change as follows. Class I Change--A Class I change is a change to

  10. Electrical conductivity anomaly and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} negative temperature coefficient ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bo; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Zhao, Qing; Chang, Aimin E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu; Li, Yiyu; Liu, Yin; Wu, Yiquan E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu

    2014-03-10

    Electrical conductivity anomaly of perovskite-type YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} negative temperature coefficient (NTC) ceramics produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been investigated by using defect chemistry theory combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. From the results of the ln?-1/T curves and the XPS analysis, it can be considered that YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit the hopping conductivity. The major carriers in YCrO{sub 3} are holes, which are compensated by the oxygen vacancies produced due to the introduction of Mn ions. The Mn{sup 4+} ion contents increase monotonically in the range of 0.2???x???0.5. The resistivity increases at first and then decreases with increasing Mn contents, which has the same varying tendency with activation energy. The electrical conductivity anomaly appearing in these ceramics may be due to the variation of Cr{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions concentration as Mn content changes.

  11. Simplified air change effectiveness modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rock, B.A.; Anderson, R.; Brandemuehl, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes recent progress in developing practical air change effectiveness modeling techniques for the design and analysis of air diffusion in occupied rooms. The ultimate goal of this continuing work is to develop a simple and reliable method for determining heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system compliance with ventilation standards. In the current work, simplified two-region models of rooms are used with six occupancy patterns to find the air change effectiveness. A new measure, the apparent ACH effectiveness, yields the relative ventilation performance of an air diffusion system. This measure can be used for the prediction or evaluation of outside air delivery to the occupants. The required outside air can be greater or less than that specified by ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62-89.

  12. Tip-contact related low-bias negative differential resistance and rectifying effects in benzeneporphyrinbenzene molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Jue-Fei; Zhou, Liping E-mail: leigao@suda.edu.cn; Liu, Man; Yan, Qiang; Han, Qin; Gao, Lei E-mail: leigao@suda.edu.cn

    2014-11-07

    The electronic transport properties of benzeneporphyrinbenzene (BPB) molecules coupled to gold (Au) electrodes were investigated. By successively removing the front-end Au atoms, several BPB junctions with different molecule-electrode contact symmetries were constructed. The calculated currentvoltage (IV) curves depended strongly on the contact configurations between the BPB molecules and the Au electrodes. In particular, a significant low-voltage negative differential resistance effect appeared at ?0.3 V in the junctions with pyramidal electrodes on both sides. Along with the breaking of this tip-contact symmetry, the low-bias negative differential resistance effect gradually disappeared. This tip-contact may be ideal for use in the design of future molecular devices because of its similarity with experimental processes.

  13. Effect of non-uniform electron energy distribution function on plasma production in large arc driven negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, T.; Koga, S.; Terasaki, R.; Hatayama, A.; Inoue, T.; Dairaku, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Tobari, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.

    2012-02-15

    Spatially non-uniform electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an arc driven negative ion source (JAEA 10A negative ion source: 10 A NIS) is calculated numerically by a three-dimensional Monte Carlo kinetic model for electrons to understand spatial distribution of plasma production (such as atomic and ionic hydrogen (H{sup 0}/H{sup +}) production) in source chamber. The local EEDFs were directly calculated from electron orbits including electromagnetic effects and elastic/inelastic collision forces. From the EEDF, spatial distributions of H{sup 0}/H{sup +} production rate were obtained. The results suggest that spatial non-uniformity of H{sup 0}/H{sup +} productions is enhanced by high energy component of EEDF.

  14. Improvement of voltage holding capability in the 500 keV negative ion source for JT-60SA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.; Akino, N.; Shimizu, T.; Ohshima, K.; Inoue, T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Grisham, L. R.; Collaboration: JT-60 NBI Group

    2010-02-15

    Voltage holding capability of JT-60 negative ion source that has a large electrostatic negative ion accelerator with 45 cmx1.1 m acceleration grids was experimentally examined and improved to realize 500 keV, 22 A, and 100 s D{sup -} ion beams for JT-60 Super Advanced. The gap lengths in the acceleration stages were extended to reduce electric fields in a gap between the large grids and at the corner of the support flanges from the original 4-5 to 3-4 kV/mm. As a result, the voltage holding capability without beam acceleration has been successfully improved from 400 to 500 kV. The pulse duration to hold 500 kV reached 40 s of the power supply limitation.

  15. ATNI Tribal Leaders Summit on Climate Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians is hosting the Tribal Leaders Summit on Climate Change. This two-day conference will discuss climate change impacts, policy on climate change, tribal...

  16. ATNI Tribal Leaders Summit on Climate Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians is hosting the Tribal Leaders Summit on Climate Change. This two-day conference will discuss climate change impacts, policy on climate change, tribal needs, funding opportunities, and more.

  17. Climate Change Impacts on Fish and Wildlife

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Earth’s climate is changing. In some places such as the Arctic, the change is rapid and profound, while in other areas change has been less dramatic and more gradual. But virtually everywhere,...

  18. Brandon Chang | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brandon Chang Brandon Chang Brandon Chang Alumnus Brandon completed the PARC/I-CARES Certificate of Accomplishment in Renewable Energy & the Environment in 2015. He is currently enrolled in medical school at Case Western Reserve University. Alumni

  19. 2014 DOE Climate Change Adaptation Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 U.S. Department of Energy June 2014 DOE Climate Change Adaptation Plan Table of Contents Climate Change Adaptation Plan ................................................................................................................................2 Impetus for Action ..................................................................................................................................................2 The DOE Mission and Climate Change Adaptation

  20. chang(1)-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Vertical Profile of Cloud Droplet Effective Radius from Multiple Spectral Channels F.-L. Chang and Z. Li Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada H. W. Barker Atmospheric Environment Service Dowsview, Ontario, Canada Introduction Cloud optical depth and droplet size are two important parameters required for understanding the radiative effects of clouds and their impact on climate (e.g., Fouquart et al. 1990). Numerous efforts have been made to retrieve the two parameters from

  1. chang(2)-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Satellite Inversion of Cloud and Radiation Quantities Using ScaRaB Visible and Shortwave Measurements F.-L. Chang, Z. Li, and A. P. Trishchenko Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction Cloud and radiation both play important roles in governing the climate (Wielicki et al. 1995). A good knowledge of the two variables and their interactions can help model the climate. Although operational meteorological satellites have provided a wealth of observations, the inversion

  2. Phase change material storage heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goswami, D. Yogi; Hsieh, Chung K.; Jotshi, Chand K.; Klausner, James F.

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  3. Mathematical modeling of the lithium deposition overcharge reaction in lithium-ion batteries using carbon-based negative electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, P.; Doyle, M.; White, R.E.

    1999-10-01

    Two major issues facing lithium-ion battery technology are safety and capacity grade during cycling. A significant amount of work has been done to improve the cycle life and to reduce the safety problems associated with these cells. This includes newer and better electrode materials, lower-temperature shutdown separators, nonflammable or self-extinguishing electrolytes, and improved cell designs. The goal of this work is to predict the conditions for the lithium deposition overcharge reaction on the negative electrode (graphite and coke) and to investigate the effect of various operating conditions, cell designs and charging protocols on the lithium deposition side reaction. The processes that lead to capacity fading affect severely the cycle life and rate behavior of lithium-ion cells. One such process is the overcharge of the negative electrode causing lithium deposition, which can lead to capacity losses including a loss of active lithium and electrolyte and represents a potential safety hazard. A mathematical model is presented to predict lithium deposition on the negative electrode under a variety of operating conditions. The Li{sub x}C{sub 6} {vert{underscore}bar} 1 M LiPF{sub 6}, 2:1 ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) {vert{underscore}bar} LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell is simulated to investigate the influence of lithium deposition on the charging behavior of intercalation electrodes. The model is used to study the effect of key design parameters (particle size, electrode thickness, and mass ratio) on the lithium deposition overcharge reaction. The model predictions are compared for coke and graphite-based negative electrodes. The cycling behavior of these cells is simulated before and after overcharge to understand the hazards and capacity fade problems, inherent in these cells, can be minimized.

  4. Matrix of small-radius radio-frequency discharges as a volume-production based source of negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lishev, St.; Paunska, Ts.; Shivarova, A.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2012-02-15

    Based on experience from a work - both theoretical and experimental one - on negative hydrogen ion beam sources studied regarding fusion applications, a novel design of a rf source with volume production of the ions is proposed. The suggestion is for a source constructed as a matrix of small-radius tandem discharges (with magnetic filters largely extended over the discharge length), inductively driven (by a single coil, for the whole matrix) and with a single aperture extraction from each of them.

  5. Excitation of Meinel and the first negative band system at the collision of electrons and protons with the nitrogen molecule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gochitashvili, Malkhaz R.; Lomsadze, Ramaz A.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

    2010-08-15

    The absolute cross sections for the e-N{sub 2} and p-N{sub 2} collisions for the first negative B{sup 2{Sigma}}{sub u}{sup +}-X{sup 2{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} and Meinel A{sup 2{Pi}}{sub u}-X{sup 2{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} bands have been measured in the energy region of 400-1500 eV for electrons and 0.4-10 keV for protons, respectively. Measurements are performed in the visible spectral region of 400-800 nm by an optical spectroscopy method. The ratio of the cross sections of the Meinel band system to the cross section of the first negative band system (0,0) does not depend on the incident electron energy. The populations of vibrational levels corresponding to A{sup 2{Pi}}{sub u} states are consistent with the Franck-Condon principle. The ratios of the cross sections of (4,1) to (3,0) bands and (5,2) to (3,0) bands exhibit slight dependence on the proton energy. A theoretical estimation within the quasimolecular approximation provides a reasonable description of the total cross section for the first negative band.

  6. Role of negatively charged ions in plasma on the growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Aarti; Walia, Ritu; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2012-01-15

    The role of negatively charged ions in plasma on growth (without catalyst) and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube (CNT) tip has been theoretically investigated. A theoretical model of charge neutrality, including the kinetics of electrons, negatively and positively charged ions, neutral atoms, and the energy balance of various species has been developed. Numerical calculations of the spherical CNT tip radius for different relative density of negatively charged ions {epsilon}{sub r}(=n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}}/n{sub C{sup +}}, where n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}} and n{sub C}{sup +} are the equilibrium densities of sulphur hexafluoride and carbon ions, respectively) have been carried out for the typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the spherical CNT tip radius decreases with {epsilon}{sub r} and hence the field emission of electrons from the spherical CNT tip increases. Some of our theoretical results are in accordance with the existing experimental observations.

  7. Global Change Associates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Change Associates Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Change Associates Place: New York City, New York Zip: 10025-5657 Product: Consulting firm focusing on the convergence...

  8. Climate Change Adaptation Technical Fact Sheet: Contaminated...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of potential climate change vulnerabilities and (2) presenting possible adaptation measures that may be considered to increase a remedy's resilience to climate change impacts. ...

  9. Social Empowerment Institutional Change Principle | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Empowerment Institutional Change Principle Social Empowerment Institutional Change Principle By creating a context in which workers feel empowered to take action, federal agencies ...

  10. List of Approved Changes - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Changes Tri-Party Agreement The Agreement Announcements List of Approved Changes TPA Project Manager's Lists Modifications for Public Comment Data Management MP-14 WIDS...

  11. Institutional Change Process for Sustainability | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process for Sustainability Institutional Change Process for Sustainability For establishing institutional change in a federal agency to achieve sustainability or other energy ...

  12. Climate Change: Energy and Community Impacts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Day - Energy Performance Contracting 24 February 2015 Key Points Up Front * Climate change is real and will have significant impacts * The emissions that drive the change - ...

  13. IDRISI Land Change Modeler | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IDRISI Land Change Modeler Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: IDRISI Land Change Modeler AgencyCompany Organization: Clark Labs Sector: Land Focus Area:...

  14. Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation: The Case of Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed Jump to: navigation, search Name Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability...

  15. Climate Change Simulations with CCSM & CESM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Simulations with CCSM & CESM Climate Change Simulations with CCSM & CESM Key Challenges: Perform fundamental research on the processes that influence the natural...

  16. Committee on Climate Change | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Committee on Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Name: Committee on Climate Change Place: United Kingdom Product: String representation "As a key part o ... 2020 and 2050."...

  17. London Climate Change Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change Agency Jump to: navigation, search Name: London Climate Change Agency Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: SE1 8AA Product: Agency responsible for...

  18. Global Climate Change Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Change Institute Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Climate Change Institute Place: Tsinghua University, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100084 Product: Global Climate...

  19. Brazil Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brazil Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change Place: Distrito Federal...

  20. Buildings and Climate Change | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Buildings and Climate Change AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Environment Programme...

  1. Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector...

  2. Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning: A Guide for Practitioners Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation...

  3. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production, sales, and stocks million gallons Period B100 production Sales of B100 Sales of B100 included in biodiesel blends Ending stocks of B100 B100 stock change ...

  4. Word Pro - S10

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 10.4 Biodiesel and Other Renewable Fuels Overview Biodiesel Other Renew- able Fuels f Feed- stock a Losses and Co- prod- ucts b Production Trade Stocks d Stock Change e ...

  5. Commitment Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Institutional Change » Commitment Institutional Change Principle Commitment Institutional Change Principle Commitment can be a crucial element that helps federal agencies inject and emphasize sustainability in their organizational culture. Institutions and people change when they have made definite commitments to change, especially when those commitments relate to future conditions. Research shows that explicit commitments improve the rate at which people adopt energy-efficient behaviors.

  6. Infrastructure Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Institutional Change Principle Infrastructure Institutional Change Principle Research shows that changes in infrastructure prompt changes in behavior (for better or worse). Federal agencies can modify their infrastructure to promote sustainability-oriented behavior change, ideally in ways that make new behaviors easier and more desirable to follow than existing patterns of behavior. The physical structures, technologies, systems, and processes that constitute the infrastructure of

  7. Climate Change Adaptation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Climate Change Adaptation Climate Change Adaptation Mission The Climate Change Adaption team affirms the overall DOE commitment to plan for and manage the short- and long-term effects of climate change, as deemed appropriate for LM operations and approved by LM, as defined in: Executive Order (EO) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, and EO 13653, Preparing the United States for the Impacts of Climate Change The team endorses the President's Climate Action Plan,

  8. An ABCA1 truncation shows no dominant negative effect in a familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia pedigree with three ABCA1 mutations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorrenson, Brie; Suetani, Rachel J.; Bickley, Vivienne M.; George, Peter M.; Williams, Michael J.A.; Scott, Russell S.; McCormick, Sally P.A.

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Characterisation of an ABCA1 truncation mutant, C978fsX988, in a pedigree with three ABCA1 mutations. {yields} Functional analysis of C978fsX988 in patient fibroblasts and HEK 293 cells shows no cholesterol efflux function. {yields} Allele-specific quantification shows C978fsX988 not expressed at mRNA level in fibroblasts. {yields} Unlike other ABCA1 truncations, C978fsX988 mutant shows no dominant negative effect at mRNA or protein level. -- Abstract: The ATP binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) A1 is a key determinant of circulating high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Mutations in ABCA1 are a major genetic contributor to low HDL-C levels within the general population. Following the finding of three different ABCA1 mutations, p.C978fsX988, p.T1512M and p.N1800H in a subject with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, we aimed to establish whether the p.C978fsX988 truncation exerted a dominant negative effect on the full-length ABCA1 alleles within family members as has been reported for other ABCA1 truncations. Characterisation of the p.C978fsX988 mutant in transfected HEK 293 cells showed it to be expressed as a GFP fusion protein but lacking in cholesterol efflux function. This was in keeping with results from cholesterol efflux assays in the fibroblasts of p.C978fsX988 carriers which also showed impaired efflux. Allele- specific quantification of p.C978fsX988 mRNA and analysis of ABCA1 protein levels in the fibroblasts of p.C978fsX988 heterozygotes showed negligible levels of mRNA and protein expression. There was no evidence of a dominant negative effect on wildtype or p.N1800H protein levels. We conclude that in the case of the p.C978fsX988 truncated mutant a lack of expression precludes it from having a dominant negative effect.

  9. Negative-parity states and {beta} decays in odd Ho and Dy nuclei with A=151,153

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Khudair, Falih H.; Long Guilu; Sun Yang

    2008-03-15

    We investigated the negative-parity states and electromagnetic transitions in {sup 151,153}Ho and {sup 151,153}Dy within the framework of the interacting boson fermion model 2 (IBFM-2). Spin assignments for some states with uncertain spin are made based on this calculation. Calculated excitation energies, electromagnetic transitions, and branching ratios are compared with available experimental data and a good agreement is obtained. The model wave functions were used to study {beta} decays from Ho to Dy isotones, and the calculated logft values are close to the experimental data.

  10. Role of Ultrasonography of Regional Nodal Basins in Staging Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Implications For Local-Regional Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Tereffe, Welela; Dogan, Basak E.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Caudle, Abigail S.; Valero, Vicente; Stauder, Michael C.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Candelaria, Rosalind P.; Strom, Eric A.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the rate at which regional nodal ultrasonography would increase the nodal disease stage in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) beyond the clinical stage determined by physical examination and mammography alone, and significantly affect the treatments delivered to these patients. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of women with stages I to III TNBC who underwent physical examination, mammography, breast and regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy of abnormal nodes, and definitive local-regional treatment at our institution between 2004 and 2011. The stages of these patients' disease with and without ultrasonography of the regional nodal basins were compared using the Pearson χ{sup 2} test. Definitive treatments of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged on the basis of ultrasonographic findings were compared to those of patients whose disease stage remained the same. Results: A total of 572 women met the study requirements. In 111 (19.4%) of these patients, regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy resulted in an increase in disease stage from the original stage by physical examination and mammography alone. Significantly higher percentages of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged by ultrasonographic findings compared to that in patients whose disease was not upstaged underwent neoadjuvant systemic therapy (91.9% and 51.2%, respectively; P<.0001), axillary lymph node dissection (99.1% and 34.5%, respectively; P<.0001), and radiation to the regional nodal basins (88.2% and 29.1%, respectively; P<.0001). Conclusions: Regional nodal ultrasonography in TNBC frequently changes the initial clinical stage and plays an important role in treatment planning.

  11. Long pulse acceleration of MeV class high power density negative H{sup −} ion beam for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umeda, N. Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Hiratsuka, J.; Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Hanada, M.

    2015-04-08

    R and D of high power density negative ion beam acceleration has been carried out at MeV test facility in JAEA to realize ITER neutral beam accelerator. The main target is H{sup −} ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV with 200 A/m{sup 2} for 60 s whose pulse length is the present facility limit. For long pulse acceleration at high power density, new extraction grid (EXG) has been developed with high cooling capability, which electron suppression magnet is placed under cooling channel similar to ITER. In addition, aperture size of electron suppression grid (ESG) is enlarged from 14 mm to 16 mm to reduce direct interception on the ESG and emission of secondary electron which leads to high heat load on the upstream acceleration grid. By enlarging ESG aperture, beam current increased 10 % at high current beam and total acceleration grid heat load reduced from 13 % to 10 % of input power at long pulse beam. In addition, heat load by back stream positive ion into the EXG is measured for the first time and is estimated as 0.3 % of beam power, while heat load by back stream ion into the source chamber is estimated as 3.5 ~ 4.0 % of beam power. Beam acceleration up to 60 s which is the facility limit, has achieved at 683 keV, 100 A/m{sup 2} of negative ion beam, whose energy density increases two orders of magnitude since 2011.

  12. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2–300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.

  13. Transition-Metal Carbodiimides as Molecular Negative Electrode Materials for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries with Excellent Cycling Properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sougrati, Moulay T.; Darwiche, Ali; Liu, Xiaohiu; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Hermann, Raphael P.; Jouen, Samuel; Monconduit, Laure; Dronskowski, Richard; Stievano, Lorenzo

    2016-03-16

    Here we report evidence for the electrochemical activity of transition-metal carbodiimides versus lithium and sodium. In particular, iron carbodiimide, FeNCN, can be efficiently used as a negative electrode material for alkali-metal-ion batteries, similar to its oxide analogue FeO. Based on 57Fe M ssbauer and infrared spectroscopy (IR) data, the electrochemical reaction mechanism can be explained by the reversible transformation of the Fe NCN into Li/Na NCN bonds during discharge and charge. These new electrode materials exhibit higher capacity compared to well-established negative electrode references such as graphite or hard carbon. Contrary to its oxide analogue, iron carbodiimide does not requiremore » heavy treatments (nanoscale tailoring, sophisticated textures, coating etc.) to obtain long cycle life with density current as high as 9 A/g-1 for hundreds of charge/discharge cycles. Similar to the iron compound, several other transition-metal carbodiimides Mx(NCN)y with M = Mn, Cr, Zn can cycle successfully versus lithium and sodium. Ultimately, their electrochemical activity and performances open the way to the design of a novel family of anode materials.« less

  14. Transforming dielectric coated tungsten and platinum wires to gaseous state using negative nanosecond-pulsed-current in vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen Wang, Kun; Yang, Zefeng; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici; Li, Zhenghong

    2014-11-15

    With the help of thin dielectric coatings, corona free explosions were achieved in the region of about half a wire length (2?cm) for tungsten wires and nearly the whole wire length for platinum wires under a fast rising (46170?A/ns) negative polarity current in vacuum. Expansion velocity of the tungsten gas was over 10?km/s. Current waveforms from exploding coated wires were similar to those from bare wires in the air including a current pause stage. Coated wires with different coating parameters had a similar joule energy deposition before voltage collapsed, but a quite different scenario in the region near the electrodes. The axial field under negative current was the main reason for the axial inhomogeneity of coated tungsten wires. Tungsten or platinum gases in the vaporized region were tightly encompassed by the dielectric coating, while gaps or probably low density gases, were observed between the coating and the edge of the dense wire core in the core-corona structure region.

  15. Recent Administrative Change 12-4-14

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The purpose of the administrative change is to provide the EK pay plan with continuous locality pay coverage as a result of an administrative change to the EK pay plan legislation.

  16. 2016 Behavior, Energy, and Climate Change Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Behavior, Energy, and Climate Change Conference is the premiere event focused on understanding individual and organizational behavior and decision making related to energy usage, greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, and sustainability.

  17. Behavior, Energy & Climate Change (BECC) Conference | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Behavior, Energy & Climate Change (BECC) Conference Behavior, Energy & Climate Change (BECC) Conference October 20, 2016 9:00AM EDT to October 22, 2016 5:00PM EDT Renaissance ...

  18. climate change | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    climate change Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 18 January, 2013 - 15:46 U.S. Global Change Research Program publishes "National Climate...

  19. Resources on Institutional Change for Sustainability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) offers resources to help agencies achieve institutional change in their organizations.

  20. Social Network and Communications Institutional Change Principle |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Network and Communications Institutional Change Principle Social Network and Communications Institutional Change Principle Federal agencies can use social networks and communications to spark and reinforce behavior change for meeting sustainability goals. This principle is based on research findings showing that people and institutions often are strongly influenced by the behaviors and expectations of others. Methods The social network and communications behavior change

  1. Champions of Change: Veterans Advancing Clean Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Yesterday, Secretary Moniz honored veterans advancing clean energy and climate security at a White House "Champions of Change" event.

  2. Climate Change/Paleoclimate & Geochronology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Climate Change The historic global agreement signed by nearly 200 nations at COP21 in Paris in November 2015 was a critical step forward on climate change. But we need ambitious action on clean energy to meet our climate goals, starting with greatly accelerated investment in innovation. Learn more about our plan to secure a better, safer future. Addressing the effects of climate change is a top priority of the Energy Department. As global temperature rise, wildfires, drought and

  3. Leadership Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Institutional Change » Leadership Institutional Change Principle Leadership Institutional Change Principle For changing behavior among employees, leaders in federal agencies should visibly communicate their own commitments to sustainability in the workplace. Such visible leadership will help achieve sustainability goals in the short term and continue to provide motivation for long-term benefits. Methods Leaders should have a deep understanding of the politics of the organization and the ability

  4. CONFIGURATION CHANGE PROPOSAL FORM | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONFIGURATION CHANGE PROPOSAL FORM CONFIGURATION CHANGE PROPOSAL FORM This form is used for sharing information on Domain Name Server (DNS) changes, new requirements, modifications or enhancements within the DOE Headquarters Programmatic and Office Management Areas. This form is used for sharing information on Domain Name Server (DNS) changes, new requirements, modifications or enhancements within the DOE Headquarters Programmatic and Office Management Areas. (40.5 KB) More Documents &

  5. BIA Climate Change Adaption—Tribal Liaison

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is accepting proposals from eligible entities impacted by climate change to enter into a cooperative agreement for the identification and hiring of tribal climate change liaisons to address tribal climate change science needs.

  6. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  7. Active Climate Stabilization: Practical Physics-Based Approaches to Prevention of Climate Change

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Teller, E.; Hyde, T.; Wood, L.

    2002-04-18

    We offer a case for active technical management of the radiative forcing of the temperatures of the Earth's fluid envelopes, rather than administrative management of atmospheric greenhouse gas inputs, in order to stabilize both the global- and time-averaged climate and its mesoscale features. We suggest that active management of radiative forcing entails negligible--indeed, likely strongly negative--economic costs and environmental impacts, and thus best complies with the pertinent mandate of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. We propose that such approaches be swiftly evaluated in sub-scale in the course of an intensive international program.

  8. NEGATIVE GATE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, C.S.; Eaton, T.E.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to pulse generating circuits and more particularly to rectangular pulse generators. The pulse generator of the present invention incorporates thyratrons as switching elements to discharge a first capacitor through a load resistor to initiate and provide the body of a Pulse, and subsequently dlscharge a second capacitor to impress the potential of its charge, with opposite potential polarity across the load resistor to terminate the pulse. Accurate rectangular pulses in the millimicrosecond range are produced across a low impedance by this generator.

  9. Negative differential transconductance in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect/bipolar hybrid transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naquin, Clint; Lee, Mark; Edwards, Hal; Mathur, Guru; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Maggio, Ken

    2014-11-24

    Introducing explicit quantum transport into Si transistors in a manner amenable to industrial fabrication has proven challenging. Hybrid field-effect/bipolar Si transistors fabricated on an industrial 45 nm process line are shown to demonstrate explicit quantum transport signatures. These transistors incorporate a lateral ion implantation-defined quantum well (QW) whose potential depth is controlled by a gate voltage (V{sub G}). Quantum transport in the form of negative differential transconductance (NDTC) is observed to temperatures >200 K. The NDTC is tied to a non-monotonic dependence of bipolar current gain on V{sub G} that reduces drain-source current through the QW. These devices establish the feasibility of exploiting quantum transport to transform the performance horizons of Si devices fabricated in an industrially scalable manner.

  10. Transport properties of bare and hydrogenated zigzag silicene nanoribbons: Negative differential resistances and perfect spin-filtering effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, Y. S. Feng, J. F.; Wang, X. F.; Zhang, C. W.; Chi, F.

    2014-09-28

    Ab initio calculations are performed to investigate the spin-polarized transport properties of the bare and hydrogenated zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs). The results show that the ZSiNRs with symmetric (asymmetric) edges prefer the ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic) as their ground states with the semiconductor properties, while the accordingly antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) states exhibit the metallic behaviors. These facts result in a giant magnetoresistance behavior between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states in the low bias-voltage regime. Moreover, in the ferromagnetic ZSiNRs with asymmetric edges, a perfect spin-filtering effect with 100% positive electric current polarization can be achieved by altering the bias voltage. In addition, we also find that the negative differential resistances prefer the metastable states. The findings here indicate that the asymmetric and symmetric ZSiNRs are promising materials for spintronic applications.

  11. Investigation of the negative differential resistance reproducibility in AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunnelling diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boucherit, M.; Soltani, A.; Rousseau, M.; Deresmes, D.; Berthe, M.; Durand, C.; De Jaeger, J.-C.

    2011-10-31

    AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunnelling diodes were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN/sapphire template and processed into mesa diameters from 2 {mu}m to 4 {mu}m. The current-voltage characteristics were carried out in direct current operation and under-high vacuum. A sharp negative differential resistance (NDR) was detected in the forward bias at 120 K. The NDR was observed for the mesa size of 2 {mu}m at 4 V with a peak-to-valley current ratio of 3.5. The measurement conditions were chosen to make NDR reproducible more than 50 times and apparent in both scan voltage directions after electrical treatment.

  12. Matrix-filler interfaces and physical properties of metal matrix composites with negative thermal expansion manganese nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takenaka, Koshi; Kuzuoka, Kota; Sugimoto, Norihiro

    2015-08-28

    Copper matrix composites containing antiperovskite manganese nitrides with negative thermal expansion (NTE) were formed using pulsed electric current sintering. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the chemically reacted region extends over 10 μm around the matrix–filler interfaces. The small-size filler was chemically deteriorated during formation of composites and it lost the NTE property. Therefore, we produced the composites using only the nitride particles having diameter larger than 50 μm. The large-size filler effectively suppressed the thermal expansion of copper and improved the conductivity of the composites to the level of pure aluminum. The present composites, having high thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion, are suitable for practical applications such as a heat radiation substrate for semiconductor devices.

  13. Study of plasma meniscus formation and beam halo in negative ion source using the 3D3VPIC model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Fukano, A.

    2015-04-08

    In this paper, the effect of the electron confinement time on the plasma meniscus and the fraction of the beam halo is investigated by 3D3V-PIC (three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space) (Particle in Cell) simulation in the extraction region of negative ion source. The electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of diffusion across the magnetic field. Our 3D3V-PIC results support the previous result by 2D3V-PIC results i.e., it is confirmed that the penetration of the plasma meniscus becomes deep into the source plasma region when the effective confinement time is short.

  14. A relationship between statistical time to breakdown distributions and pre-breakdown negative differential resistance at nanometric scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foissac, R.; Blonkowski, S.; Delcroix, P.; Kogelschatz, M.

    2014-07-14

    Using an ultra-high vacuum Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) current voltage, pre-breakdown negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics are measured together with the time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) distributions of Si/SiON (1.4 and 2.6?nm thick). Those experimental characteristics are systematically compared. The NDR effect is modelled by a conductive filament growth. It is showed that the Weibull TDDB statistic distribution scale factor is proportional to the growth rate of an individual filament and then has the same dependence on the electric field. The proportionality factor is a power law of the ratio between the surfaces of the CAFM tip and the filament's top. Moreover, it was found that, for the high fields used in those experiments, the TDDB acceleration factor as the growth rate characteristic is proportional to the Zener tunnelling probability. Those observations are discussed in the framework of possible breakdown or forming mechanism.

  15. Simultaneous negative refraction and focusing of fundamental frequency and second-harmonic fields by two-dimensional photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-09-28

    Simultaneous negative refraction for both the fundamental frequency (FF) and second-harmonic (SH) fields in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals have been found through both the physical analysis and exact numerical simulation. By combining such a property with the phase-matching condition and strong second-order susceptibility, we have designed a SH lens to realize focusing for both the FF and SH fields at the same time. Good-quality non-near field images for both FF and SH fields have been observed. The physical mechanism for such SH focusing phenomena has been disclosed, which is different from the backward SH generation as has been pointed out in the previous investigations. In addition, the effect of absorption losses on the phenomena has also been discussed. Thus, potential applications of these phenomena to biphotonic microscopy technique are anticipated.

  16. Global Analysis Of The Negative Parity Non-Strange Baryons In The 1/N{sub c} Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goity, Jose L.; Gonzalez de Urreta, Emiliano Jose; Scoccola, Norberto N.

    2014-02-01

    A global study of the negative parity non-strange baryon observables is performed in the framework of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. Masses, partial decay widths and photo-couplings are simultaneously analyzed. A main objective is to determine the composition of the spin 1/2 and 3/2 nucleon states, which come in pairs and involve two mixing angles which can be determined and tested for consistency by the mentioned observables. The issue of the assignment of those nucleon states to the broken SU(4) X O(3) mixed-symmetry multiplet is studied in detail, with the conclusion that the assignment made in the old studies based on the non-relativistic quark model is the preferred one. In addition, the analysis involves an update of the input data with respect to previous works.

  17. DOE Launches Change a Light, Change the World Campaign | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Change a Light, Change the World Campaign DOE Launches Change a Light, Change the World Campaign October 3, 2007 - 2:50pm Addthis Encourages Americans to Pledge to Change One Light to an Efficient Compact Fluorescent Lightbulb WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today launched the 2007 Change a Light, Change the World campaign encouraging every American to change at least one light at home to an ENERGY STAR® Compact Fluorescent Light bulb

  18. Identify Institutional Change Roles for Sustainability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To achieve the sustainability goals you've identified, take into account the network of roles essential to make or maintain the desired changes. As a rule of thumb, it may help to think about what roles are necessary for determining what changes to make, implementing those changes, and supporting or abiding by those changes. One place to start is by identifying leaders in your organization who have the authority, resources, and influence to make change happen. Those leadership roles typically include: Senior management Policy and technology officers Facilities and operations managers.

  19. Outcomes of Node-Negative Breast Cancer 5 Centimeters and Larger Treated With and Without Postmastectomy Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulart, Jennifer; Truong, Pauline; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline H.; Kennecke, Hagen; Nichol, Alan

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: The role of adjuvant postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) remains controversial for the rare presentation of pT3pN0cM0 breast cancer. The present analysis examined locoregional recurrence (LRR) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) in pT2 = 5.0-cm and pT3 >5.0-cm tumors treated with mastectomy, stratified by PMRT use. Materials and Methods: Between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2000, the British Columbia provincial database yielded 100 node-negative patients with tumors {>=}5 cm of 19,846 nonmetastatic breast cancer patients (0.5%). Of these 100 patients, 44 (44%) had received adjuvant PMRT. Results: The PMRT group contained significantly more pT3 >5-cm cases (p = 0.001) and margin-positive cases (p = .03). With a median follow-up of 10 years, the cumulative 10-year LRR rate was 2.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-10.5) in the PMRT group vs. 8.9% (95% confidence interval, 3.2-18.2) in the no-PMRT group (p = .2). Regarding LRR in the no-PMRT group, all patients had Grade 3 histologic features (LRR 17%, 5 of 29) and had not received hormonal therapy (LRR 15%, 5 of 34). The 10-year breast cancer-specific survival rate was 85.8% (95% confidence interval 71.0-93.4) in the PMRT group vs. 74.6% (95% confidence interval 59.9-84.5) in the no-PMRT group (p = .2). On multivariate analysis, adjusted for the prognostic and predictive variables, PMRT did not significantly improve the LRR or breast cancer-specific survival rates. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a low LRR rate for node-negative breast cancer {>=}5 cm. Our results indicate that PMRT should be considered for Grade 3 histologic features and patients not undergoing hormonal therapy.

  20. Final Report for ''SOURCES AND SINKS OF CARBON FROM LAND-USE CHANGE AND MANAGEMENT: A GLOBAL SYNTHESIS'' Project Period September 15, 2001--September 14, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghton, R.A.

    2003-12-12

    Land management and land-use change can either release carbon (as CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere, for example when forests are converted to agricultural lands, or withdraw carbon from the atmosphere as forests grow on cleared lands or as management practices sequester carbon in soil. The purpose of this work was to calculate the annual sources and sinks of carbon from changes in land use and management, globally and for nine world regions, over the period 1850 to 2000. The approach had three components. First, rates of land-use change were reconstructed from historical information on the areas of croplands, pastures, forests, and other lands and from data on wood harvests. In most regions, land-use change included the conversion of natural ecosystems to cultivated lands and pastures, including shifting cultivation, harvest of wood (for timber and fuel), and the establishment of tree plantations. In the U.S., woody encroachment and woodland thickening as a result of fire suppression were also included. Second, the amount of carbon per hectare in vegetation and soils and changes in that carbon as a result of land-use change were determined from data obtained in the ecological and forestry literature. These data on land-use change and carbon stocks were then used in a bookkeeping model (third component) to calculate regional and global changes in terrestrial carbon. The results indicate that for the period 1850-2000 the net flux of carbon from changes in land use was 156 PgC. For comparison, emissions of carbon from combustion of fossil fuels were approximately 280 PgC during the same interval. Annual emissions from land-use change exceeded emissions from fossil fuels before about 1920. Somewhat more that half (60%) of the long-term flux was from the tropics. Average annual fluxes during the 1980s and 1990s were 2.0 and 2.2 ({+-}0.8) PgC yr{sup -1} (30-40% of fossil fuel emissions), respectively. In these decades, the global sources of carbon were almost entirely from

  1. Image Change Detection via Ensemble Learning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Benjamin W; Vatsavai, Raju

    2013-01-01

    The concept of geographic change detection is relevant in many areas. Changes in geography can reveal much information about a particular location. For example, analysis of changes in geography can identify regions of population growth, change in land use, and potential environmental disturbance. A common way to perform change detection is to use a simple method such as differencing to detect regions of change. Though these techniques are simple, often the application of these techniques is very limited. Recently, use of machine learning methods such as neural networks for change detection has been explored with great success. In this work, we explore the use of ensemble learning methodologies for detecting changes in bitemporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Ensemble learning uses a collection of weak machine learning classifiers to create a stronger classifier which has higher accuracy than the individual classifiers in the ensemble. The strength of the ensemble lies in the fact that the individual classifiers in the ensemble create a mixture of experts in which the final classification made by the ensemble classifier is calculated from the outputs of the individual classifiers. Our methodology leverages this aspect of ensemble learning by training collections of weak decision tree based classifiers to identify regions of change in SAR images collected of a region in the Staten Island, New York area during Hurricane Sandy. Preliminary studies show that the ensemble method has approximately 11.5% higher change detection accuracy than an individual classifier.

  2. Global climate change and international security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, M.

    1991-01-01

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  3. Projected Changes in Mean and Interannual Variability of Surface Water over Continental China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Guoyong; Tang, Qiuhong; Huang, Maoyi; Hong, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-05-01

    Five General Circulation Model (GCM) climate projections under the RCP8.5 emission scenario were used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to investigate the impacts of climate change on hydrologic cycle over continental China in the 21st century. The bias-corrected climatic variables were generated for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5) by the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). Results showed much larger fractional changes of annual mean Evaportranspiration (ET) per unit warming than the corresponding fractional changes of Precipitation (P) per unit warming across the country especially for South China, which led to notable decrease of surface water variability (P-E). Specifically, negative trends for annual mean runoff up to -0.33%/decade and soil moisture trends varying between -0.02 to -0.13%/decade were found for most river basins across China. Coincidentally, interannual variability for both runoff and soil moisture exhibited significant positive trends for almost all river basins across China, implying an increase in extremes relative to the mean conditions. Noticeably, the largest positive trends for runoff variability and soil moisture variability, which were up to 38 0.41%/decade and 0.90%/decade, both occurred in Southwest China. In addition to the regional contrast, intra-seasonal variation was also large for the runoff mean and runoff variability changes, but small for the soil moisture mean and variability changes. Our results suggest that future climate change could further exacerbate existing water-related risks (e.g. floods and droughts) across China as indicated by the marked decrease of surface water amounts combined with steady increase of interannual variability throughout the 21st century. This study highlights the regional contrast and intra-seasonal variations for the projected hydrologic changes and could provide muti

  4. Agriculture and Climate Change in Global Scenarios: Why Don't the Models Agree

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Gerald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Calvin, Katherine V.; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; Mueller, C.; Reilly, J. M.; Robertson, Richard; Sands, Ronald; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is unique among economic sectors in the nature of impacts from climate change. The production activity that transforms inputs into agricultural outputs makes direct use of weather inputs. Previous studies of the impacts of climate change on agriculture have reported substantial differences in outcomes of key variables such as prices, production, and trade. These divergent outcomes arise from differences in model inputs and model specification. The goal of this paper is to review climate change results and underlying determinants from a model comparison exercise with 10 of the leading global economic models that include significant representation of agriculture. By providing common productivity drivers that include climate change effects, differences in model outcomes are reduced. All models show higher prices in 2050 because of negative productivity shocks from climate change. The magnitude of the price increases, and the adaptation responses, differ significantly across the various models. Substantial differences exist in the structural parameters affecting demand, area, and yield, and should be a topic for future research.

  5. International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments: Conference summary and statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments was held in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, from May 22--25, 1995. Sponsored by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the US Country Studies Program, and the directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands Government, it was the first international conference focusing exclusively on adaptation to climate change. More than 100 people from 29 countries on five continents participated. The conference primarily addressed measures to anticipate the potential effects of climate change to minimize negative effects and take advantage of any positive effects. The focus was on what governments, institutions, and individuals can do to prepare for climate change. The conference dealt with two major topics: What adaptation options are most effective and efficient in anticipating climate change and what methods should be used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation options. Brief summaries are given from the following sessions on agriculture; Water resources; coastal resources; ecosystems and forests; fisheries; human settlements; water and agriculture; and the panel session on international adaptation in national communications and other development plans and needs for technical assistance.

  6. CALCULATING ENERGY STORAGE DUE TO TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGION NOAA AR 11112

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana

    2012-04-10

    The minimum current corona model provides a way to estimate stored coronal energy using the number of field lines connecting regions of positive and negative photospheric flux. This information is quantified by the net flux connecting pairs of opposing regions in a connectivity matrix. Changes in the coronal magnetic field, due to processes such as magnetic reconnection, manifest themselves as changes in the connectivity matrix. However, the connectivity matrix will also change when flux sources emerge or submerge through the photosphere, as often happens in active regions. We have developed an algorithm to estimate the changes in flux due to emergence and submergence of magnetic flux sources. These estimated changes must be accounted for in order to quantify storage and release of magnetic energy in the corona. To perform this calculation over extended periods of time, we must additionally have a consistently labeled connectivity matrix over the entire observational time span. We have therefore developed an automated tracking algorithm to generate a consistent connectivity matrix as the photospheric source regions evolve over time. We have applied this method to NOAA Active Region 11112, which underwent a GOES M2.9 class flare around 19:00 on 2010 October 16th, and calculated a lower bound on the free magnetic energy buildup of {approx}8.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg over 3 days.

  7. Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Principles for Fostering Sustainability Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability The following eight principles serve as the foundational building blocks for developing strategies to achieve institutional change-but they are not the strategies themselves. They are derived from academic literature and inform the framework for achieving institutional change in a federal organization. Each statement is followed by a general strategy for how the principle can be

  8. Mars Rover finds changing rocks, surprising scientists

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mars Rover finds changing rocks, surprising scientists Mars Rover finds changing rocks, surprising scientists As NASA's Curiosity rover treks up a three-mile-high mountain on Mars, the rocks are changing. Back on Earth, scientists analyzing the data realized this was something different: It turned out to be the first of the high-silica rocks. December 24, 2015 Mars landscape This color-adjusted composite of images taken by NASA's Curiosity rover in September shows the lower portion of Mount

  9. Global change research: Science and policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  10. Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic

  11. Conceptual Design, Implementation and Commissioning of Data Acquisition and Control System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soni, Jignesh; Gahlaut, A.; Bansal, G.; Parmar, K. G.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.; Yadav, Ratnakar; Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-09-26

    Negative ion Experimental facility has been setup at IPR. The facility consists of a RF based negative ion source (ROBIN)--procured under a license agreement with IPP Garching, as a replica of BATMAN, presently operating in IPP, 100 kW 1 MHz RF generators and a set of low and high voltage power supplies, vacuum system and diagnostics. 35 keV 10A H- beam is expected from this setup. Automated successful operation of the system requires an advanced, rugged, time proven and flexible control system. Further the data generated in the experimental phase needs to be acquired, monitored and analyzed to verify and judge the system performance. In the present test bed, this is done using a combination of PLC based control system and a PXI based data acquisition system. The control system consists of three different Siemens PLC systems viz. (1) S-7 400 PLC as a Master Control, (2) S-7 300 PLC for Vacuum system control and (3) C-7 PLC for RF generator control. Master control PLC directly controls all the subsystems except the Vacuum system and RF generator. The Vacuum system and RF generator have their own dedicated PLCs (S-7 300 and C-7 respectively). Further, these two PLC systems work as a slave for the Master control PLC system. Communication between PLC S-7 400, S-7 300 and central control room computer is done through Industrial Ethernet (IE). Control program and GUI are developed in Siemens Step-7 PLC programming software and Wincc SCADA software, respectively. There are approximately 150 analog and 200 digital control and monitoring signals required to perform complete closed loop control of the system. Since the source floats at high potential ({approx}35 kV); a combination of galvanic and fiber optic isolation has been implemented. PXI based Data Acquisition system (DAS) is a combination of PXI RT (Real time) system, front end signal conditioning electronics, host system and DAQ program. All the acquisition signals coming from various sub-systems are connected and

  12. Determinants of residential electricity consumption: Using smart meter data to examine the effect of climate, building characteristics, appliance stock, and occupants' behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavousian, A; Rajagopal, R; Fischer, M

    2013-06-15

    We propose a method to examine structural and behavioral determinants of residential electricity consumption, by developing separate models for daily maximum (peak) and minimum (idle) consumption. We apply our method on a data set of 1628 households' electricity consumption. The results show that weather, location and floor area are among the most important determinants of residential electricity consumption. In addition to these variables, number of refrigerators and entertainment devices (e.g., VCRs) are among the most important determinants of daily minimum consumption, while number of occupants and high-consumption appliances such as electric water heaters are the most significant determinants of daily maximum consumption. Installing double-pane windows and energy-efficient lights helped to reduce consumption, as did the energy-conscious use of electric heater. Acknowledging climate change as a motivation to save energy showed correlation with lower electricity consumption. Households with individuals over 55 or between 19 and 35 years old recorded lower electricity consumption, while pet owners showed higher consumption. Contrary to some previous studies, we observed no significant correlation between electricity consumption and income level, home ownership, or building age. Some otherwise energy-efficient features such as energy-efficient appliances, programmable thermostats, and insulation were correlated with slight increase in electricity consumption. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  14. ARPA-E | Changing What's Possible

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    logo Changing What's Possible Apply for Funding ARPA-E Announces New Funding Opportunities ARPA-E has announced funding opportunities for the Integration and Optimization of Novel ...

  15. Electronic Structure Changes in Supercapacitor Electrodes Observed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The evolution in electronic structure reflects changes in the surface chemistry and morphology induced by polarization of the electrode-electrolyte interface and points to...

  16. ,"Pennsylvania Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  17. ,"Nebraska Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  18. ,"Michigan Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  19. ,"Kentucky Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  20. ,"Wyoming Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  1. ,"Arkansas Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  2. ,"Alabama Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  3. ,"Miscellaneous Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  4. ,"California Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  5. ,"Mississippi Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  6. ,"Colorado Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  7. ,"Louisiana Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  8. ,"Montana Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  9. ,"Oklahoma Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  10. ,"Florida Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  11. C Change Investments LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investments LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: C Change Investments, LLC Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Zip: 2142 Product: Massachusetts-based investment company with a...

  12. Climate Change: Science and Policy Robert...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Entering the Cauldron of Climate Change: Science and Policy Robert Rosner University of ... of the American Physical Society "climate statement" - I chaired the Panel on ...

  13. Climate Perspectives: Change in the Terrestrial Arctic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perspectives: Change in the Terrestrial Arctic Climate Perspectives An interactive exploration of Arctic climate science through prisms of the visual arts, literary arts, info-vis, ...

  14. Institutional Change Principles for Fostering Sustainability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Social Empowerment: Institutions and people who feel they can reach desirable social goals often do, so involve people in program design and processes. Continuous Change: ...

  15. Change Control Management Guide - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20, Change Control Management Guide by Ruben Sanchez Functional areas: Program Management, Project Management The Guide provides a suggested approach and uniform guidance for...

  16. Measure and Evaluate Institutional Change for Sustainability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The measure and evaluation step is crucial to ensure that institutional change efforts produce successful results in meeting sustainability goals. To measure success, an evaluation is needed.

  17. ARM07Chang_poster.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrievals and Comparisons of Various MODIS-Spectrum Inferred Water Cloud Droplet Effective Radii Fu-Lung Chang @ , Patrick Minnis , Bing Lin , Sunny Sun-Mack & , Mandana ...

  18. Federal / State Legislative & Regulatory Changes Required for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ethanol blends Federal State Legislative & Regulatory Changes Required for Introduction of E15 (2.81 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol ...

  19. Clarence L. Chang | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clarence L. Chang Assistant Physicist Telephone (630) 252-1118 E-mail clchang@kicp.uchicago.edu Projects Cosmic Microwave Background

  20. US Energy Sector Vulnerabilities to Climate Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photo credits: iStockphoto U.S. ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND ... and International Affairs (DOE-PI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). ...