National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for negative daily imbalances

  1. Operating a redox flow battery with a negative electrolyte imbalance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Quoc; Chang, On; Durairaj, Sumitha

    2015-03-31

    Loss of flow battery electrode catalyst layers during self-discharge or charge reversal may be prevented by establishing and maintaining a negative electrolyte imbalance during at least parts of a flow battery's operation. Negative imbalance may be established and/or maintained actively, passively or both. Actively establishing a negative imbalance may involve detecting an imbalance that is less negative than a desired threshold, and processing one or both electrolytes until the imbalance reaches a desired negative level. Negative imbalance may be effectively established and maintained passively within a cell by constructing a cell with a negative electrode chamber that is larger than the cell's positive electrode chamber, thereby providing a larger quantity of negative electrolyte for reaction with positive electrolyte.

  2. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Energy Imbalance Markets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Imbalance Markets The anticipated growth of variable renewable generation, such as solar and wind power, in the West has raised concerns about how system operators will maintain balance between electricity production and demand in the Western Interconnection-and especially in its smaller balancing authority areas. This concern helped motivate a proposal to develop an energy imbalance market. An energy imbalance market aggregates the variability of electricity generation and load for

  3. Energy Imbalance Markets (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    The anticipated increase in variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar power, over the next several years has raised concerns about how system operators will maintain balance between electricity production and demand in the Western Interconnection, especially in its smaller balancing authority areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. Meanwhile, uncertainties about future load growth and challenges siting new transmission and generation resources may add additional stresses on the Western Interconnection of the future. One proposed method of addressing these challenges is an energy imbalance market (EIM). An EIM is a means of supplying and dispatching electricity to balance fluctuations in generation and load. It aggregates the variability of generation and load over multiple balancing areas (BAs).

  4. Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis of Rotor Imbalance and Shear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensitivity Analysis of Rotor Imbalance and Shear Web Disbond Detection Strategies for ... the maturity of rotor imbalance and shear web disbond detection strategies developed in ...

  5. ARM - Daily Report Archive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daily Report Archive Related Links TWP-ICE Home Tropical Western Pacific Home ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Post-Experiment Data Sets Weather Summary (pdf, 6M) New York Workshop Presentations Experiment Planning TWP-ICE Proposal Abstract Detailed Experiment Description Science Plan (pdf, 1M) Operations Plan (pdf, 321K) Maps Contact Info Related Links Daily Report Report Archives Press Media Coverage TWP-ICE Fact Sheet (pdf, 211K) Press Releases TWP-ICE Images ARM flickr site <=""

  6. Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

  7. Backstage at the Daily Show

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Backstage footage from Secretary Chu's appearance on the Daily Show where he discuses the green room candy dish and possible lighting considerations.

  8. BPA Daily Notice (pbl/products)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Products > Products Daily Notice (surplus power) Transmission Losses Power Products Catalog Wind Smoothing and Intertie Service (Pilot) Firstgov BPA'S DAILY NOTICE Daily Notice...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    a 25 percent tolerance for negative daily imbalances. The restraint means that shippers must stay within the set percentage of daily scheduled volumes. Short-Term Energy Outlook...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wednesday, August 23, with a 25 percent tolerance for negative daily imbalances. The restraint means that shippers must stay within the set percentage of daily scheduled volumes....

  11. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

  12. Using Electric Vehicles to Mitigate Imbalance Requirements Associated with an Increased Penetration of Wind Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-10-10

    The integration of variable renewable generation sources continues to be a significant area of focus for power system planning. Renewable portfolio standards and initiatives to reduce the dependency on foreign energy sources drive much of the deployment. Unfortunately, renewable energy generation sources like wind and solar tend to be highly variable in nature. To counter the energy imbalance caused by this variability, wind generation often requires additional balancing resources to compensate for the variability in the electricity production. With the expected electrification of transportation, electric vehicles may offer a new load resource for meeting all, or part, of the imbalance created by the renewable generation. This paper investigates a regulation-services-based battery charging method on a population of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to meet the power imbalance requirements associated with the introduction of 11 GW of additional wind generation into the Northwest Power Pool. It quantifies the number of vehicles required to meet the imbalance requirements under various charging assumptions.

  13. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  14. Energy Assurance Daily | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Assurance Daily Energy Assurance Daily Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems, flows, and markets, it provides highlights of energy issues rather than a comprehensive coverage. Energy Assurance Daily covers: Major energy developments Electricity, petroleum, and natural gas industries Other relevant news Energy prices The Infrastructure

  15. Negative ion generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  16. Negative ion generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, Regan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  17. ARM - General Changes in Daily Lives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListGeneral Changes in Daily Lives Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans General Changes in Daily Lives Changes in our daily lives mainly depend on where we live and work. Building styles, working conditions, use of water, energy resources, crops, and leisure activities will need

  18. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): June 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  19. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): January- March 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  20. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): May 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  1. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): July 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  2. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): April 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  3. Negative electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Western Springs, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  4. Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Authority Areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive loads has resulted in a proposal for an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM). This paper extends prior work to estimate the reserve requirements for regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves with and without the EIM. We also discuss alternative approaches to allocating reserve requirements and show that some apparently attractive allocation methods have undesired consequences.

  5. Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Jump to: navigation, search Name: Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Address: 1991 Crocker Road, Suite 600 Place: Cleveland, Ohio Zip: 44145...

  6. Property:DailyOpWaterUseConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name DailyOpWaterUseConsumed Property Type Number Description Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  7. Property:DailyOpWaterUseGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name DailyOpWaterUseGross Property Type Number Description Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:...

  8. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  9. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  10. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  11. Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection J. King and B. Kirby Consultants M. Milligan National Renewable Energy Laboratory S. Beuning Xcel Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52330 October 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole

  12. Analysis of Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the NWPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samaan, Nader A.; Bayless, Rich; Symonds, Mark; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian; Wu, Di; Diao, Ruisheng; Makarov, Yuri V.; Kannberg, Landis D.; Guo, Tao; Dennison-Leonard , Sarah; Goodenough, Mike; Schellberg, Ron; Conger, Sid; Harris, Kevin; Rarity, Matt; Wallace, Steven; Austin, Jamie; Noteboom, Rod; Van Blaricom , Tim; McRunnel, Kim; Apperson, John; Empey, Marshall; Etingov, Pavel V.; Warady, Debra; Brush, Ray; Newkirk, Joshua; Williams, Peter; Landauer, Marv; Owen, Hugh; Morter, Wayne; Haraguchi, Keli; Portouw, Jim; Downey, kathryn; Sorey, Steve; Williams, Stan; Gossa, Teyent; Kalich, Clint; Damiano, Patrick; Macarthur, Clay; Martin, Tom; Hoerner, Joe; Knudsen, Steve; Johnson, Anders; Link, Rick; Holcomb, Dennis

    2013-10-18

    The Northwest Power Pool (NWPP) Market Assessment Committee (MC) Initiative, which was officially launched on March 19, 2012, set out to explore a range of alternatives that could help the Balancing Authorities and scheduling utilities in the NWPP area address growing operational and commercial challenges affecting the regional power system. The MC formed an Analytical Team with technical representatives from each of the member Balancing Areas in the NWPP and with staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This Analytical Team was instructed to conduct extensive studies of intra-hour operation of the NWPP system in the year 2020 and of the NWPP region with 14,671 MW of wind penetration. The effort utilized a sub-hourly production cost model (the PLEXOS® computer model) that inputs data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)-wide Production Cost Model (PCM) to evaluate potential production cost savings. The Analytical Team was given two general options to evaluate: •Energy Imbalance Market (EIM): establishment of an automated, organized NWPP area market for economically supplying energy imbalance within the hour. •Enhanced Market-Operational Tools (EMT) that might augment or replace an EIM. The Analytical The Analytical Team built on the WECC-wide PCM data from prior work done in the WECC and carried forward the evolution of the original WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) 2020 PC0 data base. A large number of modifications and improvements were made to this case and the data were subjected to extensive review by the team members to improve the model representation of the Northwest (NW). MC meetings that were open to the public were held for interested parties to review and provide input to the study. Results for the test, base, and sensitivity case studies performed by the MC Initiative Analytical Team indicate that there are a wide range of benefits that could be obtained from the operation of an EIM in the NWPP depending on what assumptions are made. The instructions from the MC were to determine a "minimum high confidence" range of potential benefits. The results for the Base Case indicate that the EIM benefits ranged from approximately $40 million to $70 million in annual savings from the operation of an EIM in the NWPP footprint. A number of additional relevant sensitivity cases were performed, including low and high water conditions, low and high natural gas prices, and various flex reserve requirements, resource operations, and amounts of resource capability held back during the preschedule period. Along with the results for the Base Case, the results for these studies yielded EIM benefits that clustered within the range of $70 to $80 million dollars per year with potential benefits ranging from approximately $125 million to as little as $17 million per year. Because the design and operation of an EIM could enable participating Balancing Authorities (BAs) to collectively lower the quantity of resources they must carry to meet within-hour balancing needs, a sensitivity case was also performed to analyze the impact that such reductions might have on the benefits from an EIM. The results for this sensitivity case indicate that such reductions could increase the benefits from the operation of an EIM in the NWPP into the range of approximately $130 million to $160 million per year. Also, a sensitivity case for a WECC-wide EIM was performed with the results indicating that the potential benefits to the NWPP could increase into the range of $197 million to $233 million per year. While there may be potential reliability benefits from the coordinated dispatch process underlying the operation of an EIM, reliability benefits from an EIM were out of the scope of this study. The EIM benefit analyses that were performed by the Analytical Team are provided in this report.

  13. TWP-ICE Daily Synoptic Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daily Synoptic Overview 16 January - 14 February 2006 Lori Chappel Bureau of Meteorology Weather Overview * 13 January - 2 February 2006 Monsoon across north Australia; - 13-25 January - active "wet" monsoon; - 26 Jan - 2 Feb - "dry" monsoon over Top End; * 3 -13 February - Break period, inland heat trough across north Australia 13 January - 2 February 2006 Monsoon across north Australia * 16-19 Jan - westerly monsoon flow; * 19-24 Jan - TC Daryl forms off WA coast and moves

  14. Daily Flight Planning and Operations Schedule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daily Flight Planning and Operations Schedule The following flight planning and operations activities will be carried out for each flight of the G-1 and King Air aircraft. These activities are listed separately from preparation of scientific instruments, for which a similar schedule is being developed. Day prior to flight 4PM - Weather briefing. Forecast to focus on o cloud formation: yes/no o Timing for convection to start: before or after 12PM CDT o Degree of convection: shallow or deep o

  15. Improved negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  16. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  17. Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hanford Meteorological Station Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Hanford Meteorological Station Real Time Met Data from Around the Site Current and Past 48 Hours HMS Observations Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Met and Climate Data Summary Products Contacts / Hours Current NWS Forecast for the Tri-Cities NWS Windchill Chart Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size This table shows the daily extremes at each of the remote stations

  18. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  19. Electronic inhomogeneity and Ag:Sb imbalance of Ag1-yPb18Sb1+zTe20

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-performance thermoelectrics elucidated by 125Te and 207Pb NMR | Energy Frontier Research Centers Electronic inhomogeneity and Ag:Sb imbalance of Ag1-yPb18Sb1+zTe20 high-performance thermoelectrics elucidated by 125Te and 207Pb NMR Home Author: E.M. Levin, B.A. Cook, K. Ahn, M.G. Kanatzidis, K. Schmidt-Rohr Year: 2009 Abstract: Using magic-angle spinning 125Te and 207Pb NMR, we have discovered the presence of two phases of approximately tenfold different free-electron concentration, n,

  20. Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.

  1. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  2. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA); Hiskes, John R. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  3. Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wiki Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki Abstract Provides information on...

  4. New director of Jefferson Lab named (Daily Press) | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsarticlesnew-director-jefferson-lab-named-daily-press New director of Jefferson Lab named Hugh Montgomery Hugh Montgomery has been named president of...

  5. Operating Reserve Implication of Alternative Implementations of an Energy Imbalance Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-07-01

    During the past few years, there has been significant interest in alternative ways to manage power systems over a larger effective electrical footprint. Large regional transmission organizations in the Eastern Interconnection have effectively consolidated balancing areas, achieving significant economies of scale that result in a reduction in required reserves. Conversely, in the Western Interconnection there are many balancing areas, which will result in challenges if there is significant wind and solar energy development in the region. A recent proposal to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council suggests a regional energy imbalance service (EIS). To evaluate this EIS, a number of analyses are in process or are planned. This paper describes one part of an analysis of the EIS's implication on operating reserves under several alternative scenarios of the market footprint and participation. We improve on the operating reserves method utilized in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study and apply this modified approach to data from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study.

  6. Their best defense is good fiscal sense (Daily Press) | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsarticlestheir-best-defense-good-fiscal-sense-daily-press Their best defense is good fiscal sense Top Guard Security finds it can be a good idea to say,...

  7. Jeff Lab director plans retirement (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    articles/jeff-lab-director-plans-retirement-daily-press Jeff Lab director plans retirement Christoph Leemann, who has managed the federal site since 2001, will work until his successor is announced. By PLYNCH, Daily Press March 16, 2007 NEWPORT NEWS -- The director of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is stepping down as head of the advanced research center on Jefferson Avenue. Christoph Leemann, who has been at the helm at what's commonly called Jefferson Lab for more than six

  8. Invisible Science: Lab Breakthroughs in Our Daily Lives | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Invisible Science: Lab Breakthroughs in Our Daily Lives Invisible Science: Lab Breakthroughs in Our Daily Lives April 24, 2012 - 2:30pm Addthis The Lab Breakthroughs video series focuses on the array of technological advancements and discoveries that stem from research performed in the National Labs, including improvements in industrial processes, discoveries in fundamental scientific research, and innovative medicines. <a href="http://energy.gov/lab-breakthroughs">See

  9. Spectroscopic Evidence for Negative Electronic Compressibility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopic Evidence for Negative Electronic Compressibility in a Quasi-three-dimensional Spin-orbit Correlated Metal Tuesday, June 30, 2015 Negative compressibility is a sign of...

  10. Energy Imbalance Market Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in CAISO Market Jim Price, Senior Advisor, Market Development & Analysis California ISO CAISO Public Market minimizes bid costs, while accounting for multiple transmission...

  11. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bobbett, Ronald E. (Los Alamos, NM); McCormick, J. Byron (Los Alamos, NM); Kerwin, William J. (Tucson, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  12. French Ambassador Pierre Vimont tours JLab (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    french-ambassador-pierre-vimont-tours-jlab-daily-press 'We want to be friend to U.S.' By Samieh Shalash, Daily Press February 29, 2008 The French ambassador to the United States says "France is back." The French Ambassador to the United States, Pierre Vimont, spoke to about 250 people Thursday night about the political relationship between the two countries. "We want to be a true friend, a loyal and serious partner to the U.S," he said. Differences will occur, Vimont quickly

  13. GOVERNOR INVESTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    governor-invests-higher-education-daily-press GOVERNOR KAINE ANNOUNCES INVESTMENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION By SHAWN DAY, Daily Press December 14, 2007 Local colleges and universities are set to receive tens of millions of dollars for new campus buildings and renovations of others as part of a proposed $1.65 billion bond package for higher education announced Thursday by Gov. Timothy M. Kaine. In addition to the bond package, Kaine proposed $9.1 million for student financial aid over the next two

  14. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  15. Negative Ion Source - Facilities - Cyclotron Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Negative Ion Source Negative Ion Source. The Multi-Cusp Negative Ion Source was installed on the K150 Cyclotron in 2010. H- and D- ions are produced in the plasma chamber with a hot tantalum filament. The source is capable of producing milliamperes of ions and is used for experiments needing high intensity proton and deuteron beams.

  16. Electrochemical cell and negative electrode therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with the positive and negative electrodes separated by a molten salt electrolyte with the negative electrode comprising a particulate mixture of lithium-aluminum alloy and electrolyte and an additive selected from graphitized carbon, Raney iron or mixtures thereof. The lithium-aluminum alloy is present in the range of from about 45 to about 80 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is present in an amount not less than about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode. The additive of graphitized carbon is present in the range of from about 1 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode, and the Raney iron additive is present in the range of from about 3 to about 10 percent by volume of the negative electrode.

  17. Effect of defect imbalance on void swelling distributions produced in pure iron irradiated with 3.5 MeV self-ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Lin; Wei, C. -C.; Gigax, J.; Aitkaliyeva, A.; Chen, D.; Sencer, B. H.; Garner, F. A.

    2014-06-10

    Ion irradiation has been widely used to simulate radiation damage induced by neutrons. However, there are a number of features of ion-induced damage that differ from neutron-induced damage, and these differences require investigation before behavior arising from neutron bombardment can be confidently predicted from ion data. In this study 3.5 MeV self-ion irradiation of pure iron was used to study the influence on void swelling of the depth-dependent defect imbalance between vacancies and interstitials that arises from various surface effects, forward scattering of displaced atoms, and especially the injected interstitial effect. The depth dependence of void swelling was observed not to follow the behavior anticipated from the depth dependence of the damage rate. Void nucleation and growth develop first in the lower-dose, near-surface region, and then, during continued irradiation, move to progressively deeper and higher-damage depths. This indicates a strong initial suppression of void nucleation in the peak damage region that continued irradiation eventually overcomes. This phenomenon is shown by the Boltzmann transport equation method to be due to depth-dependent defect imbalances created under ion irradiation. These findings thus demonstrate that void swelling does not depend solely on the local dose level and that this sensitivity of swelling to depth must be considered in extracting and interpreting ion-induced swelling data.

  18. Effect of defect imbalance on void swelling distributions produced in pure iron irradiated with 3.5 MeV self-ions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Wei, C. -C.; Gigax, J.; Aitkaliyeva, A.; Chen, D.; Sencer, B. H.; Garner, F. A.

    2014-06-10

    Ion irradiation has been widely used to simulate radiation damage induced by neutrons. However, there are a number of features of ion-induced damage that differ from neutron-induced damage, and these differences require investigation before behavior arising from neutron bombardment can be confidently predicted from ion data. In this study 3.5 MeV self-ion irradiation of pure iron was used to study the influence on void swelling of the depth-dependent defect imbalance between vacancies and interstitials that arises from various surface effects, forward scattering of displaced atoms, and especially the injected interstitial effect. The depth dependence of void swelling was observed notmore » to follow the behavior anticipated from the depth dependence of the damage rate. Void nucleation and growth develop first in the lower-dose, near-surface region, and then, during continued irradiation, move to progressively deeper and higher-damage depths. This indicates a strong initial suppression of void nucleation in the peak damage region that continued irradiation eventually overcomes. This phenomenon is shown by the Boltzmann transport equation method to be due to depth-dependent defect imbalances created under ion irradiation. These findings thus demonstrate that void swelling does not depend solely on the local dose level and that this sensitivity of swelling to depth must be considered in extracting and interpreting ion-induced swelling data.« less

  19. Effect of defect imbalance on void swelling distributions produced in pure iron irradiated with 3.5 MeV self-ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin Shao; C.-C. Wei; J. Gigax; A. Aitkaliyeva; D. Chen; B.H. Sencer; F.A. Garner

    2014-10-01

    Ion irradiation has been widely used to simulate neutron-induced radiation damage. There are a number of features of ion-induced damage that differ from neutron-induced damage, however, and these differences require investigation before ion data can be confidently used to predict behavior arising from neutron bombardment. In this study 3.5 MeV self-ion irradiation of pure iron was used to study the influence on void swelling of the depth-dependent defect imbalance between vacancies and interstitials that arises from various surface effects, forward scattering of displaced atoms, and especially the injected interstitial effect. It was observed that the depth dependence of void swelling does not follow the behavior anticipated from the depth dependence of the damage rate. Void nucleation and growth develop first in the lower-dose, near-surface region, and then moves to progressively deeper and higher-damage depths during continued irradiation. This indicates a strong initial suppression of void nucleation in the peak damage region that is eventually overcome with continued irradiation. Using the Boltzmann transport equation method, this phenomenon is shown to be due to depth-dependent defect imbalances created under ion irradiation. These findings demonstrate that void swelling does not depend solely on the local dose level and that this sensitivity of swelling to depth must be considered in extraction and interpretation of ion-induced swelling data. 2014 El

  20. Effect of defect imbalance on void swelling distributions produced in pure iron irradiated with 3.5MeV self-ions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Wei, C. -C.; Gigax, J.; Aitkaliyeva, A.; Chen, D.; Sencer, B. H.; Garner, F. A.

    2014-06-10

    Ion irradiation has been widely used to simulate neutron-induced radiation damage. There are a number of features of ion-induced damage that differ from neutron-induced damage, however, and these differences require investigation before ion data can be confidently used to predict behavior arising from neutron bombardment. In this study 3.5 MeV self-ion irradiation of pure iron was used to study the influence on void swelling of the depth-dependent defect imbalance between vacancies and interstitials that arises from various surface effects, forward scattering of displaced atoms, and especially the injected interstitial effect. It was observed that the depth dependence of void swellingmoredoes not follow the behavior anticipated from the depth dependence of the damage rate. Void nucleation and growth develop first in the lower-dose, near-surface region, and then moves to progressively deeper and higher-damage depths during continued irradiation. This indicates a strong initial suppression of void nucleation in the peak damage region that is eventually overcome with continued irradiation. Using the Boltzmann transport equation method, this phenomenon is shown to be due to depth-dependent defect imbalances created under ion irradiation. As a result, these findings demonstrate that void swelling does not depend solely on the local dose level and that this sensitivity of swelling to depth must be considered in extraction and interpretation of ion-induced swelling data.less

  1. Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A.; Vose, R.S.; Steurer, P.M.

    1993-11-01

    On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station daily data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) daily precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.

  2. EIA-930 Hourly and Daily Balancing Authority Operations Reports - Instructions Page

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    930 Hourly and Daily Balancing Authority Operations Reports - Instructions Page 1 of 3 You must have an EIA Data xChange account to use these instructions HOURLY AND DAILY BALANCING AUTHORITY OPERATIONS REPORT DATA XCHANGE TRANSMITTAL INSTRUCTIONS EIA-930 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

  3. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2 Title: ... The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic ...

  4. Negative electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John T.; Fransson, Linda M.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2005-02-15

    A negative electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell. The electrode has an intermetallic compound as its basic structural unit with the formula M.sub.2 M' in which M and M' are selected from two or more metal elements including Si, and the M.sub.2 M' structure is a Cu.sub.2 Sb-type structure. Preferably M is Cu, Mn and/or Li, and M' is Sb. Also disclosed is a non-aqueous electrochemical cell having a negative electrode of the type described, an electrolyte and a positive electrode. A plurality of cells may be arranged to form a battery.

  5. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coco, Isabelle (Talence Cedex, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Villenave, Jean-Jacques (Talence Cedex, FR)

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  6. McGinness Hills Well 27A-10 Daily Drilling Report Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudsen, Steven

    2014-03-25

    This data should be used with the daily drilling record and other data which can be obtained from the contact listed below

  7. Fact #917: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy 917: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry Fact #917: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week Results of the 2015 Work Truck Electrification and Idle Management Study showed the daily idle time for work truck fleets. Daily idle times by industry show that the truck fleets in the utility/telecommunications industry had the longest idle times. Thirty-nine percent of respondents indicated that their fleets

  8. McGinness Hills Well 27A-10 Daily Drilling Report Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Knudsen, Steven

    This data should be used with the daily drilling record and other data which can be obtained from the contact listed below

  9. EIA - Daily Report 9/12/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of daily Gulf of Mexico natural gas production (which is 10 billion cubic feet per day). ... for getting supplies back to normal; (2) Slow Recovery, which assumes that ...

  10. EIA - Daily Report 9/7/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U.S...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of daily Gulf of Mexico natural gas production (which is 10 billion cubic feet per day). ... for getting supplies back to normal; (2) Slow Recovery, which assumes that ...

  11. Cesium injection system for negative ion duoplasmatrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Maasaki (Oho, JA); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY); Sluyters, Theodorus J (East Patchogue, NY)

    1978-01-01

    Longitudinally extending, foraminous cartridge means having a cylindrical side wall forming one flat, circular, tip end surface and an opposite end; an open-ended cavity, and uniformly spaced orifices for venting the cavity through the side wall in the annulus of a plasma ring for uniformly ejecting cesium for coating the flat, circular, surface. To this end, the cavity is filled with a cesium containing substance and attached to a heater in a hollow-discharge duoplasmatron. By coating the flat circular surface with a uniform monolayer of cesium and locating it in an electrical potential well at the end of a hollow-discharge, ion duoplasmatron source of an annular hydrogen plasma ring, the negative hydrogen production from the duoplasmatron is increased. The negative hydrogen is produced on the flat surface of the cartridge and extracted by the electrical potential well along a trajectory coaxial with the axis of the plasma ring.

  12. Structures with negative index of refraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soukoulis, Costas M. (Ames, IA); Zhou, Jiangfeng (Ames, IA); Koschny, Thomas (Ames, IA); Zhang, Lei (Ames, IA); Tuttle, Gary (Ames, IA)

    2011-11-08

    The invention provides simplified negative index materials (NIMs) using wire-pair structures, 4-gap single ring split-ring resonator (SRR), fishnet structures and overleaf capacitor SRR. In the wire-pair arrangement, a pair of short parallel wires and continuous wires are used. In the 4-gap single-ring SRR, the SRRs are centered on the faces of a cubic unit cell combined with a continuous wire type resonator. Combining both elements creates a frequency band where the metamaterial is transparent with simultaneously negative .di-elect cons. and .mu.. In the fishnet structure, a metallic mesh on both sides of the dielectric spacer is used. The overleaf capacitor SRR changes the gap capacities to small plate capacitors by making the sections of the SRR ring overlap at the gaps separated by a thin dielectric film. This technique is applicable to conventional SRR gaps but it best deploys for the 4-gap single-ring structures.

  13. Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

  14. California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks Describes system for fueling truck fleet with ...

  15. Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves by Periodic Resonator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves by Periodic Resonator Arrays Prev Next Title: Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves by Periodic Resonator Arrays Authors: Hu,...

  16. Sub-picosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Sub-picosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sub-picosecond optical switching with a negative...

  17. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavenago, M.; Minarello, A.; Sattin, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Laterza, B.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.; and others

    2015-04-08

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135?mA at ?60?kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2?MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  18. Negative hydrogen ion yields at plasma grid surface in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wada, M.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2015-04-08

    Negative hydrogen (H{sup ?}) ion yield from the plasma grid due to incident hydrogen ions and neutrals has been evaluated with the surface collision cascade model, ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) coupled to a negative surface ionization models. Dependence of negative ion fractions upon the velocity component normal to the surface largely affect the calculation results of the final energy and angular distributions of the H{sup ?} ions. The influence is particularly large for H{sup ?} ions desorbed from the surface due to less than several eV hydrogen particle implact. The present calculation predicts that H{sup ?} ion yield can be maximized by setting the incident angle of hydrogen ions and neutrals to be 65 degree. The Cs thickness on the plasma grid should also affect the yields and mean energies of surface produced H{sup ?} ions by back scattering and ion induced desorption processes.

  19. Fact #917: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry - Dataset

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy 7: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry - Dataset Fact #917: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry File fotw#917_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #916: March 14, 2016 Fuel Savings/Emissions Reduction was the Top Reason Cited by Truck Fleet Management for Adopting Idle Reduction Technologies - Dataset Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated

  20. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1984-02-13

    A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

  1. EIA - Daily Report 9/13/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to 37.20 percent of daily Gulf of Mexico natural gas production (which had been 10 ... for getting supplies back to normal; (2) Slow Recovery, which assumes that ...

  2. Science bowl puts students to the test (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bowl-puts-students-test-daily-press Science Bowl puts students to the test An Alexandria high school wins the competition at Jefferson Lab. Two Peninsula schools competed. By Samieh Shalash, Daily Press February 3, 2008 NEWPORT NEWS Students furiously scribbled data on note pads Saturday as they competed at the Virginia Regional High School Science Bowl. Six-time defending champions Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, of Alexandria, won for the seventh year in a row. They'll

  3. Jefferson Lab imager can detect beginnings of breast tumors (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab https://www.jlab.org/news/articles/jefferson-lab-imager-can-detect-beginnings-breast-tumors-daily-press Jefferson Lab imager can detect beginnings of breast tumors The new device is capable of seeing things a mammogram might miss. By Patrick Lynch, Daily Press February 2, 2008 NEWPORT NEWS - The scientists and engineers at Jefferson Lab's imaging and detector group continue to refine their abilities to detect the small beginnings of breast cancer tumors, and are hopeful for a

  4. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  5. Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Enhanced stability at a lower cost Lowers cost for enhanced stability capability. A new class of intermetallic material for the negative electrode that offers a significantly higher volumetric and gravimetric capacity and improves battery stability and safety. PDF icon negative_electrodes

  6. Dr. Chuck Ross gives final lecture of JLab Spring Science Series (Daily

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press) | Jefferson Lab https://www.jlab.org/news/articles/dr-chuck-ross-gives-final-lecture-jlab-spring-science-series-daily-press For Lee, acoustics were sound of defeat An authority on "acoustic shadows" discusses the impact of sound on the Civil War. By David Macaulay, Daily Press March 28, 2008 NEWPORT NEWS - It won't be music to the ears of traditionalists, but Civil War Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee might have owed some of his success - not to mention his demise - to

  7. EIA - Daily Report 9/14/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U.S. Oil &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Energy Markets Wednesday, September 14, 4:00 pm According to the Minerals Management Service (MMS), as of 11:30 September 14, Gulf of Mexico oil production was reduced by 843,725 barrels per day as a result of Hurricane Katrina, equivalent to 56.25 percent of daily Gulf of Mexico oil production (which had been 1.5 million barrels per day). The MMS also reported that 3.518 billion cubic feet per day of natural gas production was shut in, equivalent to 35.18 percent of daily Gulf

  8. EIA - Daily Report 9/15/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U.S. Oil &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Energy Markets Thursday, September 15, 3:00 pm According to the Minerals Management Service (MMS), as of 11:30 September 15, Gulf of Mexico oil production was reduced by 842,091 barrels per day as a result of Hurricane Katrina, equivalent to 56.14 percent of daily Gulf of Mexico oil production (which had been 1.5 million barrels per day). The MMS also reported that 3.411 billion cubic feet per day of natural gas production was shut in, equivalent to 34.11 percent of daily Gulf of

  9. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mt. Sinai, NY); Prelec, Krsto (Setauket, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  10. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  11. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis...

  12. Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Enhanced stability at a lower cost Lowers cost for enhanced stability...

  13. Heat diode effect and negative differential thermal conductance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heat diode effect and negative differential thermal conductance across nanoscale metal-dielectric interfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heat diode effect and...

  14. Production of negative hydrogen ions on metal grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, H.; Kawata, K.

    2015-03-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced on a nickel grid with positive-ion irradiation. In order to investigate the production mechanism, a copper grid without the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms and positive helium ions without negative ionization are used for comparison. Positive hydrogen ions reflected on the metal surface obtain two electrons from the surface and become negatively ionized. It is found that the production yield of negative ions by desorption ionization of chemisorbed hydrogen atoms seems to be small, and the production is a minor mechanism.

  15. Daily snow depth measurements from 195 stations in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, L.J.; Easterling, D.R.; Jamason, P.; Bowman, D.P.; Hughes, P.Y.; Mason, E.H.

    1997-02-01

    This document describes a database containing daily measurements of snow depth at 195 National Weather Service (NWS) first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data have been assembled and made available by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Delaware or Hawaii are included in the database. Station selection criteria emphasized the quality and length of station records while seeking to provide a network with good geographic coverage. Snow depth at the 388 locations was measured once per day on ground open to the sky. The daily snow depth is the total depth of the snow on the ground at measurement time. The time period covered by the database is 1893--1992; however, not all station records encompass the complete period. While a station record ideally should contain daily data for at least the seven winter months (January through April and October through December), not all stations have complete records. Each logical record in the snow depth database contains one station`s daily data values for a period of one month, including data source, measurement, and quality flags.

  16. Daily air pollution effects on children's respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedal, S.; Schenker, M.B.; Munoz, A.; Samet, J.M.; Batterman, S.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-06-01

    To identify acute respiratory health effects associated with air pollution due to coal combustion, a subgroup of elementary school-aged children was selected from a large cross-sectional study and followed daily for eight months. Children were selected to obtain three equal-sized groups: one without respiratory symptoms, one with symptoms of persistent wheeze, and one with cough or phlegm production but without persistent wheeze. Parents completed a daily diary of symptoms from which illness constellations of upper respiratory illness (URI) and lower respiratory illness (LRI) and the symptom of wheeze were derived. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured daily for nine consecutive weeks during the eight-month study period. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and coefficient of haze for each 24-hour period, as well as minimum hourly temperature, were correlated with daily URI, LRI, wheeze, and PEFR using multiple regression models adjusting for illness occurrence or level of PEFR on the immediately preceding day. Respiratory illness on the preceding day was the most important predictor of current illness. A drop in temperature was associated with increased URI and LRI but not with increased wheeze or with a decrease in level of PEFR. No air pollutant was strongly associated with respiratory illness or with level of PEFR, either in the group of children as a whole, or in either of the symptomatic subgroups; the pollutant concentrations observed, however, were uniformly lower than current ambient air quality standards.

  17. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- ions that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- ions to spin polarize the H.sup.- ions and produce first and second populations or groups of ions, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the ions in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- ions, without neutralizing the ions in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- ions each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of ions are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- ions away from the group of neutralized ions, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- ion beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.

  18. Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    While information exists on high energy negative particle channeling there has been little study of the challenges of negative particle bending and channeling collimation. Partly this is because negative dechanneling lengths are relatively much shorter. Electrons are not particularly useful for investigating negative particle channeling effects because their material interactions are dominated by channeling radiation. Another important factor is that the current central challenge in channeling collimation is the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where both beams are positive. On the other hand in the future the collimation question might reemerge for electon-positron or muon colliders. Dechanneling lengths increase at higher energies so that part of the negative particle experimental challenge diminishes. In the article different approaches to determining negative dechanneling lengths are reviewed. The more complicated case for axial channeling is also discussed. Muon channeling as a tool to investigate dechanneling is also discussed. While it is now possible to study muon channeling it will probably not illuminate the study of negative dechanneling.

  19. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pr0.6Er0.4Al2 (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2 Title: Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2 We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H =

  20. Noise reduction in negative-ion quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chastagner, P.

    1993-04-20

    A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system is described having an ion source, quadrupole mass filter, and ion collector/recorder system. A weak, transverse magnetic field and an electron collector are disposed between the quadrupole and ion collector. When operated in negative ion mode, the ion source produces a beam of primarily negatively-charged particles from a sample, including electrons as well as ions. The beam passes through the quadrupole and enters the magnetic field, where the electrons are deflected away from the beam path to the electron collector. The negative ions pass undeflected to the ion collector where they are detected and recorded as a mass spectrum.

  1. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...man-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing the negative human-health impacts of ...

  2. Sub-picosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Here we report 600 femtosecond (fs) all-optical modulation using a fIShnet (2D-perforated metallamorphous-Si (a-Si)metal film stack) negative-index meta material with a ...

  3. Structures with Negative Refractive Index for Applications in Optics and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanophotonics - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Structures with Negative Refractive Index for Applications in Optics and Nanophotonics Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed materials and structures with a negative refractive index that potentially open new frontiers in

  4. Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es070_cabana_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries

  5. Sub-picosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Sub-picosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sub-picosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial Development of all-optical signal processing, eliminating the performance and cost penalties of optical-electrical-optical conversion, is important for continu,ing advances in Terabits/sec (Tb/s) communications.' Optical

  6. California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks Describes system for fueling truck fleet with biomethane generated from anaerobic digestion of organic waste it collects PDF icon p-10_edgar.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles Technical Workshop: Annual Merit Review Lessons Learned on Alternative Transportation Refueling

  7. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

    1985-03-04

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  8. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  9. Device for translating negative film image to a line scan

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, G.W.

    1998-05-19

    A negative film reader records high-resolution optical density changes across negative film radiographic images to allow precise image dimensions to be determined. A laser light source capable of high-resolution focusing is passed through an intensity control filter, focused by a lens, and reflected off a mirror to focus in the plane of the negative film. The light transmitted through the film is collected by a second lens and directed to a photo diode detector which senses the transmitted intensity. The output of the photo diode signal amplifier is sent to the Y-axis input of an X-Y recorder. The film sample is transported in a plane perpendicular to the beam axis by means of a slide. The film position is monitored, with the signal amplified and recorded as the X-axis on the X-Y recorder. The linear dimensions and positions of image components can be determined by direct measurement of the amplified recording.

  10. Evaluation of negative ion distribution changes by image processing diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, K. Nakano, H.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Distributions of hydrogen Balmer-α (H{sub α}) intensity and its reduction behavior close to a plasma grid (PG) surface have been observed by a spectrally selective imaging system in an arc discharge type negative hydrogen ion source in National Institute for Fusion Science. H{sub α} reduction indicates a reduction of negative hydrogen ions because the mutual neutralization process between H{sup +} and H{sup −} ions causes the dominant excitation process for H{sub α} emission in the rich H{sup −} condition such as in ionic plasma. We observed a significant change in H{sub α} reduction distribution due to change in the bias voltage, which is used to suppress the electron influx. Small H{sub α} reduction in higher bias is likely because the production of negative ions is suppressed by the potential difference between the plasma and PG surface.

  11. Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gino J. D'Angelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-10-01

    Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics influence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed deer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near even sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series of intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and fall 2002. We compared daily range (ha), rate of travel (m/h), and distance between extreme daily locations (m), among the periods of pre-parturition and post-parturition and pre-, peak-, and post-rut. From pre-parturition to post-parturition, we observed decreases in diel range size (?¢????38.2%), distance between extreme diel locations (?¢????17.0%), and diel rate of travel (?¢????18.2%). Diel range size, distance between extreme diel locations, and diel rate of travel during the pre-rut and rut exceeded those observed during post-rut. We further identified substantial increases in mobility during 12 24-h diel periods for eight females during our fall monitoring. Our data suggest that female white-tailed deer reduce mobility post-fawning following exaggerated movements during pre-parturition. Furthermore, despite a near equal sex ratio, estrous does may be required to actively seek potential mates due to low population density.

  12. Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms and air pollution: Methodological issues and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, J. ); Wypij, D.; Dockery D.; Ware, J.; Spengler, J.; Ferris, B. Jr. ); Zeger, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms are a powerful technique for detecting acute effects of air pollution exposure. While conceptually simple, these diary studies can be difficult to analyze. The daily symptom rates are highly correlated, even after adjustment for covariates, and this lack of independence must be considered in the analysis. Possible approaches include the use of incidence instead of prevalence rates and autoregressive models. Heterogeneity among subjects also induces dependencies in the data. These can be addressed by stratification and by two-stage models such as those developed by Korn and Whittemore. These approaches have been applied to two data sets: a cohort of school children participating in the Harvard Six Cities Study and a cohort of student nurses in Los Angeles. Both data sets provide evidence of autocorrelation and heterogeneity. Controlling for autocorrelation corrects the precision estimates, and because diary data are usually positively autocorrelated, this leads to larger variance estimates. Controlling for heterogeneity among subjects appears to increase the effect sizes for air pollution exposure. Preliminary results indicate associations between sulfur dioxide and cough incidence in children and between nitrogen dioxide and phlegm incidence in student nurses.

  13. Electrostatic plasma lens for focusing negatively charged particle beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, A. A.; Dobrovolskiy, A. M.; Dunets, S. M.; Litovko, I. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.

    2012-02-15

    We describe the current status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating intense negatively charged particle beams, electrons, and negative ions. The physical principle of this kind of plasma lens is based on magnetic isolation electrons providing creation of a dynamical positive space charge cloud in shortly restricted volume propagating beam. Here, the new results of experimental investigations and computer simulations of wide-aperture, intense electron beam focusing by plasma lens with positive space charge cloud produced due to the cylindrical anode layer accelerator creating a positive ion stream towards an axis system is presented.

  14. Photodetachment of hydrogen negative ions with screened Coulomb interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song Bin; Chen, Xiang Jun; Wang, Jian Guo; Janev, R. K.; Qu, Yi Zhi

    2010-06-15

    The effects of Coulomb interaction screening on photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions below the n =2 excitation threshold is investigated by using the R-matrix method with pseudostates. The contributions of Feshbach and shape resonances to H{sup -} photodetachment cross section are presented when screening length (D) varies from D = {infinity} to D = 4.6 a.u. It is found that the interaction screening has dramatic effects on the photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions in the photoelectron energy region around the n = 2 excitation threshold by strongly affecting the evolution of near-threshold resonances.

  15. Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382 428 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J. [ITER- India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2011-09-26

    The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H{sup -}, when hydrogen particles (H and/or H{sub x}{sup +}) strike these surfaces.A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

  16. SU-D-BRF-04: Digital Tomosynthesis for Improved Daily Setup in Treatment of Liver Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, H; Jones, B; Miften, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Daily localization of liver lesions with cone-beam CT (CBCT) is difficult due to poor image quality caused by scatter, respiratory motion, and the lack of radiographic contrast between the liver parenchyma and the lesion(s). Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is investigated as a modality to improve liver visualization and lesion/parenchyma contrast for daily setup. Methods: An in-house tool was developed to generate DTS images using a point-by-point filtered back-projection method from on-board CBCT projection data. DTS image planes are generated in a user defined orientation to visualize the anatomy at various depths. Reference DTS images are obtained from forward projection of the planning CT dataset at each projection angle. The CBCT DTS image set can then be registered to the reference DTS image set as a means for localization. Contour data from the planning CT's associate RT Structure file and forward projected similarly to the planning CT data. DTS images are created for each contoured structure, which can then be overlaid onto the DTS images for organ volume visualization. Results: High resolution DTS images generated from CBCT projections show fine anatomical detail, including small blood vessels, within the patient. However, the reference DTS images generated from forward projection of the planning CT lacks this level of detail due to the low resolution of the CT voxels as compared to the pixel size in the projection images; typically 1mm-by-1mm-by-3mm (lat, vrt, lng) for the planning CT vs. 0.4mm-by-0.4mm for CBCT projections. Overlaying of the contours onto the DTS image allows for visualization of structures of interest. Conclusion: The ability to generate DTS images over a limited range of projection angles allows for reduction in the amount of respiratory motion within each acquisition. DTS may provide improved visualization of structures and lesions as compared to CBCT for highly mobile tumors.

  17. Daily treatment with {alpha}-naphthoflavone enhances follicular growth and ovulation rate in the rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barreiro, Karina A.; Di Yorio, Maria P.; Artillo-Guida, Romina D.; Paz, Dante A.; Faletti, Alicia G.

    2011-04-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and the first protein involved in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes, including those of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. AhR has been found in the ovary of many species and seems to mediate the ovarian toxicity of many environmental contaminants, which are AhR ligands. However, the role of AhR in the ovarian function is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the action of {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}NF), known to be an AhR antagonist, on both follicular growth and ovulation. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with {alpha}NF (0.1-80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 12 days, and primed with gonadotrophins (eCG/hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation. Ovaries were obtained 20 h after hCG administration. By means of immunohistochemistry, we found that the numbers of primordial, primary and antral follicles were increased in rats treated with 80 mg/kg {alpha}NF and that there were no differences with other doses. Likewise, the ovarian weight and the ovulation rate, measured by both number of oocytes within oviducts and corpora lutea in ovarian sections, were increased when the rats received either 1 or 10 mg/kg daily. Although further studies are necessary to know the mechanism of action of {alpha}NF, it is possible that the different ovarian processes can be differentially responsive to the presence of different levels of {alpha}NF, and that the same or different endogenous AhR ligands can be involved in these ovarian processes in a cell type-dependent manner.

  18. STOCHASTIC DESCRIPTION OF THE HIGH-FREQUENCY CONTENT OF DAILY SUNSPOTS AND EVIDENCE FOR REGIME CHANGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapoval, A.; Le Mouël, J.-L.; Courtillot, V.; Shnirman, M.

    2015-01-20

    The irregularity index λ is applied to the high-frequency content of daily sunspot numbers ISSN. This λ is a modification of the standard maximal Lyapunov exponent. It is computed here as a function of embedding dimension m, within four-year time windows centered at the maxima of Schwabe cycles. The λ(m) curves form separate clusters (pre-1923 and post-1933). This supports a regime transition and narrows its occurrence to cycle 16, preceding the growth of activity leading to the Modern Maximum. The two regimes are reproduced by a simple autoregressive process AR(1), with the mean of Poisson noise undergoing 11 yr modulation. The autocorrelation a of the process (linked to sunspot lifetime) is a ≈ 0.8 for 1850-1923 and ≈0.95 for 1933-2013. The AR(1) model suggests that groups of spots appear with a Poisson rate and disappear at a constant rate. We further applied the irregularity index to the daily sunspot group number series for the northern and southern hemispheres, provided by the Greenwich Royal Observatory (RGO), in order to study a possible desynchronization. Correlations between the north and south λ(m) curves vary quite strongly with time and indeed show desynchronization. This may reflect a slow change in the dimension of an underlying dynamical system. The ISSN and RGO series of group numbers do not imply an identical mechanism, but both uncover a regime change at a similar time. Computation of the irregularity index near the maximum of cycle 24 will help in checking whether yet another regime change is under way.

  19. Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Mn2Sb vs lithium cell showing excellent overall capacity and capacity retention. Mn2Sb vs lithium cell showing excellent overall capacity and capacity retention. Technology Marketing Summary To help improve the stability and safety of lithium-ion batteries, Argonne researchers have

  20. Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

  1. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  2. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  3. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, M.; Kaun, T.

    1984-01-20

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical c

  4. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  5. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Novosselov, Igor V.; Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmller, Hans; Sorensen, Christopher M.; Stipe, Christopher B.

    2014-06-16

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (?g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in ?g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in ?g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ?10{sup 6}?s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  6. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  7. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-09-26

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1x10{sup 18}/m{sup 3}, at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  8. Alignment Focus of Daily Image Guidance for Concurrent Treatment of Prostate and Pelvic Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferjani, Samah; Huang, Guangshun; Shang, Qingyang; Stephans, Kevin L.; Zhong, Yahua; Qi, Peng; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Xia, Ping, E-mail: xiap@ccf.org

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric impact of daily imaging alignment focus on the prostate soft tissue versus the pelvic bones for the concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (PLN) and to assess whether multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking or adaptive planning (ART) is necessary with the current clinical planning margins of 8 mm/6 mm posterior to the prostate and 5 mm to the PLN. Methods and Materials: A total of 124 kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) images from 6 patients were studied. For each KV-CBCT, 4 plans were retrospectively created using an isocenter shifting method with 2 different alignment focuses (prostate, PLN), an MLC shifting method, and the ART method. The selected dosimetric endpoints were compared among these plans. Results: For the isoshift contour, isoshift bone, MLC shift, and ART plans, D99 of the prostate was ?97% of the prescription dose in 97.6%, 73.4%, 98.4%, and 96.8% of 124 fractions, respectively. Accordingly, D99 of the PLN was ?97% of the prescription dose in 98.4%, 98.4%, 98.4%, and 100% of 124 fractions, respectively. For the rectum, D5 exceeded 105% of the planned D5 (and D5 of ART plans) in 11% (4%), 10% (2%), and 13% (5%) of 124 fractions, respectively. For the bladder, D5 exceeded 105% of the planned D5 (and D5 of ART) plans in 0% (2%), 0% (2%), and 0% (1%) of 124 fractions, respectively. Conclusion: For concurrent treatment of the prostate and PLN, with a planning margin to the prostate of 8 mm/6 mm posterior and a planning margin of 5 mm to the PLN, aligning to the prostate soft tissue can achieve adequate dose coverage to the both target volumes; aligning to the pelvic bone would result in underdosing to the prostate in one-third of fractions. With these planning margins, MLC tracking and ART methods have no dosimetric advantages.

  9. A Bivariate Mixed Distribution with a Heavy-tailed Component and its Application to Single-site Daily Rainfall Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chao .; Singh, Vijay P.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2013-02-06

    This paper presents an improved brivariate mixed distribution, which is capable of modeling the dependence of daily rainfall from two distinct sources (e.g., rainfall from two stations, two consecutive days, or two instruments such as satellite and rain gauge). The distribution couples an existing framework for building a bivariate mixed distribution, the theory of copulae and a hybrid marginal distribution. Contributions of the improved distribution are twofold. One is the appropriate selection of the bivariate dependence structure from a wider admissible choice (10 candidate copula families). The other is the introduction of a marginal distribution capable of better representing low to moderate values as well as extremes of daily rainfall. Among several applications of the improved distribution, particularly presented here is its utility for single-site daily rainfall simulation. Rather than simulating rainfall occurrences and amounts separately, the developed generator unifies the two processes by generalizing daily rainfall as a Markov process with autocorrelation described by the improved bivariate mixed distribution. The generator is first tested on a sample station in Texas. Results reveal that the simulated and observed sequences are in good agreement with respect to essential characteristics. Then, extensive simulation experiments are carried out to compare the developed generator with three other alternative models: the conventional two-state Markov chain generator, the transition probability matrix model and the semi-parametric Markov chain model with kernel density estimation for rainfall amounts. Analyses establish that overall the developed generator is capable of reproducing characteristics of historical extreme rainfall events and is apt at extrapolating rare values beyond the upper range of available observed data. Moreover, it automatically captures the persistence of rainfall amounts on consecutive wet days in a relatively natural and easy way. Another interesting observation is that the recognized overdispersion problem in daily rainfall simulation ascribes more to the loss of rainfall extremes than the under-representation of first-order persistence. The developed generator appears to be a sound option for daily rainfall simulation, especially in particular hydrologic planning situations when rare rainfall events are of great importance.

  10. Negative terahertz conductivity in disordered graphene bilayers with population inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svintsov, D.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2015-03-16

    The gapless energy band spectra make the structures based on graphene and graphene bilayer with the population inversion to be promising media for the interband terahertz (THz) lasing. However, a strong intraband absorption at THz frequencies still poses a challenge for efficient THz lasing. In this paper, we show that in the pumped graphene bilayer, the indirect interband radiative transitions accompanied by scattering of carriers by disorder can provide a substantial negative contribution to the THz conductivity (together with the direct interband transitions). In the graphene bilayer on high-? substrates with point charged defects, these transitions substantially compensate the losses due to the intraband (Drude) absorption. We also demonstrate that the indirect interband contribution to the THz conductivity in a graphene bilayer with the extended defects (such as the charged impurity clusters) can surpass by several times the fundamental limit associated with the direct interband transitions, and the Drude conductivity as well. These predictions can affect the strategy of the graphene-based THz laser implementation.

  11. Robust activation method for negative electron affinity photocathodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulhollan, Gregory A. (Dripping Springs, TX); Bierman, John C. (Austin, TX)

    2011-09-13

    A method by which photocathodes(201), single crystal, amorphous, or otherwise ordered, can be surface modified to a robust state of lowered and in best cases negative, electron affinity has been discovered. Conventional methods employ the use of Cs(203) and an oxidizing agent(207), typically carried by diatomic oxygen or by more complex molecules, for example nitrogen trifluoride, to achieve a lowered electron affinity(404). In the improved activation method, a second alkali, other than Cs(205), is introduced onto the surface during the activation process, either by co-deposition, yo-yo, or sporadic or intermittent application. Best effect for GaAs photocathodes has been found through the use of Li(402) as the second alkali, though nearly the same effect can be found by employing Na(406). Suitable photocathodes are those which are grown, cut from boules, implanted, rolled, deposited or otherwise fabricated in a fashion and shape desired for test or manufacture independently supported or atop a support structure or within a framework or otherwise affixed or suspended in the place and position required for use.

  12. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; et al

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates throughmore » a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XB’s characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using λpump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains from the dissociation of exciton XA is involved in the creation of this trion with a binding energy ~ 10 meV with respect to XA. The absorption peak that corresponds to trion T2 appears when λpump > 2.4 eV, which is just sufficient to excite exciton XB. The dynamics of trion T2 formation are found to correlate with the disappearance of the bleach of XB exciton, which indicates the involvement of holes participating in the bleach dynamics of exciton XB. Static electrical-doping photoabsorption measurements confirm the presence of an induced absorption peak similar to that of T2. Since the proposed trion formation process here involves exciton dissociation through hole-trapping by defects in the 2D crystal or substrate, this discovery highlights the strong role that defects have in defining the optical and electrical properties of 2D metal chalcogenides, which is relevant to a broad spectrum of basic science and technology applications.« less

  13. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates through a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XBs characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using ?pump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains from the dissociation of exciton XA is involved in the creation of this trion with a binding energy ~ 10 meV with respect to XA. The absorption peak that corresponds to trion T2 appears when ?pump > 2.4 eV, which is just sufficient to excite exciton XB. The dynamics of trion T2 formation are found to correlate with the disappearance of the bleach of XB exciton, which indicates the involvement of holes participating in the bleach dynamics of exciton XB. Static electrical-doping photoabsorption measurements confirm the presence of an induced absorption peak similar to that of T2. Since the proposed trion formation process here involves exciton dissociation through hole-trapping by defects in the 2D crystal or substrate, this discovery highlights the strong role that defects have in defining the optical and electrical properties of 2D metal chalcogenides, which is relevant to a broad spectrum of basic science and technology applications.

  14. Radiative lifetimes of metastable states of negative ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Pontus; Fritioff, Karin; Sandstroem, Joakim; Collins, Gerard; Hanstorp, Dag; Ellmann, Anna; Schef, Peter; Lundin, Peter; Mannervik, Sven; Royen, Peder; Froese Fischer, K. Charlotte; Oesterdahl, Fabian; Rostohar, Danijela; Pegg, David J.; Gibson, N. D.; Danared, Haakan; Kaellberg, Anders

    2006-03-15

    We present a technique for measuring the radiative lifetimes of metastable states of negative ions that involves the use of a heavy-ion storage ring. The method has been applied to investigate the radiative decay of the np{sup 3} {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} levels of Te{sup -}(n=5) and Se{sup -}(n=4) and the 3p{sup 3} {sup 2}D state of Si{sup -} for which the J=3/2 and 5/2 levels were unresolved. All of these states are metastable and decay primarily by emission of E2 and M1 radiation. Multi Configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations of rates for the transitions in Te{sup -} and Se{sup -} yielded lifetimes of 0.45 s and 4.7 s, respectively. The measured values agree well with these predicted values. In the case of the {sup 2}D state of Si{sup -}, however, our measurement was only able to set a lower limit on the lifetime. The upper limit of the lifetime that can be measured with our apparatus is set by how long the ions can be stored in the ring, a limit determined by the rate of collisional detachment. Our lower limit of 1 min for the lifetime of the {sup 2}D state is consistent with both the calculated lifetimes of 162 s for the {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} level and 27.3 h for the {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} level reported by O'Malley and Beck and 14.5 h and 12.5 h, respectively, from our Breit-Pauli calculations.

  15. Positive and negative ion beam merging system for neutral beam production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2005-12-13

    The positive and negative ion beam merging system extracts positive and negative ions of the same species and of the same energy from two separate ion sources. The positive and negative ions from both sources pass through a bending magnetic field region between the pole faces of an electromagnet. Since the positive and negative ions come from mirror image positions on opposite sides of a beam axis, and the positive and negative ions are identical, the trajectories will be symmetrical and the positive and negative ion beams will merge into a single neutral beam as they leave the pole face of the electromagnet. The ion sources are preferably multicusp plasma ion sources. The ion sources may include a multi-aperture extraction system for increasing ion current from the sources.

  16. SU-E-T-86: Comparison of Two Commercially Available Programs for the Evaluation of Delivered Daily Dose Using Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuohy, R; Bosse, C; Mavroidis, P; Shi, Z; Crownover, R; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this study, two commercially available programs were compared for the evaluation of delivered daily dose using cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods: Thirty (n=30) patients previously treated in our clinic (10 prostate, 10 SBRT lung and 10 abdomen) were used in this study. The patients' plans were optimized and calculated using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. The daily CBCT scans were imported into Velocity and RayStation along with the corresponding planning CTs, structure sets and 3D dose distributions for each patient. The organs at risk (OAR) were contoured on each CBCT by the prescribing physician and were included in the evaluation of the daily delivered dose. Each CBCT was registered to the planning CT, once with rigid registration and then again, separately, with deformable registration. After registering each CBCT, the dose distribution from the planning CT was overlaid and the dose volume histograms (DVH) for the OAR and the planning target volumes (PTV) were calculated. Results: For prostate patients, we observed daily volume changes for the OARs. The DVH analysis for those patients showed variation in the sparing of the OARs while PTV coverage remained virtually unchanged using both Velocity and RayStation systems. Similar results were observed for abdominal patients. In contrast, for SBRT lung patients, the DVH for the OARs and target were comparable to those from the initial treatment plan. Differences in organ volume and organ doses were also observed when comparing the daily fractions using deformable and rigid registrations. Conclusion: By using daily CBCT dose reconstruction, we proved PTV coverage for prostate and abdominal targets is adequate. However, there is significant dosimetric change for the OARs. For lung SBRT patients, the delivered daily dose for both PTV and OAR is comparable to the planned dose with no significant differences.

  17. Daily Occurrence Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE posting of occurrence reports will contain reports that were transmitted since the morning of the previous workday. The summary will provide a brief description of each occurrence along with the facility's organizational information and the title of the report. For those that desire additional information, the listing will contain the full occurrence reports.

  18. NIAMEY DAILY RAINFALL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2006 -2 -1 0 1 +2 +3 Average Normalized Departure () Time series (1941-2006) of normalized April-October rainfall departures () for Niamey (2.1666 o E, 13.4833 o N) in Niger...

  19. Negative differential resistance in GaN tunneling hot electron transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhichao; Nath, Digbijoy; Rajan, Siddharth

    2014-11-17

    Room temperature negative differential resistance is demonstrated in a unipolar GaN-based tunneling hot electron transistor. Such a device employs tunnel-injected electrons to vary the electron energy and change the fraction of reflected electrons, and shows repeatable negative differential resistance with a peak to valley current ratio of 7.2. The device was stable when biased in the negative resistance regime and tunable by changing collector bias. Good repeatability and double-sweep characteristics at room temperature show the potential of such device for high frequency oscillators based on quasi-ballistic transport.

  20. Permeability barrier of Gram-negative cell envelopes and approaches to bypass it

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zgurskaya, Helen I.; López, Cesar A.; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram

    2015-09-18

    Gram-negative bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Species that have acquired multidrug resistance and cause infections that are effectively untreatable present a serious threat to public health. The problem is broadly recognized and tackled at both the fundamental and applied levels. This article summarizes current advances in understanding the molecular bases of the low permeability barrier of Gram-negative pathogens, which is the major obstacle in discovery and development of antibiotics effective against such pathogens. Gaps in knowledge and specific strategies to break this barrier and to achieve potent activities against difficult Gram-negative bacteria are also discussed.

  1. SU-E-T-453: A Novel Daily QA System for Robotic Image Guided Radiosurgery with Variable Aperture Collimator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L; Nelson, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel end-to-end system using a CCD camera and a scintillator based phantom that is capable of measuring the beam-by-beam delivery accuracy of Robotic Radiosurgery has been developed and reported in our previous work. This work investigates its application to end-to-end type daily QA for Robotic Radiosurgery (Cyberknife) with Variable Aperture Collimator (Iris). Methods: The phantom was first scanned with a CT scanner at 0.625 slice thickness and exported to the Cyberknife Muliplan (v4.6) treatment planning system. An isocentric treatment plan was created consisting of ten beams of 25 Monitor Units each using Iris apertures of 7.5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm. The plan was delivered six times in two days on the Cyberknife G4 system with fiducial tracking on the four metal fiducials embedded in phantom with re-positioning between the measurements. The beam vectors (X, Y, Z) are measured and compared with the plan from the machine delivery file (XML file). The Iris apertures (FWHM) were measured from the beam flux map and compared with the commissioning data. Results: The average beam positioning accuracies of the six deliveries are 0.71 0.40 mm, 0.72 0.44 mm, 0.74 0.42 mm, 0.70 0.40 mm, 0.79 0.44 mm and 0.69 0.41 mm respectively. Radiation beam width (FWHM) variations are within 0.05 mm, and they agree with the commissioning data within 0.22 mm. The delivery time for the plan is about 7 minutes and the results are given instantly. Conclusion: The experimental results agree with stated sub-millimeter delivery accuracy of Cyberknife system. Beam FWHM variations comply with the 0.2 mm accuracy of the Iris collimator at SAD. The XRV-100 system has proven to be a powerful tool in performing end-to-end type tests for Robotic Image Guided Radiosurgery Daily QA.

  2. Intermetallic negative electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Fransson, Linda M.; Edstrom, Ester Kristina; Henriksen, Gary

    2004-05-04

    A method of operating an electrochemical cell is disclosed. The cell has an intermetallic negative electrode of Cu.sub.6-x M.sub.x Sn.sub.5, wherein x is .ltoreq.3 and M is one or more metals including Si and a positive electrode containing Li in which Li is shuttled between the positive electrode and the negative electrode during charge and discharge to form a lithiated intermetallic negative electrode during charge. The voltage of the electrochemical cell is controlled during the charge portion of the charge-discharge cycles so that the potential of the lithiated intermetallic negative electrode in the fully charged electrochemical cell is less than 0.2 V but greater than 0 V versus metallic lithium.

  3. Study of negative hydrogen ion beam optics using the 3D3V PIC model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, K.; Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.

    2015-04-08

    The mechanism of negative ion extraction under real conditions with the complex magnetic field is studied by using the 3D PIC simulation code. The extraction region of the negative ion source for the negative ion based neutral beam injection system in fusion reactors is modelled. It is shown that the E x B drift of electrons is caused by the magnetic filter and the electron suppression magnetic field, and the resultant asymmetry of the plasma meniscus. Furthermore, it is indicated that that the asymmetry of the plasma meniscus results in the asymmetry of negative ion beam profile including the beam halo. It could be demonstrated theoretically that the E x B drift is not significantly weakened by the elastic collisions of the electrons with neutral particles.

  4. Research progress on ionic plasmas generated in an intense hydrogen negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeiri, Y. Tsumori, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.; Sekiguchi, H.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Characteristics of ionic plasmas, observed in a high-density hydrogen negative ion source, are investigated with a multi-diagnostics system. The ionic plasma, which consists of hydrogen positive- and negative-ions with a significantly low-density of electrons, is generated in the ion extraction region, from which the negative ions are extracted through the plasma grid. The negative ion density, i.e., the ionic plasma density, as high as the order of 110{sup 17}m{sup ?3}, is measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy, while the electron density is lower than 110{sup 16}m{sup ?3}, which is confirmed with millimeter-wave interferometer. Reduction of the negative ion density is observed at the negative ion extraction, and at that time the electron flow into the ionic plasma region is observed to conserve the charge neutrality. Distribution of the plasma potential is measured in the extraction region in the direction normal to the plasma grid surface with a Langmuir probe, and the results suggest that the sheath is formed at the plasma boundary to the plasma grid to which the bias voltage is applied. The beam extraction should drive the negative ion transport in the ionic plasma across the sheath formed on the extraction surface. Larger reduction of the negative ions at the beam extraction is observed in a region above the extraction aperture on the plasma grid, which is confirmed with 2D image measurement of the H? emission and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The electron distribution is also measured near the plasma grid surface. These various properties observed in the ionic plasma are discussed.

  5. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    through region-specific crop selection (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air

  6. Effect of nickel grid parameters on production of negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Yokoyama, H.; Takeda, Toshiaki; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Kawata, K. [Department of Electronic Device Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube 755-8611 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a nickel grid. When positive ions passing through the grid are decelerated by an electric field, the extraction current density of passing positive ions is sharply reduced by neutralization and negative ionization of the ions. This phenomenon is found to depend on the specific surface area of the grid and the current density.

  7. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  8. Time-fractional Gardner equation for ion-acoustic waves in negative-ion-beam plasma with negative ions and nonthermal nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shimin Mei, Liquan; Zhang, Zhengqiang

    2015-05-15

    Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a one-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma consisting of positive ions, negative ions, and nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution that is penetrated by a negative-ion-beam. The classical Gardner equation is derived to describe nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves in the considered plasma system via reductive perturbation technique. We convert the classical Gardner equation into the time-fractional Gardner equation by Agrawal's method, where the time-fractional term is under the sense of Riesz fractional derivative. Employing variational iteration method, we construct solitary wave solutions of the time-fractional Gardner equation with initial condition which depends on the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients. The effect of the plasma parameters on the compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitary waves is also discussed in detail.

  9. Negative running of the spectral index, hemispherical asymmetry and the consistency of Planck with large r

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, John

    2014-11-01

    Planck favours a negative running of the spectral index, with the likelihood being dominated by low multipoles l?<50 and no preference for running at higher l. A negative spectral index is also necessary for the 2- Planck upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r to be consistent with values significantly larger than 0.1. Planck has also observed a hemispherical asymmetry of the CMB power spectrum, again mostly at low multipoles. Here we consider whether the physics responsible for the hemispherical asymmetry could also account for the negative running of the spectral index and the consistency of Planck with a large value of r. A negative running of the spectral index can be generated if the hemispherical asymmetry is due to a scale- and space-dependent modulation which suppresses the CMB power spectrum at low multipoles. We show that the observed hemispherical asymmetry at low l can be generated while satisfying constraints on the asymmetry at higher l and generating a negative spectral index of the right magnitude to account for the Planck observation and to allow Planck to be consistent with a large value of r.

  10. Roles of a plasma grid in a negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacal, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.; McAdams, R.

    2015-04-08

    The plasma grid is electrically biased with respect to other parts of source chamber wall in both volume sources and sources seeded with alkali metals. The roles of the plasma grid in these two kinds of sources will be described. The main functions of the plasma grid in volume sources are: optimizing the extracted negative ion current, reducing the co-extracted electron current, controlling the axial plasma potential profile, recycling the hydrogen atoms to molecules, concentrating the negative ions near its surface and, when biased positive, depleting the electron population near its surface. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with alkali metals. However an additional function appears in the Cs seeded sources, namely direct emission of negative ions under positive ion and neutral hydrogen bombardment.

  11. Negative plasma potential in a multidipole chamber with a dielectric coated plasma boundary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheehan, J. P.; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2012-05-15

    Negative plasma potentials with respect to a grounded wall that was coated with a dielectric have been achieved in an electropositive plasma confined by a multidipole device. A Langmuir probe was used to measure the density and temperatures of the bi-Maxwellian distribution electrons and an emissive probe was used to measure the plasma potential profile near the plasma boundary. For many discharge parameters, the potential profile was that of a typical electropositive sheath, but it was shifted negative due to negative charge accumulated on the plasma-surface boundary. A virtual cathode was observed near the boundary when the neutral pressure, primary electron energy, and/or discharge current were low ({approx}2 x 10{sup -4} Torr, {approx}60 eV, and 80 mA, respectively). The behavior of the sheath potential was shown to be consistent with that predicted by particle balance and a qualitative mechanism for wall charging is presented.

  12. Physically consistent simulation of mesoscale chemical kinetics: The non-negative FIS-{alpha} method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, Saswati, E-mail: saswatid@rishi.serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Raha, Soumyendu, E-mail: raha@serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-01

    Biochemical pathways involving chemical kinetics in medium concentrations (i.e., at mesoscale) of the reacting molecules can be approximated as chemical Langevin equations (CLE) systems. We address the physically consistent non-negative simulation of the CLE sample paths as well as the issue of non-Lipschitz diffusion coefficients when a species approaches depletion and any stiffness due to faster reactions. The non-negative Fully Implicit Stochastic {alpha} (FIS {alpha}) method in which stopped reaction channels due to depleted reactants are deleted until a reactant concentration rises again, for non-negativity preservation and in which a positive definite Jacobian is maintained to deal with possible stiffness, is proposed and analysed. The method is illustrated with the computation of active Protein Kinase C response in the Protein Kinase C pathway.

  13. Laser photodetachment diagnostics of a 1/3-size negative hydrogen ion source for NBI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, S.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.

    2015-04-08

    To investigate the flows of charged particles in front of the plasma grid (PG) in a negative hydrogen ion source, the information of the local densities of electrons and negative hydrogen ions (H-) are necessary. For this purpose, the laser photodetachment is applied for pure hydrogen plasmas and Cs-seeded plasma in a 1/3-size negative hydrogen ion source in NIFS-NBI test stand. The H- density obtained by photodetachment is calibrated by the results from cavity ring-down (CRD). The pressure dependence and PG bias dependence of the local H- density are presented and discussed. The results show that H- density increases significantly by seeding Cs into the plasma. In Cs-seeded plasma, relativity exists between the H- ion density and plasma potential.

  14. Method for resurrecting negative electron affinity photocathodes after exposure to an oxidizing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulhollan, Gregory A; Bierman, John C

    2012-10-30

    A method by which negative electron affinity photocathodes (201), single crystal, amorphous, or otherwise ordered, can be made to recover their quantum yield following exposure to an oxidizing gas has been discovered. Conventional recovery methods employ the use of cesium as a positive acting agent (104). In the improved recovery method, an electron beam (205), sufficiently energetic to generate a secondary electron cloud (207), is applied to the photocathode in need of recovery. The energetic beam, through the high secondary electron yield of the negative electron affinity surface (203), creates sufficient numbers of low energy electrons which act on the reduced-yield surface so as to negate the effects of absorbed oxidizing atoms thereby recovering the quantum yield to a pre-decay value.

  15. Twenty Five Years of Vibrational Kinetics and Negative Ion Production in H2 Plasmas: Modelling Aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capitelli, M.; De Pascale, O.; Diomede, P.; Gorse, C.; Longo, S.; Pagano, D.; Gicquel, A.; Hassouni, K.

    2005-04-06

    Different approaches to study vibrational kinetics coupled to electron one for modeling different kinds of negative ion sources are presented. In particular two types of sources are investigated. The first one is a classical negative ion source in which the plasma is generated by thermoemitted electrons; in the second one, electrons already present in the mixture are accelerated by an RF field to sufficiently high energy to ionize the gas molecules. For the first kind of ion source a new computational scheme is presented to couple heavy particle and electron kinetics. Moreover models developed for an RF inductive discharge and for a parallel plate discharge are described.

  16. Negative ion beam injection apparatus with magnetic shield and electron removal means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Oscar A. (Berkeley, CA); Chan, Chun F. (Hayward, CA); Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A negative ion source is constructed to produce H.sup.- ions without using Cesium. A high percentage of secondary electrons that typically accompany the extracted H.sup.- are trapped and eliminated from the beam by permanent magnets in the initial stage of acceleration. Penetration of the magnetic field from the permanent magnets into the ion source is minimized. This reduces the destructive effect the magnetic field could have on negative ion production and extraction from the source. A beam expansion section in the extractor results in a strongly converged final beam.

  17. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Marian (Flossmoor, IL); Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Silicon powder is mixed with powdered electroactive material, such as the lithium-aluminum eutectic, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  18. Prospective Trial of High-Dose Reirradiation Using Daily Image Guidance With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Cheng, Suzan; Donald, Paul J.; Purdy, James A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To report a single-institutional experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image-guided radiotherapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients were prospectively treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy from February 2006 to March 2009 to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 60-70 Gy). None of these patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Daily helical megavoltage CT scans were obtained before each fraction as part of an image-guided radiotherapy registration protocol for patient alignment. Results: The 1- and 2-year estimates of in-field control were 72% and 65%, respectively. A total of 651 daily megavoltage CT scans were obtained. The mean systematic shift to account for interfraction motion was 1.38 {+-} 1.25 mm, 1.79 {+-} 1.45 mm, and 1.98 {+-} 1.75 mm for the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Pretreatment shifts of >3 mm occurred in 19% of setups in the medial-lateral, 27% in the superior-inferior, and 33% in the anterior-posterior directions, respectively. There were no treatment-related fatalities or hospitalizations. Complications included skin desquamation, odynophagia, otitis externa, keratitis, naso-lacrimal duct stenosis, and brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image guidance results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity and should be considered for selected patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck.

  19. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phukan, Ananya, E-mail: ananya.phukan26@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Kamrup (M), Assam 782402 (India)

    2014-08-15

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (?{sub D})

  20. Roughening and removal of surface contamination from beryllium using negative transferred-arc cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, R.G.; Hollis, K.J.; Elliott, K.E.

    1997-12-01

    Negative transferred-arc (TA) cleaning has been used extensively in the aerospace industry to clean and prepare surfaces prior to plasma spraying of thermal barrier coatings. This non-line of sight process can improve the bond strength of plasma sprayed coatings to the substrate material by cleaning and macroscopically roughening the surface. A variation of this cleaning methodology is also used in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding to cathodically clean the surfaces of aluminum and magnesium prior to welding. Investigations are currently being performed to quantify the degree in which the negative transferred-arc process can clean and roughen metal surfaces. Preliminary information will be reported on the influence of processing conditions on roughening and the removal of carbon and other contaminates from the surface of beryllium. Optical, spectral and electrical methods to quantify cleaning of the surface will also be discussed. Applications for this technology include chemical-free precision cleaning of beryllium components.

  1. Low energy milling method, low crystallinity alloy, and negative electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le, Dihn B; Obrovac, Mark N; Kube, Robert Y; Landucci, James R

    2012-10-16

    A method of making nanostructured alloy particles includes milling a millbase in a pebble mill containing milling media. The millbase comprises: (i) silicon, and (ii) at least one of carbon or a transition metal, and wherein the nanostructured alloy particles are substantially free of crystalline domains greater than 50 nanometers in size. A method of making a negative electrode composition for a lithium ion battery including the nanostructured alloy particles is also disclosed.

  2. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knosp, Bernard (Neuilly-sur-Seine, FR); Bouet, Jacques (Paris, FR); Jordy, Christian (Dourdan, FR); Mimoun, Michel (Neuilly-sur-Marne, FR); Gicquel, Daniel (Lanorville, FR)

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  3. Structure of the Dominant Negative S17N Mutant of Ras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, N.; Singh, K; Garcia-Diaz, M

    2010-01-01

    The use of the dominant negative mutant of Ras has been crucial in elucidating the cellular signaling of Ras in response to the activation of various membrane-bound receptors. Although several point mutants of Ras exhibit a dominant negative effect, the asparagine to serine mutation at position 17 (S17N) remains the most popular and the most effective at inhibiting the activation of endogenous Ras. It is now widely accepted that the dominant negative effect is due to the ability of the mutant to sequester upstream activators and its inability to activate downstream effectors. Here, we present the crystal structure of RasS17N in the GDP-bound form. In the three molecules that populate the asymmetric unit, the Mg{sup 2+} ion that normally coordinates the {beta}-phosphate is absent because of steric hindrance from the Asn17 side chain. Instead, a Ca{sup 2+} ion is coordinating the {alpha}-phosphate. Also absent from one molecule is electron density for Phe28, a conserved residue that normally stabilizes the nucleotide's guanine base. Except for Phe28, the nucleotide makes conserved interactions with Ras. Combined, the inability of Phe28 to stabilize the guanine base and the absence of a Mg{sup 2+} ion to neutralize the negative charges on the phosphates explain the weaker affinity of GDP for Ras. Our data suggest that the absence of the Mg{sup 2+} should also dramatically affect GTP binding to Ras and the proper positioning of Thr35 necessary for the activation of switch 1 and the binding to downstream effectors, a prerequisite for the triggering of signaling pathways.

  4. Government Decision to Abandon Yucca Mountain Negatively Impacts Central Savannah River Area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Immediate Release Contact: Rick McLeod Monday, November 9, 2009 803.593.9954 x1411 Government Decision to Abandon Yucca Mountain Negatively Impacts Central Savannah River Area AIKEN, SC - The Federal Government's failure to complete construction of its only option for long-term nuclear waste storage at Yucca Mountain in the Nevada desert will result in the Savannah River Site becoming the permanent home to tons of high- level nuclear waste, a local community group says. The SRS Community

  5. Network for minimizing current imbalances in a faradaic battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wozniak, Walter (Dearborn, MI); Haskins, Harold J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1994-01-01

    A circuit for connecting a faradaic battery with circuitry for monitoring the condition of the battery includes a plurality of voltage divider networks providing battery voltage monitoring nodes and includes compensating resistors connected with the networks to maintain uniform discharge currents through the cells of the battery. The circuit also provides a reduced common mode voltage requirement for the monitoring circuitry by referencing the divider networks to one-half the battery voltage.

  6. Landau damping effects on dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty negative-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barman, Arnab; Misra, A. P. E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com

    2014-07-15

    The nonlinear theory of dust-acoustic waves (DAWs) with Landau damping is studied in an unmagnetized dusty negative-ion plasma in the extreme conditions when the free electrons are absent. The cold massive charged dusts are described by fluid equations, whereas the two-species of ions (positive and negative) are described by the kinetic Vlasov equations. A Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with Landau damping, governing the dynamics of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive DAWs, is derived following Ott and Sudan [Phys. Fluids 12, 2388 (1969)]. It is shown that for some typical laboratory and space plasmas, the Landau damping (and the nonlinear) effects are more pronounced than the finite Debye length (dispersive) effects for which the KdV soliton theory is not applicable to DAWs in dusty pair-ion plasmas. The properties of the linear phase velocity, solitary wave amplitudes (in presence and absence of the Landau damping) as well as the Landau damping rate are studied with the effects of the positive ion to dust density ratio (?{sub pd}) as well as the ratios of positive to negative ion temperatures (?) and masses (m)

  7. Multi-dipolar microwave plasmas and their application to negative ion production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bchu, S.; Bs, A.; Lacoste, A.; Aleiferis, S.; Ivanov, A. A. Jr.; Bacal, M.

    2013-10-15

    During the past decade multi-dipolar plasmas have been employed for various purposes such as surface treatments in biomedicine, physical and chemical vapour deposition for hydrogen storage, and applications in mechanical engineering. On the other hand, due to the design and operational mode of these plasma sources (i.e., strong permanent magnets for the electron cyclotron resonance coupling, low working pressure, and high electron density achieved) they are suitable for studying fundamental mechanisms involved in negative ion sources used in magnetically confined fusion and particle accelerators. Thus, this study presents an overview of fundamental results obtained with: (i) a single dipolar source, (ii) a network of seven dipolar plasma sources inserted into a magnetic multipolar chamber (Camembert III), and (iii) four dipolar sources housed in a smaller metallic cylinder (ROSAE III). Investigations with Langmuir probes of electron energy probability functions revealed the variation of the plasma properties versus the radial distance from the axis of a dipolar source in its mid plane and allowed the determination of the proportion between hot and cold electron populations in both chambers. These results are compared with the density of hydrogen negative ions, measured using the photodetachment technique. Electron energy probability functions obtained in these different configurations show the possibility of both hot and cold electron production. The former is a prerequisite for increasing the vibrational level of molecules and the dissociation degree and the latter for producing negative ions via dissociative attachment of the cold electrons or via surface production induced by H atoms.

  8. Application Of The Phase Shifting Diffraction Interferometer For Measuring Convex Mirrors And Negative Lenses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); Campbell, Eugene W. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-06-21

    To measure a convex mirror, a reference beam and a measurement beam are both provided through a single optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to give a converging wavefront onto the convex mirror under test. A measurement is taken that includes the aberrations of the convex mirror as well as the errors due to two transmissions through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error. A negative lens can also be measured in a similar way. Again, there are two measurement set-ups. A reference beam is provided from a first optical fiber and a measurement beam is provided from a second optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to provide a converging wavefront from the reference beam onto the negative lens under test. The measurement beam is combined with the reference wavefront and is analyzed by standard methods. This measurement includes the aberrations of the negative lens, as well as the errors due to a single transmission through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error.

  9. Application of the phase shifting diffraction interferometer for measuring convex mirrors and negative lenses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.; Campbell, Eugene W.

    2004-03-09

    To measure a convex mirror, a reference beam and a measurement beam are both provided through a single optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to give a converging wavefront onto the convex mirror under test. A measurement is taken that includes the aberrations of the convex mirror as well as the errors due to two transmissions through the positive auxiliary lens. A second, measurement provides the information to eliminate this error. A negative lens can also be measured in a similar way. Again, there are two measurement set-ups. A reference beam is provided from a first optical fiber and a measurement beam is provided from a second optical fiber. A positive auxiliary lens is placed in the system to provide a converging wavefront from the reference beam onto the negative lens under test. The measurement beam is combined with the reference wavefront and is analyzed by standard methods. This measurement includes the aberrations of the negative lens, as well as the errors due to a single transmission through the positive auxiliary lens. A second measurement provides the information to eliminate this error.

  10. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.

  11. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutronmore » reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.« less

  12. Recent Progress in the Negative-Ion-Based Neutral Beam Injectors in Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Oka, Y.; Asano, E.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.; Kaneko, O.

    2009-03-12

    Negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (negative-NBI) system has been operated for 10 years in Large Helical Device (LHD). The injection power has been increased year by year, according to the improvement of the negative ion sources. Up to now, every injector achieves the designed injection energy and power of 180 keV-5 MW with hydrogen beams, and the total injection power exceeds 16 MW with three injectors. In the multi-round aperture grounded grid (GG), the diameter of a round aperture has been enlarged for higher GG transparency. Then, the GG heat load is reduced, as well as in the multi-slotted GG, and the voltage holding ability in the beam acceleration was improved. As a result, the beam energy is raised and the injection power is increased. To improve the anisotropic property of the beamlet convergence condition between the perpendicular and the parallel directions to the slots in the multi-slotted GG, a round-shape aperture of the steering grid (SG) has been changed to a racetrack shape. As a result, the difference of the beamlet conversion condition is much mitigated, and the injection efficiency (port-transmission efficiency) is improved, leading to 188 keV-6.4 MW injection. The Cs consumption is observed to be proportional to the tungsten evaporation from filaments. The Cs behavior is investigated with optical emission spectroscopy. During the beam extraction, the Cs recycling is dominated by Cs on the backplate, which is evaporated into the plasma by the backstreaming positive ions, and the wall surfaces should be loss regions for the supplied Cs.

  13. Partial decay widths of negative parity baryons in the 1/N{sub c} expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez de Urreta, E. J.; Scoccola, N. N.; Jayalath, C. P.; Goity, J. L.

    2013-03-25

    The partial decay widths of lowest lying negative parity baryons belonging to the 70-plet of SU(6) are analyzed in the framework of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. The channels considered are those with single pseudoscalar meson emission. The analysis is carried out to sub-leading order in 1/N{sub c} and to first order in SU(3) symmetry breaking. Conclusions about the magnitude of SU(3) breaking effects along with predictions for some unknown or poorly determined partial decay widths of known resonances are given.

  14. Negative parity baryon decays in the 1/N{sub c} expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayalath, C.; Goity, J. L.; Gonzalez de Urreta, E.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2011-10-01

    The partial decay widths of lowest lying negative parity baryons belonging to the 70-plet of SU(6) are analyzed in the framework of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. The channels considered are those with single pseudoscalar meson emission. The analysis is carried out to sub-leading order in 1/N{sub c} and to first order in SU(3) symmetry breaking. Conclusions about the magnitude of SU(3) breaking effects along with predictions for some unknown or poorly determined partial decay widths of known resonances are obtained.

  15. Partial Decay Widths of Negative Parity Baryons in the 1/N{sub c} Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez de Urreta, Emiliano; Scoccola, Norberto; Jayalath, Chandala; Goity, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The partial decay widths of lowest lying negative parity baryons belonging to the 70-plet of SU(6) are analyzed in the framework of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. The channels considered are those with single pseudoscalar meson emission. The analysis is carried out to sub-leading order in 1/N{sub c} and to first order in SU(3) symmetry breaking. Conclusions about the magnitude of SU(3) breaking effects along with predictions for some unknown or poorly determined partial decay widths of known resonances are given.

  16. Triangular lattice of carbon nanotube arrays for negative index of refraction and subwavelength lensing effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Rybczynski, J.; Wang, D.Z.; Kempa, K.; Ren, Z.F.

    2005-04-11

    Self-assembly of polystyrene microspheres has been utilized in a two-step masking technique to prepare triangular lattices of catalytic nanodots at low cost. Subsequent triangular lattices of aligned carbon nanotubes on a silicon substrate are achieved by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Nickel is used both in the nanodots and in the secondary mask. The triangular lattices of carbon nanotube arrays as two-dimensional photonic crystals show higher geometrical symmetry than the hexagonal lattices previously reported, enabling broader applications including negative index of refraction and subwavelength lensing effect.

  17. Three-Body Recombination of {sup 6}Li Atoms with Large Negative Scattering Lengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braaten, Eric; Kang, Daekyoung; Platter, Lucas; Hammer, H.-W.

    2009-08-14

    The three-body recombination rate at threshold for distinguishable atoms with large negative pair scattering lengths is calculated in the zero-range approximation. The only parameters in this limit are the 3 scattering lengths and the Efimov parameter, which can be complex-valued. We provide semianalytic expressions for the cases of 2 or 3 equal scattering lengths, and we obtain numerical results for the general case of 3 different scattering lengths. Our general result is applied to the three lowest hyperfine states of {sup 6}Li atoms. Comparisons with recent experiments provide indications of loss features associated with Efimov trimers near the 3-atom threshold.

  18. Method and apparatus for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beene, James R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Yuan [Knoxville, TN; Havener, Charles C. [Knoxville, TN

    2008-02-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams. A method of purifying an ion beam includes: inputting the ion beam into a gas-filled multipole ion guide, the ion beam including a plurality of ions; increasing a laser-ion interaction time by collisional cooling the plurality of ions using the gas-filled multipole ion guide, the plurality of ions including at least one contaminant; and suppressing the at least one contaminant by selectively removing the at least one contaminant from the ion beam by electron photodetaching at least a portion of the at least one contaminant using a laser beam.

  19. An adaptive grid refinement strategy for the simulation of negative streamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montijn, C. . E-mail: carolynne.montijn@cwi.nl; Hundsdorfer, W. . E-mail: willem.hundsdorfer@cwi.nl; Ebert, U. . E-mail: ute.ebert@cwi.nl

    2006-12-10

    The evolution of negative streamers during electric breakdown of a non-attaching gas can be described by a two-fluid model for electrons and positive ions. It consists of continuity equations for the charged particles including drift, diffusion and reaction in the local electric field, coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The model generates field enhancement and steep propagating ionization fronts at the tip of growing ionized filaments. An adaptive grid refinement method for the simulation of these structures is presented. It uses finite volume spatial discretizations and explicit time stepping, which allows the decoupling of the grids for the continuity equations from those for the Poisson equation. Standard refinement methods in which the refinement criterion is based on local error monitors fail due to the pulled character of the streamer front that propagates into a linearly unstable state. We present a refinement method which deals with all these features. Tests on one-dimensional streamer fronts as well as on three-dimensional streamers with cylindrical symmetry (hence effectively 2D for numerical purposes) are carried out successfully. Results on fine grids are presented, they show that such an adaptive grid method is needed to capture the streamer characteristics well. This refinement strategy enables us to adequately compute negative streamers in pure gases in the parameter regime where a physical instability appears: branching streamers.

  20. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB 50 at low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum ofmoreSAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. Thus, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.less

  1. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2–300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the summore » of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.« less

  2. A rapid compression machine study of the oxidation of propane in the negative temperature coefficient regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S.M.; Curran, H.J.; Metcalfe, W.K.; Healy, D.; Simmie, J.M.; Bourque, G.

    2008-04-15

    The oxidation of propane has been studied in the temperature range 680-970 K at compressed gas pressures of 21, 27, and 37 atm and at varying equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. These data are consistent with other experiments presented in the literature for alkane fuels in that, when ignition delay times are plotted as a function of temperature, a characteristic negative coefficient behavior is observed. In addition, these data were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model. It was found that qualitatively the model correctly simulated the effect of change in equivalence ratio and pressure, predicting that fuel-rich, high-pressure mixtures ignite fastest, while fuel-lean, low-pressure mixtures ignite slowest. Moreover, reactivity as a function of temperature is well captured, with the model predicting negative temperature coefficient behavior similar to the experiments. Quantitatively the model is faster than experiment for all mixtures at the lowest temperatures (650-750 K) and is also faster than experiment throughout the entire temperature range for fuel-lean mixtures. (author)

  3. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk ; Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A. Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I.; Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

  4. First-principles study on negative thermal expansion of PbTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Fangfang; Chen, Jun; Xing, Xianran; Xie, Ying; Fu, Honggang

    2013-11-25

    It is well known that perovskite-type PbTiO{sub 3} behaves negative thermal expansion in a wide temperature range from room temperature to Curie temperature (763?K). The present study reports the first-principles study of the anisotropic thermal expansion of PbTiO{sub 3}, in the framework of the density-functional theory and the density-functional perturbation theory. The curve of temperature dependence of the unit cell volume is presented from 20 to 520?K through the calculation of the minimum of total free energy at each temperature point. The negative thermal expansion of PbTiO{sub 3} is calculated without empirical parameters. Furthermore, the distinctive thermodynamic act of PbTiO{sub 3} from expanding to contracting at tetragonal phase is reproduced. The ab-initio calculations reveal that this unique appearance depends on the phonon vibration. The dynamical contributions of various atoms are also calculated to account for the disparate role of Pb-O and Ti-O bond.

  5. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malapit, Giovanni M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Poral, Matthew D.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  6. Effects of roughness and temperature on low-energy hydrogen positive and negative ion reflection from silicon and carbon surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, N.; Kato, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Wada, M.; Nishiura, M.; Tsumori, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Yamaoka, H.

    2014-02-15

    Angle-resolved energy distribution functions of positive and negative hydrogen ions produced from a rough-finished Si surface under 1 keV proton irradiation have been measured. The corresponding distribution from a crystalline surface and a carbon surface are also measured for comparison. Intensities of positive and negative ions from the rough-finished Si are substantially smaller than those from crystalline Si. The angular distributions of these species are broader for rough surface than the crystalline surface. No significant temperature dependence for positive and negative ion intensities is observed for all samples in the temperature range from 300 to 400 K.

  7. Indications of negative evolution for the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Ahlers, Markus; Hooper, Dan

    2015-09-14

    Using recent measurements of the spectrum and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays, we consider the sources of these particles. We find that these data strongly prefer models in which the sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays inject predominantly intermediate mass nuclei, with comparatively few protons or heavy nuclei, such as iron or silicon. If the number density of sources per comoving volume does not evolve with redshift, the injected spectrum must be very hard (α≃1) in order to fit the spectrum observed from Earth. Such a hard spectral index would be surprising and difficult to accommodate theoretically. In contrast, much softer spectral indices, consistent with the predictions of Fermi acceleration (α≃2), are favored in models with negative source evolution. Furthermore with this theoretical bias, these observations thus favor models in which the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays are preferentially located within the low-redshift universe.

  8. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, ystein; University of Oslo, Oslo

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup ?} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  9. Solitary and freak waves in a dusty plasma with negative ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelsalam, U. M.; Moslem, W. M.; Khater, A. H.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-09-15

    It is shown that solitary and freak waves can propagate in a dusty plasma composed of positive and negative ions, as well as nonextensive electrons. The evolution of the solitary waves is described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. However, when the frequency of the carrier wave is much smaller than the ion plasma frequency then the KdV equation is also used to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable modified ion-acoustic wavepackets through the derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation. In order to show that the characteristics of the solitary and freak waves are influenced by the plasma parameters, the relevant numerical analysis of the appropriate nonlinear solutions is presented. The relevance of the present investigation to nonlinear waves in astrophysical plasma environments is discussed.

  10. Indications of negative evolution for the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Ahlers, Markus; Hooper, Dan

    2015-09-14

    Using recent measurements of the spectrum and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays, we consider the sources of these particles. We find that these data strongly prefer models in which the sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays inject predominantly intermediate mass nuclei, with comparatively few protons or heavy nuclei, such as iron or silicon. If the number density of sources per comoving volume does not evolve with redshift, the injected spectrum must be very hard (??1) in order to fit the spectrum observed from Earth. Such a hard spectral index would be surprising and difficult to accommodate theoretically. In contrast, much softer spectral indices, consistent with the predictions of Fermi acceleration (??2), are favored in models with negative source evolution. Furthermore with this theoretical bias, these observations thus favor models in which the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays are preferentially located within the low-redshift universe.

  11. Study on a negative hydrogen ion source with hot cathode arc discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, S. H. Fang, X.; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 ; Zhang, H. J.; Qian, C.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-15

    A negative hydrogen (H{sup ?}) ion source with hot cathode arc discharge was designed and fabricated as a primary injector for a 10 MeV PET cyclotron at IMP. 1 mA dc H{sup ?} beam with ? {sub N,} {sub RMS} = 0.08 ??mm?mrad was extracted at 25 kV. Halbach hexapole was adopted to confine the plasma. The state of arc discharge, the parameters including filament current, arc current, gas pressure, plasma electrode bias, and the ratio of I{sub e{sup ?}}/I{sub H{sup ?}} were experimentally studied. The discussion on the result, and opinions to improve the source were given.

  12. Ways to improve the efficiency and reliability of radio frequency driven negative ion sources for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, W.; Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.; AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Universitt Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg ; Gutmann, P.; Doerfler, J.

    2014-02-15

    Large RF driven negative hydrogen ion sources are being developed at IPP Garching for the future neutral beam injection system of ITER. The overall power efficiency of these sources is low, because for the RF power supply self-excited generators are utilized and the plasma is generated in small cylindrical sources (drivers) and expands into the source main volume. At IPP experiments to reduce the primary power and the RF power required for the plasma production are performed in two ways: The oscillator generator of the prototype source has been replaced by a transistorized RF transmitter and two alternative driver concepts, a spiral coil, in which the field is concentrated by ferrites, which omits the losses by plasma expansion and a helicon source are being tested.

  13. Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium; The existence of negatively charged deuteride ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorne, J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1990-11-01

    In this paper cold fusion of deuterium by electrolysis of heavy water onto a palladium (or titanium) cathode is reported. Contrary to the assumption of Fleishmann and Pons that electrochemically compressed D{sup +} exists inside the palladium cathode, the observations of Jones et al. can be partially explained by the simultaneous presence of deuteride D{sup {minus}} and the highly mobile positive deuterium ion D{sup +}. The opposite charges reduce the intranuclear distance and enhance the tunneling fusion rate. Furthermore, alloying of lithium with palladium can stabilize a negatively charged deuteride ion due to the salinelike character of lithium deuteride. The enormous pressure (or fugacity), achieved by the applied electrochemical potential (10{sup 30} atm), is a virtual pressure that would have existed in equilibrium with palladium deuteride (PdD{sub x}). It is speculated that nuclear fusion occurs at the surface, and the PdD{sub x} serves as a reservoir for the supply of deuteride ions.

  14. Low-bias negative differential resistance effect in armchair graphene nanoribbon junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Suchun; Gan, Chee Kwan; Son, Young-Woo; Feng, Yuan Ping; Quek, Su Ying

    2015-01-05

    Graphene nanoribbons with armchair edges (AGNRs) have bandgaps that can be flexibly tuned via the ribbon width. A junction made of a narrower AGNR sandwiched between two wider AGNR leads was recently reported to possess two perfect transmission channels close to the Fermi level. Here, we report that by using a bias voltage to drive these transmission channels into the gap of the wider AGNR lead, we can obtain a negative differential resistance (NDR) effect. Owing to the intrinsic properties of the AGNR junctions, the on-set bias reaches as low as ?0.2?V and the valley current almost vanishes. We further show that such NDR effect is robust against details of the atomic structure of the junction, substrate, and whether the junction is made by etching or by hydrogenation.

  15. Specific features of the behaviour of targets under negative pressures created by a picosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrosimov, S A; Bazhulin, A P; Voronov, Valerii V; Geras'kin, A A; Krasyuk, Igor K; Pashinin, Pavel P; Semenov, Andrei Yu; Stuchebryukhov, I A; Khishchenko, K V; Fortov, Vladimir E

    2013-03-31

    New experimental data are obtained concerning the character of spallation and the mechanical strength of targets made of aluminium, aluminium - magnesium alloy (AMg6M), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, plexiglass), tantalum, copper, tungsten, palladium, silicon, and lead under the impact of laser radiation with the duration 70 ps. The specific features of the spallation phenomenon, in which the separation of a part of the target substance occurs at the back surface as a result of the effect of negative pressures (tensile stresses) in the substance, are experimentally studied. To determine the time moment of spallation, the electrocontact method of measuring the velocity of the spalled layer is developed and implemented. The obtained results show that the values of spall strength of the studied materials at moderate amplitudes of the shock-wave effect agree with the known literature data, while at higher pressures the growth of spall strength is observed, which is an evidence of the material hardening. The results of the studies demonstrate that the dynamic strength of a substance depends on both the duration and the amplitude of the shock-wave impact on the target. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  16. Indications of negative evolution for the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Ahlers, Markus; Hooper, Dan

    2015-09-14

    Using recent measurements of the spectrum and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays, we consider the sources of these particles. We find that these data strongly prefer models in which the sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays inject predominantly intermediate mass nuclei, with comparatively few protons or heavy nuclei, such as iron or silicon. If the number density of sources per comoving volume does not evolve with redshift, the injected spectrum must be very hard (α≃1) in order to fit the spectrum observed from Earth. Such a hard spectral index would be surprising and difficult to accommodate theoretically.more » In contrast, much softer spectral indices, consistent with the predictions of Fermi acceleration (α≃2), are favored in models with negative source evolution. Furthermore with this theoretical bias, these observations thus favor models in which the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays are preferentially located within the low-redshift universe.« less

  17. Negative differential resistance devices by using N-doped graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jing E-mail: liqun@ustc.edu.cn; Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 ; Wang, Weiyi; Li, Qunxiang E-mail: liqun@ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Jinlong; Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026

    2014-04-28

    Recently, extensive efforts have been devoted to the investigations of negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior in graphene. Here, by performing fully self-consistent density functional theory calculations combined with non-equilibrium Green's function technique, we investigate the transport properties of three molecules from conjugated molecule, one-dimension alkane chain, and single molecule magnet, which are sandwiched between two N-doped zigzag and armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). We observe robust NDR effect in all examined molecular junctions including benzene, alkane, and planar four-coordinated Fe complex. Through the analyses of the calculated electronic structures and the bias-dependent transmission coefficients, we find that the narrow density of states of N-doped GNRs and the bias-dependent effective coupling between the discrete frontier molecular orbitals and the subbands of N-doped GNRs are responsible for the observed NDR phenomenon. These theoretical findings imply that N-doped GNRs hold great potential for building NDR devices based on various molecules.

  18. Global Failure Criteria for Positive/Electrolyte/Negative Structure of Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

    2009-07-15

    Due to mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of various layers in the positive/electrolyte/negative (PEN) structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), thermal stresses and warpage on the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. In order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC, it is necessary to develop failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures based on the initial flaws occurred during cell sintering and stack assembly. In this paper, the global relationship between the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warped cells caused by the temperature changes as well as mechanical flattening process is established so that possible failure of SOFC PEN structures may be predicted deterministically by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warped cells.

  19. Generalized Bohms criterion and negative anode voltage fall in electric discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Londer, Ya. I.; Ulyanov, K. N.

    2013-10-15

    The value of the voltage fall across the anode sheath is found as a function of the current density. Analytic solutions are obtained in a wide range of the ratio of the directed velocity of plasma electrons v{sub 0} to their thermal velocity v{sub T}. It is shown that the voltage fall in a one-dimensional collisionless anode sheath is always negative. At the small values of v{sub 0}/v{sub T}, the obtained expression asymptotically transforms into the Langmuir formula. Generalized Bohms criterion for an electric discharge with allowance for the space charge density ?(0), electric field E(0), ion velocity v{sub i}(0), and ratio v{sub 0}/v{sub T} at the plasma-sheath interface is formulated. It is shown that the minimum value of the ion velocity v{sub i}{sup *}(0) corresponds to the vanishing of the electric field at one point inside the sheath. The dependence of v{sub i}{sup *} (0) on ?(0), E(0), and v{sub 0}/v{sub T} determines the boundary of the existence domain of stationary solutions in the sheath. Using this criterion, the maximum possible degree of contraction of the electron current at the anode is determined for a short high-current vacuum arc discharge.

  20. Role of positive ions on the surface production of negative ions in a fusion plasma reactor type negative ion sourceInsights from a three dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fubiani, G.; Boeuf, J. P. [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France) [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2013-11-15

    Results from a 3D self-consistent Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC MCC) model of a high power fusion-type negative ion source are presented for the first time. The model is used to calculate the plasma characteristics of the ITER prototype BATMAN ion source developed in Garching. Special emphasis is put on the production of negative ions on the plasma grid surface. The question of the relative roles of the impact of neutral hydrogen atoms and positive ions on the cesiated grid surface has attracted much attention recently and the 3D PIC MCC model is used to address this question. The results show that the production of negative ions by positive ion impact on the plasma grid is small with respect to the production by atomic hydrogen or deuterium bombardment (less than 10%)

  1. A comparative study of concurrence and negativity of general three-level quantum systems of two particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erol, V.

    2015-03-30

    Quantum entanglement is at the heart of quantum information processing. Ordering the quantum systems due to their entanglement is a popular problem of the field. For two level (qubit) systems of two particles, state ordering has been studied with respect to well-known entanglement measures such as Concurrence, Negativity and Relative Entropy of Entanglement (REE) [1-5]. In this work, we study the state ordering of the three-level quantum systems of two particles with respect to Concurrence and Negativity. In particular, constructing 10K random states and calculating their Concurrences and Negativities, we obtain the orderings of the states and present our results which are interesting when compared to that of two-level systems.

  2. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakano, H. Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-04-08

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ?3000?K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure.

  3. BLOWIN' IN THE WIND: BOTH ''NEGATIVE'' AND ''POSITIVE'' FEEDBACK IN AN OBSCURED HIGH-z QUASAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Mainieri, V.; Brusa, M.; Perna, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Piconcelli, E.; Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Maiolino, R.; Merloni, A; Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Civano, F.

    2015-01-20

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, preventing massive galaxies to overgrow and producing the red colors of ellipticals. On the other hand, some models are also requiring ''positive'' active galactic nucleus feedback, inducing star formation in the host galaxy through enhanced gas pressure in the interstellar medium. However, finding observational evidence of the effects of both types of feedback is still one of the main challenges of extragalactic astronomy, as few observations of energetic and extended radiatively driven winds are available. Here we present SINFONI near infrared integral field spectroscopy of XID2028, an obscured, radio-quiet z = 1.59 QSO detected in the XMM-COSMOS survey, in which we clearly resolve a fast (1500kms{sup 1}) and extended (up to 13kpc from the black hole) outflow in the [O III] lines emitting gas, whose large velocity and outflow rate are not sustainable by star formation only. The narrow component of H? emission and the rest frame U-band flux from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging enable to map the current star formation in the host galaxy: both tracers independently show that the outflow position lies in the center of an empty cavity surrounded by star forming regions on its edge. The outflow is therefore removing the gas from the host galaxy (''negative feedback''), but also triggering star formation by outflow induced pressure at the edges (''positive feedback''). XID2028 represents the first example of a host galaxy showing both types of feedback simultaneously at work.

  4. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  5. Study of small carbon and semiconductor clusters using negative ion threshold photodetachment spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, C.C.

    1994-08-01

    The bonding and electronics of several small carbon and semiconductor clusters containing less than ten atoms are probed using negative ion threshold photodetachment (zero electron kinetic energy, or ZEKE) spectroscopy. ZEKE spectroscopy is a particularly advantageous technique for small cluster study, as it combines mass selection with good spectroscopic resolution. The ground and low-lying electronic states of small clusters in general can be accessed by detaching an electron from the ground anion state. The clusters studied using this technique and described in this work are C{sub 6}{sup {minus}}/C{sub 6}, Si{sub n}{sup {minus}}/Si{sub n} (n = 2, 3, 4), Ge{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/Ge{sub 2}, In{sub 2}P{sup {minus}}/In{sub 2}P,InP{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/InP{sup 2}, and Ga{sub 2}As{sup {minus}}. The total photodetachment cross sections of several other small carbon clusters and the ZEKE spectrum of the I{sup {minus}}{center_dot}CH{sub 3}I S{sub N}2 reaction complex are also presented to illustrate the versatility of the experimental apparatus. Clusters with so few atoms do not exhibit bulk properties. However, each specie exhibits bonding properties that relate to the type of bonding found in the bulk. C{sub 6}, as has been predicted, exhibits a linear cumulenic structure, where double bonds connect all six carbon atoms. This double bonding reflects how important {pi} bonding is in certain phases of pure carbon (graphite and fullerenes). The symmetric stretch frequencies observed in the C{sub 6}{sup {minus}} spectra, however, are in poor agreement with the calculated values. Also observed as sharp structure in total photodetachment cross section scans was an excited anion state bound by only {approximately}40 cm{sup {minus}1} relative to the detachment continuum. This excited anion state appears to be a valence bound state, possible because of the high electron affinity of C{sub 6}, and the open shell of the anion.

  6. The oxidation of a gasoline surrogate in the negative temperature coefficient region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenhert, David B.; Miller, David L.; Cernansky, Nicholas P.; Owens, Kevin G.

    2009-03-15

    This experimental study investigated the preignition reactivity behavior of a gasoline surrogate in a pressurized flow reactor over the low and intermediate temperature regime (600-800 K) at elevated pressure (8 atm). The surrogate mixture, a volumetric blend of 4.6% 1-pentene, 31.8% toluene, 14.0% n-heptane, and 49.6% 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), was shown to reproduce the low and intermediate temperature reactivity of full boiling range fuels in a previous study. Each of the surrogate components were examined individually to identify the major intermediate species in order to improve existing kinetic models, where appropriate, and to provide a basis for examining constituent interactions in the surrogate mixture. n-Heptane and 1-pentene started reacting at 630 K and 640 K, respectively, and both fuels exhibited a strong negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior starting at 700 and 710 K, respectively. Iso-octane showed a small level of reactivity at 630 K and a weak NTC behavior starting at 665 K. Neat toluene was unreactive at these temperatures. The surrogate started reacting at 630 K and exhibited a strong NTC behavior starting at 693 K. The extent of fuel consumption varied for each of the surrogate constituents and was related to their general autoignition behavior. Most of the intermediates identified during the surrogate oxidation were species observed during the oxidation of the neat constituents; however, the surrogate mixture did exhibit a significant increase in intermediates associated with iso-octane oxidation, but not from n-heptane. While neat toluene was unreactive at these temperatures, in the mixture it reacted with the radical pool generated by the other surrogate components, forming benzaldehyde, benzene, phenol, and ethyl-benzene. The observed n-heptane, iso-octane, and surrogate oxidation behavior was compared to predictions using existing kinetic models. The n-heptane model reasonably predicted the disappearance of the fuel, but overpredicted the formation of several of the smaller intermediates. The iso-octane model significantly overpredicted the reaction of the fuel and formation of the intermediates. The 1-pentene model reasonably predicted the fuel consumption, but underestimated the importance of radical addition to the double bond. The results of this study provide a critical experimental foundation for the investigation of surrogate mixtures and for validation of kinetic models. (author)

  7. Ozone generation by negative direct current corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yehia, Ashraf; Mizuno, Akira

    2013-05-14

    An analytical study was made in this paper for calculating the ozone generation by negative dc corona discharges. The corona discharges were formed in a coaxial wire-cylinder reactor. The reactor was fed by dry air flowing with constant rates at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, and stressed by a negative dc voltage. The current-voltage characteristics of the negative dc corona discharges formed inside the reactor were measured in parallel with concentration of the generated ozone under different operating conditions. An empirical equation was derived from the experimental results for calculating the ozone concentration generated inside the reactor. The results, that have been recalculated by using the derived equation, have agreed with the experimental results over the whole range of the investigated parameters, except in the saturation range for the ozone concentration. Therefore, the derived equation represents a suitable criterion for expecting the ozone concentration generated by negative dc corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors under any operating conditions in range of the investigated parameters.

  8. A collisional radiative model for caesium and its application to an RF source for negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wnderlich, D. Wimmer, C.; Friedl, R.

    2015-04-08

    A collisional radiative (CR) model for caesium atoms in low-temperature, low-pressure hydrogen-caesium plasmas is introduced. This model includes the caesium ground state, 14 excited states, the singly charged caesium ion and the negative hydrogen ion. The reaction probabilities needed as input are based on data from the literature, using some scaling and extrapolations. Additionally, new cross sections for electron collision ionization and three-body recombination have been calculated. The relevance of mutual neutralization of positive caesium ions and negative hydrogen ions is highlighted: depending on the densities of the involved particle species, this excitation channel can have a significant influence on the population densities of excited states in the caesium atom. This strong influence is successfully verified by optical emission spectroscopy measurements performed at the IPP prototype negative hydrogen ion source for ITER NBI. As a consequence, population models for caesium in electronegative low-temperature, low-pressure hydrogen-caesium plasmas need to take into account the mutual neutralization process. The present CR model is an example for such models and represents an important prerequisite for deducing the total caesium density in surface production based negative hydrogen ion sources.

  9. T-633: BIND RRSIG RRsets Negative Caching Off-by-one Bug Lets Remote Users Deny Service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A remote DNS server can supply very large RRSIG RRsets in a negative response to trigger an off-by-one error in a buffer size check and cause the target requesting named process to crash. A remote user can cause named to crash.

  10. Tip-contact related low-bias negative differential resistance and rectifying effects in benzeneporphyrinbenzene molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Jue-Fei; Zhou, Liping E-mail: leigao@suda.edu.cn; Liu, Man; Yan, Qiang; Han, Qin; Gao, Lei E-mail: leigao@suda.edu.cn

    2014-11-07

    The electronic transport properties of benzeneporphyrinbenzene (BPB) molecules coupled to gold (Au) electrodes were investigated. By successively removing the front-end Au atoms, several BPB junctions with different molecule-electrode contact symmetries were constructed. The calculated currentvoltage (IV) curves depended strongly on the contact configurations between the BPB molecules and the Au electrodes. In particular, a significant low-voltage negative differential resistance effect appeared at ?0.3 V in the junctions with pyramidal electrodes on both sides. Along with the breaking of this tip-contact symmetry, the low-bias negative differential resistance effect gradually disappeared. This tip-contact may be ideal for use in the design of future molecular devices because of its similarity with experimental processes.

  11. Effect of non-uniform electron energy distribution function on plasma production in large arc driven negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, T.; Koga, S.; Terasaki, R.; Hatayama, A.; Inoue, T.; Dairaku, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Tobari, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.

    2012-02-15

    Spatially non-uniform electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an arc driven negative ion source (JAEA 10A negative ion source: 10 A NIS) is calculated numerically by a three-dimensional Monte Carlo kinetic model for electrons to understand spatial distribution of plasma production (such as atomic and ionic hydrogen (H{sup 0}/H{sup +}) production) in source chamber. The local EEDFs were directly calculated from electron orbits including electromagnetic effects and elastic/inelastic collision forces. From the EEDF, spatial distributions of H{sup 0}/H{sup +} production rate were obtained. The results suggest that spatial non-uniformity of H{sup 0}/H{sup +} productions is enhanced by high energy component of EEDF.

  12. Role of negatively charged ions in plasma on the growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Aarti; Walia, Ritu; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2012-01-15

    The role of negatively charged ions in plasma on growth (without catalyst) and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube (CNT) tip has been theoretically investigated. A theoretical model of charge neutrality, including the kinetics of electrons, negatively and positively charged ions, neutral atoms, and the energy balance of various species has been developed. Numerical calculations of the spherical CNT tip radius for different relative density of negatively charged ions {epsilon}{sub r}(=n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}}/n{sub C{sup +}}, where n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}} and n{sub C}{sup +} are the equilibrium densities of sulphur hexafluoride and carbon ions, respectively) have been carried out for the typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the spherical CNT tip radius decreases with {epsilon}{sub r} and hence the field emission of electrons from the spherical CNT tip increases. Some of our theoretical results are in accordance with the existing experimental observations.

  13. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lopscience iopscience.iop.org Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My lOPscience Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region- specific crop selection This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Download details: IP Address: 192.107.175.131 This content was downloaded on 30/07/2015 at 20:46 Please note that terms

  14. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.

  15. Transforming dielectric coated tungsten and platinum wires to gaseous state using negative nanosecond-pulsed-current in vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Xingwen Wang, Kun; Yang, Zefeng; Shi, Zongqian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici; Li, Zhenghong

    2014-11-15

    With the help of thin dielectric coatings, corona free explosions were achieved in the region of about half a wire length (2?cm) for tungsten wires and nearly the whole wire length for platinum wires under a fast rising (46170?A/ns) negative polarity current in vacuum. Expansion velocity of the tungsten gas was over 10?km/s. Current waveforms from exploding coated wires were similar to those from bare wires in the air including a current pause stage. Coated wires with different coating parameters had a similar joule energy deposition before voltage collapsed, but a quite different scenario in the region near the electrodes. The axial field under negative current was the main reason for the axial inhomogeneity of coated tungsten wires. Tungsten or platinum gases in the vaporized region were tightly encompassed by the dielectric coating, while gaps or probably low density gases, were observed between the coating and the edge of the dense wire core in the core-corona structure region.

  16. In situ analyses on negative ions in the sputtering process to deposit Al-doped ZnO films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsukamoto, Naoki; Watanabe, Daisuke; Saito, Motoaki; Sato, Yasushi; Oka, Nobuto; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2010-07-15

    The origin of high energy negative ions during deposition of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films by dc magnetron sputtering of an AZO (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: 2.0 wt %) target was investigated by in situ analyses using the quadrupole mass spectrometer combined with the electrostatic energy analyzer. High energy negative oxygen (O{sup -}) ions which possessed the kinetic energy corresponding to the cathode sheath voltage were detected. The maximum flux of the O{sup -} ions was clearly observed at the location opposite to the erosion track area on the target. The flux of the O{sup -} ions changed hardly with increasing O{sub 2} flow ratio [O{sub 2}/(Ar+O{sub 2})] from 0% to 5%. The kinetic energy of the O{sup -} ions decreased with decreasing cathode sheath voltage from 403 to 337 V due to the enhancement of the vertical maximum magnetic field strength at the cathode surface from 0.025 to 0.100 T. The AZO films deposited with the lower O{sup -} bombardment energy showed the higher crystallinity and improved the electrical conductivity.

  17. Evaluation of the Planning Target Volume in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: What Is the Appropriate Expansion Margin in the Setting of Daily Image Guidance?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Donald, Paul J.; Perks, Julian; Purdy, James A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To compare patterns of disease failure among patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in conjunction with daily image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for head and neck cancer, according to the margins used to expand the clinical target volume (CTV) to create a planning target volume (PTV). Methods and Materials: Two-hundred and twenty-five patients were treated with IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Daily IGRT scans were acquired using either kilovoltage or megavoltage volumetric imaging prior to each delivered fraction. The first 95 patients were treated with IMRT with 5-mm CTV-to-PTV margins. The subsequent 130 patients were treated using 3-mm PTV expansion margins. Results: Two-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and distant metastasis-free survival were 76%, 78%, and 81%, respectively. There were no differences with respect to any of these endpoints among patients treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV expansion margins (p > 0.05, all). The 2-year local-regional control rate for patients treated with IMRT with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins was 78% and 78%, respectively (p = 0.96). Spatial evaluation revealed no differences in the incidences of marginal failures among those treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins. Conclusions: The use of 3-mm PTV expansion margins appears adequate and did not increase local-regional failures among patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer. These data demonstrate the safety of PTV reduction of less than 5 mm and support current protocols recommending this approach in the setting of daily IGRT.

  18. Negative differential transconductance in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect/bipolar hybrid transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naquin, Clint; Lee, Mark; Edwards, Hal; Mathur, Guru; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Maggio, Ken

    2014-11-24

    Introducing explicit quantum transport into Si transistors in a manner amenable to industrial fabrication has proven challenging. Hybrid field-effect/bipolar Si transistors fabricated on an industrial 45 nm process line are shown to demonstrate explicit quantum transport signatures. These transistors incorporate a lateral ion implantation-defined quantum well (QW) whose potential depth is controlled by a gate voltage (V{sub G}). Quantum transport in the form of negative differential transconductance (NDTC) is observed to temperatures >200 K. The NDTC is tied to a non-monotonic dependence of bipolar current gain on V{sub G} that reduces drain-source current through the QW. These devices establish the feasibility of exploiting quantum transport to transform the performance horizons of Si devices fabricated in an industrially scalable manner.

  19. Global Analysis Of The Negative Parity Non-Strange Baryons In The 1/N{sub c} Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goity, Jose L.; Gonzalez de Urreta, Emiliano Jose; Scoccola, Norberto N.

    2014-02-01

    A global study of the negative parity non-strange baryon observables is performed in the framework of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. Masses, partial decay widths and photo-couplings are simultaneously analyzed. A main objective is to determine the composition of the spin 1/2 and 3/2 nucleon states, which come in pairs and involve two mixing angles which can be determined and tested for consistency by the mentioned observables. The issue of the assignment of those nucleon states to the broken SU(4) X O(3) mixed-symmetry multiplet is studied in detail, with the conclusion that the assignment made in the old studies based on the non-relativistic quark model is the preferred one. In addition, the analysis involves an update of the input data with respect to previous works.

  20. Study of plasma meniscus formation and beam halo in negative ion source using the 3D3VPIC model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Fukano, A.

    2015-04-08

    In this paper, the effect of the electron confinement time on the plasma meniscus and the fraction of the beam halo is investigated by 3D3V-PIC (three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space) (Particle in Cell) simulation in the extraction region of negative ion source. The electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of diffusion across the magnetic field. Our 3D3V-PIC results support the previous result by 2D3V-PIC results i.e., it is confirmed that the penetration of the plasma meniscus becomes deep into the source plasma region when the effective confinement time is short.

  1. Transport properties of bare and hydrogenated zigzag silicene nanoribbons: Negative differential resistances and perfect spin-filtering effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, Y. S. Feng, J. F.; Wang, X. F.; Zhang, C. W.; Chi, F.

    2014-09-28

    Ab initio calculations are performed to investigate the spin-polarized transport properties of the bare and hydrogenated zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs). The results show that the ZSiNRs with symmetric (asymmetric) edges prefer the ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic) as their ground states with the semiconductor properties, while the accordingly antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) states exhibit the metallic behaviors. These facts result in a giant magnetoresistance behavior between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states in the low bias-voltage regime. Moreover, in the ferromagnetic ZSiNRs with asymmetric edges, a perfect spin-filtering effect with 100% positive electric current polarization can be achieved by altering the bias voltage. In addition, we also find that the negative differential resistances prefer the metastable states. The findings here indicate that the asymmetric and symmetric ZSiNRs are promising materials for spintronic applications.

  2. A relationship between statistical time to breakdown distributions and pre-breakdown negative differential resistance at nanometric scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foissac, R.; Blonkowski, S.; Delcroix, P.; Kogelschatz, M.

    2014-07-14

    Using an ultra-high vacuum Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) current voltage, pre-breakdown negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics are measured together with the time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) distributions of Si/SiON (1.4 and 2.6?nm thick). Those experimental characteristics are systematically compared. The NDR effect is modelled by a conductive filament growth. It is showed that the Weibull TDDB statistic distribution scale factor is proportional to the growth rate of an individual filament and then has the same dependence on the electric field. The proportionality factor is a power law of the ratio between the surfaces of the CAFM tip and the filament's top. Moreover, it was found that, for the high fields used in those experiments, the TDDB acceleration factor as the growth rate characteristic is proportional to the Zener tunnelling probability. Those observations are discussed in the framework of possible breakdown or forming mechanism.

  3. Investigation of the negative differential resistance reproducibility in AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunnelling diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boucherit, M.; Soltani, A.; Rousseau, M.; Deresmes, D.; Berthe, M.; Durand, C.; De Jaeger, J.-C.

    2011-10-31

    AlN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunnelling diodes were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN/sapphire template and processed into mesa diameters from 2 {mu}m to 4 {mu}m. The current-voltage characteristics were carried out in direct current operation and under-high vacuum. A sharp negative differential resistance (NDR) was detected in the forward bias at 120 K. The NDR was observed for the mesa size of 2 {mu}m at 4 V with a peak-to-valley current ratio of 3.5. The measurement conditions were chosen to make NDR reproducible more than 50 times and apparent in both scan voltage directions after electrical treatment.

  4. Outcomes of Node-Negative Breast Cancer 5 Centimeters and Larger Treated With and Without Postmastectomy Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulart, Jennifer; Truong, Pauline; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline H.; Kennecke, Hagen; Nichol, Alan

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: The role of adjuvant postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) remains controversial for the rare presentation of pT3pN0cM0 breast cancer. The present analysis examined locoregional recurrence (LRR) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) in pT2 = 5.0-cm and pT3 >5.0-cm tumors treated with mastectomy, stratified by PMRT use. Materials and Methods: Between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2000, the British Columbia provincial database yielded 100 node-negative patients with tumors {>=}5 cm of 19,846 nonmetastatic breast cancer patients (0.5%). Of these 100 patients, 44 (44%) had received adjuvant PMRT. Results: The PMRT group contained significantly more pT3 >5-cm cases (p = 0.001) and margin-positive cases (p = .03). With a median follow-up of 10 years, the cumulative 10-year LRR rate was 2.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-10.5) in the PMRT group vs. 8.9% (95% confidence interval, 3.2-18.2) in the no-PMRT group (p = .2). Regarding LRR in the no-PMRT group, all patients had Grade 3 histologic features (LRR 17%, 5 of 29) and had not received hormonal therapy (LRR 15%, 5 of 34). The 10-year breast cancer-specific survival rate was 85.8% (95% confidence interval 71.0-93.4) in the PMRT group vs. 74.6% (95% confidence interval 59.9-84.5) in the no-PMRT group (p = .2). On multivariate analysis, adjusted for the prognostic and predictive variables, PMRT did not significantly improve the LRR or breast cancer-specific survival rates. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a low LRR rate for node-negative breast cancer {>=}5 cm. Our results indicate that PMRT should be considered for Grade 3 histologic features and patients not undergoing hormonal therapy.

  5. Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effets on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekoto, Dr Isaac; Peterson, Dr. Brian; Szybist, James P; Northrop, Dr. William

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate. Gas sampling at the end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus, with detailed sample speciation by in-house gas chromatography. The balance of NVO-period input and output energy flows was calculated in terms of fuel energy, work, heat loss, and change in sensible energy. Experiment results were complemented by detailed chemistry single-zone reactor simulations performed at relevant mixing and thermodynamic conditions, with results used to evaluate ignition behavior and expected energy recovery yields. For the intermediate bulk-gas temperatures present during the NVO period (900-1100 K), weak negative temperature coefficient behavior with iso-octane fueling significantly lengthened ignition delays relative to similar ethanol fueled conditions. Faster ethanol ignition chemistry led to lower recovered fuel intermediate yields relative to similar iso-octane fueled conditions due to more complete fuel oxidation. From the energy analysis it was found that increased NVO-period global equivalence ratio, either from lower NVOperiod oxygen concentrations or higher fueling rates, in general led to a greater fraction of net recovered fuel energy and work as heat losses were minimized. These observations were supported by complementary single-zone reactor model results, which further indicated that kinetic time-scales favor chemical energy-consuming exothermic oxidation over slower endothermic reformation. Nonetheless, fuel energy recovery close to the thermodynamic equilibrium solution was achieved for baseline conditions that featured 4% NVO-period oxygen concentration.

  6. Conceptual Design, Implementation and Commissioning of Data Acquisition and Control System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soni, Jignesh; Gahlaut, A.; Bansal, G.; Parmar, K. G.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.; Yadav, Ratnakar; Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-09-26

    Negative ion Experimental facility has been setup at IPR. The facility consists of a RF based negative ion source (ROBIN)--procured under a license agreement with IPP Garching, as a replica of BATMAN, presently operating in IPP, 100 kW 1 MHz RF generators and a set of low and high voltage power supplies, vacuum system and diagnostics. 35 keV 10A H- beam is expected from this setup. Automated successful operation of the system requires an advanced, rugged, time proven and flexible control system. Further the data generated in the experimental phase needs to be acquired, monitored and analyzed to verify and judge the system performance. In the present test bed, this is done using a combination of PLC based control system and a PXI based data acquisition system. The control system consists of three different Siemens PLC systems viz. (1) S-7 400 PLC as a Master Control, (2) S-7 300 PLC for Vacuum system control and (3) C-7 PLC for RF generator control. Master control PLC directly controls all the subsystems except the Vacuum system and RF generator. The Vacuum system and RF generator have their own dedicated PLCs (S-7 300 and C-7 respectively). Further, these two PLC systems work as a slave for the Master control PLC system. Communication between PLC S-7 400, S-7 300 and central control room computer is done through Industrial Ethernet (IE). Control program and GUI are developed in Siemens Step-7 PLC programming software and Wincc SCADA software, respectively. There are approximately 150 analog and 200 digital control and monitoring signals required to perform complete closed loop control of the system. Since the source floats at high potential ({approx}35 kV); a combination of galvanic and fiber optic isolation has been implemented. PXI based Data Acquisition system (DAS) is a combination of PXI RT (Real time) system, front end signal conditioning electronics, host system and DAQ program. All the acquisition signals coming from various sub-systems are connected and acquired by the PXI RT system, through only fiber optics link for signal conditioning, electrical isolation and better noise immunity. Real time and Host application programs are developed in LabVIEW and the data shall be stored with a facility of online display of selected parameters. Mathematical calculations and report generation will take place at the end of each beam shot. The paper describes in detail about the design approach, implementation strategy, program development, commissioning and operational test result of ROBIN through a data acquisition and control system.

  7. A direct method for determining complete positive and negative capillary pressure curves for reservoir rock using the centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinler, E.A.; Baldwin, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    A method is being developed for direct experimental determination of capillary pressure curves from saturation distributions produced during centrifuging fluids in a rock plug. A free water level is positioned along the length of the plugs to enable simultaneous determination of both positive and negative capillary pressures. Octadecane as the oil phase is solidified by temperature reduction while centrifuging to prevent fluid redistribution upon removal from the centrifuge. The water saturation is then measured via magnetic resonance imaging. The saturation profile within the plug and the calculation of pressures for each point of the saturation profile allows for a complete capillary pressure curve to be determined from one experiment. Centrifuging under oil with a free water level into a 100 percent water saturated plug results in the development of a primary drainage capillary pressure curve. Centrifuging similarly at an initial water saturation in the plug results in the development of an imbibition capillary pressure curve. Examples of these measurements are presented for Berea sandstone and chalk rocks.

  8. Gasoline-like Fuel Effects on High-load, Boosted HCCI Combustion Employing Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated that boosted operation combined with external EGR is a path forward for expanding the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation with the negative valve overlap (NVO) valve strategy. However, the effects of fuel composition with this strategy have not been fully explored. In this study boosted HCCI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), laboratory pressurized intake air, and a fully-variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train. Three fuels with significant compositional differences are investigated: regular grade gasoline (RON = 90.2), 30% ethanol-gasoline blend (E30, RON = 100.3), and 24% iso-butanol-gasoline blend (IB24, RON = 96.6). Results include engine loads from 350 to 800 kPa IMEPg for all fuels at three engine speeds 1600, 2000, and 2500 rpm. All operating conditions achieved thermal efficiency (gross indicated efficiency) between 38 and 47%, low NOX emissions ( 0.1 g/kWh), and high combustion efficiency ( 96.5%). Detailed sweeps of intake manifold pressure (atmospheric to 250 kPaa), EGR (0 25% EGR), and injection timing are conducted to identify fuel-specific effects. The major finding of this study is that while significant fuel compositional differences exist, in boosted HCCI operation only minor changes in operational conditions are required to achieve comparable operation for all fuels. In boosted HCCI operation all fuels were able to achieve matched load-speed operation, whereas in conventional SI operation the fuel-specific knock differences resulted in significant differences in the operable load-speed space. Although all fuels were operable in boosted HCCI, the respective air handling requirements are also discussed, including an analysis of the demanded turbocharger efficiency.

  9. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O₃) and fine particulate matter (PM₂̣₅) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth Systemmore » Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O₃ increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM₂̣₅ increases of up to 2 μgm⁻³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.« less

  10. Measurement of Electron Density near Plasma Grid of Large-scaled Negative Ion Source by Means of Millimeter-Wave Interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Ito, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Shibuya, M.; Sato, M.; Komada, S.; Kondo, T.; Hayashi, H.; Asano, E.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2011-09-26

    A millimeter-wave interferometer with the frequency of 39 GHz ({lambda} 7.7 mm) was newly installed to a large-scaled negative ion source. The measurable line-integrated electron density (n{sub e}l) is from 2x10{sup 16} to 7x10{sup 18} m{sup -2}, where n{sub e} and l represent an electron density and the plasma length along the millimeter-wave path, respectively. Our interest in this study is behavior of negative ions and reduction of electron density in the beam extraction region near the plasma grid. The first results show the possibility of the electron density measurement by the millimeter-wave interferometer in this region. The line-averaged electron density increases proportional to the arc power under the condition without cesium seeding. The significant decrease of the electron density and significant increase of the negative ion density were observed just after the cesium seeding. The electron density measured with the interferometer agrees well with that observed with a Langmuir probe. The very high negative ion ratio of n{sub H-}/(n{sub e}+n{sub H-}) = 0.85 was achieved within 400 min. after the cesium seeding.

  11. ARRA521 Recovery Act - Project Daily Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Spend Plan Obligated to Contracts Payments to Date Unpaid Balance Argonne National Laboratory $79,000,000 $79,000,000 $79,000,000 $0 Brookhaven National Laboratory $70,810,000 $70,809,616 $70,809,616 $0 Energy Technology Engineering Center $51,675,000 $51,675,000 $51,675,000 $0 Hanford (Office of River Protection) $326,035,000 $325,999,617 $325,999,260 $358 Hanford (Richland) $1,634,500,000 $1,633,889,356 $1,633,082,542 $806,815 Idaho $467,875,000 $467,840,907 $467,840,907 $0 Los Alamos National

  12. ARRA521 Recovery Act - Project Daily Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Valley Demonstration Project 62,875,000 61,790,821 61,790,821 0 Title X UraniumThorium Reimbursements 70,000,000 69,996,978 69,996,978 0 Management & Oversight...

  13. Electronic inhomogeneity and Ag:Sb imbalance of Ag1-yPb18Sb1...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levin, B.A. Cook, K. Ahn, M.G. Kanatzidis, K. Schmidt-Rohr Year: 2009 Abstract: Using magic-angle spinning 125Te and 207Pb NMR, we have discovered the presence of two phases of...

  14. Chemical and Charge Imbalance Induced by Radionuclide Decay: Effects on Waste Form Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Weilin; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.

    2012-09-28

    This is a technical report summarizing the experimental and theoretical results for model waste form of aluminosilicate pollucite, obtained from January to September, 2012.

  15. Search for squarks and gluinos in events containing jets and a large imbalance in transverse energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B.S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Alves, G.A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E.W.; Baarmand, M.M.; Babintsev, V.V.; Babukhadia, Levan R.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J.F.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U. /Andes U., Bogota /DAPNIA, Saclay /Panjab U. /Delhi U. /Tata Inst. /Kyungsung U. /Seoul Natl. U. /CINVESTAV, IPN /Cracow, INP /Moscow, ITEP /Moscow State U. /Serpukhov, IHEP /Arizona U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /UC, Davis /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside

    1999-02-01

    Using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 79 pb{sup -1}, D0 has searched for events containing multiple jets and large missing transverse energy in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Observing no significant excess beyond what is expected from the standard model, they set limits on the masses of squarks and gluinos and on the model parameters m{sub 0} and m{sub 1/2}, in the framework of the minimal low-energy supergravity models of supersymmetry. For tan {beta} = 2 and A{sub 0} = 0, with {mu} < 0, they exclude all models with m{sub q} {approx} < 250 GeV/c{sup 2}. For models with equal squark and gluino masses, they exclude m < 260 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  16. Daily Sodium Butyrate Enema for the Prevention of Radiation Proctitis in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radical Radiation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Dose-Finding Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggio, Angelo; Magli, Alessandro; Rancati, Tiziana; Fiorino, Claudio; Valvo, Francesca; Fellin, Giovanni; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Cosentino, Dorian; Cazzaniga, Luigi Franco; Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate enemas (NABUREN) in prostate cancer radiation therapy (RT) in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute RT-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: 166 patients, randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups (rectal sodium butyrate 1 g, 2 g, or 4 g daily or placebo), were treated with NABUREN during and 2 weeks after RT. The grade of proctitis was registered in a daily diary. The correlation between NABUREN and proctitis was investigated through χ{sup 2} statistics. The toxicity endpoints considered were as follows: total number of days with grade ≥1 proctitis (≥G1); total number of days with grade ≥2 proctitis (≥G2); ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis lasting at least 3 and 5 consecutive days starting from week 4 (≥G1+3d, ≥G2+3d); damaging effects of RT on rectal mucosa as measured by endoscopy. The relationship between endpoints and pretreatment morbidities, hormonal therapy, presence of diabetes or hypertension, abdominal surgery, or hemorrhoids was investigated by univariate analysis. Results: The patients were randomly allocated to the 4 arms. No difference in the distribution of comorbidities among the arms was observed (P>.09). The mean ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis were 7.8 and 4.9 for placebo and 8.9 and 4.7 for the NABUREN group, respectively. No favorable trend in reduction of incidence, severity, and duration of ≥G1 and ≥G2 proctitis was observed with NABUREN use. In univariate analysis, ≥G1+3d toxicity was found to be related to hemorrhoids (P=.008), and a slight correlation was found between ≥G2 proctitis and hormonal therapy (P=.06). The RT effects on rectal mucosa as based on endoscopic assessment were mainly related to diabetes (P<.01). Endoscopy data at 6 week showed no significant difference between the placebo and butyrate arms. The other investigated endpoints were not correlated with any of the clinical risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy of NABUREN in reducing the incidence, severity, and duration of acute radiation proctitis. There was a correlation between some endpoints and clinical risk factors.

  17. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  18. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  19. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; et al

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accuratelymore » identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  20. Genome sequencing of the Trichoderma reesei QM9136 mutant identifies a truncation of the transcriptional regulator XYR1 as the cause for its cellulase-negative phenotype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichius, Alexander; Bidard, Frederique; Buchholz, Franziska; Le Crom, Stphane; Martin, Joel X.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Austerlitz, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Margeot, Antoine; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2015-12-01

    Background: Trichoderma reesei is the main industrial source of cellulases and hemicellulases required for the hydrolysis of biomass to simple sugars, which can then be used in the production of biofuels and biorefineries. The highly productive strains in use today were generated by classical mutagenesis. As byproducts of this procedure, mutants were generated that turned out to be unable to produce cellulases. In order to identify the mutations responsible for this inability, we sequenced the genome of one of these strains, QM9136, and compared it to that of its progenitor T. reesei QM6a. Results: In QM9136, we detected a surprisingly low number of mutagenic events in the promoter and coding regions of genes, i.e. only eight indels and six single nucleotide variants. One of these indels led to a frame-shift in the Zn2Cys6 transcription factor XYR1, the general regulator of cellulase and xylanase expression, and resulted in its C-terminal truncation by 140 amino acids. Retransformation of strain QM9136 with the wild-type xyr1 allele fully recovered the ability to produce cellulases, and is thus the reason for the cellulase-negative phenotype. Introduction of an engineered xyr1 allele containing the truncating point mutation into the moderate producer T. reesei QM9414 rendered this strain also cellulase-negative. The correspondingly truncated XYR1 protein was still able to enter the nucleus, but failed to be expressed over the basal constitutive level. Conclusion: The missing 140 C-terminal amino acids of XYR1 are therefore responsible for its previously observed auto-regulation which is essential for cellulases to be expressed. Our data present a working example of the use of genome sequencing leading to a functional explanation of the QM9136 cellulase-negative phenotype.

  1. The PIKfyveArPIKfyveSac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikonomov, Ognian C. Filios, Catherine Sbrissa, Diego Chen, Xuequn Shisheva, Assia

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyveArPIKfyveSac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3PPtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3PPtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the homeostasis of these lipids in TNBC. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for Sac3 phosphatase in TNBC cell proliferation. Database analyses, discussed herein, reinforce the involvement of Sac3 in breast cancer pathogenesis.

  2. Spin-glass-like behavior and negative thermal expansion in antiperovskite Mn{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}N compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Lei; Wang, Cong Sun, Ying; Colin, Claire V.; Chu, Lihua

    2015-06-07

    The Cu-doping effect on the lattice and magnetic properties in Mn{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}N (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) was extensively investigated. We observed that the Cu-doping at the Ni site complicated the magnetic ground states, which induced the competition of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions. Spin-glass-like behavior, arising from possible site-randomness and competing interactions of magnetism, was observed in compounds with x = 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7, and typically discussed by means of the measurement of ac magnetic susceptibility for x = 0.7. The negative thermal expansion (NTE) behavior, due to the magnetic ordering transition, was observed in Mn{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}N compounds using variable temperature x-ray diffraction. It reveals that the introduction of Cu effectively broadens the temperature range displaying negative thermal expansion. The relationship between the local lattice distortion and the competing magnetic ground states might play an important role in broadening the NTE temperature range in this antiperovskite compound.

  3. Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. ); Hartman, P.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

  4. Role of phase matching in pulsed second-harmonic generation: Walk-off and phase-locked twin pulses in negative-index media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roppo, Vito; Centini, Marco; Sibilia, Concita; Bertolotti, Mario; De Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael; Akozbek, Neset; Bloemer, Mark J.; Haus, Joseph W.; Kosareva, Olga G.; Kandidov, Valery P.

    2007-09-15

    The present investigation is concerned with the study of pulsed second-harmonic generation under conditions of phase and group velocity mismatch, and generally low conversion efficiencies and pump intensities. In positive-index, nonmetallic materials, we generally find qualitative agreement with previous reports regarding the presence of a double-peaked second harmonic signal, which comprises a pulse that walks off and propagates at the nominal group velocity one expects at the second-harmonic frequency, and a second pulse that is 'captured' and propagates under the pump pulse. We find that the origin of the double-peaked structure resides in a phase-locking mechanism that characterizes not only second-harmonic generation, but also {chi}{sup (3)} processes and third-harmonic generation. The phase-locking mechanism that we describe occurs for arbitrarily small pump intensities, and so it is not a soliton effect, which usually relies on a threshold mechanism, although multicolor solitons display similar phase locking characteristics. Thus, in second harmonic generation a phase-matched component is always generated, even under conditions of material phase mismatch: This component is anomalous, because the material does not allow energy exchange between the pump and the second-harmonic beam. On the other hand, if the material is phase matched, phase locking and phase matching are indistinguishable, and the conversion process becomes efficient. We also report a similar phase-locking phenomenon in negative index materials. A spectral analysis of the pump and the generated signals reveals that the phase-locking phenomenon causes the forward moving, phase-locked second-harmonic pulse to experience the same negative index as the pump pulse, even though the index of refraction at the second-harmonic frequency is positive. Our analysis further shows that the reflected second-harmonic pulse generated at the interface and the forward-moving, phase-locked pulse appear to be part of the same pulse initially generated at the surface, part of which is immediately back-reflected, while the rest becomes trapped and dragged along by the pump pulse. These pulses thus constitute twin pulses generated at the interface, having the same negative wave vector, but propagating in opposite directions. Almost any break of the longitudinal symmetry, even an exceedingly small {chi}{sup (2)} discontinuity, releases the trapped pulse which then propagates in the backward direction. These dynamics are indicative of very rich and intricate interactions that characterize ultrashort pulse propagation phenomena.

  5. Microsoft Word - Negative_compressibility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compressibility (NEC) in a three dimensional spin-orbit correlated metal (Sr 1-x La x ) 3 Ir 2 O 7 , utilizing the high-resolution angle- resolved photoemission spectroscopy...

  6. Development of the front end test stand and vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses negative hydrogen ion sources at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Perkins, M.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.; Gabor, C.; Back, J.

    2014-02-15

    The ISIS pulsed spallation neutron and muon facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK uses a Penning surface plasma negative hydrogen ion source. Upgrade options for the ISIS accelerator system demand a higher current, lower emittance beam with longer pulse lengths from the injector. The Front End Test Stand is being constructed at RAL to meet the upgrade requirements using a modified ISIS ion source. A new 10% duty cycle 25 kV pulsed extraction power supply has been commissioned and the first meter of 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole has been delivered. Simultaneously, a Vessel for Extraction and Source Plasma Analyses is under construction in a new laboratory at RAL. The detailed measurements of the plasma and extracted beam characteristics will allow a radical overhaul of the transport optics, potentially yielding a simpler source configuration with greater output and lifetime.

  7. Negative to positive magnetoresistance and magnetocaloric effect in Pr0.6Er0.4Al2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Gschneidner, Jr., K. A.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2014-10-13

    We report on the magnetic, magnetocaloric and magnetotransport properties of Pr0.6Er0.4Al2. The title compound exhibits a large positive magnetoresistance (MR) for H ≥ 40 kOe and a small but non negligible negative MR for H ≤ 30 kOe. The maximum positive MR reaches 13% at H = 80 kOe. The magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes as functions of temperature each show two anomalies: a broad dome-like maximum below 20 K and a relatively sharp peak at higher temperature. As a result, observed behaviors are unique among other binary and mixed lanthanide compounds.

  8. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brombin, M. Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-11-15

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  9. Structural, negative thermal expansion and photocatalytic properties of ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7}: a comparative study between fibers and powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Qinqin; Yang, Juan; Rong, Xiaoqing; Sun, Xiujuan; Cheng, Xiaonong; Tang, Hua; Li, Haohua

    2014-10-15

    Novel ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} microfibers with diameters about 13 ?m were synthesized using a solgel technique. For comparison, ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders were prepared by the same method. The resultant structures were studied by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that both the pure ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} microfibers and powders could be synthesized by the solgel technique. The thermal expansion property of the as-prepared ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} microfibers and powders was characterized by a thermal mechanical analyzer, both the fibers with cylindrical morphology and irregular powders with average size between 100 and 200 nm showed negative thermal expansion between 150 C and 600 C. The photocatalytic activity of the microfibers was compared to that of powders under UV radiations. The band gap of ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} microfibers decreased and its absorption edge exhibited red shift. The microfibers also had a higher surface area compared with the powders, resulting in considerably higher photocatalytic characteristics. The large surface area and the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} microfibers also offer potential applications in sensors and inorganic ion exchangers. - Graphical abstract: (a and c) SEM photos of ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders and fibers. (b and d) TEM images of ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders and fibers. (e) Thermal expansion curves of ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders and fibers. (f) Degradation curves of ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders and ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} fibers. - Highlights: Novel ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} fibers could be synthesized using solgel technique. ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders with irregular shape are also prepared for comparison. Both ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} microfibers and powders exhibit negative thermal expansion property. ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} microfibers show outstanding photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. This synthesis technique can be easily extended to many other functional fibers.

  10. Electrical conductivity anomaly and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} negative temperature coefficient ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bo; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Zhao, Qing; Chang, Aimin E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu; Li, Yiyu; Liu, Yin; Wu, Yiquan E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu

    2014-03-10

    Electrical conductivity anomaly of perovskite-type YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} negative temperature coefficient (NTC) ceramics produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been investigated by using defect chemistry theory combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. From the results of the ln?-1/T curves and the XPS analysis, it can be considered that YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit the hopping conductivity. The major carriers in YCrO{sub 3} are holes, which are compensated by the oxygen vacancies produced due to the introduction of Mn ions. The Mn{sup 4+} ion contents increase monotonically in the range of 0.2???x???0.5. The resistivity increases at first and then decreases with increasing Mn contents, which has the same varying tendency with activation energy. The electrical conductivity anomaly appearing in these ceramics may be due to the variation of Cr{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions concentration as Mn content changes.

  11. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Amidan, Brett G.; Sydor, Michael A.; Barrett, Christopher A.

    2015-03-31

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.

  12. The Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectrum of Cyclopropane-1,2,3-Trione Radical Anion (CO)(3)- - A Joint Experimental and Computational Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bo; Hrovat, David; West, Robert C.; Deng, Shihu; Wang, Xue B.; Borden, Weston

    2014-09-03

    Negative Ion Photoelectron (NIPE) spectra of the radical anion of cyclopropane-1,2,3-trione, (CO)3?, have been obtained at 20 K, using both 355 and 266 nm lasers for electron photodetachment. The spectra show broadened bands, due to the short lifetimes of both the singlet and triplet states of (CO)3. The smaller intensity of the band with the lower electron binding energy suggests that the singlet is the ground state of (CO)3. From the NIPE spectra, the electron affinity (EA) and the singlet-triplet energy gap of (CO)3 are estimated to be, respectively, EA = 3.1 0.1 eV and ?EST = ?14 3 kcal/mol. High-level, (U)CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ//(U)CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ, calcu-lations give EA = 3.04 eV for the 1A1 ground state of (CO)3 and ?EST = ?13.8 kcal/mol for the energy gap between the 1A1 and 3A2 states, in excellent agreement with values from the NIPE spectra. In addition, simulations of the vibrational structures for formation of these states of (CO)3 from the 2A2? state of (CO)3? provide a good fit to the shapes of broad bands in the 266 nm NIPE spectrum. The NIPE spectrum of (CO)3? and the analysis of the spectrum by high-quality electronic structure calculations demonstrate that NIPES can not only access and provide information about transition structures, but NIPES can also access and provide information about hilltops on potential energy surfaces.

  13. False Negative Rates of a Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates via Real-Time PCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutchison, Janine R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Sydor, Michael A.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L

    2015-05-01

    Surface sampling for Bacillus anthracis spores has traditionally relied on detection via bacterial cultivation methods. Although effective, this approach does not provide the level of organism specificity that can be gained through molecular techniques. False negative rates (FNR) and limits of detection (LOD) were determined for two B. anthracis surrogates with modified rapid viability-polymerase chain reaction (mRV-PCR) following macrofoam-swab sampling. This study was conducted in parallel with a previously reported study that analyzed spores using a plate-culture method. B. anthracis Sterne (BAS) or B. atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores were deposited onto four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic) at nine target concentrations (2 to 500 spores/coupon; 0.078 to 19.375 colony-forming units [CFU] per cm²). Mean FNR values for mRV-PCR analysis ranged from 0 to 0.917 for BAS and 0 to 0.875 for BG and increased as spore concentration decreased (over the concentrations investigated) for each surface material. FNRs based on mRV-PCR data were not statistically different for BAS and BG, but were significantly lower for glass than for vinyl tile. FNRs also tended to be lower for the mRV-PCR method compared to the culture method. The mRV-PCR LOD₉₅ was lowest for glass (0.429 CFU/cm² with BAS and 0.341 CFU/cm² with BG) and highest for vinyl tile (0.919 CFU/cm² with BAS and 0.917 CFU/cm² with BG). These mRV-PCR LOD₉₅ values were lower than the culture values (BAS: 0.678 to 1.023 CFU/cm² and BG: 0.820 to 1.489 CFU/cm²). The FNR and LOD₉₅ values reported in this work provide guidance for environmental sampling of Bacillus spores at low concentrations.

  14. Twin studies reveal specific imbalances in the mucosa-associated microbiota of patients with ileal Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willing, B.; Halfvarson, J.; Dicksved, J.; Rosenquist, M.; Jarnerot, G.; Engstrand, L.; Tysk, C.; Jansson, J. K

    2008-08-15

    Large inter-individual variation in the composition of the intestinal microbiota between unrelated individuals has made it challenging to identify specific aspects of dysbiosis that lead to Crohn's disease. To reduce variations in exposure during establishment of the gut flora and influence of genotype, we studied the mucosaassociated microbiota of monozygotic twin pairs that were discordant (n=6) or concordant (n=4) for Crohn's disease. DNA was extracted from biopsies collected from 5 locations between the ileum and rectum. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified and community composition assessed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. The microbial compositions at all biopsy locations for each individual were similar, regardless of disease state, but there were differences between individuals. In particular, individuals with predominantly ileal Crohn's had a dramatically lower abundance (P<0.001) of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and increased abundance (P<0.03) of Escherichia coli compared to healthy co-twins and those with Crohn's localized in the colon. This dysbiosis was significantly correlated to the disease phenotype rather than genotype. The reduced abundance of F. prausnitzii and increased abundance of E. coli are indicative of an ileal Crohn's disease phenotype, distinct from colonic Crohn's disease and the relative abundances of these specific bacterial populations are promising biomarker candidates for differential diagnosis of Crohn's and eventually customized treatment.

  15. Ti-substituted tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 oxide as a negative electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Liu, Jue; Lee, Byungju; Qiao, Ruimin; Yang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Shuyin; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yang, Wanli; Kang, Kisuk; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-03-25

    The aqueous sodium-ion battery system is a safe and low-cost solution for large-scale energy storage, due to the abundance of sodium and inexpensive aqueous electrolytes. Although several positive electrode materials, e.g., Na0.44MnO2, were proposed, few negative electrode materials, e.g., activated carbon and NaTi2(PO4)3, are available. Here we show that Ti-substituted Na0.44MnO2 (Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2) with tunnel structure can be used as a negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. This material exhibits superior cyclability even without the special treatment of oxygen removal from the aqueous solution. Atomic-scale characterizations based on spherical aberration-corrected electron microscopy and ab initio calculations are utilized to accurately identify the Ti substitution sites and sodium storage mechanism. Ti substitution tunes the charge ordering property and reaction pathway, significantly smoothing the discharge/charge profiles and lowering the storage voltage. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that Na0.44[Mn1-xTix]O2 is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  16. Top information officer will also head technology (Daily Press) | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab www.dailypress.com/topic/ Submitted: Saturday, February 21, 2009

  17. Science wizards wow audience (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    http://www.dailypress.com/topic/ Submitted: Sunday, February 8, 2009

  18. Painting firm honored by Jefferson Lab (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    www.dailypress.com/topic/ Submitted: Monday, April 20, 2009 - 12

  19. Physicist pulled in millions in federal grants (Daily Press) | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab www.dailypress.com/topic/ Submitted: Thursday, September 25, 2008 - 12

  20. Jefferson Lab: Laser gun to eventually shoot down missiles (Daily...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    articles.dailypress.com2011-02-21newsdp-nws-jefferson-lab-201102211jefferson-lab-researchers-free-electron-l... Submitted: Monday, February 21, 2011

  1. Warm Weather and the Daily Commute | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Does Your City Have a Commuting Challenge? Drive Less, Save More Efficient Driving Tips to Help Ease the Pain at the Pump Connect With Us Facebook iconconnecttwitter.png Twitter...

  2. Warm Weather and the Daily Commute | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    courtesy of iStockphoto.comolaser Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory How can I participate? Check out options for busing or carpooling in...

  3. Grant will ensure lab's financial, scientific future (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab www.dailypress.com/news/local/newport_news/dp-local_jefflab_0919sep19,0,4329162.story Submitted: Friday, September 19, 2008

  4. Calibrating hourly rainfall-runoff models with daily forcings...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cite: Chicago Format Close Bibtex Cite: Bibtex Format Close Export Metadata EndNote Excel CSV XML Save Share this Record Send to Email Send to Email Email address:...

  5. FBI documents detail case against scientist (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    www.dailypress.com/topic/ Submitted: Friday, September 26, 2008

  6. Italian Physicist Named Deputy Associate Director at JLab (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab dailypress.com/news/science/dead-rise-blog/dp-italian-physicist-named-deputy-associate-director-at-jlab-20120... Submitted: Tuesday, February 14, 2012 - 1

  7. JLab's economic footprint expands (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    articles.dailypress.com/2011-01-20/news/dp-nws-jlab-economy-20110120_1_jefferson-lab-national-labs-jlab Submitted: Thursday, January 20, 2011 - 1

  8. Jefferson Lab awards several contracts (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    http://www.dailypress.com/topic/ Submitted: Thursday, January 8

  9. Jefferson Lab begins $310 million upgrade (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    http://www.dailypress.com/topic/ Submitted: Wednesday, April 15

  10. Jefferson Lab group wins national award (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dailypress.com/topic/ Submitted: Wednesday, May 20

  11. Laser Twinkles in Rare Color (Science Daily) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/12/101221154532.htm Submitted: Wednesday, December 22, 2010

  12. Get Daily Energy Analysis Delivered to Your Website

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Now everyone can feature the U.S. Energy Information Administrations (EIA)Today in Energycontent on their website and favorite social networking sites. Today in Energy, the agencyseducation...

  13. Bush signs defense bill with aircraft carrier, sub funding (Daily...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which is built jointly by Northrop Grumman Newport News and the Electric Boat shipyard in Groton, Connecticut. That money was likewise requested in February and has never...

  14. Sub-daily Statistical Downscaling of Meteorological Variables...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and variance that was accurate within 1% for all variables except atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and precipitation. Correlations between downscaled output and the expected...

  15. Poster — Thur Eve — 03: Application of the non-negative matrix factorization technique to [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ dynamic PET data for the early detection of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Dong-Chang; Jans, Hans; McEwan, Sandy; Riauka, Terence; Martin, Wayne; Wieler, Marguerite

    2014-08-15

    In this work, a class of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) technique known as alternating non-negative least squares, combined with the projected gradient method, is used to analyze twenty-five [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ dynamic PET/CT brain data. For each subject, a two-factor model is assumed and two factors representing the striatum (factor 1) and the non-striatum (factor 2) tissues are extracted using the proposed NMF technique and commercially available factor analysis software “Pixies”. The extracted factor 1 and 2 curves represent the binding site of the radiotracer and describe the uptake and clearance of the radiotracer by soft tissues in the brain, respectively. The proposed NMF technique uses prior information about the dynamic data to obtain sample time-activity curves representing the striatum and the non-striatum tissues. These curves are then used for “warm” starting the optimization. Factor solutions from the two methods are compared graphically and quantitatively. In healthy subjects, radiotracer uptake by factors 1 and 2 are approximately 35–40% and 60–65%, respectively. The solutions are also used to develop a factor-based metric for the detection of early, untreated Parkinson's disease. The metric stratifies healthy subjects from suspected Parkinson's patients (based on the graphical method). The analysis shows that both techniques produce comparable results with similar computational time. The “semi-automatic” approach used by the NMF technique allows clinicians to manually set a starting condition for “warm” starting the optimization in order to facilitate control and efficient interaction with the data.

  16. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Nitash Balsara: Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nitash Balsara

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  17. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Jay Keasling: Biofuels

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jay Keasling

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  18. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Robert Cheng and Juan Meza

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Robert Cheng and Juan Meza

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  19. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ramamoorthy Ramesh: Low-cost Solar

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh:

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  20. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Don DePaolo: Geo and Bio Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Don DePaolo:

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  1. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Don DePaolo: Geo and Bio Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don DePaolo:

    2010-02-16

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  2. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Bill Collins: A future without CC2.0

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bill Collins

    2010-09-01

    Bill Collins speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  3. Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn

    2011-06-08

    Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  4. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Mary Ann Piette: Impact of efficient buildings

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mary Ann Piette

    2010-09-01

    Mary Ann Piette speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  5. Biofuels Science and Facilities (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Keasling, Jay D

    2011-06-03

    Jay D. Keasling speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  6. Solar Fuels and Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-06-03

    Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Director speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 4, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  7. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  8. Energy Storage: Breakthrough in Battery Technologies (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Balsara, Nitash

    2011-06-03

    Nitash Balsara speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  9. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ashok Gadgi

    2010-09-01

    Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  11. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  12. ODU Researcher Visits JLab to Talk About Living in the Arctic (Daily Press)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Jefferson Lab weblogs.dailypress.com/news/local/inside-newport-news/2012/02/odu_researcher_talks_about_liv.html Submitted: Friday, February 3, 2012 - 1

  13. Newport News School Board Member Hosting Town Hall Thursday (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab 2-03-05/news/dp-nws-ednotebook-0305-20120304_1_town-hall-carlton-ashby-newport-news-sc... Submitted: Tuesday, March 6, 2012 - 1

  14. Hampton University awarded $1.3 million for breast cancer research (Daily

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press) | Jefferson Lab articles.dailypress.com/2011-04-30/news/dp-nws-edt-letssun-0501-20110430_1_quota-african-americans-voting-distric... Submitted: Monday, April 20, 2009

  15. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  16. Virginia Senate Approves Budget Deal to Include Money for FEL (Daily Press)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Jefferson Lab articles.dailypress.com/2012-04-18/news/dp-nws-general-assembly-budget-day2-20120418_1_virginia-senate-breakthrou... Submitted: Wednesday, April 18, 2012 - 12

  17. From Nepal to JLab â€" One Scientist's Journey (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab articles.dailypress.com/2011-12-24/news/dp-nws-evg-jlab-nepal-20111224_1_tribhuvan-university-jefferson-lab-nepal... Submitted: Sunday, December 4, 2011

  18. JLab's Walt Akers: from Fife and Drum to Windmill (Daily Press) | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab articles.dailypress.com/2012-03-08/news/dp-tsq-ypq-five-questions-0308-20120308_1_project-fife-drums-akers-lives Submitted: Thursday, March 8, 2012

  19. Jefferson Lab creates better way to discover breast cancer (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab

  20. Jefferson Lab gets $75 million stimulus grant (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    http://www.dailypress.com/topic/ Submitted: Tuesday, March 24

  1. Jefferson Lab in Va awards $14.1 million contract (Daily Press) | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab dailypress.com/news/local/virginia/dp-va--energycontract0205feb05,0,7734670.story Submitted: Thursday, February 5, 2009 - 1

  2. Jefferson Lab: A world-class facility to study nuclear physics (Daily

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press) | Jefferson Lab www.dailypress.com/topic/ Submitted: Monday, July 6

  3. Jefferson Lab: Laser gun to eventually shoot down missiles (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab articles.dailypress.com/2011-02-21/news/dp-nws-jefferson-lab-20110221_1_jefferson-lab-researchers-free-electron-l... Submitted: Monday, February 21, 2011

  4. EIA - Daily Report 10/3/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil &...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas In an attempt to assess the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on oil and gas production, the Louisiana Office of Conservation is in the process of contacting 396...

  5. Local Company Purchases William & Mary Land Near Jefferson Lab (Daily

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press) | Jefferson Lab articles.dailypress.com/2010-06-14/news/dp-nws-wm-land-20100614-1_1_jefferson-lab-mary-real-estate-foundation-new... Submitted: Tuesday, June 15, 2010 - 12

  6. EIA - Daily Report 9/27/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil &...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Henry Hub, is continuing its Force Majeure until further notice. As a result, the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), where futures contracts are traded for delivery to the Henry ...

  7. EIA - Daily Report 9/30/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil &...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... region, which is currently approximately 2,235 MMcfd. Sabine Pipeline, operator of the Henry Hub, is continuing its Force Majeure until further notice (See September 28 Report)

  8. EIA - Daily Report 10/11/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a spot price quote at the Henry Hub was available today (October 7) from the Intercontinental Exchange, an online trading platform. The Henry Hub spot price was 13.68 per ...

  9. EIA - Daily Report 10/7/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil &...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a spot price quote at the Henry Hub was available today (October 7) from the Intercontinental Exchange, an online trading platform. The Henry Hub spot price was 13.68 per ...

  10. EIA - Daily Report 10/6/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil &...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Sabine Pipeline, operator of the Henry Hub, has lifted its force majeure for gas flows at ... There are 14 pipelines with interconnections at the Henry Hub. As a result of these ...

  11. EIA - Daily Report 9/19/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    be months before crude oil production is back to normal following Hurricane Katrina. ... on September 19 with news of Tropical Storm Rita approaching the Gulf of Mexico). ...

  12. EIA - Daily Report 9/16/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    likely be months before crude oil production is back to normal following Hurricane Katrina. Graph of Gulf of Mexico Shut-In Oil & Natural Gas Production due to hurricanes in ...

  13. The maneuvering area of VVER-1000 during the daily load-cycling operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubov, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    The possibility of the VVER-1000 reactor operation in the mode of power maneuvering is analyzed with the most conservative approximations in view of control of the in-core power distribution.

  14. Today in Energy - Daily Prices - Prices - U.S. Energy Information...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    settlement price from previous business day. NA Data was not available at time of retrieval. Percent Change column will display NA if data from previous day was not retrieved....

  15. EIA - Daily Report 9/29/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil &...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Southern Union Company conducted a preliminary assessment of its interstate natural gas transmission systems located in the Gulf Coast area and identified minimal damage from ...

  16. EIA - Daily Report 9/28/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil &...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Southern Union Company conducted a preliminary assessment of its interstate natural gas transmission systems located in the Gulf Coast area and identified minimal damage from ...

  17. EIA - Daily Report 9/26/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil &...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Three other refineries in the Houston area are expecting to restart soon, while other refineries have reported minimal damage and may also not be too far away from restarting. The ...

  18. Germ-Killing or Germ-Attracting? (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fabric first researched by DuPont loses its effectiveness with just a simple coating of dust. The synthetic material was first considered for its germ-killing properties...

  19. JLab Nanotube Research Leads To Newport News Start-Up (Daily...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    articles.dailypress.com2012-08-03newsdp-nws-cp-jefferson-lab-spinoff-201208031nanotubes-jefferson-lab-free-e... Submitted: Thursday, August 2...

  20. Daily Fill Factor Variation as a Diagnostic Probe of Multijunction Concentrator Systems During Outdoor Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, W. E.; Emery, K. E.; Friedman, D. J.; Ottoson, L.; Young, M. S.; Ward, J. S.; Kramer, C. M.; Duda, A.; Kurtz, S.

    2007-01-01

    The work presented here is for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells, but the conclusions are equally valid for GaInP2/GaAs/Ge triple-junction cells. Optimizing a concentrator system which uses multijunction solar cells is challenging because: (a) the conditions are variable, so the solar cells rarely operate under optimal conditions and (b) the conditions are not controlled, so any design problems are difficult to characterize. Any change in the spectral content of direct-beam sunlight as it passes through the concentrator optics is of particular interest, as it can reduce the performance of multijunction cells and is difficult to characterize.

  1. MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Liang; Yang, Yutao; Hang, Xingyi; Cui, Jiajun; Gao, Jiangping

    2014-10-15

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential proteinprotein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor. - Highlights: A potential interaction was identified between MEIS1 and AR signaling. Overexpression of MEIS1 reduced the expression of AR target gene. MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation. MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells.

  2. Photoinduced absolute negative current in a symmetric molecular electronic bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prociuk, Alexander; Dunietz, Barry D

    2010-09-28

    The study of current induced by photoradiating a molecular-based device under bias is of fundamental importance to the improvement of photoconductors and photovoltaics. In this technology, electron pumps generate an uphill current that opposes a potential drop and thereby recharges a fuel cell. While the modeled molecular electron pump is completely symmetric, the sign of the photocurrent is solely determined by the existing bias and the nature of photoinduced electronic excitations. The photoradiation induces nonequilibrium population of the electrode-coupled system. The dependence of the photocurrent on electrode coupling, photoradiation field strength, and applied bias are studied at a basic model level.

  3. Negative energy waves and MHD stability of rotating plasmas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. Introduction Stability study of rotating plasmas is of great current interest ... At the same time, plasma rotation in the presence of a magnetic field may lead to ...

  4. Negative Resists for Ultra-Tall, High Aspect Ratio Microstructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany b Center for Advanced Microstructures &...

  5. BPA-2010-02070-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Generation Imbalance 356,117 1 12128 @ MO 4,418.00000 Prior 0910 Energy & Gen Imbal 4,418 1 12128 @ MO (1,733.00000) Prior 0911 Energy & Gen Imbal (1,733) 1 12128 @...

  6. Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-???????­???¢???????Energy, Carbon-???????­Dioxide-???????­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

    2012-05-14

    Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC-based concrete with HFC in infrastructure we can reduce energy use in concrete production by 70%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 98%; thus the potential to reduce the impact of building materials on global warming and climate change is highly significant. Low Temperature Solidification (LTS) is a breakthrough technology that enables the densification of inorganic materials via a hydrothermal process. The resulting product exhibits excellent control of chemistry and microstructure, to provide durability and mechanical performance that exceeds that of concrete or natural stone. The technology can be used in a wide range of applications including facade panels, interior tiles, roof tiles, countertops, and pre-cast concrete. Replacing traditional building materials and concrete in these applications will result in significant reduction in both energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions.

  7. A Future with (out) Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Collins, Bill

    2011-06-08

    Bill Collins, Head of LBNL's Climate Sciences Department, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  8. Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann [Director, Demand Response Research Center

    2011-06-08

    Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  9. Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 and Computation in CC 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cheng, Robert K; Meza, Juan

    2011-06-08

    Robert Cheng and Juan Meza provide two presentations in one session at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. A Call to Action: Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-06-08

    Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  11. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Paul Alivisatos: Introduction

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Paul Alivisatos

    2010-09-01

    Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  12. Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-02-02

    Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  13. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2010-02-04

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  14. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-06-08

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  15. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2011-06-08

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  16. Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley

    2011-06-08

    Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  17. Parametric time series analysis of cold and hot spells in daily temperature: An application in Southern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macchiato, M. ); Serio, C. ); Lapenna, V. ); Rotonda, L.La. )

    1993-07-01

    The statistical analysis of cold air temperatures (cold spells) and hot air temperatures (hot spells) is discussed. Air temperature time series observed at 50 stations in southern Italy are investigated. The deterministic and stochastic components of the time series are identified and described by a dynamic-stochastic model that is periodic in the deterministic part (the annual cycle) and Markovian (first-order autoregressive) in the stochastic part. The annual cycle is described by only a few Fourier coefficients. Based on the model fitted to the data, the theoretical probability of cold (hot) spells is computed and compared to that estimated from the observed data. Spatial patterns of identified that make it possible to extrapolate the probability of cold (hot) spells at locations where no direct observations are available. 19 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. EIA - Daily Report 10/12/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 2, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/12/2005 1,046,462 66.4% 5,919 58.6% 10/11/2005 1,062,530 67.4% 6,042 59.8% 10/7/2005 1,162,913 73.8% 6,441 63.8% 10/6/2005 1,202,364 76.3% 6,628 65.6% 10/5/2005 1,299,928 82.5% 6,895 68.3% 10/4/2005 1,349,617 85.6% 7,170 71.0% 10/3/2005 1,391,926 88.3% 7,495 74.2% 9/30/2005 1,467,577 93.1% 7,941 78.6% 9/29/2005 1,478,780 93.8% 7,980 79.0% 9/28/2005 1,511,715

  19. EIA - Daily Report 10/13/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 13, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/13/2005 1,031,261 65.4% 5,700 56.4% 10/12/2005 1,046,462 66.4% 5,919 58.6% 10/11/2005 1,062,530 67.4% 6,042 59.8% 10/7/2005 1,162,913 73.8% 6,441 63.8% 10/6/2005 1,202,364 76.3% 6,628 65.6% 10/5/2005 1,299,928 82.5% 6,895 68.3% 10/4/2005 1,349,617 85.6% 7,170 71.0% 10/3/2005 1,391,926 88.3% 7,495 74.2% 9/30/2005 1,467,577 93.1% 7,941 78.6% 9/29/2005

  20. EIA - Daily Report 10/14/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 14, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/14/2005 1,008,909 64.0% 5,647 55.9% 10/13/2005 1,031,261 65.4% 5,700 56.4% 10/12/2005 1,046,462 66.4% 5,919 58.6% 10/11/2005 1,062,530 67.4% 6,042 59.8% 10/7/2005 1,162,913 73.8% 6,441 63.8% 10/6/2005 1,202,364 76.3% 6,628 65.6% 10/5/2005 1,299,928 82.5% 6,895 68.3% 10/4/2005 1,349,617 85.6% 7,170 71.0% 10/3/2005 1,391,926 88.3% 7,495 74.2% 9/30/2005

  1. EIA - Daily Report 10/17/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 17, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/17/2005 996,291 63.2% 5,498 54.4% 10/14/2005 1,008,909 64.0% 5,647 55.9% 10/13/2005 1,031,261 65.4% 5,700 56.4% 10/12/2005 1,046,462 66.4% 5,919 58.6% 10/11/2005 1,062,530 67.4% 6,042 59.8% 10/7/2005 1,162,913 73.8% 6,441 63.8% 10/6/2005 1,202,364 76.3% 6,628 65.6% 10/5/2005 1,299,928 82.5% 6,895 68.3% 10/4/2005 1,349,617 85.6% 7,170 71.0% 10/3/2005

  2. EIA - Daily Report 10/18/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 18, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/18/2005 982,011 62.3% 5,346 52.9% 10/17/2005 996,291 63.2% 5,498 54.4% 10/14/2005 1,008,909 64.0% 5,647 55.9% 10/13/2005 1,031,261 65.4% 5,700 56.4% 10/12/2005 1,046,462 66.4% 5,919 58.6% 10/11/2005 1,062,530 67.4% 6,042 59.8% 10/7/2005 1,162,913 73.8% 6,441 63.8% 10/6/2005 1,202,364 76.3% 6,628 65.6% 10/5/2005 1,299,928 82.5% 6,895 68.3% 10/4/2005

  3. EIA - Daily Report 10/19/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 9, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/19/2005 973,084 61.7% 5,242 51.9% 10/18/2005 982,011 62.3% 5,346 52.9% 10/17/2005 996,291 63.2% 5,498 54.4% 10/14/2005 1,008,909 64.0% 5,647 55.9% 10/13/2005 1,031,261 65.4% 5,700 56.4% 10/12/2005 1,046,462 66.4% 5,919 58.6% 10/11/2005 1,062,530 67.4% 6,042 59.8% 10/7/2005 1,162,913 73.8% 6,441 63.8% 10/6/2005 1,202,364 76.3% 6,628 65.6% 10/5/2005 1,299,928

  4. EIA - Daily Report 10/20/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 0, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/20/2005 967,734 61.4% 5,196 51.4% 10/19/2005 973,084 61.7% 5,242 51.9% 10/18/2005 982,011 62.3% 5,346 52.9% 10/17/2005 996,291 63.2% 5,498 54.4% 10/14/2005 1,008,909 64.0% 5,647 55.9% 10/13/2005 1,031,261 65.4% 5,700 56.4% 10/12/2005 1,046,462 66.4% 5,919 58.6% 10/11/2005 1,062,530 67.4% 6,042 59.8% 10/7/2005 1,162,913 73.8% 6,441 63.8% 10/6/2005 1,202,364

  5. EIA - Daily Report 10/21/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 21, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/21/2005 986,805 62.6% 5,337 52.8% 10/20/2005 967,734 61.4% 5,196 51.4% 10/19/2005 973,084 61.7% 5,242 51.9% 10/18/2005 982,011 62.3% 5,346 52.9% 10/17/2005 996,291 63.2% 5,498 54.4% 10/14/2005 1,008,909 64.0% 5,647 55.9% 10/13/2005 1,031,261 65.4% 5,700 56.4% 10/12/2005 1,046,462 66.4% 5,919 58.6% 10/11/2005 1,062,530 67.4% 6,042 59.8% 10/7/2005 1,162,913

  6. EIA - Daily Report 10/24/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 24, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/24/2005 1,018,478 64.6% 5,472 54.2% 10/21/2005 986,805 62.6% 5,337 52.8% 10/20/2005 967,734 61.4% 5,196 51.4% 10/19/2005 973,084 61.7% 5,242 51.9% 10/18/2005 982,011 62.3% 5,346 52.9% 10/17/2005 996,291 63.2% 5,498 54.4% 10/14/2005 1,008,909 64.0% 5,647 55.9% 10/13/2005 1,031,261 65.4% 5,700 56.4% 10/12/2005 1,046,462 66.4% 5,919 58.6% 10/11/2005 1,062,530

  7. EIA - Daily Report 10/25/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 25, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/25/2005 1,033,621 65.6% 5,582 55.3% 10/24/2005 1,018,478 64.6% 5,472 54.2% 10/21/2005 986,805 62.6% 5,337 52.8% 10/20/2005 967,734 61.4% 5,196 51.4% 10/19/2005 973,084 61.7% 5,242 51.9% 10/18/2005 982,011 62.3% 5,346 52.9% 10/17/2005 996,291 63.2% 5,498 54.4% 10/14/2005 1,008,909 64.0% 5,647 55.9% 10/13/2005 1,031,261 65.4% 5,700 56.4% 10/12/2005 1,046,462

  8. EIA - Daily Report 10/26/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 26, 3:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/26/2005 1,022,515 64.9% 5,563 55.1% 10/25/2005 1,033,621 65.6% 5,582 55.3% 10/24/2005 1,018,478 64.6% 5,472 54.2% 10/21/2005 986,805 62.6% 5,337 52.8% 10/20/2005 967,734 61.4% 5,196 51.4% 10/19/2005 973,084 61.7% 5,242 51.9% 10/18/2005 982,011 62.3% 5,346 52.9% 10/17/2005 996,291 63.2% 5,498 54.4% 10/14/2005 1,008,909 64.0% 5,647 55.9% 10/13/2005 1,031,261

  9. EIA - Daily Report 10/27/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 7, 3:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/27/2005 1,022,313 64.9% 5,559 55.0% 10/26/2005 1,022,515 64.9% 5,563 55.1% 10/25/2005 1,033,621 65.6% 5,582 55.3% 10/24/2005 1,018,478 64.6% 5,472 54.2% 10/21/2005 986,805 62.6% 5,337 52.8% 10/20/2005 967,734 61.4% 5,196 51.4% 10/19/2005 973,084 61.7% 5,242 51.9% 10/18/2005 982,011 62.3% 5,346 52.9% 10/17/2005 996,291 63.2% 5,498 54.4% 10/14/2005 1,008,909

  10. EIA - Daily Report 10/28/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 8, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/28/2005 1,022,313 64.9% 5,559 55.0% 10/27/2005 1,022,313 64.9% 5,559 55.0% 10/26/2005 1,022,515 64.9% 5,563 55.1% 10/25/2005 1,033,621 65.6% 5,582 55.3% 10/24/2005 1,018,478 64.6% 5,472 54.2% 10/21/2005 986,805 62.6% 5,337 52.8% 10/20/2005 967,734 61.4% 5,196 51.4% 10/19/2005 973,084 61.7% 5,242 51.9% 10/18/2005 982,011 62.3% 5,346 52.9% 10/17/2005 996,291

  11. EIA - Daily Report 10/4/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 4, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/4/2005 1,349,617 86.4% 7,170 68.9% 10/3/2005 1,391,926 89.1% 7,495 72.1% 9/30/2005 1,467,577 94.0% 7,941 76.4% 9/29/2005 1,478,780 94.7% 7,980 76.7% 9/28/2005 1,511,715 96.8% 8,072 77.2% 9/27/2005 1,512,937 96.9% 7,857 75.5% 9/26/2005 1,527,630 97.8% 7,843 75.4% 9/24/2005 1,500,898 96.1% 7,488 72.0% 9/23/2005 1,486,877 95.2% 7,204 69.3% source: Minerals

  12. EIA - Daily Report 10/5/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets October 5, 4:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 10/5/2005 1,299,928 83.2% 6,895 66.3% 10/4/2005 1,349,617 86.4% 7,170 68.9% 10/3/2005 1,391,926 89.1% 7,495 72.1% 9/30/2005 1,467,577 94.0% 7,941 76.4% 9/29/2005 1,478,780 94.7% 7,980 76.7% 9/28/2005 1,511,715 96.8% 8,072 77.2% 9/27/2005 1,512,937 96.9% 7,857 75.5% 9/26/2005 1,527,630 97.8% 7,843 75.4% 9/24/2005 1,500,898 96.1% 7,488 72.0% source:

  13. EIA - Daily Report 9/20/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 0, 3:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 9/20/2005 877,275 56.2% 3,482 33.5% 9/19/2005 837,648 53.6% 3,375 32.5% 9/16/2005 840,921 53.8% 3,384 32.5% 9/15/2005 842,091 53.9% 3,411 32.8% 9/14/2005 843,725 54.0% 3,518 33.8% 9/13/2005 846,720 54.2% 3,720 35.8% 9/12/2005 860,636 55.1% 3,784 36.4% source: Minerals Management Service graph of shut-in oil & natural gas production comparison of hurricanes

  14. EIA - Daily Report 9/22/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 2, 3:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 9/22/2005 1,379,000 88.3% 6,595 63.4% 9/21/2005 1,097,357 70.2% 4,713 45.3% 9/20/2005 877,275 56.2% 3,482 33.5% 9/19/2005 837,648 53.6% 3,375 32.5% 9/16/2005 840,921 53.8% 3,384 32.5% 9/15/2005 842,091 53.9% 3,411 32.8% 9/14/2005 843,725 54.0% 3,518 33.8% source: Minerals Management Service graph of shut-in oil & natural gas production comparison of

  15. EIA - Daily Report 9/22/05 - Hurricane Impacts on U.S. Oil & Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Markets 23, 5:00 pm Shut-in Status Date Shut-in Oil (bbl/d) % of Total Federal GOM Shut-in Natural Gas (mmcf/d) % of Total Federal GOM 9/23/2005 1,486,877 95.2% 7,204 69.3% 9/22/2005 1,379,000 88.3% 6,595 63.4% 9/21/2005 1,097,357 70.2% 4,713 45.3% 9/20/2005 877,275 56.2% 3,482 33.5% 9/19/2005 837,648 53.6% 3,375 32.5% 9/16/2005 840,921 53.8% 3,384 32.5% 9/15/2005 842,091 53.9% 3,411 32.8% source: Minerals Management Service graph of shut-in oil & natural gas production comparison

  16. Electron-less negative ion extraction from ion-ion plasmas (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 106; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input:...

  17. An optical technique for measuring divergence, beam profile, and aiming direction, of relativistic negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1988-02-01

    A novel, nonobstructive diagnostic technique for high energy H/sup minus/D/sup minus/ ion beams is described. This scheme employs spectroscopic techniques designed to measure beam profile, perpendicular velocity spread (i.e., divergence), and orientation of multiMeV H/sup minus/ beams. The basic principle of this method is to photoneutralize a small portion of the H/sup minus/ beam in a way such that the photodetachment process results in the formation of excited hydrogen atoms in the n = 2 levels. Observation of fluorescence from spontaneous decay of H(sp) andor induced deacy of H(2s) can be readily used to determine beam profile. Doppler broadening measurements can be used to determine velocity spread from which beam emittance is calculated. With off-the-shelf instruments resolutions of 1 mm for beam profile and 2 x 10/sup minus/2) ..pi.. cm-mrad are possible. For photodetachment, the best commercially available laser is found to be ArF eximer laser. The analysis is performed for the 200 MEV BNL Linac. The laser, which has a pulse duration which has a pulse duration which is of 10/sup minus/5) of the linac can produce sufficient signal at a negligible beam loss. In addition, measurements of minute Doppler shifts of this Lyman-Alpha radiation by a spectrograph could in principle resolve beam direction to within 1.57 ..mu..rad. The process under consideration has a resonance known as the shape resonance. As the following literature review indicates, the total cross section is known and there is a reasonable agreement between theory and experiment. There are no experimental measurements of partical cross sections. nevertheless, there are theoretical estimates which agree within 15%. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Hierarchical Assembly of Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Si Negative Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Hierarchical Assembly of Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Si Negative Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  20. Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of negative pions in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chkhaidze, L. V. Djobava, T. D.; Kharkhelauri, L. L.; Kladnitskaya, E. N.

    2012-07-15

    Multiparticle azimuthal correlations of {pi}{sup -} mesons have been studied in dC, HeC, CC, CNe, MgMg, (d, He)Ta, CCu, CTa, and OPb collisions at momentum of 4.2, 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon within the standard transverse momentum analysis method of P. Danielewicz and G. Odyniec. The data were obtained by SKM-200-GIBS and Propane Bubble Chamber Collaborations of JINR. The axis has been selected in the phase space and with respect to this axis {pi}{sup -} meson correlations were observed. The values of the coefficient of the correlations linearly depend on the mass numbers of projectile (A{sub P}) and target (A{sub T}) nuclei. The Quark-Gluon String Model satisfactorily describes the experimental results.

  1. Characteristics of Hydrogen Negative Ion Source with FET based RF System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.

    2011-09-26

    Characteristics of radio frequency (RF) plasma production were investigated using a FET inverter power supply as a RF generator. High density hydrogen plasma was obtained using an external coil wound a cylindrical ceramic tube (driver region) with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. When an axial magnetic field around 10 mT was applied to the driver region, an electron density increased drastically and attained to over 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} in the driver region. Effect of the axial magnetic field in driver and expansion region was examined. Lower gas pressure operation below 0.5 Pa was possible with higher RF frequency. H{sup -} density in the expansion region was measured by using laser photo-detachment system. It decreased as the axial magnetic field applied, which was caused by the increase of energetic electron from the driver.

  2. Intruder negative-parity states of neutron-rich {sup 33}Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z. M.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Burns, M.; Hodsdon, A.; Keyes, K.; Kumar, V.; Papenberg, A.; Smith, J. F.; Spohr, K. M.; Haas, F.; Bouhelal, M.; Caurier, E.; Curien, D.; Nowacki, F.; Azaiez, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Verney, D.; Behera, B. R.; Corradi, L.

    2010-06-15

    Yrast states in the neutron-rich {sub 14}{sup 33}Si{sub 19} nucleus have been studied using binary grazing reactions produced by the interaction of a 215-MeV beam of {sup 36}S ions with a thin {sup 208}Pb target. An experimental setup that combines the large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer PRISMA and the high-efficiency gamma-ray detection array CLARA was used in the experiment. Four new gamma-ray photopeaks at energies of 971, 1724, 1772, and 2655 keV were observed and assigned to the {sup 33}Si level scheme. The experimental level scheme is compared with the results of 1(Planck constant/2pi)omega p-sd-pf large-scale shell-model calculations using the recently developed PSDPFB effective interaction; good agreement is obtained. The structure of the populated states of {sup 33}Si is discussed within the context of an odd neutron coupled to states of the {sup 32}Si core.

  3. Liver X Receptor (LXR) activation negatively regulates visfatin expression in macrophages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayi, Therese Hervee; Rigamonti, Elena; INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille; UDSL, F-59000 Lille; Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille ; Pattou, Francois; Department of Endocrine Surgery, University Hospital, Lille; U859 Biotherapies for Diabetes, INSERM, Lille ; Staels, Bart; INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille; UDSL, F-59000 Lille; Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille ; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille; UDSL, F-59000 Lille; Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthetic LXR ligands decreased visfatin expression in human macrophages. {yields} LXR activation leads to a modest and transient decrease of NAD{sup +} concentration. {yields} LXR activation decreased PPAR{gamma}-induced visfatin in human macrophages. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are the major source of visfatin, a visceral fat adipokine upregulated during obesity. Also known to play a role in B cell differentiation (pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)) and NAD biosynthesis (nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT)), visfatin has been suggested to play a role in inflammation. Liver X Receptor (LXR) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR){gamma} are nuclear receptors expressed in macrophages controlling the inflammatory response. Recently, we reported visfatin as a PPAR{gamma} target gene in human macrophages. In this study, we examined whether LXR regulates macrophage visfatin expression. Synthetic LXR ligands decreased visfatin gene expression in a LXR-dependent manner in human and murine macrophages. The decrease of visfatin mRNA was paralleled by a decrease of protein secretion. Consequently, a modest and transient decrease of NAD{sup +} concentration was observed. Interestingly, LXR activation decreased the PPAR{gamma}-induced visfatin gene and protein secretion in human macrophages. Our results identify visfatin as a gene oppositely regulated by the LXR and PPAR{gamma} pathways in human macrophages.

  4. Global Failure Criteria for SOFC Positive/Electrolyte/Negative (PEN) Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

    2007-04-01

    Due to the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) of the various layer materials in SOFC, the internal stresses are unavoidable under temperature differential. In order to create the reliable cell and stack of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), it is necessary to develop a failure criterion for SOFC PEN structures for the initial failures occurred during cell/stack assembly. In this paper, a global failure criterion is developed for the initial design against mechanical failure of the PEN structure in high temperature SOFCs. The relationship of the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warpage of the cells caused by the temperature differential is established so that the failure reliability of SOFC PEN structures may be determined by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warpaged cells.

  5. Generation of negative hydrogen ions in low-voltage cesium-hydrogen discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baksht, F.G.; Djuzhev, G.A.; Elizarov, L.I.; Ivanov, V.G.; Kostin, A.A.; Shkolnik, S.M. )

    1992-10-05

    Theory of low-voltage (LV) Cs--H[sub 2] discharge is presented. LV arc plasma is created in consequence of ionization of small Cs amount (N[sub Cs]/N[sub H[sub 2

  6. Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Business Process Improvement (CBPI) Customer Forum Energy Imbalance Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Meetings Customer Comments Network Integration...

  7. Meetings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Business Process Improvement (CBPI) Customer Forum Energy Imbalance Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Meetings Customer Comments Network Integration...

  8. Customer Comments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improvement (CBPI) Customer Forum Energy Imbalance Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Network Integration Transmission Service (NT Service) Network Open...

  9. Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improvement (CBPI) Customer Forum Energy Imbalance Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Network Integration Transmission Service (NT Service) Network Open...

  10. Meetings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improvement (CBPI) Customer Forum Energy Imbalance Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Network Integration Transmission Service (NT Service) Network Open...

  11. Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improvement (CBPI) Customer Forum Energy Imbalance Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Network Integration Transmission Service (NT Service) Meetings Network...

  12. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  13. Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily...

  14. Insight into the photoelectron angular dependent energy distribution of negative-electron-affinity InP photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhanghui; Jiang, Xiangwei; Dong, Shan; Li, Jingbo Li, Shushen; Wang, Linwang

    2014-01-13

    Energy distribution and angular distribution of the photoelectrons from InP photocathodes are investigated using a precise Monte Carlo model. It is found that ?-valley electrons contribute to the first peak of the energy distribution curve, but the second peak is contributed by both ?-valley and L-valley electrons rather than only L-valley electrons. L valley electrons are shown to have a smaller angular spread than ?-valley electrons, which is attributed to the much higher potential energy of L-valley minimum. The further simulation indicates that the performance of InP photocathodes can be improved by increasing the hole concentration or decreasing the temperature, but the activation layer thickness variation only has very slight influence on either energy or angular distribution.

  15. Studies of sheath characteristics in a double plasma device with a negatively biased separating grid and a magnetic filter field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, B. K.; Chakraborty, M. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Tepesia, Sonapur, Kamrup, Assam-782402 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat-382428 (India)

    2012-09-15

    A double plasma device has two regions: Source region and target region. These two regions are divided by a magnetic filter field. A grid is placed coplanar to the magnetic filter. To study the sheath structure in the target region, a metallic plate is placed at the center, which can be biased with respect to the chamber (ground) potential. Plasma is created in the source region by filament discharge technique. Plasma diffusing from the source region to the target region is subjected to the magnetic filter field and also an electric field applied on the grid. Plasma thus obtained in the target region forms a sheath on the biased plate. The influence of both the magnetic filter field and the electric field, applied between the grid and the chamber wall, on the sheath structure formed on the biased plate is studied. It is found that the magnetic filter field and the electric field change the sheath structure in different ways.

  16. Design, installation, commissioning and operation of a beamlet monitor in the negative ion beam test stand at NIFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Brombin, M.; Cervaro, V.; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Molon, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G. Tollin, M.; Veltri, P.; De Muri, M.; Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Muraro, A.

    2015-04-08

    In the framework of the accompanying activity for the development of the two neutral beam injectors for the ITER fusion experiment, an instrumented beam calorimeter is being designed at Consorzio RFX, to be used in the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A), with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The main components of the instrumented calorimeter are one-directional carbon-fibre-carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been used as a small-scale version of the entire calorimeter in the test stand of the neutral beam injectors of the LHD experiment, with the aim of characterising the beam features in various operating conditions. The extraction system of the NIFS test stand source was modified, by applying a mask to the first gridded electrode, in order to isolate only a subset of the beamlets, arranged in two 35 matrices, resembling the beamlet groups of the ITER beam sources. The present contribution gives a description of the design of the diagnostic system, including the numerical simulations of the expected thermal pattern. Moreover the dedicated thermocouple measurement system is presented. The beamlet monitor was successfully used for a full experimental campaign, during which the main parameters of the source, mainly the arc power and the grid voltages, were varied. This contribution describes the methods of fitting and data analysis applied to the infrared images of the camera to recover the beamlet optics characteristics, in order to quantify the response of the system to different operational conditions. Some results concerning the beamlet features are presented as a function of the source parameters.

  17. Fuel Composition Effects at Constant RON and MON in an HCCI Engine Operated with Negative Valve Overlap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G; Farrell, John T

    2006-01-01

    The effects of fuel properties on gasoline HCCI operation have been investigated in a single cylinder, 500 cc, 11.3 CR port fuel injected research engine, operated at lambda=1 and equipped with hydraulic valve actuation. HCCI is promoted by early exhaust valve closing to retain hot exhaust in the cylinder, thereby increasing the cylinder gas temperature. Test fuels were formulated with pure components to have the same RON, MON, and octane sensitivity as an indolene reference fuel, but with a wide range of fuel composition differences. Experiments have been carried out to determine if fuel composition plays a role in HCCI combustion properties, independent of octane numbers. Fuel economy, emissions, and combustion parameters have been measured at several fixed speed/load conditions over a range of exhaust valve closing angles. When the data are compared at constant combustion phasing, fuel effects on emissions and other combustion properties are small. However, when compared at constant exhaust valve closing angle, fuel composition effects are more pronounced, specifically regarding ignition. Operability range differences are also related to fuel composition. An all-paraffinic (normal, iso, and cycloparaffins) fuel exhibited distinctly earlier combustion phasing, increased rate of cylinder pressure rise, and increased rate of maximum heat release compared to the indolene reference fuel. Conversely, olefin-containing fuels exhibited retarded combustion phasing. The fuels with the most advanced ignition showed a wider operating range in terms of engine speed and load, irrespective of exhaust closing angle. These ignition differences reflect contributions from both fuel and EGR kinetics, the effects of which are discussed. The fuel composition variables are somewhat inter-correlated, which makes the experimental separation their effects imprecise with this small set of fuels, though clear trends are evident. The overall effects of fuel composition on engine performance and emissions are small. However, the results suggest that the effects on combustion phasing and engine operability range may need to be considered in the practical implementation of HCCI for fuels with large compositional variations.

  18. Focusing of dipole radiation by a negative index chiral layer. 2. A thin layer as compared with the wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzatov, D V; Klimov, V V

    2014-12-31

    Using the quasi-static approximation we have found exact analytical solutions to the problem of the field of a point electromagnetic source in the presence of a layer of a bi-isotropic (chiral) metamaterial. At some parameters of the problem, the resulting solution can be represented as a set of several point sources (electric and magnetic), which are images of the original source. If the original source is located near the layer, these images become real sources of the field. This paradoxical solution is then generalised to the case taking into account the retardation effects, which allows one to physically interpret the obtained solutions as a set of sources and 'sinks' of circularly polarised waves. (metamaterials)

  19. Focusing of dipole radiation by a negative index chiral layer. 1. A thick layer as compared with the wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzatov, D V; Klimov, V V

    2014-09-30

    We have derived and investigated the analytical expressions for the fields of scattered radiation of an electric dipole source by a chiral (bi-isotropic) layer with arbitrary permittivity and permeability and arbitrary thickness. It is shown that in the negativeindex chiral layer the focus spot of dipole radiation is split due to excitation of right- and left-hand circularly polarised waves. The conditions are found under which the waves with one of the polarisations can be suppressed, which leads to a substantial improvement of the focusing properties of the chiral layer. (metamaterials)

  20. Numerical and experimental study of atomic transport and Balmer line intensity in Linac4 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, T. Nishida, K.; Hatayama, A.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.

    2015-04-08

    Time structure of Balmer H{sub ?} line intensity in Linac4 RF plasma has been analyzed by the combined simulation model of atomic transport and Collisional-Radiative models. As a preliminary result, time variation of the line intensity in the ignition phase of RF plasma is calculated and compared with the experimental results by photometry. For the comparison, spatial distribution of the local H{sub ?} photon emission rate at each time is calculated from the numerical model. The contribution of the local photon emission rates to the observed line intensity via optical viewing port is also investigated by application of the mock-up of the optical viewing port and the known light source. It has been clarified from the analyses that the higher and the lower peaks of the H{sub ?} line intensity observed during 1 RF cycle is mainly due to the different spatial distributions in the electron energy distribution function and the resultant local photon emission rate. These results support previous suggestion that the existence of the capacitive electric field in axial direction leads to the higher/lower peaks of the line intensity.

  1. Jefferson Lab employee invents low-tech gizmo to protect high-tech devices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

  2. Operation Schedule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operation Schedule Daily Hours of Operation

  3. [Article 1 of 7: Motivates and Includes the Consumer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    standards that limit the level of harmonics a consumer load is allowed to produce. ... first review the things that disrupt it - harmonics, sags, spikes, and phase imbalances. ...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline) are requiring shippers in their Northeast market area to either stay on rate or run positive imbalances starting Tuesday until further notice....

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline) are requiring shippers in their Northeast market area to either stay on rate or run positive imbalances starting Tuesday until further notice....

  6. PNCA-02 Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposed Adjustment to the Rate for Interchange Energy Imbalances Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA-02 Rate Case) (updated on April 26, 2002) BPA has issued...

  7. Word Pro - S6

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 (Trillion Cubic Feet) 1 Natural gas plant liquids production (NGPL), gaseous equivalent. 2 Quantities lost and imbalances in data due to differences among data sources. Excludes...

  8. Vampir-Mira-2015.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    application execute on a real system? Are there any imbalances in computation, IO or memory usage and how do they affect the parallel execution of my application? Typical...

  9. Annual Energy Review 2008 - Released June 2009

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 (Trillion Cubic Feet) Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 2008 185 1 Quantities lost and imbalances in data due to differences among data sources. 2...

  10. Wind Power Forecasting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data Presentations BPA Super Forecast Methodology Related Links Near Real-time Wind Animation Meteorological Data Customer Supplied Generation Imbalance Dynamic Transfer Limits...

  11. Word Pro - S6.lwp

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Flow, 2012 (Trillion Cubic Feet) 1 Natural gas plant liquids production (NGPL), gaseous equivalent. 2 Quantities lost and imbalances in data due to differences among data sources....

  12. Pitch Error and Shear Web Disbond Detection on Wind Turbine Blades...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Pitch Error and Shear Web Disbond ... This methodology was used to investigate the effects of rotor imbalance and shear web ...

  13. Page 1 EIA-815, Monthly Bulk Terminal and Blender Report U. S...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Minimal line imbalances due to rounding are acceptable. In addition, total input must equal total production with any gains or losses reported as Code 911. Data contributing to ...

  14. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System Phase 6 report: The potential impacts of a worst-case military conflict on world petroleum availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.; Das, S.; Leiby, P.N.

    1991-01-01

    A major Middle East and European military confrontation would cause an extremely large disruption in the supply of oil worldwide. There would be imbalances between oil supply and demand. These imbalances can only be solved by rationing and by military actions to ensure an adequate flow of crude oil and products. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Waveform Synthesizer For Imaging And Ranging Applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DUDLEY, PETER A.; [et al

    2004-11-30

    Frequency dependent corrections are provided for quadrature imbalance. An operational procedure filters imbalance effects without prior calibration or equalization. Waveform generation can be adjusted/corrected in a synthetic aperture radar system (SAR), where a rolling phase shift is applied to the SAR's QDWS signal where it is demodulated in a receiver; unwanted energies, such as imbalance energy, are separated from a desired signal in Doppler; the separated energy is filtered from the receiver leaving the desired signal; and the separated energy in the receiver is measured to determine the degree of imbalance that is represented by it. Calibration methods can also be implemented into synthesis. The degree of quadrature imbalance can be used to determine calibration values that can then be provided as compensation for frequency dependent errors in components, such as the QDWS and SSB mixer, affecting quadrature signal quality.

  16. The role of intrahepatic CD3 +/CD4 −/CD8 − double negative T (DN T) cells in enhanced acetaminophen toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getachew, Yonas; Cusimano, Frank A.; James, Laura P.; Thiele, Dwain L.

    2014-10-15

    The role of the immune system, specifically NK, NKT and CD3 cells, in acetaminophen (APAP) induced liver injury remains inconsistently defined. In the present study, wild type (C57BL/6J) mice and granzyme B deficient (GrB −/−) mice were treated with acetaminophen to assess the role of the immune system in acute liver injury. Doses of acetaminophen that induced sub lethal liver injury in wild type mice unexpectedly produced fatal hepatotoxicity in granzyme B deficient (GrB −/−) mice. Analysis revealed that GrB −/− mice had an increased population of intrahepatic CD3 (+), CD4 (−), and CD8 (−) lymphocytes expressing the CD69 activation marker and Fas ligand. Depletion of these cells in the GrB −/− and wild type mice made them less susceptible to APAP injury, while depletion of NK1.1 (+) cells or both CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T cells failed to provide the same hepatoprotection. Transfer of the GrB −/− IHLs further exacerbated liver injury and increased mortality in wild type mice but not in LRP/LPR mice, lacking fas expression. Conclusions: Acetaminophen toxicity is enhanced by the presence of activated, FasL expressing intrahepatic CD3 (+), CD4 (−), CD8 (−), NK1.1 (−) T cells. Depletion of these cells from GrB −/− mice and wild type mice greatly reduces mortality and improves the course of liver injury recovery. - Highlights: • Intrahepatic lymphocytes (IHLs) from GrB −/− mice harbor activated DNT cells. • IHLs from GrB −/− mice exhibit enhanced Fas ligand expression. • Acetaminophen toxicity is enhanced by activated, FasL expressing DNT cells.

  17. Celecoxib offsets the negative renal influences of cyclosporine via modulation of the TGF-?1/IL-2/COX-2/endothelin ET{sub B} receptor cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; Helmy, Maged W.; Ali, Rabab M.; El-Mas, Mahmoud M.

    2014-03-01

    Endothelin (ET) signaling provokes nephrotoxicity induced by the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A (CSA). We tested the hypotheses that (i): celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, counterbalances renal derangements caused by CSA in rats and (ii) the COX-2/endothelin ET{sub B} receptor signaling mediates the CSA-celecoxib interaction. Ten-day treatment with CSA (20 mg/kg/day) significantly increased biochemical indices of renal function (serum urea, creatinine), inflammation (interleukin-2, IL-2) and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-?{sub 1}, TGF-?{sub 1}). Histologically, CSA caused renal tubular atrophy along with interstitial fibrosis. These detrimental renal effects of CSA were largely reduced in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib (10 mg/kg/day). We also report that cortical glomerular and medullary tubular protein expressions of COX-2 and ET{sub B} receptors were reduced by CSA and restored to near-control values in rats treated simultaneously with celecoxib. The importance of ET{sub B} receptors in renal control and in the CSA-celecoxib interaction was further verified by the findings (i) most of the adverse biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathological profiles of CSA were replicated in rats treated with the endothelin ET{sub B} receptor antagonist BQ788 (0.1 mg/kg/day, 10 days), and (ii) the BQ788 effects, like those of CSA, were alleviated in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib. Together, the data suggest that the facilitation of the interplay between the TGF-?1/IL-2/COX-2 pathway and the endothelin ET{sub B} receptors constitutes the cellular mechanism by which celecoxib ameliorates the nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. - Highlights: Celecoxib abolishes nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. Blockade of ETB receptors by BQ788 mimicked the nephrotoxic effects of CSA. CSA or BQ788 reduces renal protein expression of COX-2 and endothelin ETB receptors. Enhanced TGF?1/IL-2/COX2/ETB signaling mediates celecoxib renoprotection.

  18. Genome sequencing of the Trichoderma reesei QM9136 mutant identifies a truncation of the transcriptional regulator XYR1 as the cause for its cellulase-negative phenotype

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lichius, Alexander; Bidard, Frédérique; Buchholz, Franziska; Le Crom, Stéphane; Martin, Joel; Schackwitz, Wendy; Austerlitz, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V; Baker, Scott E; Margeot, Antoine; et al

    2015-04-20

    Trichoderma reesei is the main industrial source of cellulases and hemicellulases required for the hydrolysis of biomass to simple sugars, which can then be used in the production of biofuels and biorefineries. The highly productive strains in use today were generated by classical mutagenesis. As byproducts of this procedure, mutants were generated that turned out to be unable to produce cellulases. In order to identify the mutations responsible for this inability, we sequenced the genome of one of these strains, QM9136, and compared it to that of its progenitor T. reesei QM6a.

  19. Combustion synthesis of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite as a high-performance negative electrode for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rai, Alok Kumar; Thi, Trang Vu; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-09-15

    We present a facile and cost-effective urea-assisted auto-combustion method for synthesizing pure MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite samples followed by annealing at 600 C for 5 h under N{sub 2} atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the single phase formation for both samples. The obtained morphology of the nanocomposite sample shows that the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are highly dispersed on conductive graphene nanosheets with particle size in the range of 50100 nm. When applied as an anode material, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite electrode shows a high reversible charge capacity of 764.4 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.04 C over 60 charge/discharge cycles and in spite of that it also retained a capacity of 219.9 mAh g{sup ?1} at high current rate of 4.2 C. The obtained result is much better than the synthesized pure MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle electrode. The excellent electrochemical performance of the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite electrode can be attributed to the strong favorable synergistic interaction between MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and reduced graphene nanosheets, which supplied a large number of accessible active sites for Li{sup +}-ion insertion and short diffusion length for both Li{sup +} ions and electrons. In addition, the graphene nanosheets in the nanocomposite electrode provide high conductivity and accommodate the large volume expansion/contraction during cycling, resulting in high capacity and long cycling stability. - Highlights: MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite was synthesized by facile urea-assisted method. Such well-designed structure results in fine and strong interfacial interaction. Nanocomposite anode shows high rate capability and long cycling stability. Better performance is due to synergistic effect between MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and graphene. Simple, low cost and fast synthesis is attractive for large scale applications.

  20. Observation of the chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe₅

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Zhang, Cheng; Huang, Yuan; Pletikosic, I.; Fedorov, A. V.; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J. A; Gu, G. D.; Valla, T.

    2015-02-08

    The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electric current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions (massless spin 1/2 particles with a definite projection of spin on momentum) – a dramatic phenomenon arising from a collective motion of particles and antiparticles in the Dirac sea. The recent discovery of Dirac semimetals with chiral quasi-particles opens a fascinating possibility to study this phenomenon in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first observation of chiral magnetic effect through the measurement of magneto-transport in zirconium pentatelluride, ZrTe₅. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments show that this material’s electronic structure is consistent with a 3D Dirac semimetal. We observe a large negative magnetoresistance when magnetic field is parallel with the current. The measured quadratic field dependence of the magnetoconductance is a clear indication of the chiral magnetic effect. The observed phenomenon stems from the effective transmutation of Dirac semimetal into a Weyl semimetal induced by the parallel electric and magnetic fields that represent a topologically nontrivial gauge field background.

  1. NEW OBSERVATION OF FAILED FILAMENT ERUPTIONS: THE INFLUENCE OF ASYMMETRIC CORONAL BACKGROUND FIELDS ON SOLAR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Su, J.; Lin, H.; Shibata, K.; Kurokawa, H.

    2009-05-01

    Failed filament eruptions not associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) have been observed and reported as evidence for solar coronal field confinement on erupting flux ropes. In those events, each filament eventually returns to its origin on the solar surface. In this Letter, a new observation of two failed filament eruptions is reported which indicates that the mass of a confined filament can be ejected to places far from the original filament channel. The jetlike mass motions in the two failed filament eruptions are thought to be due to the asymmetry of the background coronal magnetic fields with respect to the locations of the filament channels. The asymmetry of the coronal fields is confirmed by an extrapolation based on a potential field model. The obvious imbalance between the positive and negative magnetic flux (with a ratio of 1:3) in the bipolar active region is thought to be the direct cause of the formation of the asymmetric coronal fields. We think that the asymmetry of the background fields can not only influence the trajectories of ejecta, but also provide a relatively stronger confinement for flux rope eruptions than the symmetric background fields do.

  2. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with glycerol to boost biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Petousi, I.; Manios, T.

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of adding crude glycerol from the biodiesel industry to the anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants was studied in both batch and continuous experiments at 35 {sup o}C. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if it does not exceed a limiting 1% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of glycerol causes a high imbalance in the anaerobic digestion process. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 1106 {+-} 36 ml CH{sub 4}/d before the addition of glycerol and 2353 {+-} 94 ml CH{sub 4}/d after the addition of glycerol (1% v/v in the feed). The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to increase the active biomass (volatile solids) concentration in the system. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the maximum specific utilization rate ({mu}{sub max}) and the saturation constant (K{sub S}) of glycerol were 0.149 {+-} 0.015 h{sup -1} and 0.276 {+-} 0.095 g/l, respectively. Comparing the estimated values with the kinetics constants for propionate reported in the literature, it can be concluded that glycerol uptake is not the rate-limiting step during the process.

  3. Observation of the chiral magnetic effect in ZrTe₅

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Qiang; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Zhang, Cheng; Huang, Yuan; Pletikosic, I.; Fedorov, A. V.; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J. A; Gu, G. D.; Valla, T.

    2015-02-08

    The chiral magnetic effect is the generation of electric current induced by chirality imbalance in the presence of magnetic field. It is a macroscopic manifestation of the quantum anomaly in relativistic field theory of chiral fermions (massless spin 1/2 particles with a definite projection of spin on momentum) – a dramatic phenomenon arising from a collective motion of particles and antiparticles in the Dirac sea. The recent discovery of Dirac semimetals with chiral quasi-particles opens a fascinating possibility to study this phenomenon in condensed matter experiments. Here we report on the first observation of chiral magnetic effect through the measurementmore » of magneto-transport in zirconium pentatelluride, ZrTe₅. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments show that this material’s electronic structure is consistent with a 3D Dirac semimetal. We observe a large negative magnetoresistance when magnetic field is parallel with the current. The measured quadratic field dependence of the magnetoconductance is a clear indication of the chiral magnetic effect. The observed phenomenon stems from the effective transmutation of Dirac semimetal into a Weyl semimetal induced by the parallel electric and magnetic fields that represent a topologically nontrivial gauge field background.« less

  4. Frequency Control Concerns in the North American Electric Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-03-26

    This paper examines the relationship between system frequency, reliability and markets. It was prompted by the frequency deviations recently experienced at 2200 hours daily but is more generally concerned with the question of what frequency control is necessary. The paper does not provide new information or document new research. Nor is it intended to educate readers concerning power system engineering. Instead, the purpose is to reexamine well known truths concerning the power system and to freshly explore the basic relationship between frequency, reliability and markets: stepping back, if you will, to see if we are collectively missing something. The concern of this paper is with frequency and reliability. Off-nominal frequency can impact reliability and markets efficiency (as we are using the term here) in four ways. It could damage equipment (generation, transmission, or load). It could degrade the quality of the product being delivered to end users (too low and lights would flicker unacceptably, for example). It could result in the collapse of the power system itself (by triggering protective system actions, for example). Or it could result in overloading transmission lines as various generators try to restore system frequency impacting markets efficiency. Often these causes operate in concert. Generator protective systems take action to prevent generator damage, for example, but exacerbate the overall generation/load imbalance. The paper is divided into two sections. The Introduction is followed by a section titled ''A Perspective on Frequency Control'' which addresses the physical requirements of the power system and how market transactions interact with the physical system. The ''Frequency Standards and Control Performance'' section discusses the various NERC and regional reliability council policies that govern utility performance and how these relate to frequency and reliability. Finally, Conclusions are provided.

  5. Control and Size Energy Storage for Managing Energy balance of Variable Generation Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ke, Xinda; Lu, Ning; Jin, Chunlian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents control algorithms and sizing strategies for using energy storage to manage energy balance for variable generation resources. The control objective is to minimize the hourly generation imbalance between the actual and the scheduled generation of the wind farm. Three control algorithms are compared: tracking power imbalance, post-compensation, and pre-compensation. Measurement data from a wind farm located in South-central Washington State are used in the study. The results show that tracking power imbalance yields the best performance by keeping the hourly energy imbalances zero. However, the energy storage system (ESS) will be significantly oversized. Post-compensation reduces power rating of the ESS but the hourly imbalance may not be kept as zero when large and long-lasting energy imbalances occur. A linear regression forecasting algorithm is developed for the pre-compensation algorithm to pre-charge or pre-discharge the ESS based on predicted energy imbalances. The performance comparison shows that the pre-compensation method significantly reduces the size of the ESS while maintaining satisfactory performance.

  6. Lithium-ion battery diagnostic and prognostic techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2009-11-03

    Embodiments provide a method and a system for determining cell imbalance condition of a multi-cell battery including a plurality of cell strings. To determine a cell imbalance condition, a charge current is applied to the battery and is monitored during charging. The charging time for each cell string is determined based on the monitor of the charge current. A charge time difference of any two cell strings in the battery is used to determine the cell imbalance condition by comparing with a predetermined acceptable charge time difference for the cell strings.

  7. Luminescent systems based on the isolation of conjugated PI systems and edge charge compensation with polar molecules on a charged nanostructured surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Zhao, Bin; Geohegan, David B.; Styers-Barnett, David J.; Hu, Hui

    2014-07-15

    A photoluminescent or electroluminescent system and method of making a non-luminescent nanostructured material into such a luminescent system is presented. The method of preparing the luminescent system, generally, comprises the steps of modifying the surface of a nanostructured material to create isolated regions to act as luminescent centers and to create a charge imbalance on the surface; applying more than one polar molecule to the charged surface of the nanostructured material; and orienting the polar molecules to compensate for the charge imbalance on the surface of the nanostructured material. The compensation of the surface charge imbalance by the polar molecules allows the isolated regions to exhibit luminescence.

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    El Paso Corporations Tennessee Gas Pipeline noted that an Imbalance Warning would stay in effect through the week for delivery into its zones 5 and 6 in the Northeast, but to...

  9. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in non-OPEC production in recent years as a key cause of the current high oil price environment. The imbalance between growth in world oil consumption and non-OPEC oil...

  10. BPA-2014-00154-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    records must exist at the time the request is submitted. In the following requests, "PAC" means PacifiCorp, "ElM" means an Energy Imbalance Market currently proposed and under...

  11. BPA Wind Integration Team Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA Wind Integration Team Update Customer Supplied Generation Imbalance (CSGI) Pilot Transmission Services Customer Forum 29 July 28, 2010 B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N...

  12. Four Corners Wind Resource Center Webinar: Recent Developments in Western Energy Markets, the EIM, and the Integration of Wind Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Utilities and electric balancing authorities in the Four Corners states may now choose to join the Energy Imbalance Market (EIM), buying and selling energy on a 5-minute basis. The EIM should...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas Co. announced on Monday, March 20, that it will require the balancing of some Load Management (Market Area) Service (LMS-MA) contracts as a result of system imbalances. The...

  14. CX-012225: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PAC-CAISO Energy Imbalance Market Agreement CX(s) Applied: B4.8 Date: 06/24/2014 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  15. Frequently Asked Questions Form EIA-857

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... storage withdrawals from within the city gate Q26: Why are you now asking for sendout ... Our research finds that a portion of this imbalance is due to a reporting lag based on ...

  16. Aggregate Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transfers Historical Yearly Peak Aggregate Transfers Historical Yearly Peak These plots show the yearly peak days from 2000 to the present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate Bandwidth Daily Aggregate

  17. Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transfers Historical Yearly Peak Concurrent Transfers Historical Yearly Peak These plots show the yearly peak days from 2000 to present. BE CAREFUL because the graphs are autoscaling - check the scales on each axis before you compare graphs. Note that the graph for current year shows the data for the year-to-date peak. Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage Concurrency Daily Storage

  18. Molecular Characterization of S- and N-containing Organic Constituents in Ambient Aerosols by negative ion mode High-Resolution Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Rachel E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Rubitschun, Caitlin L.; Surratt, Jason D.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-11-27

    Samples of ambient aerosols from the 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study were analyzed using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (nano-DESI/MS). Four samples per day were collected in Bakersfield, CA on June 20-24 with a collection time of 6 hours per sample. Four characteristic groups of organic constituents were identified in the samples: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only (CHO), sulfur- (CHOS), nitrogen-(CHON), and both nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organics (CHONS). Within the groups, organonitrates, organosulfates, and nitroxy organosulfates were assigned based on accurate mass measurements and elemental ratio comparisons. Changes in the chemical composition of the aerosol samples were observed throughout the day. The number of observed CHO compounds increased in the afternoon samples, suggesting regional photochemical processing as a source. The average number of CHOS compounds had the smallest changes throughout the day, consistent with a more broadly distributed source. Both of the nitrogen-containing groups (CHON and CHONS) had greater numbers of compounds in the night and morning samples, indicating that nitrate radical chemistry was likely a source for those compounds. Most of the compounds were found in submicron particles. The size distribution of CHON compounds was bimodal. We conclude that the majority of the compounds observed were secondary in nature with both biogenic and anthropogenic sources.

  19. Measurement of single-target spin asymmetries in the electroproduction of negative pions in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic reaction n{up_arrow}(e,e'{pi}{sup -})X on a transversely polarized {sup 3}He target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiranjib Dutta

    2010-06-01

    The experiment E06010 measured the target single spin asymmetry (SSA) in the semiinclusive deep inelastic (SIDIS) n{up_arrow}(e, e'{pi}{sup -})X reaction with a transversely polarized {sup 3}He target as an e#11;ective neutron target. This is the very #12;rst independent measurement of the neutron SSA, following the measurements at HERMES and COMPASS on the proton and the deuteron. The experiment acquired data in Hall A at Je#11;erson Laboratory with a continuous electron beam of energy 5.9 GeV, probing the valence quark region, with x = 0.13 {rt_arrow} 0.41, at Q{sup 2} = 1.31 {rt_arrow} 3.1 GeV{sup 2}. The two contributing mechanisms to the measured asymmetry, viz, the Collins effect and the Sivers effect can be realized through the variation of the asymmetry as a function of the Collins and Sivers angles. The neutron Collins and Sivers moments, associated with the azimuthal angular modulations, are extracted from the measured asymmetry for the very #12;first time and are presented in this thesis. The kinematics of this experiment is comparable to the HERMES proton measurement. However, the COMPASS measurements on deuteron and proton are in the low-x region. The results of this experiment are crucial as the first step toward the extraction of quark transversity and Sivers distribution functions in SIDIS. With the existing results on proton and deuteron, these new results on neutron will provide powerful constraints on the transversity and Sivers distributions of both the u and d-quarks in the valence region.

  20. Genome sequencing of the Trichoderma reesei QM9136 mutant identifies a truncation of the transcriptional regulator XYR1 as the cause for its cellulase-negative phenotype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichius, Alexander; Bidard, Frdrique; Buchholz, Franziska; Le Crom, Stphane; Martin, Joel; Schackwitz, Wendy; Austerlitz, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V; Baker, Scott E; Margeot, Antoine; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2015-04-20

    Trichoderma reesei is the main industrial source of cellulases and hemicellulases required for the hydrolysis of biomass to simple sugars, which can then be used in the production of biofuels and biorefineries. The highly productive strains in use today were generated by classical mutagenesis. As byproducts of this procedure, mutants were generated that turned out to be unable to produce cellulases. In order to identify the mutations responsible for this inability, we sequenced the genome of one of these strains, QM9136, and compared it to that of its progenitor T. reesei QM6a.

  1. Waveform synthesis for imaging and ranging applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W.; Dudley, Peter A.; Dubert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.

    2004-12-07

    Frequency dependent corrections are provided for quadrature imbalance and Local Oscillator (LO) feed-through. An operational procedure filters imbalance and LO feed-through effects without prior calibration or equalization. Waveform generation can be adjusted/corrected in a synthetic aperture radar system (SAR), where a rolling phase shift is applied to the SAR's QDWS signal where it is demodulated in a receiver; unwanted energies, such as LO feed-through and/or imbalance energy, are separated from a desired signal in Doppler; the separated energy is filtered from the receiver leaving the desired signal; and the separated energy in the receiver is measured to determine the degree of imbalance that is represented by it. Calibration methods can also be implemented into synthesis. The degree of LO feed-through and imbalance can be used to determine calibration values that can then be provided as compensation for frequency dependent errors in components, such as the QDWS and SSB mixer, affecting quadrature signal quality.

  2. Monte Carlo study of the depth-dependent fluence perturbation in parallel-plate ionization chambers in electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink, K.; Czarnecki, D.; Voigts-Rhetz, P. von; Looe, H. K.; Harder, D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The electron fluence inside a parallel-plate ionization chamber positioned in a water phantom and exposed to a clinical electron beam deviates from the unperturbed fluence in water in absence of the chamber. One reason for the fluence perturbation is the well-known inscattering effect, whose physical cause is the lack of electron scattering in the gas-filled cavity. Correction factors determined to correct for this effect have long been recommended. However, more recent Monte Carlo calculations have led to some doubt about the range of validity of these corrections. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to reanalyze the development of the fluence perturbation with depth and to review the function of the guard rings. Methods: Spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulations of the dose profiles within gas-filled cavities with various radii in clinical electron beams have been performed in order to determine the radial variation of the fluence perturbation in a coin-shaped cavity, to study the influences of the radius of the collecting electrode and of the width of the guard ring upon the indicated value of the ionization chamber formed by the cavity, and to investigate the development of the perturbation as a function of the depth in an electron-irradiated phantom. The simulations were performed for a primary electron energy of 6 MeV. Results: The Monte Carlo simulations clearly demonstrated a surprisingly large in- and outward electron transport across the lateral cavity boundary. This results in a strong influence of the depth-dependent development of the electron field in the surrounding medium upon the chamber reading. In the buildup region of the depth-dose curve, the inout balance of the electron fluence is positive and shows the well-known dose oscillation near the cavity/water boundary. At the depth of the dose maximum the inout balance is equilibrated, and in the falling part of the depth-dose curve it is negative, as shown here the first time. The influences of both the collecting electrode radius and the width of the guard ring are reflecting the deep radial penetration of the electron transport processes into the gas-filled cavities and the need for appropriate corrections of the chamber reading. New values for these corrections have been established in two forms, one converting the indicated value into the absorbed dose to water in the front plane of the chamber, the other converting it into the absorbed dose to water at the depth of the effective point of measurement of the chamber. In the Appendix, the inout imbalance of electron transport across the lateral cavity boundary is demonstrated in the approximation of classical small-angle multiple scattering theory. Conclusions: The inout electron transport imbalance at the lateral boundaries of parallel-plate chambers in electron beams has been studied with Monte Carlo simulation over a range of depth in water, and new correction factors, covering all depths and implementing the effective point of measurement concept, have been developed.

  3. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The...

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Daily","3212016","171997" ,"Data 2","Futures Prices",4,"Daily","3222016","12201993" ,"Release Date:","3232016" ,"Next Release Date:","3302016" ,"Excel File ...

  5. Method of minimizing the effects of parasitic currents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chi, Michael C. (Cerritos, CA); Carr, Peter (Utica, MI)

    1983-02-01

    A method of minimizing the effect of parasitic currents in secondary batteries having a plurality of cells connected electrically in series and a common electrolyte in communication with the cells is described. Specifically, the parasitic currents flowing through the battery cause a cell imbalance over the charge/discharge cycle. This cell imbalance is minimized by first separating the cells of the battery into two equal groups. Then the battery is charged with the two groups of cells connected electrically in series, and subsequently discharged with the two groups of cells reconnected electrically in series in an inverted sequence.

  6. Stator for a rotating electrical machine having multiple control windings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manoj R. (Latham, NY); Lewandowski, Chad R. (Amsterdam, NY)

    2001-07-17

    A rotating electric machine is provided which includes multiple independent control windings for compensating for rotor imbalances and for levitating/centering the rotor. The multiple independent control windings are placed at different axial locations along the rotor to oppose forces created by imbalances at different axial locations along the rotor. The multiple control windings can also be used to levitate/center the rotor with a relatively small magnetic field per unit area since the rotor and/or the main power winding provides the bias field.

  7. FAQs for Survey Forms 805 and 815

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Forms 805 and 815 On the EIA-815 survey, what should be reported in the "Fuel Uses & Losses During Month" column? The fuel use and loss column should only be used to report losses caused by spills, fires, contamination, and volumes used as fuel at a terminal. Data reported in these cells and all cells on the EIA-815 survey should always be positive. Do not use the fuel uses and losses column to correct line imbalances due to rounding. Line imbalances due to heat or pressure related

  8. Tape Mounts Last 30 Days

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tape Mounts Last 30 Days Tape Mounts Last 30 Days Daily Tape Mounts

  9. 1995 - 05 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 1995 Wed, 05/10/1995 - 12:00am Physicists are Beaming (Daily Press)

  10. Energy chief visits Jefferson Lab: Clean energy is key to 'prosperity'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab www.dailypress.com/topic/ Submitted: Wednesday, September 30, 2009

  11. BRCA1 loss pre-existing in small subpopulations of prostate cancer is associated with advanced disease and metastatic spread to lymph nodes and peripheral blood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bednarz, Natalia; Eltze, Elke; Semjonow, Axel; Rink, Michael; Andreas, Antje; Mulder, Lennart; Hannemann, Juliane; Fisch, Margit; Pantel, Klaus; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Bielawski, Krzysztof P.; Brandt, Burkhard

    2010-03-19

    A recent study concluded that serum prostate specific antigen (PSA)-based screening is beneficial for reducing the lethality of PCa, but was also associated with a high risk of 'overdiagnosis'. Nevertheless, also PCa patients who suffered from organ confined tumors and had negative bone scans succumb to distant metastases after complete tumor resection. It is reasonable to assume that those tumors spread to other organs long before the overt manifestation of metastases. Our current results confirm that prostate tumors are highly heterogeneous. Even a small subpopulation of cells bearing BRCA1 losses can initiate PCa cell regional and distant dissemination indicating those patients which might be at high risk of metastasis. A preliminary study performed on a small cohort of multifocal prostate cancer (PCa) detected BRCA1 allelic imbalances (AI) among circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The present analysis was aimed to elucidate the biological and clinical role of BRCA1 losses on metastatic spread and tumor progression in prostate cancer patients. Experimental Design: To map molecular progression in PCa outgrowth we used FISH analysis of tissue microarrays (TMA), lymph node sections and CTC from peripheral blood. We found that 14% of 133 tested patients carried monoallelic BRCA1 loss in at least one tumor focus. Extended molecular analysis of chr17q revealed that this aberration was often a part of larger cytogenetic rearrangement involving chr17q21 accompanied by AI of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN and lack of the BRCA1 promoter methylation. The BRCA1 losses correlated with advanced T stage (p < 0.05), invasion to pelvic lymph nodes (LN, p < 0.05) as well as BR (p < 0.01). Their prevalence was twice as high within 62 LN metastases (LNMs) as in primary tumors (27%, p < 0.01). The analysis of 11 matched primary PCa-LNM pairs confirmed the suspected transmission of genetic abnormalities between those two sites. In 4 of 7 patients with metastatic disease, BRCA1 losses appeared in a minute fraction of cytokeratin- and vimentin-positive CTCs. Small subpopulations of PCa cells bearing BRCA1 losses might be one confounding factor initiating tumor dissemination and might provide an early indicator of shortened disease-free survival.

  12. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  13. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Wade, Gentry E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  14. Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-12-30

    DOE N 311.2, dated 5/29/02, extends this directive until 12/30/02. To provide equal opportunity in employment for all Department of Energy (DOE) employees and applicants, and to alleviate conspicuous absences and/or manifest imbalances. Cancels DOE O 311.1. Canceled by DOE O 311.1B.

  15. Current responsive devices for synchronous generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karlicek, Robert F. (Fullerton, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A device for detecting current imbalance between phases of a polyphase alternating current generator. A detector responds to the maximum peak current in the generator, and detecting means generates an output for each phase proportional to the peak current of each phase. Comparing means generates an output when the maximum peak current exceeds the phase peak current.

  16. Current responsive devices for synchronous generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1983-09-27

    A device for detecting current imbalance between phases of a polyphase alternating current generator. A detector responds to the maximum peak current in the generator, and detecting means generates an output for each phase proportional to the peak current of each phase. Comparing means generates an output when the maximum peak current exceeds the phase peak current. 11 figs.

  17. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  18. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  19. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Balancing

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet) Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet) In multifamily building hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water

  20. bergin-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    represent quartiles and median values with whiskers extending to the 5 th and 95 th percentiles of daily mean values. Daily mean values are used to estimate annual Session Papers...

  1. 2001 - 04 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 2001 Sun, 04222001 - 12:00am Doors to Discovery (Daily Press) Thu, 04192001 - 12:00am Peek in Jefferson Lab (Daily Press) Tue, 04172001 - 12:00am Electron Accelerator...

  2. 1999 - 06 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 1999 Sun, 06271999 - 12:00am Gizmos, Gadgets & Devices - Oh, My (Daily Press) Fri, 06251999 - 12:00am Exhibit: High-Energy Lab Tours for Kids (Daily Press) Tue, 06221999...

  3. 2001 - 09 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    September 2001 Sun, 09302001 - 12:00am A Quarky Undertaking (Daily Press) Sun, 09302001 - 12:00am Light Approach Lands Cutesy Particle Names (Daily Press) Sat, 09292001 -...

  4. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    degree-days are deviations above the mean daily temperature of 65 F. For example, a weather station recording a mean daily temperature of 78 F would report 13 cooling...

  5. 1999 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Needle Biopsy Alternative Riverside to Test Small Camera that Points Out Growths in Breast (Daily Press) Fri, 10221999 - 11:00pm Science Finds God (Daily Press) Sun, 1017...

  6. 2000 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer-seeking Camera Demystifies Research Lab (Daily Press) Sat, 10072000 - 11:00pm Breast Cancer Biopsies Could Be Things of Past (Daily Press) Sat, 10072000 - 11:00pm...

  7. Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, Gary M.; Anderson, Penny R.; Bleicher, Richard J.; Litwin, Samuel; Li Tianyu; Swaby, Ramona F.; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Li Jinsheng; Sigurdson, Elin R.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Morrow, Monica; Goldstein, Lori J.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged {>=}18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and the tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.

  8. 1999 - 02 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 1999 Tue, 02/16/1999 - 1:00am A Closer Look at Cancer (Daily Press

  9. 2002 - 06 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 2002 Mon, 06/17/2002 - 12:00am The Olympics of Particle Research (Daily Press

  10. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    structured * Daily transactions are reported electronically using the Automated Reservoir Management System (ARMS) and reports are generated to identify relevant...

  11. 2006 - 10 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 2006 Thu, 10/19/2006 - 12:00am Acing the SAT: The certifiably smart Warwick High student is a Russian immigrant (Daily Press) Sat, 10/14/2006 - 12:00am Jeff Lab worker in Google top 100 (Daily Press) Wed, 10/04/2006 - 12:00am Chemists say SOLs don't measure up (Daily Press

  12. I/O Statistics Last 30 Days

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I/O Statistics Last 30 Days I/O Statistics Last 30 Days These plots show the daily statistics for the last 30 days for the storage systems at NERSC in terms of the amount of data transferred and the number of files transferred. Daily I/O Volume Daily I/O Count

  13. 2009 - 04 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 2009 Mon, 04/20/2009 - 12:00am Painting firm honored by Jefferson Lab (Daily Press) Mon, 04/20/2009 - 12:00am Hampton University awarded $1.3 million for breast cancer research (Daily Press) Wed, 04/15/2009 - 12:00am Jefferson Lab begins $310 million upgrade (Daily

  14. Acute health effects of PM10 pollution on symptomatic and asymptomatic children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, C.A. 3d.; Dockery, D.W. )

    1992-05-01

    This study assessed the association between daily changes in respiratory health and respirable particulate pollution (PM10) in Utah Valley during the winter of 1990-1991. During the study period, 24-h PM10 concentrations ranged from 7 to 251 micrograms/m3. Participants included symptomatic and asymptomatic samples of fifth- and sixth-grade students. Relatively small but statistically significant (p less than 0.01) negative associations between peak expiratory flow (PEF) and PM10 were observed for both the symptomatic and asymptomatic samples. The association was strongest for the symptomatic children. Large associations between the incidence of respiratory symptoms, especially cough, and PM10 pollution were also observed for both samples. Again the association was strongest for the symptomatic sample. Immediate and delayed PM10 effects were observed. Respiratory symptoms and PEF changes were more closely associated with 5-day moving-average PM10 levels than with concurrent-day levels. These associations were also observed at PM10 levels below the 24-h standard of 150 micrograms/m3. This study indicates that both symptomatic and asymptomatic children may suffer acute health effects of respirable particulate pollution, with symptomatic children suffering the most.

  15. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  16. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines : case studies of rotor fault and blade damage with initial O&M cost modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrent, Noah J.; Kusnick, Joshua F.; Barrett, Natalie C.; Adams, Douglas E.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2013-04-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Based on simulations of damage in the turbine model, the operational measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage/faults were the blade tip accelerations and local pitching moments for both imbalance and shear web disbond. The initial cost model provided a great deal of insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs due to the implementation of an effective SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability, revenue, and overall profit.

  17. Word Pro - S6

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Flow, 2014 (Trillion Cubic Feet) 1 Natural gas plant liquids production (NGPL), gaseous equivalent. 2 Quantities lost and imbalances in data due to differences among data sources. Excludes tran- sit shipments that cross the U.S.-Canada border (i.e., natural gas delivered to its destination via the other country). 3 Lease and plant fuel, and other industrial. 4 Natural gas consumed in the operation of pipelines (primarily in compressors) and as fuel in the delivery of natural gas to consumers,

  18. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Underground Natural Gas Storage Overview | Regional Breakdowns Overview Underground natural gas storage provides pipelines, local distribution companies, producers, and pipeline shippers with an inventory management tool, seasonal supply backup, and access to natural gas needed to avoid imbalances between receipts and deliveries on a pipeline network. There are three

  19. ARM - Oceanic Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oceanic Properties Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Oceanic Properties There are some other aspects that need to be examined regarding the imbalances in the current carbon cycle. First let's look at the effects of the ocean gaining 2 gigatonnes (1 gigatonne = 1x1012 kilograms)

  20. Low Probability Tail Event Analysis and Mitigation in the BPA Control Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Brothers, Alan J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-10-31

    This report investigated the uncertainties with the operations of the power system and their contributions to tail events, especially under high penetration of wind. A Bayesian network model is established to quantify the impact of these uncertainties on system imbalance. The framework is presented for a decision support tool, which can help system operators better estimate the need for balancing reserves and prepare for tail events.

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - 0709-NERSC-XT+ToolsTutorial.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Parallel Performance Visualization on the Cray XT4 Luiz DeRose Programming Environment Director Cray Inc. ldr@cray.com September 18-20, 2007 Luiz DeRose (ldr@cray.com) © Cray Inc. Slide 56 Cray Apprentice 2 Call graph profile Communication statistics Time-line view * Communication * I/O Activity view Pair-wise communication statistics Text reports Source code mapping Cray Apprentice 2 is target to help identify and correct: * Load imbalance * Excessive communication * Network contention *

  2. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, P.M.

    1986-04-22

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

  3. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, Peter M.

    1986-01-01

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

  4. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, Russell; Ludwig, Peter; Maurer, Tessa

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1F to 15.5F.

  5. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  6. Phase 2 Trial of Accelerated, Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Irradiation of 39 Gy in 13 Fractions Followed by a Tumor Bed Boost Sequentially Delivering 9 Gy in 3 Fractions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ja Young; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Seeyoun; Kang, Han-Sung; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, In Hae; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Nam Kwon; Shin, Kyung Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report a phase 2 trial of accelerated, hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (AH-WBI) delivered as a daily dose of 3 Gy to the whole breast followed by a tumor bed boost. Methods and Materials: Two hundred seventy-six patients diagnosed with breast cancer (pT1-2 and pN0-1a) who had undergone breast-conserving surgery in which the operative margins were negative were treated with AH-WBI delivered as 39 Gy in 13 fractions of 3 Gy to the whole breast once daily over 5 consecutive working days, and 9 Gy in 3 sequential fractions of 3 Gy to a lumpectomy cavity, all within 3.2 weeks. Results: After a median follow-up period of 57 months (range: 27-75 months), the rate of 5-year locoregional recurrence was 1.4% (n=4), whereas that of disease-free survival was 97.4%. No grade 3 skin toxicity was reported during the follow-up period. Qualitative physician cosmetic assessments of good or excellent were noted in 82% of the patients at 2 months after the completion of AH-WBI. The global cosmetic outcome did not worsen over time, and a good or excellent cosmetic outcome was reported in 82% of the patients at 3 years. The mean pretreatment percentage breast retraction assessment was 12.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.14-12.86). The mean value of percentage breast retraction assessment increased to 13.99 (95% CI: 12.17-15.96) after 1 year and decreased to 13.54 (95% CI: 11.84-15.46) after 3 years but was not significant (P>.05). Conclusions: AH-WBI consisting of 39 Gy in 13 fractions followed by a tumor bed boost sequentially delivering 9 Gy in 3 fractions can be delivered with excellent disease control and tolerable skin toxicity in patients with early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery.

  7. 1999 - 08 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 1999 Thu, 08/26/1999 - 12:00am New I-64 Sign Points to Times Past (Daily Press) Wed, 08/25/1999 - 12:00am Powerful Tunable Laser Exceeds Design Goals (DOE Pulse) Sun, 08/08/1999 - 12:00am U. Va. Gets $2.5 Million for Study at Jefferson Lab (Daily Press) Sat, 08/07/1999 - 12:00am Another Research Building Considered Near Jefferson Lab (Daily Press

  8. Electricity Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Wholesale Markets: December 2015 The United States has many regional wholesale electricity markets. Below we look at monthly and annual ranges of on-peak, daily wholesale prices at selected pricing locations and daily peak demand for selected electricity systems in the Nation. The range of daily prices and demand data is shown for the report month and for the year ending with the report month. Prices and demand are shown for six Regional Transmission Operator (RTO) markets: ISO New

  9. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Studies on π-conjugated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Degradation behavior of the negative spin-12 electroluminescence-detected magnetic ... The same behavior of the negative spin-12 ELDMR was observed in 2wt% Rubrene doped ...

  10. Electricity Monthly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Wholesale Markets: February 2014 The United States has many regional wholesale electricity markets. Below we look at monthly and annual ranges of on-peak, daily wholesale...

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - 4_John_Ballard_NMMSS_2013_Presentation...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    * Shortens reconciliation times 18 DOENNSA Reconciliation Reports to help stay balanced during year * TJ-1X - Daily activity by facility - Monthly reports and...

  12. Electric Metering | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Forrestal electric meters provide daily read-outs and comparison of data on electricity consumption for overhead lighting and power outlets. The purpose is to measure the ...

  13. U-Launch Winner Secures $2.4M Investment for Building Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy efficiency performance software shows users a building's response to all forms of weather, operational schedules, key energy metrics, daily consumption patterns, ...

  14. Rob Goldston, Alex Glaser and Boaz Barak named among Foreign...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the field of nuclear arms control. Founded in 1970, Foreign Policy magazine focuses on global affairs, current events and domestic and international affairs. It produces daily...

  15. Workforce Pipeline | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daily Herald True Romance: From walking opposite paths to following the same route Dallas Morning News Workforce Pipeline Argonne seeks to attract, hire and retain a diverse ...

  16. Solar Radiation Map of the U.S. - Annual (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Maps that provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size.

  17. SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-9306 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    speed probability distribution, daily averages in 0.1 ms bins. ...14 Figure 5. Water surface level correlated with river current speed. ......

  18. Tips: Programmable Thermostats | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    more temperature settings a day) that you can manually override without affecting the rest of the daily or weekly program. Learn More Thermostats and control systems Home heating...

  19. Hedge Fund, Financial Stress, and Cross-Market Linkages

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Direct evidence that who trades matters for asset pricing In general, difficult to test the theory Unlike other authors, we have access to comprehensive daily data on (i) ...

  20. Bandwidth and Transfer Activity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average. Graphs for the last 8 days. Historical yearly peak days. Daily Storage Concurrency Transfer Activity This graph shows the number of transfers to the storage systems...

  1. Expanding Professional Horizons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    expands daily, by leaps and bounds - knowledge turnover must be accompanied by an infusion of new talent that both informs and is informed by existing, experienced staff. With...

  2. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data across the network. Converting the DMF to hourly processing eliminated problems stemming from the previous daily flow. The solution provided added benefit as a central...

  3. 1998 - 02 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 1998 Wed, 02/25/1998 - 1:00am Innovators Honored by Museum (Virginian-Pilot) Tue, 02/24/1998 - 1:00am Jefferson Lab Chief Named Top Scientist (Daily Press) Thu, 02/19/1998 - 1:00am NN Board Seeks Volunteers to Help Plan Schools' Future (Daily Press) Thu, 02/19/1998 - 1:00am More Fed Cash Tagged for Research (Daily Press) Wed, 02/11/1998 - 1:00am Schwartz at Helm of IDA (Virginia Gazette) Fri, 02/06/1998 - 1:00am DOE Gives Jefferson Lab a Modest Budget Increase (Daily Press) Tue,

  4. 1998 - 12 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Sat, 12/12/1998 - 1:00am Don't be late: Lecture is on Time (Daily Press)

  5. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Interest Lands Conservation Act ANS: Alaskan North Slope ANWR: Arctic National Wildlife Refuge BBbls: billion barrels Bbls: barrels Daily Petroleum Production Rate: The ...

  6. 2001 - 03 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 2001 Tue, 03/20/2001 - 1:00am Tool of the Future Lies in the Answer to the Nanotubes (Daily Press) Thu, 03/15/2001 - 1:00am Jefferson Lab to Host Teachers' Course (Daily Press) Thu, 03/15/2001 - 1:00am State Should Invest More in High-Tech Economy (Daily Press) Mon, 03/12/2001 - 1:00am Lab's Laser Key to Strong Metals: Free-electron technique tested locally shows promise (Daily Press) Thu, 03/08/2001 - 1:00am Tiny Machines Hold Big Dreams: Jefferson Lab Scientists Hope for State Funds

  7. 2002 - 12 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Thu, 12/12/2002 - 1:00am Wide Range Student Makes Full Use of His Many Talents (Daily Press)

  8. Electricity Monthly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as collected via the Form EIA-923. Nuclear Outages: Reflects the average daily outage amount for the month as reported by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Power Reactor...

  9. ALSNews Vol. 324

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thomas Cahill's research is the focus of the first section of a special episode of the Discovery Channel Canada program "Daily Planet," marking the anniversary of the September...

  10. affects on the transport of airborne emissions. This information...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Precipitation, barometric pressure, and solar radiation Vertical temperature gradient ... Direction (deg) Peak I-sec Gust (mls) - - Solar Radiation ( m d a ) Mean Daily ...

  11. Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    work. Today at Berkeley Lab: : The daily newsletter for our employees and collaborators. Publications.lbl.gov: : Over 75,000 of our laboratory's scientific publications,...

  12. GEM Resources III Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  13. Navy I Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  14. Salton Sea II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  15. Mak-Ban Binary 3 GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  16. Lightning Dock Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  17. Husavik Geothermal Power Station | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  18. GEM Resources II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  19. San Jacinto-Tizate Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...

  20. Sulphur Springs Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processes (afday) Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Well Field Water Use (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (af...