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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this type of fuel cell become a lead- ing candidate to replace batteries in portable applications includA sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu October 2012 Received in revised form 4 December 2012 Accepted 3 January 2013 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct

Zhao, Tianshou

2

FlexEnergy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FlexEnergy FLEXENERGY.COM FlexEnergy FLEXENERGY.COM General Introduction September 2011 October 25, 2011 -Federal Utility Partnership Working Group © 2011 FlexEnergy FLEXENERGY.COM FLEXENERGY INC: COMPANY OVERVIEW  Over 125 Employees  Headquartered in Irvine, CA  Manufacturing Facilities in Portsmouth, NH and Mocksville, NC  Acquired Ingersoll Rand Energy Systems in 2010  Small Business  Products Meet Buy American Act Requirements © 2011 FlexEnergy FLEXENERGY.COM FLEX INNOVATION The Cleanest Power Platform in the World » FlexEnergy Inc's breakthrough technology efficiently converts pollution and waste gases into electricity at a temperature high enough to destroy VOCs and CO, and low enough to not create NOx » Integration of mature gas turbine technologies with proprietary thermal oxidizer

3

DOE-Flex Bulletin-Worker Injury While on a DOE-Flex Arrangement |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE-Flex Bulletin-Worker Injury While on a DOE-Flex Arrangement DOE-Flex Bulletin-Worker Injury While on a DOE-Flex Arrangement DOE-Flex Bulletin-Worker Injury While on a DOE-Flex Arrangement This bulletin responds to questions that have surfaced regarding DOE's liability for an injury to an employee while working at an alternative workplace, particularly at home. It is the position of the DOE Office of General Council that the case decision cited in this document should be relied upon as the prevailing administrative law at this time. DOE-Flex Bulletin-Worker Injury While on a DOE-Flex Arrangement Responsible Contacts Bruce Murray HR Policy Advisor E-mail bruce.murray@hq.doe.gov Phone 202-586-3372 More Documents & Publications Desk Reference on DOE-Flex The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Energy Assurance Planning

4

Global Flex Group Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name: Global-Flex Group Inc. Place: Temple, Texas Zip: 76501 Product: Texas based trade and financial solutions company consisting of three operating divisions. Coordinates:...

5

Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B:...

6

DOE-Flex Bulletin-Worker Injury While on a DOE-Flex Arrangement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flex Bulletin Flex Bulletin The information contained in this Bulletin is intended for DOE-Flex Advisors and Coordinators in responding to questions. The information supplements the guidance in the Handbook on DOE- Flex and will be incorporated in the handbook in the near future, at which fime this Builetin wil! expire and be removed from the DOE-Flex web site No. 2 May 2000 Subject: Worker In~jury While on a DOE-Flex Arrangement This Bulletin responds to questions that have surfaced regarding DOE'S liability for an injury to an employee while working at an alternative workplace, particularly at home. 11 is the position of the DOE Office of General Counsel that the ease decision cited helow should be rdicd upon as the prevailing administrative law at this time.

7

UtiliFlex | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UtiliFlex UtiliFlex Jump to: navigation, search Logo: UtiliFlex Name UtiliFlex Address 535 Chestnut Street, Suite 243 Place Chattanooga, TN Zip 37402 Product Smart Meter Integration, Prepaid Software, Presentment Website http://www.utiliflex.com/ Coordinates 37.0625°, -95.677068° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.0625,"lon":-95.677068,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

8

Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of a cost effective and reliable dual combustion mode engine (multi-cylinder and flex fuel) using cost effective actuating system (two-step valves and electrical cam phasing...

9

National Energy Audit (NEAT) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

National Energy Audit (NEAT) National Energy Audit (NEAT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: National Energy Audit Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Energy Partner: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/tools_directory/software.cfm/ID=304/pa Cost: Free Language: English References: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/tools_directory/software.cfm/ID=304/pagename=alpha_list Logo: National Energy Audit The computer program is designed for use by State agencies and utilities to determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for single-family and small multi-family site-built homes to increase the energy efficiency and

10

Effect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

significantly increase the methanol-crossover rate, producing an unfavorable * Corresponding author. DepartmentEffect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu a , S.Y. Shen a , Y.L. He b , T.S. Zhao a

Zhao, Tianshou

11

MAIL TO: FAX TO: PayFlex Systems USA, Inc.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MAIL TO: FAX TO: PayFlex Systems USA, Inc. Extend Health P.O. Box 3039 Omaha, NE 68103-3039 PayFlex Systems USA, Inc. Extend Health (402) 231-4310 (No Cover Page Required) Page 1 of ______________ Direct be your Social Security/Employer-Assigned Number) I hereby authorize PayFlex Systems USA, Inc. (Pay

Pennycook, Steve

12

Flexing Cable for Wind Power Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As conventional energy sources -- namely oil, gas, and coal -- are increasingly limited in their respective quantities, many countries are encouraging the development of renewable energies. Wind energy, already a well-developed technology, is quickly ... Keywords: Wind Power, Flexing, Cable, energy, Flexibility

Wenyan Qiu; Huili Zhang; Lu Li

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Flex PACE Program (North Dakota) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flex PACE Program (North Dakota) Flex PACE Program (North Dakota) Flex PACE Program (North Dakota) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State North Dakota Program Type Loan Program The Flex PACE Program designed to provide interest buy down to non-PACE qualifying businesses where the community determines eligibility and accountability standards. The PACE family of programs at BND is designed to encourage specific types of economic activity within the State of North Dakota. Job creation is not a requirement of Flex PACE, but jobs will be tracked for informational purposes. The cumulative amount of PACE funds available per biennium under Flex PACE to a North Dakota community or an

14

SCS-2005-18 Roundup Ready Flex Cotton System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SCS-2005-18 6-05 Roundup Ready Flex Cotton System Robert Lemon, Ph.D., Professor and Extension Agronomist - Cotton Randy Boman, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Extension Agronomist - Cotton Todd Baughman Specialist Peter Dotray, Ph.D., Professor and Extension Weed Specialist R oundup Ready Flex cotton provides

Mukhtar, Saqib

15

Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain...

16

Desk Reference on DOE-Flex | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Desk Reference on DOE-Flex Desk Reference on DOE-Flex Desk Reference on DOE-Flex The information in this desk reference supplements DOE N 314.1, DOE-Flex: DOE's Telework Program, and the Office of Personnel Management's (OPM's) Guide to Telework in the Federal Government. The format of this desk reference follows the structure of the OPM guide, with the following exceptions: It describes one additional type of telework arrangement that applies in DOE It contains a frequently asked question section as additional guidance It contains sample forms that may be used or modified by a Departmental element as needed This desk reference replaces the Handbook on DOE-Flex, DOE's Flexiplace Program dated March 2000. The information in this desk reference should be further supplemented by a Departmental element to address local procedures.

17

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: National Energy Audit (NEAT)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Energy Audit (NEAT) National Energy Audit (NEAT) A user-friendly, advanced computer audit, the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) has been developed by the Buildings Technology Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy�s (DOE�s) Weatherization Assistance Program. The computer program is designed for use by State agencies and utilities to determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for single-family and small multi-family site-built homes to increase the energy efficiency and comfort levels. Examines over 45 envelope, equipment, and baseload measures ranked by SIR after accounting for their interactions. Version 7.x, available in 2001, is fully Windows� compatible with data base format storage of all information and results.

18

NEAT-o-Games: Ubiquitous Activity-based Gaming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(NEAT-o-games) is fueled by activity data recorded by small wearable sensors. Data from the sensors combines unobtrusive physiologic sensing and novel Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) technologies are logged wirelessly to a Personal Digital Assistant/Cell Phone (PDA), which acts as the central computing

19

Prediction of wear and stresses while drilling through a riser flex joint  

SciTech Connect

Flex joints in risers introduce abrupt directional changes along the drillstring. High drillstring stresses and flex joint wear rates are introduced, particularly when the drillstring tension is high. An analysis procedure is presented which finds the drillstring/flex joint contact loads in the vicinity of the flex joint as a function of the tension in the drillstring at the flex joint. The tensile and contact loads of the drillstring at the riser are used to estimate the wear rate on the flex joint and the axial and bending stresses in the drillstring. This example shows the value of the procedure in estimating maximum allowable angles for the flex joint.

Paslay, P.R. (Techaid Corp., Arlington, TX (United States)); Cernocky, E.P. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

National Energy AudiT (NEAT) user`s manual  

SciTech Connect

Welcome to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) energy auditing tool called ``NEAT``. NEAT, an acronym for National Energy AudiT, is a program for personal computers that was designed for use by local agencies in the Weatherization Assistance Program. It is an approved alternative audit that meets all auditing requirements set forth by the program as well as those anticipated from new regulations pertaining to waiver of the 40% materials requirements. NEAT is easy to use. It applies engineering and economic calculations to evaluate energy conservation measures for single-family, detached houses or small multifamily buildings. You can use it to rank measured for each individual house, or to establish a priority list of conservation measures for nearly identical housing types. NEAT was written for the Weatherization Assistance Program by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Many buildings energy consumption algorithms are taken from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s to the computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), published in 1982 for the Department of energy. Equipment retrofit conservation measures are based on published reports on various heating retrofits. Heating and cooling system replacement conservation measures are based on the energy ratings of new heating and cooling equipment. The Weatherization Program anticipates that this computer-based energy audit will offer substantial performance improvements to many states who choose to incorporate it into their programs. When conservation measures are evaluated locally according to climate, fuel cost, measure cost, and existing house conditions, the Program will be closer to its goal of assuring the maximum return for every federal dollar spent.

Krigger, J.K.; Adams, N. [Saturn Resource Management, Helena, MT (United States); Gettings, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Flex Your Electric Vehicle Knowledge Muscle On Jeopardy! Tonight |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flex Your Electric Vehicle Knowledge Muscle On Jeopardy! Tonight Flex Your Electric Vehicle Knowledge Muscle On Jeopardy! Tonight Flex Your Electric Vehicle Knowledge Muscle On Jeopardy! Tonight May 20, 2011 - 9:30am Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs One of the Department of Energy's great prides -- the Argonne National Laboratory -- will be featured in today's episode of Jeopardy! Contestants will answer questions in a "Cars of Today" category, which will include three clues about Argonne National Laboratory's vehicle technology programs. If you want to brush up on the topic before you watch, you may find this piece on how GM's Chevy Volt is using Argonne's breakthrough battery technology, and this interview with Argonne's Jeff Chamberlain on electric

22

Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392°, 9.501785° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":56.26392,"lon":9.501785,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

23

U-050: Adobe Flex SDK Input Validation Flaw Permits Cross-Site Scripting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Adobe Flex SDK Input Validation Flaw Permits Cross-Site 0: Adobe Flex SDK Input Validation Flaw Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks U-050: Adobe Flex SDK Input Validation Flaw Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks December 2, 2011 - 5:24am Addthis PROBLEM: Adobe Flex SDK Input Validation Flaw Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks. PLATFORM: Adobe Flex SDK 4.5.1 and earlier 4.x versions for Windows, Macintosh and Linux Adobe Flex SDK 3.6 and earlier 3.x versions for Windows, Macintosh and Linux ABSTRACT: Flex applications created using the Flex SDK may not properly filter HTML code from user-supplied input before displaying the input. reference LINKS: Adobe Security Bulletin CVE-2011-2461 SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1026361 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: High Discussion: A remote user may be able to cause arbitrary scripting code to be executed

24

U-050: Adobe Flex SDK Input Validation Flaw Permits Cross-Site...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Attacks U-050: Adobe Flex SDK Input Validation Flaw Permits Cross-Site Scripting Attacks December 2, 2011 - 5:24am Addthis PROBLEM: Adobe Flex SDK Input Validation Flaw Permits...

25

Blending world map projections with Flex Projector Bernhard Jennya  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Projector and then documents the new approaches to projection blending. The integration of the three methods into Flex Projector makes creating new projections simple and easy to control and allows the user.flexprojector.com) is a free, open- source, cross-platform application with a graphical user interface for designing world map

Jenny, Bernhard

26

Numerical Model of a Tensioner System and Flex Joint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, to allow for static and dynamic simulation of a TTR connected to a floating structure through a tensioner system or buoyancy can, and a SCR connected to a floating structure through a flex joint. A tensioner system usually consists of three to four...

Huang, Han

2013-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Methanol to someone by Methanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels Methanol Methanol (CH3OH), also known as wood alcohol, is an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. As an engine fuel, methanol has chemical and physical fuel properties similar to ethanol. Methanol use in vehicles has declined dramatically since the early 1990s, and automakers no longer

28

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

31

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

32

Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Wayne Moore, Matt Foster, Kevin Hoyer, Keith Confer Delphi Advanced Powertrain DEER Conference September 29, 2010...

33

Desk Reference on DOE-Flex (July 2011)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

July 2011 July 2011 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DESK REFERENCE ON DOE-FLEX DOE's Telework Program Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer (CHCO) 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Introduction 3 Legislative Background 3 What is Telework? 3 Definition 3 Types of Telework Arrangements 4 TELEWORK GUIDANCE BY AUDIENCE Federal Agencies/Telework Managing Officers 5 Agency Roles and Responsibilities and Telework Policies 5 Training 6 Telework Agreements 6 Telework Managing Officer (TMO) 6 Reporting 6 ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE Frequently Asked Questions 8 Departmental Element's Procedure 8

34

methanol.qxd  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Methanol One in a series of fact sheets United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA420-F-00-040 March 2002 www.epa.gov Transportation and Air Quality Transportation and Regional Programs Division C L E A N A L T E R N A T I V E F U E L S C L E A N E R A I R Because of the environ- mental advantages and cost savings, Arizona Checker Leasing Company purchased its first methanol-fueled vehicles in 1993 and cur- rently counts 300 in its fleet of nearly 450 automobiles. The company leases its M85 fuel-flexible vehicles to two cab companies in the Phoenix area. The company purchases its methanol from the California Energy Com- mission, which sells it at a lower, subsidized price. According to the company, methanol has performed just as well as gasoline, providing a safe, reliable, and cost- effective fuel source for the

35

Driving "Back to the Future": Flex-Fuel Vehicle Awareness | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

"Back to the Future": Flex-Fuel Vehicle Awareness "Back to the Future": Flex-Fuel Vehicle Awareness Driving "Back to the Future": Flex-Fuel Vehicle Awareness March 18, 2011 - 9:41am Addthis Paul Bryan Biomass Program Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy The 1908 Model-T Ford was the first vehicle designed to run on ethanol-which Henry Ford termed "the fuel of the future." Today, about 8 million Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) on our roads are capable of running on either gasoline or gasoline blended with up to 85 percent ethanol (E85). By using E85, these flex fuel vehicles help to decrease our reliance on imported oil and reduce carbon pollution. The "Big Three" U.S. auto makers (Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler) recently announced that half of their entire 2012 vehicle line will be FFVs-including the

36

Research and Application of FlexRay High-Speed Bus on Transformer Substation Automation System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Through researching FlexRay high-speed bus technology, this paper auxiliary builds electric power system hardware interface standards and software application layer standards. Meanwhile, this paper also realizes ...

Hui Li; Hao Zhang; Daogang Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Flexing Judicial Muscle: An Empirical Study of Judicial Activism in the Federal Courts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, is about judges flexing their metaphorical muscles by elevating their judgment above other constitutionally significant actors. By analyzing how individual judges respect both deferential and non-deferential standards of review in reviewing district court...

Yung, Corey Rayburn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Investigation of operating range in a methanol fumigated diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An experimental study was conducted to investigate the operating range and combustion characteristics in a methanol fumigated diesel engine. The test engine was a six-cylinder, turbocharged direct injection engine with methanol injected into the intake manifold of each cylinder. The experimental results showed that the viable diesel methanol dual fuel (DMDF) operating range in terms of load and methanol substitution percent (MSP) was achieved over a load range from 6% to 100%. The operating range was restricted by four bounds: partial burning, misfire, roar combustion and knock. The lower bound of the operating range was the partial burn bound, which occurred under very low load conditions with high MSP. As the load increased to medium load, MSP reached its maximum value of about 76%, and the onset of misfire provided the right bound for normal operation. At medium to high load, maximum MSP began to decrease. DMDF combustion with excessive MSP was extremely loud with high pressure rise rate, which defined the roar combustion bound. As it increased to nearly full load, measured pressure traces in-cylinder showed strong acoustic oscillations. The appearance of knock provided the upper bound of the operating range. In general, as the load increased, the characters of the combustion changed from partial burn to misfire to roar combustion and to knocking. The range between these four bounds and the neat diesel combustion bound constituted the viable operating range. Over the viable operating range, DMDF combustion worsened the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at light load while boosted it at medium and high load.

Quangang Wang; Lijiang Wei; Wang Pan; Chunde Yao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

The Methanol Economy Project  

SciTech Connect

The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO{sub 2} capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO{sub 2} and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields. ? Direct electrophilic bromination of methane to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to yield methanol was investigated on a wide variety of catalyst systems, but hydrolysis proved impractical for large-scale industrial application. ? Bireforming the correct ratio of methane, CO{sub 2}, and water on a NiO / MgO catalyst yielded the right proportion of H{sub 2}:CO (2:1) and proved to be stable for at least 250 hours of operation at 400 psi (28 atm). ? CO{sub 2} capture utilizing supported polyethyleneimines yielded a system capable of adsorbing CO{sub 2} from the air and release at nominal temperatures with negligible amine leaching. ? CO{sub 2} electrolysis to formate and syngas showed considerable increases in rate and selectivity by performing the reaction in a high pressure flow electrolyzer. ? Formic acid was shown to decompose selectively to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} using either Ru or Ir based homogeneous catalysts. ? Direct formic acid fuel cells were also investigated and showed higher than 40% voltage efficiency using reduced loadings of precious metals. A technoeconomic analysis was conducted to assess the viability of taking each of these processes to the industrial scale by applying the data gathered during the experiments to approximations based on currently used industrial processes. Several of these processes show significant promise for industrial scale up and use towards improving our nations energy independence.

Olah, George; Prakash, G.K.

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping  

SciTech Connect

The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. (STFI, Stockholm (Sweden))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal The economics of producing methanol and other fuels aresome discussion of producing methanol as a by-product from

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Neat Tallow Combustion in a Large Diesel Engine for Electricity Generation from Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper explores how neat tallow can be used as a renewable fuel from waste for electricity generation in a large direct injection (DI) diesel engine capable of burning higher viscosity fuel. ... The fuel supply panel is linked with the main engine control panel, so that any alarm state of the plant (i.e., grid voltage fault, engine overheating) results in automatic change over into diesel modesystem flushing. ... Reforming Mini Reactor ...

Jakub Piaszyk; Perry Leung; Miroslaw L. Wyszynski; Athanasios Tsolakis; Barney Williams; Paul Latham; Andrew P. E. York

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

TOLERANT ETHANOL ESTIMATION IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES DURING MAF SENSOR DRIFTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TOLERANT ETHANOL ESTIMATION IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES DURING MAF SENSOR DRIFTS Kyung-ho Ahn, Anna G Engineering Dearborn, Michigan 48121 ABSTRACT Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concentration of up to 85% ethanol (93% in Brazil). Existing FFVs rely

Stefanopoulou, Anna

44

2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection Engines Using In (FFVs) are able to operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concen- tration of up to 85% ethanol (93% in Brazil). The estima- tion of ethanol content is crucial for optimized and robust

Stefanopoulou, Anna

45

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up to 85% ethanol for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

46

Assessing the operational life of flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications : a case study.  

SciTech Connect

Through the vehicle of a case study, this paper describes in detail how the guidance found in the suite of IPC (Association Connecting Electronics Industries) publications can be applied to develop a high level of design assurance that flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications will satisfy specified lifetime requirements.

Beck, David Franklin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol

48

Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability  

SciTech Connect

This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

Sinor, J E [Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectral Intensity With 5% Coal (x ::: 86.9 cm) CalculatedPredictions B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel TemperatureMethanol as the Fuel B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel C.

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

Tabak, S.A. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States). Central Research Lab.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

Rapid starting methanol reactor system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

List of Methanol Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methanol Incentives Methanol Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 22 Methanol Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 22) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Alcohol Fuel Credit (Federal) Corporate Tax Credit United States Commercial Industrial Ethanol Methanol No Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant Fund (AFIG) (Pennsylvania) State Grant Program Pennsylvania Commercial Industrial Residential General Public/Consumer Nonprofit Schools Local Government Renewable Transportation Fuels Renewable Fuel Vehicles Other Alternative Fuel Vehicles Refueling Stations Ethanol Methanol Biodiesel No Biodiesel and Alcohol Fuel Blend Sales Tax Exemption (Washington) Sales Tax Incentive Washington Commercial Ethanol Methanol

53

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Abstract: The desorption kinetics of methanol,...

54

E85, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and AB 1493 Integrating biofuels into California's vehicular greenhouse gas regulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E85, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and AB 1493 Integrating biofuels into California's vehicular greenhouse.................................................................................................. 5 1.1.3 CALIFORNIA CLEAN FUELS PROGRAM ....................................... 6 1.1.5 AB 1007: THE ALTERNATIVE FUELS PLAN

Kammen, Daniel M.

55

Design, fabrication, and testing of a three-dimensional, plastically-deformed, monolithic compliant HexFlex Nanomanipulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed to investigate the possibility of incorporating plastic deformation into a precision compliant mechanism design. The particular application of a compliant HexFlex Nanomanipulator was ...

Korb, Samuel N. (Samuel Noaa), 1984-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Rutgers Marketing Research Insights and Analytics Flex MBA goes beyond training marketing research analysts. The unique program connects academics and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rutgers Marketing Research Insights and Analytics Flex MBA goes beyond training marketing research analysts. The unique program connects academics and industry by educating future marketing intelligence professionals who can fully utilize analytical insights gained from marketing research and shape business

Lin, Xiaodong

57

Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using sandwiched discs for intermittent flexing joints  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by the use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements are formed by sandwiching together, by fusing, a pair of thin hollow discs which are fixedly secured to both the main conductor sections and the conductor hub section.

Kommineni, Prasad R. (Westboro, MA)

1983-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

ProtoFlex Corp formerly Alpha Optics Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ProtoFlex Corp formerly Alpha Optics Inc ProtoFlex Corp formerly Alpha Optics Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name ProtoFlex Corp (formerly Alpha Optics Inc) Place Centennial, Colorado Zip 80112 Sector Services Product US-based provider of deposition systems, engineering pilot plants, and coating services for metals, silicon, and lithium, with some PV applications. Coordinates 41.297205°, -106.138489° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.297205,"lon":-106.138489,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

59

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer

60

6, 39453963, 2006 Methanol inside aged  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The oxidation of methane (and other hydrocarbons) can also produce methanol primarily via the self reactionACPD 6, 3945­3963, 2006 Methanol inside aged tropical biomass burning plumes G. Dufour et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions First space-borne measurements of methanol inside aged tropical biomass

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Microbial community response to a release of neat ethanol onto residual hydrocarbons in a pilot-scale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microbial community response to a release of neat ethanol onto residual hydrocarbons in a pilot ethanol release (E100, 76 l) onto residual hydrocarbons in sandy soil was evaluated in a continuous-flow 8 shifts were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. High ethanol concentrations

Alvarez, Pedro J.

62

Direct methanol fuel cell and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

63

Thermal tests of MC3811 rigid/flex printed wiring boards  

SciTech Connect

Rigid/flex multilayer printed wiring boards are more sensitive to thermal environmental changes than conventional printed wiring boards. This is manifested because of a composition of dissimilar materials used within the construction of this type of product. During fabrication and assembly, stresses can develop within the plated-through holes from differences in thermal properties of the rigid and flexible materials, primarily thermal coefficient of expansion. Thermal shock and thermal stress tests and rework simulation as defined in MIL-P-50884 have been performed in this study as indicators of processing quality to detect faults and to verify improvements in board reliability. 3 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Gentry, F.L.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Fabrication and long-wavelength characterization of neat and chemically modified graphene  

SciTech Connect

Graphene, a single- or several layer-thick carbon, attracts significant research activity because of its exceptional material properties. Graphene is a promising material for optoelectronic applications. Neat graphene demonstrates potential as a material for long wavelength photodetectors working at elevated temperatures. Chemical modification of graphene opens up many new applications of this material in electronics, in new composite materials, and in new catalysts for different chemical processes. Chemical vapor deposition-grown large-area graphene can be successfully modified with the creation of benzyne attachments. The investigation of microwave properties is an important part of graphene research. Two variants of near-field long wavelength microscopy were found efficient with graphene. Measurements with a probe formed by an electrically open end of a 4 GHz half-lambda parallel-strip transmission line resonator allow the implementation of an electrodynamic model of graphene microwave impedance. The results of near-field scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) RF microscopy of graphite and graphene at 200 MHz shed light on mechanisms of AC graphene response: screening currents induced in graphene by an external RF magnetic field tend to localize near structural defects.

Kalugin, Nikolai G. [Departments of Materials Engineering and Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Approaches to methanol-tolerant air cathodes for methanol-air fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The achievement of truly methanol-tolerant oxygen cathodes will greatly assist the development of direct methanol-air fuel cells, because the cathode performance will not be affected by the presence of methanol or its oxidation products, which can diffuse across the cell from the anode. In addition, methanol will not be consumed at the cathode. Although platinum-based oxygen cathodes can continue to perform well in the presence of methanol under certain conditions, methanol can be consumed rapidly at such electrodes. Oxygen electrocatalysts were examined in the present work which are largely inactive for methanol oxidation and are also not affected significantly by the presence of methanol. These included heat-treated transition metal macrocycles and hydrated ruthenium dioxide. The most promising electrocatalyst examines thus far is heat-treated iron tetramethoxyphenylporphyrin supported on high area carbon.

Tryk, D.A.; Gupta, S.L.; Aldred, W.H.; Yeager, E.B. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Low Crossover of Methanol and Water Through Thin Membranes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the literature has been focused on developing new electrocatalysts to improve sluggish methanol oxidation and new developed in this work to attain low methanol crossover, low water crossover, and high cell performance diffusion barrier to reduce methanol crossover. In addition, a highly hydrophobic cathode microporous layer

67

FlexFetch: A History-Aware Scheme for I/O Energy Saving in Mobile Computing , Song Jiang2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FlexFetch: A History-Aware Scheme for I/O Energy Saving in Mobile Computing Feng Chen1 , Song Jiang, energy consumption caused by I/O operations becomes increasingly large. In a per- vasive computing be adaptively selected to achieve maximum energy reduction. To this end, we propose a profile-based I

Jiang, Song

68

Capsulorhexis phimosis with anterior flexing ofan accommodating IOL: Case report andhistopathological analyses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe the case of a patient who had cataract surgery with implantation of an accommodating hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) that exhibited capsulorhexis phimosis and in-the-bag IOL luxation leading to explantation of the IOLcapsular bag complex 10 years after implantation. Constriction of the capsular bag secondary to fibrosis caused significant anterior flexing of the haptic elements of the IOL. Histopathological analysis revealed dense anterior subcapsular fibrosis and fibrous metaplasia of the anterior lens epithelial cells. No signs suggestive of pseudoexfoliation were found. This case raises concerns related to the continuously evolving indications for implantation of accommodating and other highly flexible \\{IOLs\\} (eg, microincision IOLs), particularly in patients with no clear predisposition to zonular weakness and, accordingly, excessive capsular bag contraction. Financial Disclosure No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.

Rachel H. Epstein; Erica T. Liu; Liliana Werner; Thomas Kohnen; Oliver K. Kaproth; Nick Mamalis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Counterflow Extinction of Premixed and Nonpremixed Methanol and Ethanol Flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for high temperature ethanol oxidation. Interna- tionaland combustion of methanol and ethanol droplets. Combustionvelocities of methanol, ethanol and isooctane-air mix- u

Seshadri, Kalyanasundaram

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Presentation...

71

Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Abstract: Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed...

72

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel...

73

Spontaneous hydrogen evolution in direct methanol fuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an electrochemical energy conversion device that converts chemical energy of liquid methanol into electrical energy. Because of its (more)

Ye, Qiang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Using Rare Gas Permeation to Probe Methanol Diffusion near the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rare Gas Permeation to Probe Methanol Diffusion near the Glass Transition Temperature. Using Rare Gas Permeation to Probe Methanol Diffusion near the Glass Transition Temperature....

75

Methanol synthesis in a trickle bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

kinetic models for methanol synthesis under the assumption that the rate limiting step was the reaction between an adsorbed CO molecule and two adsorbed H2 molecules. The experiment was conducted over a Cu/ZnO/Cr~03 catalyst in a fixed bed reactor... to account for the large degree of initial deactivation. However, Rozovskii (1980) claimed the opposite and stated that methanol is made from carbon dioxide and no methanol is produced from Hz/CO mixtures over the Cu/ZnO/Alz03 catalyst. Liu et al. (1984...

Tjandra, Sinoto

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Advanced direct methanol fuel cells. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the program was an advanced proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for use as the electrolyte in a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell which provides reduced methanol crossover while simultaneously providing high conductivity and low membrane water content. The approach was to use a membrane containing precross-linked fluorinated base polymer films and subsequently to graft the base film with selected materials. Over 80 different membranes were prepared. The rate of methanol crossover through the advanced membranes was reduced 90%. A 5-cell stack provided stable performance over a 100-hour life test. Preliminary cost estimates predicted a manufacturing cost at $4 to $9 per kW.

Hamdan, Monjid; Kosek, John A.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Experimental investigation of methanol crossover evolution during direct methanol fuel cell degradation tests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Methanol crossover and severe degradation are two of the most critical issues hindering the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells. The experimental investigations found in the literature show that degradation has both permanent and temporary contributions; the latter can be recovered thanks to a suitable operation interruption. This work reports the experimental characterization of methanol crossover and water content in cathode exhaust during different degradation tests performed in continuous and cycling operation modes. Such investigation evidences a reduction of methanol crossover during the DMFC degradation tests that can be partially restored. Methanol crossover reduction presents both temporary and permanent contributions: the latter could be related to membrane degradation. Moreover the effect of both methanol crossover and electric power reduction on fuel cell efficiency are discussed.

A. Casalegno; F. Bresciani; M. Zago; R. Marchesi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Catalyst for methanol synthesis: Preparation and activation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase composition and structure of the initial and reduced forms of the copper-zinc oxide catalysts for methanol synthesis are discussed. The mechanism of the process is discussed.

T. M. Yurieva

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters  

SciTech Connect

In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

80

Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Methanol's transformation to commodity status stretches supply  

SciTech Connect

Methanol is undergoing a renaissance. Beginning in the US in the fourth quarter of 1993, methanol has seen a transformation from a low-growth, low-priced, overly abundant commodity chemical into a high-demand, undersupplied, cost-price driven product. As the economic recovery has spread to the rest of the world, methanol demand has dramatically increased. this meteoric rise has been further sparked in the US by increased use of methanol as an ingredient in gasoline oxygenates required by the federal government. Increased demand has led to the consolidation of producers, a scramble to reopen existing capacity, addition of capacity via product conversion, and plans for various future capacity expansions. Methanol fits alongside the other long-standing, major organic commodity chemicals-ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene dichloride, formaldehyde, propylene, styrene, terephthalic acid, and vinyl chloride. Methanol also serves both as a building block for many other chemicals--formaldehyde, acetic acid, and terephthalic acid--and as a solvent for many industrial uses.

Peaff, G.

1994-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

82

Performance of a spark ignition engine fueled with methanol or methanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect

Engine torque and specific energy consumption of an automotive engine were studied under steady state condition using gasoline, methanol gasoline blends and straight methanol as fuel. At first the engine was run without any modification. Next the diameters of metering orifices in carburetor were modified to give the same excess air factor regardless of fuel type under each fixed engine operating condition. Finally the engine was run with 15% mixture methanol in gasoline by volume using the carburetor modified to have approximately 10% larger fuel flow area than the production carburetor. From the results of this study the effects of using methanol on engine torque and specific energy consumption can be explained on the basis of change in stoichiometry caused by the use of methanol.

You, B.C.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion  

SciTech Connect

The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

and Methanol and Methanol Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol and Methanol Tax Ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol motor fuels are taxed at a rate of $0.08 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. Ethyl alcohol is defined as a motor

85

New methanol plant for Kharg Island  

SciTech Connect

Iran`s National Petrochemical Co. (NPC; Teheran) plans to set up a world scale export-oriented methanol plant on Kharg Island in the Persian Gulf. It says discussions are being held with three Western groups - C. Itoh (Tokyo), H & G (London), and Uhde (Dortmund) - to supply the 660,000-m.t./year facility. The estimated $150-million project would be repaid through export of methanol within three to four years. NPC hopes to conclude talks this year. Strategically located, Kharg Island is described as a good location in peacetime. It already serves as an oil terminal. NPC has an LPG and sulfur complex there.

Alperowicz, N.

1992-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

86

Methanol-tolerant carbon aerogel-supported PtAu catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

PtAu nanoparticles supported on carbon aerogel, namely 2:1 has been synthesized by the microwave-assisted polyol process. The structure of PtAu nanoparticles is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical property of PtAu catalysts for methanol oxidation is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results show that Au-modified Pt catalysts exhibit a high methanol tolerance and improved electrochemical catalytic activity, suggesting that carbon aerogel supported PtAu catalysts are better catalysts for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol than conventional Pt catalysts.

Hong Zhu; Zhijun Guo; Xinwei Zhang; Kefei Han; Yubao Guo; Fanghui Wang; Zhongming Wang; Yongsheng Wei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Ozone Control and Methanol Fuel Use  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from diesel-type engines and use in stationary...methanol-fueled engine is expected to emit half as much as diesel-fueled engines. In the 2010 simulations...1989)]. A FUNDAMENTAL FEATURE OF NOR-mal...phase of the cell cycle by any combination...

A. G. Russell; D. St. Pierre; J. B. Milford

1990-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

88

Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a CuSiO2 catalyst. Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a...

89

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial CuZnOAl2O3 catalyst, utilized...

90

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of NO and N02 in a Turbulent Propane/Air Di fusion Flame,"Fuel Methanol Ethanol Ethane Propane i so Octane n - Cetanestage of the secondary Propane, at A spark air line contains

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Photoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,n70460...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

been described elsewhere.9 Methanol cluster anions were produced by passing argon through a reservoirPhotoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,MeOH...n - ,,n?70­460... Aster Kammrath Electron solvation in methanol anion clusters, MeOH n - n 70­460 , is studied by photoelectron imaging. Two

Neumark, Daniel M.

93

Communication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, with the rest coming from natural gas (Peng, 2011). Methanol is commonly used to produce formaldehyde, methylCommunication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy and the environment online 2 December 2011 Keywords: Methanol economy China Coal-based chemical a b s t r a c t For more than

Jackson, Robert B.

94

Molecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ultrafast hydrogen migration.7,8 The 38 fs 800 nm pump pulse produced methanol monocation, and a probe pulseMolecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong Laser Fields Bishnu Thapa and H surfaces of methanol neutral, monocation, and singlet and triplet dication were explored using the CBS

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

95

Supercritical methanol for polyethylene terephthalate depolymerization: Observation using simulator  

SciTech Connect

To apply PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol to commercial recycling, the benefits of supercritical methanol usage in PET depolymerization was investigated from the viewpoint of the reaction rate and energy demands. PET was depolymerized in a batch reactor at 573 K in supercritical methanol under 14.7 MPa and in vapor methanol under 0.98 MPa in our previous work. The main products of both reactions were the PET monomers of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and ethylene glycol (EG). The rate of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol was faster than that of PET depolymerization in vapor methanol. This indicates supercritical fluid is beneficial in reducing reaction time without the use of a catalyst. We depicted the simple process flow of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol and in vapor methanol, and by simulation evaluated the total heat demand of each process. In this simulation, bis-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET) was used as a model component of PET. The total heat demand of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol was 2.35 x 10{sup 6} kJ/kmol Produced-DMT. That of PET depolymerization in vapor methanol was 2.84 x 10{sup 6} kJ/kmol Produced-DMT. The smaller total heat demand of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol clearly reveals the advantage of using supercritical fluid in terms of energy savings.

Genta, Minoru; Iwaya, Tomoko; Sasaki, Mitsuru [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 865-8555 (Japan); Goto, Motonobu [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 865-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: mgoto@kumamoto-u.ac.jp

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold

97

Enzymatic conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol: Enhanced methanol production in silica sol-gel matrices  

SciTech Connect

Strategies for effective conversion of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to methanol offer promising new technologies not only for recycling of the greenhouse gas but also for an efficient production of fuel alternatives. Partial hydrogenation of carbon dioxide has been accomplished by means of heterogeneous catalysis, electrocatalysis, and photocatalysis. Oxide-based catalysts are predominantly used for industrial fixation of carbon dioxide. A unique approach in this direction involves the use of enzymes as catalysts for conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol. The use of enzymes is particularly appealing since it provides a facile low-temperature route for generation of methanol directly from gaseous carbon dioxide. The authors report an enzymatically coupled sequential reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol by using a series of reactions catalyzed by three different dehydrogenases. Overall, the process involves an initial reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (F{sub ate}DH), followed by reduction of formate to formaldehyde by formaldehyde dehydrogenase (F{sub ald}DH), and finally formaldehyde is reduced to methanol by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). In this process, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) acts as a terminal electron donor for each dehydrogenase-catalyzed reduction.

Obert, R.; Dave, B.C.

1999-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

98

ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV) INFORMATION Over 98% of the U-M auto passenger fleet is flex fuel vehicles (FFV). A FFV is capable of operating on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV) INFORMATION Over 98% of the U-M auto passenger fleet is flex fuel of both. FFV's are equipped with an engine and fuel system designed specifically to be compatible with ethanol's chemical properties. FFV's qualify as alternative fuel vehicles under the Energy Policy Act

Kirschner, Denise

99

Coal to methanol to gasoline by the hydrocarb process  

SciTech Connect

The HYDROCARB Process converts coal or any other carbonaceous material to a clean carbon fuel and co-product gas or liquid fuel. By directing the co-product to liquid methanol, it becomes possible to produce methanol at costs as low as $0.13 to $0.14/gal as shown in Table 1 for a Western Lignite and Table 2 for an Eastern Bituminous coal. In the case of Western lignite, it is assumed that the carbon black fuel product can be sold at $3.00/MMBtu ($18/Bbl FOE) and for the Eastern coal at $2.50/MMBtu ($15/Bbl FOE). A methanol market is expected to develop due to the need for an automotive fuel with reduced pollutant emissions. However, should the methanol market not materialize as expected, then methanol can be readily converted to conventional gasoline by the addition of an MTG, methanol to gasoline process step. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Liquefaction of natural gas to methanol for shipping and storage  

SciTech Connect

The penetration of natural gas into distant markets can be substantially increased by a new methanol synthesis process under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The new methanol process is made possible by the discovery of a catalyst that drops synthesis temperatures from about 275/sup 0/C to about 100/sup 0/C. The new low temperature liquid catalyst can convert synthesis gas completely to methanol in a single pass through the methanol synthesis reactor. This characteristic leads to a further major improvement in the methanol plant. As a result of process design factors made possible by the BNL catalyst, the plant required to convert natural gas to methanol is very simple. Conversion of natural gas to methanol requires two chemical reactions, both of which are exothermic, and thus represent a loss of heating value in the feed natural gas. This loss is about 20% of the feed gas energy, and is, therefore, higher than the 10% loss in energy in natural gas liquefaction, which is a simpler physical - not a chemical - change. The energy disadvantage of the methanol option must be balanced against the advantage of a much lower capital investment requirement made possible by the new BNL synthesis. Preliminary estimates show that methanol conversion and shipping require an investment for liquefaction to methanol, and shipping liquefied methanol that can range from 35 to 50% of the capital needed for the LNG plant and LNG tanker fleet. This large reduction in capital requirements is expected to make liquefaction to methanol attractive in many cases where the LNG capital needs are prohibitive. 3 tabs.

O'Hare, T.E.; Sapienza, R.S.; Mahajan, D.; Skaperdas, G.T.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

or otherwise restricted information Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Chris Roger and David Mountz October 1, 2009 2009 Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff...

103

Role of the zeolitic environment in catalytic activation of methanol  

SciTech Connect

One of the most significant industrial applications of zeolites exploits the ability of the microporous aluminosilicate environment to catalyze the methanol to gasoline (MTG) process. The industrial process proceeds at elevated temperatures ({approximately} 700 K) and methanol pressures which correspond to a loading of {approximately} 5--6 methanol molecules per acidic hydroxyl group, which is believed to be the active site. The authors present an extensive study of the initial stages of the methanol to gasoline conversion in the framework of the ab initio molecular dynamics approach. They investigate the effect of different zeolite environments, methanol loading, and temperature and show that, for understanding the initial adsorption and activation of the adsorbed species, all three factors need to be considered simultaneously. The results allow them to develop a simple model for the activation of the methanol molecule, which elucidates the role of both the zeolite framework and the methanol solvent. The zeolite framework plays an active role in methanol protonation. The solvent significantly softens the C-O bond of the methoxonium, rendering it very anharmonic. High mobility of the methoxonium cation, promoted by some zeolite frameworks, prevents it from forming hydrogen bonds with the active sites and the solvent leading to the activation of the methoxonium species. This picture is shown to be consistent with the experimental infrared spectra.

Stich, I. [Angstrom Technology Partnership, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [Angstrom Technology Partnership, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Gale, J.D. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry] [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Terakura, K. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Higashi, Ibaraki (Japan)] [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Higashi, Ibaraki (Japan); [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Payne, M.C. [Cavendish Lab., Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Lab., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1999-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

104

Adsorption of intact methanol on Ru,,0001... Pawel Gazdzicki,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in applications such as the direct methanol fuel cell, where Ru/Pt alloys are used as catalysts for dehydration and hydrogen/ deuterium as suggested in the literature is therefore discarded. At very low coverages or by annealing a low coverage methanol layer, hydrogen bonding leads to cluster formation, as evidenced

105

Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from CO/CO2...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O Mixtures: the Source of C in Methanol and the Role of Water Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O...

106

Imaging Adsorbate O-H Bond Cleavage: Methanol on TiO2(110). ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adsorbate O-H Bond Cleavage: Methanol on TiO2(110). Imaging Adsorbate O-H Bond Cleavage: Methanol on TiO2(110). Abstract: We investigated methanol adsorption and dissociation on...

107

Methanol adsorption and decomposition on rhodium  

SciTech Connect

The decomposition of methanol on rhodium probed from {approximately}200 atomic sites of the (001) or (111) planes or Rh field emitter crystals but randomly with regard to crystallographic zones was studied by pulsed field desorption mass spectrometry. High electric field pulses were used to quantitatively desorb the final products, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, thus achieving steady-state conditions. Substantial amounts of methoxy (mainly desorbed as CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions) were also present at the surface. Applying a steady electric field, F{sub R} {ge} 4 V/nm, between the field pulses, led to a deceleration of the decomposition reaction and to increase of the amount of adsorbed CH{sub 3}O and CH{sub 2}O species. There were indicators that the rate-determining step of the reaction is C-H bond cleavage in adsorbed methoxy to form the CH{sub 2}O intermediate. This was supported by the observation of a kinetic isotope effect in the formation of CD{sub 2}O and CHDO from methyl-d{sub 2}-alcohol, CHD{sub 2}OH. Here, the C-H bond breaking to form the CD{sub 2}O was found to be twice as fast as the breaking of the C-D bond which results in CHDO. Field ion microscopy was applied to investigate the influence of the reaction on the structure of the whole hemispherical single crystal surface. There were neither topographic changes nor corrosion of the Rh surface after field-free exposure to 2 Pa methanol at temperatures up to 423 K.

Chuah, G.K.; Kruse, N.; Schmidt, W.A.; Block, J.H.; Abend, G. (Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Conversion of methanol to gasoline commercial plant study. Coal to gasoline via methanol  

SciTech Connect

Under the joint sponsorship of the German Federal Minister of Research and Technology (BMFT) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), a research program was initiated concerning the ''Conversion of Methanol to Gasoline (MTG), Engineering, Construction and Operation of a Demonstration Plant''. The purpose of the 100 BPD demonstration plant was to demonstrate the feasibility of and to obtain data required for scale-up of the fluid-bed MTG process to a commercial size plant. As per requirements of Annex 3 of the Governmental Agreement, this study, in addition to the MTG plant, also includes the facilities for the production of methanol. The feedstock basis for the production of methanol shall be coal. Hence this study deals with the production of gasoline from coal (CTG-Coal to Gasoline). The basic objective of this study is to assess the technical feasibility of the conversion of methanol to gasoline in a fluid-bed system and to evaluate the process economies i.e., to evlauate the price of the product in relation to the price of the feedstock and plant capacity. In connection with technical feasibility, the scale up criteria were developed from the results obtained and experience gathered over an operational period of 8600 hours of the ''100 BPD Demonstration Plant''. The scale up philosophy is detailed in chapter 4. The conditions selected for the design of the MTG unit are detailed in chapter 5. The scope of the study covers the production of gasoline from coal, in which MTG section is dealt with in detail (refer to chapter 5). Information on other plant sections in this study are limited to that sufficient to: generate overall mass balance; generate rate of by-products and effluents; incorporate heat integration; generate consumption figures; and establish plant investment cost.

Thiagarajan, N.; Nitschke, E.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida  

SciTech Connect

A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Research on methanol-burning, two-stroke engines  

SciTech Connect

In looking for the possibility of burning methanol in the two-stroke marine diesel engine, Mitsubishi decided that its investigations would be for a pure methanol-burning engine. Since ignition of methanol by the straight forward diesel cycle is not attainable, Mitsubishi decided to use glow plugs for ignition. The result has been the adaptation of the 450 mm bore test engine, at Nagasaki, with a special cylinder head carrying two methanol precombustion chambers and two main methanol injectors. Results from the tests at Nagasaki showed that NO[sub x] formation was no more than 500 ppm at full load, while thermal efficiency was at least equal to that of a straight diesel engine. A base model ship for Japanese coastal waters operation is being studied. Plans of the ship have been sent to the Japanese classification society, NK, and they include a separate methanol treatment room and storage tanks. The committee concluded that a methanol-engined ship of about 1000 dwt can be operated economically with a relatively small increase in freight rate. Lower crew costs are part of that equation, because of an expected decrease in machinery maintenance. Conceptual approval for the project is now being sought with NK. 2 figs.

Wilson, K.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Method of converting environmentally pollutant waste gases to methanol  

SciTech Connect

A continuous flow method is described of converting environmentally pollutant by-product gases emitted during the manufacture of silicon carbide to methanol comprising: (a) operating a plurality of batch furnaces of a silicon carbide manufacturing plant thereby producing silicon carbide and emitting by-product gases during the operation of the furnaces; (b) staggering the operation of the batch furnaces to achieve a continuous emission of the by-product gases; (c) continuously flowing the by-product gases as emitted from the batch furnaces directly to a methanol manufacturing plant; (d) cleansing the by-product gases of particulate matter, including removing the element sulfur from the by-product gases, as they are flowed to the methanol manufacturing plant, sufficiently for use of the by-product gases in producing methanol; and (e) immediately producing methanol from the by-product gases at the methanol manufacturing plant whereby the producing of silicon carbide is joined with the producing of methanol as a unified process.

Pfingstl, H.; Martyniuk, W.; Hennepin, A. Ill; McNally, T.; Myers, R.; Eberle, L.

1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

113

Methanol adsorption in zeolites - A first-priniciples study  

SciTech Connect

The methanol to gasoline (MTG) conversion process, using a zeolite catalyst, is of major commercial importance. However, the first step of the reaction, involving methanol adsorption on the zeolite catalyst, is still not well understood. This paper describes first-principles calculations performed on periodic zeolite models to investigate the nature of methanol adsorption. We have examined a number of possible geometries for this adsorption and found that the nature of the adsorbed species can depend on the particular zeolites structure. In more open ring structures, as found in chabazite, the stable form of methanol is found to be protonated, in contrast to results of previous calculations on cluster models. However, in the sodalite structure methanol is found to be simply physisorbed. The vibrational spectra of the adsorbed species have been studied and compared to experimental results. It is found that both chemisorbed methanol and physisorbed methanol give strongly red-shifted O-H stretching frequencies, but the former can be distinguished by the H-O-H bending mode. 50 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Shah, R.; Payne, M.C. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gale, J.D. [Imperial College, South Kensington (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College, South Kensington (United Kingdom)

1996-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

114

Investigation of a FAST-OrcaFlex Coupling Module for Integrating Turbine and Mooring Dynamics of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

To enable offshore floating wind turbine design, the following are required: accurate modeling of the wind turbine structural dynamics, aerodynamics, platform hydrodynamics, a mooring system, and control algorithms. Mooring and anchor design can appreciably affect the dynamic response of offshore wind platforms that are subject to environmental loads. From an engineering perspective, system behavior and line loads must be studied well to ensure the overall design is fit for the intended purpose. FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures and Turbulence) is a comprehensive simulation tool used for modeling land-based and offshore wind turbines. In the case of a floating turbine, continuous cable theory is used to emulate mooring line dynamics. Higher modeling fidelity can be gained through the use of finite element mooring theory. This can be achieved through the FASTlink coupling module, which couples FAST with OrcaFlex, a commercial simulation tool used for modeling mooring line dynamics. In this application, FAST is responsible for capturing the aerodynamic loads and flexure of the wind turbine and its tower, and OrcaFlex models the mooring line and hydrodynamic effects below the water surface. This paper investigates the accuracy and stability of the FAST/OrcaFlex coupling operation.

Masciola, M.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, F.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse gas-into methanol (CH3OH)-a key commodity used to produce...

116

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt...

117

Perovskite-Based Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Perovskite-Based Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells ... The addition of Ru substantially improves the CO tolerance of the catalyst, and there has been a great deal of research on the optimization of the alloy composition and structure. ...

Aidong Lan; Alexander S. Mukasyan

2007-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

118

Converting CO2 emissions and hydrogen into methanol vehicle fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are new possibilities for transforming the ecological position of the metal-producing industries by utilizing their green-house gas emissions with electrolytically produced hydrogen to generate methanol ...

Bragi rnason; Thorsteinn I. Sigfsson

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC Jump to: navigation, search Name Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation (DMFCC) Place Altadena, California Zip 91001 Product DMFCC is focused on providing intellectual property protection and disposable fuel cartridge for the direct methanol fuel cell industry. Coordinates 34.185405°, -118.131529° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.185405,"lon":-118.131529,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

120

Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on MCM-48  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Methanol reacts reversibly, at a ratio of approximately 1 methanol per V, with one V-O-Si to produce both V-state reaction conditions, CH2O is produced as the dominant product of methanol oxidation at temperatures belowMechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported

Bell, Alexis T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, methanol recovery 1. Introduction A process of producing TAME via reactive distillation has been presented the bulk of the reaction between C5 and methanol to produce TAME and a reactive distillation. MethanolDesign of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

122

Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-d in a solution containing 0.8% methanol-d/23% methanol-h in carbon tetrachloride. Methanol-d molecules that both-d in an isotopically mixed solu- tion of methanol dissolved in carbon tetrachloride.11­13 The first step involved

Fayer, Michael D.

123

First principles Tafel kinetics of methanol oxidation on Pt(111)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Electrocatalytic methanol oxidation is of fundamental importance in electrochemistry and also a key reaction in direct methanol fuel cell. To resolve the kinetics at the atomic level, this work investigates the potential-dependent reaction kinetics of methanol oxidation on Pt(111) using the first principles periodic continuum solvation model based on modified-PoissonBoltzmann equation (CM-MPB), focusing on the initial dehydrogenation elementary steps. A theoretical model to predict Tafel kinetics (current vs potential) is established by considering that the rate-determining step of methanol oxidation (to CO) is the first CH bond breaking (CH3OH(aq)?CH2OH*+H*) according to the computed free energy profile. The first CH bond breaking reaction needs to overcome a large entropy loss during methanol approaching to the surface and replacing the adsorbed water molecules. While no apparent charge transfer is involved in this elementary step, the charge transfer coefficient of the reaction is calculated to be 0.36, an unconventional value for charge transfer reactions, and the Tafel slope is deduced to be 166mV. The results show that the metal/adsorbate interaction and the solvation environment play important roles on influencing the Tafel kinetics. The knowledge learned from the potential-dependent kinetics of methanol oxidation can be applied in general for understanding the electrocatalytic reactions of organic molecules at the solidliquid interface.

Ya-Hui Fang; Zhi-Pan Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Methanol fumigation of a light duty automotive diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

An Oldsmobile 5.7 l V-8 diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 40% of the fuel energy. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the effect of methanol fumigation on fuel efficiency, smoke, nitric oxide emission, and the occurrence of severe knock. An assessment of the biological activity for samples of the raw exhaust particulate and its soluable organic extract was also made using both the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test and the Bacillus subtilis Comptest. Results are presented for a test matrix consisting of twelve steady state operating conditions chosen to reflect over-the-road operation of a diesel engine powered automobile. Generally methanol fumigation was found to decrease NO emission for all conditions, to have a slight effect on smoke opacity, and to have a beneficial effect on fuel efficiency at higher loads. Also at higher loads the methanol was found to induce what was defined as knock limited operation. While the biological activity of the raw particulate was generally found to be lower than that of the soluble organic fraction, the fumigation of methanol appears to enhance this activity in both cases.

Houser, K.R.; Lestz, S.S.; Dukovich, M.; Yasbin, R.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Methanol injection and recovery in a large turboexpander plant. [Canada  

SciTech Connect

Methanol is used to prevent hydrate formation in Petro-Canada's 2000 MMSCFD Empress expander plant. Injection and recovery facilities have operated essentially trouble-free since start-up late in 1979. A portion of the methanol recovery section has been modified to provide removal of the H/sub 2/S and most of the COS from the propane product stream, concurrent with methanol recovery. The Empress straddle plant strips natural gas liquids from pipeline gas leaving Alberta for eastern Canadian and U.S. markets. The original cold oil absorption plant, started up in 1964 and expanded in 1967, recovered over 90% of the propane and virtually all of the heavier components. In 1976, a market for ethane was secured as feedstock for the world-scale ethylene complex under construction in Alberta, and it was decided to replace the cold oil plant with a turboexpander facility. The plant and its operations are described in some detail. 2 refs.

Nelson, K.; Wolfe, L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Perovskite anode electrocatalysis for direct methanol fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

This investigation explores direct methanol fuel cells incorporating perovskite anode electrocatalysts. Preliminary electrochemical performance was addressed following incorporation of electrocatalysts into polymer electrolyte (Nafion 417) fuel cells. Perovskite electrocatalysts demonstrating activity towards direct methanol oxidation during cyclic voltammetry measurements included, respectively, SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrRu[sub 0.5]Pd[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrPdO[sub 3], SmCoO[sub 3], SrRuO[sub 3], La[sub 0.8]Ce[sub 0.2]CoC[sub 3],SrCo[sub 0.5]Ti[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], and La[sub 0.8]Sr[sub 0.2]CoO[sub 3] where SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]P[sub 3] gave methanol oxidation currents up to 28 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.45 V vs. SCE. Correlations were found between electrocatalyst solid-state and thermodynamic parameters corresponding to, respectively, molecular electronic polarizability, the optical dielectric constant, the perovskite spin-only magnetic moment, the number of d-electrons in perovskite A and B lattice sites, and the average metal-oxygen binding energy for the perovskite lattice, and corresponding fuel cell performance. This may have future merit for the prediction of new electrocatalyst family members for promoting direct methanol oxidation. Methanol diffusion from anode to cathode compartments appears to be a major obstacle to the development of polymer electrolyte methanol fuel cells.

White, J.H.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Flex Fuel Vehicle Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

129

Flex Fuel Vehicle Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& Variable Advanced Management Injection Injection Sensors Control Units Fuel Supply & Plastic Parts Control Transmission Engineering Gasoline Systems GSENS, GSENS-NA System...

130

ATOM-ECONOMICAL PATHWAYS TO METHANOL FUEL CELL FROM BIOMASS  

SciTech Connect

An economical production of alcohol fuels from biomass, a feedstock low in carbon and high in water content, is of interest. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a Liquid Phase Low Temperature (LPLT) concept is under development to improve the economics by maximizing the conversion of energy carrier atoms (C,H) into energy liquids (fuel). So far, the LPLT concept has been successfully applied to obtain highly efficient methanol synthesis. This synthesis was achieved with specifically designed soluble catalysts, at temperatures < 150 C. A subsequent study at BNL yielded a water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for the production of hydrogen from a feedstock of carbon monoxide and H{sub 2}O at temperatures < 120 C. With these LPLT technologies as a background, this paper extends the discussion of the LPLT concept to include methanol decomposition into 3 moles of H{sub 2} per mole of methanol. The implication of these technologies for the atom-economical pathways to methanol fuel cell from biomass is discussed.

MAHAJAN,D.; WEGRZYN,J.E.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

Power densities in electrolyte Direct Methanol Fuel Cells have been achieved which are only three times lower than those achieved with similar reformate/air fuel cells. Remaining issues are: improved anode catalyst activity, demonstrated long-term stable performance, and high fuel efficiencies.

Ren, Xiaoming; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4/In2O3 Model...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4In2O3 Model Catalyst: A Combined DFT and Kinetic Study. Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4In2O3 Model...

133

Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenati...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on In2O3(110): A DFT Study. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on...

134

A new blending agent and its effects on methanol-gasoline fuels  

SciTech Connect

The major difficulty encountered with the use of methanol-gasoline blends as SI engine fuel is their tendency to phase separation due to the hydrophilic properties of methanol. Phase separation can lead to some utilization problems. Using a blending agent for the methanol-gasoline system is the common approach taken towards solving the phase separation problem. In this study introduces fraction of molasses fuel oil as an effective new blending agent for methanol-gasoline fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

136

Methanol adsorbates on the DMFC cathode and their effect on the cell performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methanol adsorbates on the DMFC cathode and their effect on the cell performance J. Prabhuram, T performance was due to the permeated methanol adsorbates on platinum sites of the cathode, which impede utilized to get rid of the methanol adsorbates from the cathode electrochemically by sweeping from 0 to 1

Zhao, Tianshou

137

Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) it reduces the fuel efficiency (methanol is reacted without producing electrical current). We canChapter 50 Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells C. E The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has become a lead- ing contender to replace the lithium-ion (Li

138

Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of this process is a limiting factor in the performance of direct methanol fuel cells, which produce electricityCorrelating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by micelle encapsulation and supported on -Al2O3 during the oxidation of methanol

Kik, Pieter

139

Towards the optimal integrated production of biodiesel with internal recycling of methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the syngas reacts to produce methanol. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the process have been long studied [18, 19, 24]. Recently a new path to produce methanol from glycerol has been proposed the design and the energy efficiency as well as to decide whether it is profitable to produce methanol

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

140

Seasonal measurements of acetone and methanol: Abundances and implications for atmospheric budgets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 2002] and photochemical produc- tion from hydrocarbon precursors. Methanol is often the most abundantSeasonal measurements of acetone and methanol: Abundances and implications for atmospheric budgets December 2005; published 21 February 2006. [1] Acetone and methanol have been measured hourly at a rural

Cohen, Ronald C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Catalysis Today 53 (1999) 433441 New insights into methanol synthesis catalysts from X-ray absorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

O and Cr2O3 mixtures and produced methanol in low yields from CO­H2 mixtures at high temperatures (593Catalysis Today 53 (1999) 433­441 New insights into methanol synthesis catalysts from X a consistent structural picture of methanol synthesis catalysts. Copper metal is the principal Cu species

Iglesia, Enrique

142

Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2012 BP Methanol Separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

issues in the well heads. To counteract this problem, methanol is injected into the produced water stream-effective system that would remove methanol from the produced water stream. Objectives Our objective was to reduce the methanol concentration of either one of two produced water samples. Specifically, our goal was to reduce

Demirel, Melik C.

143

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

145

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Tax Refund for Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

146

New Catalysts for Direct Methanol Oxidation Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

A new class of efficient electrocatalytic materials based on platinum - metal oxide systems has been synthetized and characterized by several techniques. Best activity was found with NiWO{sub 4}-, CoWO{sub 4}-, and RuO{sub 2}- srpported platinum catalysts. A very similar activity at room temperature was observed with the electrodes prepared with the catalyst obtained from International Fuel Cells Inc. for the same Pt loading. Surprisingly, the two tungstates per se show a small activity for methanol oxidation without any Pt loading. Synthesis of NiWO{sub 4} and CoWO{sub 4} were carried out by solid-state reactions. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the tungstates contain a certain amount of physically adsorbed water even after heating samples at 200{degrees}C. A direct relationship between the activity for methanol oxidation and the amount of adsorbed water on those oxides has been found. The Ru(0001) single crystal shows a very small activity for CO adsorption and oxidation, in contrast to the behavior of polycrystalline Ru. In situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the OH adsorption on Ru in the Pt-Ru alloy appears to be the limiting step in methanol oxidation. This does not occur for Pt-RuO{SUB 2} electrocatalyst, which explains its advantages over the Pt-Ru alloys. The IFCC electrocatalyst has the properties of the Pt-Ru alloy.

Adzic, Radoslav

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Recent advances in high-performance direct methanol fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant. Power densities as high as 320 mW/cm{sup 2} have been demonstrated. Demonstration of five-cell stack based on the liquid-feed concept have been successfully performed by Giner Inc. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Over 2000 hours of life-testing have been completed on these stacks. These fuel cells have been also been demonstrated by USC to operate on alternate fuels such as trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane and trioxane. Reduction in the parasitic loss of fuel across the fuel cell, a phenomenon termed as {open_quotes}fuel crossover{close_quotes} has been achieved using polymer membranes developed at USC. As a result efficiencies as high as 40% is considered attainable with this type of fuel cell. The state-of-development has reached a point where it is now been actively considered for stationary, portable and transportation applications. The research and development issues have been the subject of several previous articles and the present article is an attempt to summarize the key advances in this technology.

Narayanan, S.R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T.I. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

Oxidation of Methanol on 2nd and 3rd Row Group VIII Transition Metals (Pt, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, and Ru): Application to Direct Methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to electric energy in a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell was demon- strated. Although hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells): Application to Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Jeremy Kua and William A. Goddard III* Contribution from and designing new catalysts. We find that methanol dehydrogenation is most facile on Pt, with the hydrogens

Goddard III, William A.

149

Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the U.S.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: Options for sustainable and/or energy-secure transportation L. Bromberg and W.K. Cheng Prepared by the Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge MA 02139 September 27, 2010 Finalized November 2, 2010 Revised November 28, 2010 Final report UT-Battelle Subcontract Number:4000096701 1 Abstract Methanol has been promoted as an alternative transportation fuel from time to time over the past forty years. In spite of significant efforts to realize the vision of methanol as a practical transportation fuel in the US, such as the California methanol fueling corridor of the 1990s, it did not succeed on a large scale. This white paper covers all important aspects of methanol as a transportation fuel.

150

Fluid-bed studies of olefin production from methanol  

SciTech Connect

With newly developed technology, conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons represents the final link in the production of premium transportation fuels from coal or natural gas. The methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process has been developed. The more readily scaled fixed-bed version is the heart of the New Zealand Gas-to-gasoline complex, which will produce 14,000 BPD high octane gasoline from 120 million SCFD gas. The fluid-bed version of the process, which is also available for commercial license, has a higher thermal efficiency and possesses substantial yield and octane advantages over the fixed-bed. Successful scale-up was completed in 1984 in a 100 BPD semi-works plant near Cologne, West Germany. The project funded jointly by the U.S. and German governments and an industrial consortium comprised of Mobil; Union Rheinsche Braunkohlen Kraftstoff, AG; and Uhde, GmbH. The 100 BPD MTG project was extended recently to demonstrate a related fluid bed process for selective conversion of methanol to light olefins (MTO). The products of the MTO reaction make an excellent feed to the commercially available Mobile-Olefins-to-Gasoline-and-Distillate process (MOGD) which selectively converts olefins to premium transportation fuels . A schematic of the combined processes is shown. Total liquid fuels production is typically greater than 90 wt% of hydrocarbon in the feed. Distillate/gasoline product ratios from the plant can be adjusted over a wide range to meet seasonal demands. This paper describes the initial scale-up of the MTO process from a micro-fluid-bed reactor (1-10 grams of catalyst) to a large pilot unit (10-25 kilograms of catalyst).

Socha, R.F.; Chang, C.D.; Gould, R.M.; Kane, S.E.; Avidan, A.A.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Structures, intermolecular rotation barriers, and thermodynamic properties of chlorinated methanols and chlorinated methyl hydroperoxides.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thermochemical property data on chlorinated methanols and methyl hydroperoxides are important in oxidation, combustion and atmospheric photochemistry of chlorocarbons, Enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacities are (more)

Sun, Hongyan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

A KINETIC S'FUDY OF METHANOL SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY REACTOR USING  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

by industry. Air Products and Chemicals company with funding from the Department of Energy built a 5 tonday plant employing the liquid phase methanol process technique where...

154

Understanding the effect of modifying elements in supported vanadia bilayered catalysts for methanol oxidation to formaldehyde  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that methanol initially adsorbs dissociatively producingmethanol dissociatively adsorbs across a V-O- support bond, producingmethanol dissociatively adsorbs across a V-O-Si bond producing

Vining, William Collins

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A self-regulated passive fuel-feed system for passive direct methanol fuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Unlike active direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) that require liquid pumps and gas compressors to supply reactants, the design of passive DMFCs eliminates these ancillary (more)

Chan, Yeuk Him

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute methanol toxicity Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... ) to acetaldehyde to acetate to acetyl CoA Methanol ...

157

Fabrication of mDMFC and Effect of Methanol Modification on its Performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were characterized with low operation temperature, high energy density, rapid activation, easy to obtain, easy to carry, safety, stability and (more)

Lu, Chang-Wei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene  

SciTech Connect

The desorption kinetics of methanol, ethanol, and water from graphene covered Pt(111) are investigated. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra for both methanol and ethanol have well-resolved first, second, third, and multilayer layer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent with zero-order desorption kinetics from all layers. In contrast, for water the first and second layers are not resolved. At low water coverages (< 1 ML) the initial desorption leading edges are aligned but then fall out of alignment at higher temperatures. For thicker water layers (10 to 100 ML), the desorption leading edges are in alignment throughout the desorption of the film. The coverage dependence of the desorption behavoir suggests that at low water coverages the non-alignment of the desorption leading edges is due to water dewetting from the graphene substrate. Kinetic simulations reveal that the experimental results are consistent with zero-order desorption. The simulations also show that fractional order desorption kinetics would be readily apparent in the experimental TPD spectra.

Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

159

Testing maser-based evolutionary schemes: A new search for 37.7-GHz methanol masers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22-m antenna to search for 37.7-GHz (7(-2) - 8(-1}E) methanol masers towards a sample of thirty six class II methanol masers. The target sources are the most luminous class II methanol masers not previously searched for this transition, with isotropic peak 12.2-GHz maser luminosity greater than 250 Jy/kpc^2 and isotropic peak 6.7-GHz maser luminosity greater than 800 Jy/kpc^2. Seven new 37.7-GHz methanol masers were detected as a result of the search. The detection rate for 37.7-GHz methanol masers towards a complete sample of all such class II methanol maser sites south of declination -20 deg is at least 30 percent. The relatively high detection rate for this rare methanol transition is in line with previous predictions that the 37.7-GHz transition is associated with a late stage of the class II methanol maser phase of high-mass star formation. We find that there is a modest correlation between the ratio of the 6.7- and 37.7-GHz maser peak intensit...

Ellingsen, S P; Voronkov, M A; Dawson, J R

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory Ricardo B. Metz Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 USA Abstract Gas such as methanol has attracted great experimental and theoretical interest due to its importance as an industrial

Metz, Ricardo B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Mechanism of O2 Activation and Methanol Production by (Di(2-pyridyl)methanesulfonate)PtII  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conversion of methane to methanol at low temper- ature is crucial for transportation of shale gas produced it to methanol and its derivatives. In this system, the kinetics of the oxidation of Pt(II) is important because activation and selective conversion of Pt(II) monomethyl complex (dpms)PtII Me(OH2) to its monomethyl Pt

Goddard III, William A.

162

Techno-Economic Assessment and Environmental Impact of Shale Gas Alternatives to Methanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Techno-Economic Assessment and Environmental Impact of Shale Gas Alternatives to Methanol ... Recent discoveries of shale gas reserves have promoted a renewed interest in gas-to-liquid technologies for the production of fuels and chemicals. ... In this work, an economic and environmental analysis for the production of methanol from shale gas is presented. ...

Laura M. Julin-Durn; Andrea P. Ortiz-Espinoza; Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi; Arturo Jimnez-Gutirrez

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

163

Hydrogen Bond Dissociation and Reformation in Methanol Oligomers Following Hydroxyl Stretch Relaxation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Bond Dissociation and Reformation in Methanol Oligomers Following Hydroxyl Stretch, 2002 Vibrational relaxation and hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol-d dissolved in CCl4 have been-d molecules both accepting and donating hydrogen bonds at 2500 cm-1 . Following vibrational relaxation

Fayer, Michael D.

164

Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate Samuel September 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: High temperature PEM Fuel cell Methanol Impedance spectroscopy]. The report forecasts even more success for fuel cells in the near future. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel

Kær, Søren Knudsen

165

Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells in the mass transport of various species and electrochemical reactions in DMFCs compared with hydrogen- fueled of a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC was observed to undergo an overshoot before it stabilized during

Zhao, Tianshou

166

Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- bonding configuration between the methanol and the water molecules at the surface and in the bulk when the methanol molecule resides in the interfacial region. Introduction Oxygenated hydrocarbons play reactions in this atmospheric region.3 However, the sources and sinks of these oxygenated hydrocarbons

167

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Development and demonstration of advanced technologies for direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons (methanol, methane, propane)  

SciTech Connect

Direct methanol fuel cells use methanol directly as a fuel, rather than the reformate typically required by fuel cells, thus eliminating the reformer and fuel processing train. In this program, Giner, Inc. advanced development of two types of direct methanol fuel cells for military applications. Advancements in direct methanol proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (DMPEMFC) technology included developement of a Pt-Ru anode catalyst and an associated electrode structure which provided some of the highest DMPEMFC performance reported to date. Scale-up from a laboratory-scale single cell to a 5-cell stack of practical area, providing over 100 W of power, was also demonstrated. Stable stack performance was achieved in over 300 hours of daily on/off cycling. Direct methanol aqueous carbonate fuel cells were also advanced with development of an anode catalyst and successful operation at decreased pressure. Improved materials for the cell separator/matrix and the hardware were also identified.

Kosek, J.A.; LaConti, A.B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.

Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL; ,

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

170

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dinh (PI) Dinh (PI) Thomas Gennett National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives Develop cost-effective, reliable, durable fuel cells for portable power applications (e.g., cell phones, computers, etc.) that meet all DOE targets. Note that the energy density (Wh/L), volumetric (W/L), and specific power (W/kg) all depend on knowing the weight and volume of the entire DMFC system as well as the volume and concentration of fuel, which are system specific (power application and manufacturer dependent). In our model study the surface power density levels on HOPG will allow for indirect evaluation of our system to DOE's energy density

171

Process for producing carbon monoxide and hydrogen from methanol  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing carbon monoxide and hydrogen which comprises contacting methanol vapor at a temperature of 200 degrees to 300 degrees C with an indirectly heated zinc containing catalyst to obtain an effluent gas in which the components of carbon monoxide and hydrogen constitute at least 90% by volume of said gas. At least a part of the impurities from said effluent gas are removed and said effluent gas is deparated into its carbon monoxide and hydrogen components by adsorption. The effluent gas can be separated into its carbon monoxide and hydrogen components by use of a plurality of adsorbers containing zeolite-type molecular sieve material where the zeolite is substantially permeable to hydrogen but sorbs carbon monoxide.

Jockel, H.; Marschner, F.; Moller, F.W.; Mortel, H.

1982-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

172

Enhanced self-diffusion of adsorbed methanol in silica aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular transport of a two-component system of liquid and vapor in a porous medium can be anomalously increased owing to fast exchange between the two phases [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 43 (1989)]. We have investigated this phenomenon measuring the self-diffusion coefficient of methanol adsorbed in a 98% porosity aerogel using nuclear magnetic resonance field gradient techniques. We found enhancement of several orders of magnitude from which we determined the ballistic mean-free path in the vapor phase. We have grown globally uniform anisotropic aerogels and applied the diffusion measurements to characterize the anisotropy. Our results are important for understanding the novel properties of superfluid He3 confined within an aerogel framework and for application to other physical systems.

Jeongseop A. Lee; A. M. Mounce; Sangwon Oh; A. M. Zimmerman; W. P. Halperin

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

173

The Analysis of Hydrocarbon Products Obtained From Methanol Conversion to Gasoline Using Open Tubular GC Columns and Selective Olefin Absorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......SCOT column. Run conditions are...Table I. GC Run Conditions for Methanol Derived Gasolines Carrier Gas...minor amounts of straight-chain isomers...dependent upon process run conditions. These...methanol derived gasolines were similar in......

M.G. Bloch; R.B. Callen; J.H. Stockinger

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Identification of the Active Species in Photochemical Hole Scavenging Reactions of Methanol on TiO2  

SciTech Connect

Molecular and dissociative methanol adsorption species were prepared on rutile TiO2(110) surfaces to study photocatalytic oxidation of methanol in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Adsorbed methoxy groups (CH3O-) were found to be the photoactive form of adsorbed methanol converted to adsorbed formaldehyde and a surface OH group by hole-mediated C-H bond cleavage. These results suggest that adsorbed methoxy is the effective hole scavenger in photochemical reactions involving methanol.

Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

175

Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Z. H. Wang* and C. Y. Wang*,z  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

density and high Tafel slope.1 Methanol crossover further causes lower open-circuit voltage OCV and waste

176

Correlating catalytic methanol oxidation with the structure and oxidation state of size-1 selected Pt nanoparticles2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the performance of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), which produce electricity from11 liquid fuel without1 Correlating catalytic methanol oxidation with the structure and oxidation state of size-1 * Corresponding author: roldan@ucf.edu9 Keywords: platinum; methanol oxidation; operando; XAS; EXAFS; alumina

Kik, Pieter

177

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blend membrane technology Overview of membrane properties and performance Summary 3 Membrane Technology Polymer Blend * Kynar ® PVDF * Chemical and electrochemical stability * Mechanical strength * Excellent barrier against methanol * Polyelectrolyte * H + conduction and water uptake Flexible Blending Process  PVDF can be compatibilized with a number of polyelectrolytes  Process has been scaled to a pilot line Property Control * Morphology: 10-100s nm domains * Composition can be tailored to minimize methanol permeation, while optimizing

178

Precursors of the copper-zinc oxide methanol synthesis catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coprecipitated hydroxycarbonate precursor of the methanol synthesis and shift reaction catalyst based on 30 at.% copper and 70 at.% zinc oxide, which was previously reported to be a mixture of hydrozincite Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 and rosasite (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2 (R. G. Herman, K. Klier, G. W. Simmons, B. P. Finn, J. B. Bulko, and T. P. Kobylinski, J. Catal. 56, 407, 1979) or a single-phase hydrozincite (G. Petrini, F. Montino, A. Bossi, and G. Gaybassi, in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis. Preparation of Catalysis III (G. Poncelet, P. Grange, and P. A. Jacobs, Eds.), Vol. 16, p. 735. Elsevier, The Netherlands, 1983), is herein shown to be a single-phase aurichalcite (Cu0.3Zn0.7)5(CO3)2(OH)6. The orthorhombic B2212 aurichalcite is crystallograpically distinct from the monoclinic \\{C2m\\} hydrozincite, although these two compounds have the same ratio of metal ions to carbonate and hydroxyl anions. Both aurichalcite and hydrozincite are chemically and structurally distinct from the monoclinic \\{P21a\\} rosasite. The earlier erroneous assignments are attributed to the structural similarity of the three hydroxycarbonates in question. An energy-dispersive characteristic X-ray emission analysis of individual particles in the scanning transmission electron microscope reveals a uniform distribution of copper and zinc at the analytical concentration CuZn = 3070. Precursors with less than 30% copper consist of mixtures of aurichalcite and hydrozincite.

P.B. Himelfarb; G.W. Simmons; K. Klier; R.G. Herman

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

SHAPE SELECTIVE NANOCATALYSTS FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

While gold and platinum have long been recognized for their beauty and value, researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are working on the nano-level to use these elements for creative solutions to our nation's energy and security needs. Multiinterdisciplinary teams consisting of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, computational scientists, and engineers are exploring unchartered territories with shape-selective nanocatalysts for the development of novel, cost effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions to meet global energy needs. This nanotechnology is vital, particularly as it relates to fuel cells.SRNL researchers have taken process, chemical, and materials discoveries and translated them for technological solution and deployment. The group has developed state-of-the art shape-selective core-shell-alloy-type gold-platinum nanostructures with outstanding catalytic capabilities that address many of the shortcomings of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The newly developed nanostructures not only busted the performance of the platinum catalyst, but also reduced the material cost and overall weight of the fuel cell.

Murph, S.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

180

Low-energy electron scattering from methanol and ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measured and calculated differential cross sections for elastic (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering from two primary alcohols, methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (C2H5OH), are reported. The measurements are obtained using the relative flow method with helium as the standard gas and a thin aperture as the collimating target gas source. The relative flow method is applied without the restriction imposed by the relative flow pressure conditions on helium and the unknown gas. The experimental data were taken at incident electron energies of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, and 100eV and for scattering angles of 5130. There are no previous reports of experimental electron scattering differential cross sections for CH3OH and C2H5OH in the literature. The calculated differential cross sections are obtained using two different implementations of the Schwinger multichannel method, one that takes all electrons into account and is adapted for parallel computers, and another that uses pseudopotentials and considers only the valence electrons. Comparison between theory and experiment shows that theory is able to describe low-energy electron scattering from these polyatomic targets quite well.

M. A. Khakoo, J. Blumer, K. Keane, C. Campbell, H. Silva, M. C. A. Lopes, C. Winstead, V. McKoy, R. F. da Costa, L. G. Ferreira, M. A. P. Lima, and M. H. F. Bettega

2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Conversion of methanol to light olefins on SAPO-34: kinetic modeling and reactor design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

design of an MTO reactor, accounting for the strong exothermicity of the process. Multi-bed adiabatic and fluidized bed technologies show good potential for the industrial process for the conversion of methanol into olefins....

Al Wahabi, Saeed M. H.

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

182

Study of methanol-to-gasoline process for production of gasoline from coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process is an efficient way to produce liquid ... The academic basis of the coal-to-liquid process is described and two different synthesis processes are focused on: Fixed MTG process

Tian-cai He; Xiao-han Cheng; Ling Li

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Methanol-to-gasoline(MTG)conversion over ZSM-5. A temperature programmed surface reaction study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conversion of methanol to gasoline over zeolite ZSM-5 has been studied by temperature programmed surface reaction (TPSR). The technique is able to monitor the two steps in the process: the dehydration of m...

M. Jayamurthy; S. Vasudevan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

The methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction : Influence of acid strength on the mechanism of olefin formation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction is a flexible alternative step in the upgrading of natural gas, coal or biomass. By tuning the catalyst and process conditions, (more)

Erichsen, Marius Westgrd

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHAPTER 9 Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells G. Lu & C, including two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport. We explain how the better understanding

186

Importance of cobalt for individual trophic groups in an anaerobic methanol-degrading consortium.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Methanol metabolism Waste Disposal, Fluid...in wastewaters, wastes, and the natural...several chemical industries, such as in the...31) and coal gasification installations...Purdue Industrial Waste Conference, Lafayette...compounds in coal-gasification condensate water...

L Florencio; J A Field; G Lettinga

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Design of high-ionic conductivity electrodes for direct methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon-supported porous electrodes are used in low-temperature fuel cells to provide maximum catalyst surface area, while taking up little volume and using minimum catalyst material. In Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs), ...

Schrauth, Anthony J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Hydrogen-bonded complexes of serotonin with methanol and ethanol: a DFT study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Density functional theoretical studies on hydrogen-bonded complexes of serotonin with methanol/ethanol have been carried out in a systematic ... -hydroxyl group. Serotonin-molecules strongly bind with ethanol tha...

A. Mano Priya; L. Senthilkumar; P. Kolandaivel

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Reaction of a Fluorine Atom with Methanol: Potential Energy Surface Considerations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reaction of a Fluorine Atom with Methanol: Potential Energy Surface Considerations ... The latter two energetic features nicely explain why 40% of the laboratory products follow the less exothermic pathway A. ...

Hao Feng; Katherine R. Randall; Henry F. Schaefer; III

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Development of microprocessor control for a V-6 engine fueled by prevaporized methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEVELOPMENT OF MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL FOR A V 6 ENGINE FUELED BY PREVAPORIZED METHANOL A Thesis by DONALD F. SCHNEIDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19SS Major Subject: Chemical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL FOR A V 6 ENGINE FUELED BY PREVAPORIZED METHANOL A Thesis by DONALD F. SCHNEIDER Approved as to style and content by: JP& r~ R. R. Davison...

Schneider, Donald F.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

191

Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

The Influence of Chain Dynamics on theFar-Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol  

SciTech Connect

Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular interactions in liquid methanol. Using an intense source of far-infrared radiation, modes are elucidated at approximately 30 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in the absorption spectrum. These modes are believed to arise from intermolecular bending and librational motions respectively and are successfully reproduced in an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of methanol.

Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL; ,

2005-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

193

Conversion of synthesis gas and methanol to hydrocarbons using zeolite catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conversion on siiicalite were studied. Various catalysts based on the small-pore zeolites chabazite and erionite, combined with a methanol synthesis component, zinc oxide, were prepared. Certain of the catalysts contained either sulfur or selenium as a... conversion on siiicalite were studied. Various catalysts based on the small-pore zeolites chabazite and erionite, combined with a methanol synthesis component, zinc oxide, were prepared. Certain of the catalysts contained either sulfur or selenium as a...

Matthews, Michael Anthony

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

194

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment  

SciTech Connect

A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Panama coal to methanol project. Phase I. Feasibility Study. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Progress Report contains the results of the investigations performed for the Panama Coal to Methanol Project: Technical efforts associated with the gasification technology evaluation; evaluation of other related process technologies; results of the venture analyses, including the efforts made for structuring the project; results of the ongoing financial analyses and cost projections, including potential and use applications of methanol in Japan primarily for combustion turbine-combined cycle steam/electric utilization. At this time, and for the next few years, the Panama-based methanol fuel is more expensive than oil. However, when measured in terms of KWH production cost in Japan, the use of methanol fuel in combustion turbine, combined-cycle operations appears to create less expensive electric power than that produced from conventional coal direct fired operations using imported coal. This cost advantage arises from significantly lower capital costs and enhanced performance efficiencies associated with combined cycle power generators as contrasted with conventional coal plants equipped with scrubbers. Environmental and social land-use benefits are also much greater for the methanol fuel plant. The cost of electricity from a methanol-fueled combined cycle plant is also expected to compare favorably in Japan with electrical costs from a future liquefied natural gas fired plant.

Not Available

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (the CAMERE process)  

SciTech Connect

The CAMERE process (carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction) was developed and evaluated. The reverse-water-gas-shift reactor and the methanol synthesis reactor were serially aligned to form methanol from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. Carbon dioxide was converted to CO and water by the reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (RWReaction) to remove water before methanol was synthesized. With the elimination of water by RWReaction, the purge gas volume was minimized as the recycle gas volume decreased. Because of the minimum purge gas loss by the pretreatment of RWReactor, the overall methanol yield increased up to 89% from 69%. An active and stable catalyst with the composition of Cu/ZnO/ZrO{sub 2}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5:3:1:1) was developed. The system was optimized and compared with the commercial methanol synthesis processes from natural gas and coal.

Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H.; Uhm, S.J. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.] [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.; Moon, I. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Rozovskii, A.Y.; Lin, G.I. [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Experimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Included in this reaction is the decomposition of methanol, which produces CO: CH3OH CO + 2H2 (90.5 kJ mol a picture of the methanol reformer which has been designed to produce hydrogen for a 1 kWe HTPEM fuel cellExperimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack

Berning, Torsten

198

Prediction of Experimental Methanol Decomposition Rates on Platinum from First Principles  

SciTech Connect

A portion of this work was conducted at EMSL, a national scientific user facility. A microkinetic model for methanol decomposition on platinum is presented. The model incorporates competitive decomposition pathways, beginning with both OH and CH bond scission in methanol, and uses results from density functional theory (DFT) calculations [Greeley and Mavrikakis, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124 (2002) 7193, Greeley and Mavrikakis, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (2004) 3910]. Results from reaction kinetics experiments show that the rate of H2 production increases with increasing temperature and methanol concentration in the feed and is only nominally affected by the presence of CO or H2 with methanol. The model, based on the values of binding energies, pre-exponential factors and activation energy barriers derived from first principles calculations, accurately predicts experimental reaction rates and orders. The model also gives insight into the most favorable reaction pathway, the rate-limiting step, the apparent activation energy, coverages, and the effects of pressure. It is found that the pathway beginning with the CH bond scission (CH3OH?H2COH?HCOH?CO) is dominant compared with the path beginning with OH bond scission. The cleavage of the first CH bond in methanol is the rate-controlling step. The surface is highly poisoned by CO, whereas COH appears to be a spectator species.

Kandoi, Shampa; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Sanchez-Castillo, Marco A.; Evans, Steven T.; Gokhale, Amit A.; Dumesic, James A.; Mavrikakis, Manos

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

In-situ characterization of adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts by FT-IR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Transmission infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts during reaction conditions. A copper carbonyl, bidentate formate, and methoxy species were identified as stable surface groups. An adsorbed formaldehyde species was unstable at the reaction temperature, but could be observed on the catalyst surface at the beginning of the reaction. Surface species were very similar for feed mixtures of 1) carbon monoxide and hydrogen, 2) carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and 3) formic acid and hydrogen. The role of copper in methanol synthesis catalysts was to increase the adsorption of carbon monoxide to form a linear carbonyl species. This carbonly promoted the hydrogenation of formate groups. The formate species was adsorbed on a zinc site (Zn/sub ..beta../) different from the zinc site (Zn/sub ..gamma../) on which formaldehyde and methoxy groups were adsorbed. The rate-determining step in methanol synthesis was determined to be the reaction of hydrogen from a hydroxyl species adsorbed on another zinc site (Zn/sub ..cap alpha../) with a methoxy group to yield methanol. It was established that at the experimental conditions used in this study, the methanol synthesis reaction was far from equilibrium while the water-gas shift reaction was near equilibrium.

Edwards, J.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

In situ characterization of adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts by FT-IR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Transmission infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts during reaction conditions. A copper carbonyl, bidentate formate, and methoxy species were identified as stable surface groups. An adsorbed formaldehyde species was unstable at the reaction temperature, but could be observed on the catalyst surface at the beginning of the reaction. Surface species were very similar for feed mixtures of (1) carbon monoxide and hydrogen, (2) carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and (3) formic acid and hydrogen. The role of copper in methanol synthesis catalysts was to increase the adsorption of carbon monoxide to form a linear carbonyl species. This carbonyl promoted the hydrogenation of formate groups. The formate species was adsorbed on a zinc site (Zn/sub ..beta../) different from the zinc site (Zn/sub ..gamma../) on which formaldehyde and methoxy groups were adsorbed. The rate-determining step in methanol synthesis was determined to be the reaction of hydrogen from a hydroxyl species adsorbed on another zinc site (Zn/sub ..cap alpha../) with a methoxy group to yield methanol. It was established that at the experimental conditions used in this study, the methanol synthesis reaction was far from equilibrium while the water-gas shift reaction was near equilibrium. 186 references, 83 figures, 28 tables.

Edwards, J.F.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Direct methanol fuel cells for transportation applications. Quarterly technical report, June 1996--September 1996  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research and development effort is to advance the performance and viability of direct methanol fuel cell technology for light-duty transportation applications. For fuel cells to be an attractive alternative to conventional automotive power plants, the fuel cell stack combined with the fuel processor and ancillary systems must be competitive in terms of both performance and costs. A major advantage for the direct methanol fuel cell is that a fuel processor is not required. A direct methanol fuel cell has the potential of satisfying the demanding requirements for transportation applications, such as rapid start-up and rapid refueling. The preliminary goals of this effort are: (1) 310 W/l, (2) 445 W/kg, and (3) potential manufacturing costs of $48/kW. In the twelve month period for phase 1, the following critical areas will be investigated: (1) an improved proton-exchange membrane that is more impermeable to methanol, (2) improved cathode catalysts, and (3) advanced anode catalysts. In addition, these components will be combined to form membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA`s) and evaluated in subscale tests. Finally a conceptual design and program plan will be developed for the construction of a 5 kW direct methanol stack in phase II of the program.

Fuller, T.F.; Kunz, H.R.; Moore, R.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Evaluation of Various Herbicides for Saw Greenbrier [Smilax bona-nox L.] and Southern Dewberry [Rubus trivialis Michx.] Control and Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] Tolerance and Sharppod Morningglory [Ipomoea trichocarpa var. trichocarpa Ell.] Control in Roundup Ready Flex and LibertyLink Cotton Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, with triclopyr (IPT) being the only treatment to lower dry matter yield at the second harvest. Field studies were also conducted in 2006 and 2007 to assess sharppod morningglory control in Roundup Ready Flex and LibertyLink cotton systems. Herbicides...

Janak, Travis Wayne

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

203

Kinetics of liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the kinetics of the liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether investigated. The experiments were carried out under low concentrations of feed in a 1-L stirred autoclave, according to a statistical experimental design. The inert liquid phase used for this investigation was a 78:22 blend of paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oils. A complete thermodynamic analysis was carried out in order to determine the liquid phase concentrations of the dissolved species. A global kinetic model was developed for the rate of dimethyl ether synthesis in terms of the liquid phase concentration of methanol. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 18,830 cal/gmol. Based on a step-wise linear regression analysis of the kinetic data, the order of the reaction which gave the best fit was 0.28 with respect to methanol.

Gogate, M.R.; Lee, B.G.; Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Kulik, C.J. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

206

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

WIDESPREAD METHANOL EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC CENTER: THE ROLE OF COSMIC RAYS  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of a widespread population of collisionally excited methanol J = 4{sub -1} to 3{sub 0} E sources at 36.2 GHz from the inner 66' Multiplication-Sign 18' (160 Multiplication-Sign 43 pc) of the Galactic center. This spectral feature was imaged with a spectral resolution of 16.6 km s{sup -1} taken from 41 channels of a Very Large Array continuum survey of the Galactic center region. The revelation of 356 methanol sources, most of which are maser candidates, suggests a large abundance of methanol in the gas phase in the Galactic center region. There is also spatial and kinematic correlation between SiO (2-1) and CH{sub 3}OH emission from four Galactic center clouds: the +50 and +20 km s{sup -1} clouds and G0.13-0.13 and G0.25 + 0.01. The enhanced abundance of methanol is accounted for in terms of induced photodesorption by cosmic rays as they travel through a molecular core, collide, dissociate, ionize, and excite Lyman Werner transitions of H{sub 2}. A time-dependent chemical model in which cosmic rays drive the chemistry of the gas predicts CH{sub 3}OH abundance of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -7} on a chemical timescale of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} years. The average methanol abundance produced by the release of methanol from grain surfaces is consistent with the available data.

Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Royster, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Viti, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower St. London, WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

208

Study of the methanol conversion to ethylene and propylene using small pore size zeolites  

SciTech Connect

This project consisted of the study of the kinetics of the reaction of methanol to olefins. A combined selectivity to ethylene and propylene of 90% is readily achieved by selecting a proper set of operating conditions. The investigation encompassed the study of external and internal diffusion, adsorption and reaction. Instantaneous and overall material balances were developed, and a minimization technique was used to calculate the rate of formation of coke, the amount of coke deposition on the catalyst, and the hydrogen to carbon ratio. This procedure allowed the adjustment of several parameters in order to satisfy the material balances. The results were used to calculate the rate constants of the proposed model. The results indicated that the dehydration of methanol was inhibited by the adsorption of methanol. In general low methanol partial pressures, achieved by decreasing the total pressure in the case of pure methanol feeds, or by diluting methanol with water or nitrogen, increased the selectivity toward olefins. All the catalysts studied showed deactivation due to the accumulation of aromatic compounds (coke), which had a hydrogen to carbon ration close to 1.1. The maximum amount of coke that can be deposited on the catalyst was about 0.16 grams coke/gram catalyst. The catalyst was regenerated by burning the coke with air. Residence time distribution experiments using a step input change showed that perfect mixing could be obtained with 200 grams of powder catalyst of 30-100 microns particle size by using flow rates smaller than 5 cc/sec measured at reactor conditions, and impeller speeds higher than 12 rev/sec.

Vera-Castaneda, E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) Autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (2) Catalyst deactivation, (3) Steam reformer transient response, and (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Zeolite pore size determination by methanol-to-gasoline conversion test  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of methanol over a shape selective zeolite to high octane gasoline is a well known process. In this work, a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) conversion test is utilized for the pore size determination of zeolites with active sites. The dimension of a zeolite`s pores is revealed by the size distribution of its MTG hydrocarbon products. A simple fixed bed MTG test unit capable of on-line sampling for direct gas chromatographic analysis and the collection of liquid and gaseous products for GC-MS analysis is described. The size distributions of MTG hydrocarbon products are presented for several small, intermediate, and large pore zeolites.

Yuen, L.; Zones, S.I. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Kinetic Behavior of the SAPO-18 Catalyst in the Transformation of Methanol into Olefins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reactor (Figure 1) is a vertical cylinder of S-316 stainless steel of 20-mm internal diameter and a total length of 465 mm, which is located within a ceramic chamber heated by an electric resistance. ... Figure 12 Evolution with time on stream of the ratio between the composition of methanol and dimethyl ether at the reactor outlet at 400 C and for different values of space time. ... (16)?Marchi, A. J.; Froment, G. F. Catalytic Conversion of Methanol to Light Alkenes on SAPO Molecular Sieves. ...

Ana G. Gayubo; Raquel Vivanco; Ainhoa Alonso; Beatriz Valle; Andrs T. Aguayo

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

212

Mass transport phenomena in direct methanol fuel cells T.S. Zhao*, C. Xu, R. Chen, W.W. Yang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mass transport phenomena in direct methanol fuel cells T.S. Zhao*, C. Xu, R. Chen, W.W. Yang January 2009 Available online 20 February 2009 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct methanol fuel cell Mass efficient energy production has long been sought to solve energy and environmental problems. Fuel cells

Zhao, Tianshou

213

976 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 4, AUGUST 2006 Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

976 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 4, AUGUST 2006 Methanol Steam Reformer without mass transport considerations. The 1-D model provided a rapid analytical tool to assess is achieved through on-chip resis- tive heaters, whereby methanol steam reforming reactions were studied over

Malen, Jonathan A.

214

The role of specific solvent modes in the non-radiative relaxation of an excess electron in methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in methanol A.A. Mosyak, O.V. Prezhdo1 , P.J. Rossky* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University electronic excited state of an excess electron in methanol. Compared to water, we find that the presence volume combine to produce a three-fold decrease in the magnitude of the non- adiabatic coupling

215

Droplet Dynamics Changes in Electrostatic Sprays of Methanol-Water Mixtures Zohra Olumee, John H. Callahan, and Akos Vertes*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conductivity, dielectric constant, surface tension, viscosity, and density) and on the spraying conditionsDroplet Dynamics Changes in Electrostatic Sprays of Methanol-Water Mixtures Zohra Olumee, John H generated from methanol-water mixtures. We investigated spraying conditions close to those of electrospray

Vertes, Akos

216

Selective Production of Hydrogen for Fuel Cells Via Oxidative Steam Reforming of Methanol Over CuZnAl Oxide Catalysts: Effect of Substitution of Zirconium and Cerium on the Catalytic Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

H2 fuel, for fuel cells, is traditionally produced from methanol by the endothermic steam reforming of methanol (SRM). Partial oxidation of methanol (POM), which is highly exothermic, has also been suggested as ....

S. Velu; K. Suzuki

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

A Mercury-Catalyzed, High-Yield System for the Oxidation of Methane to Methanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...con-version of methane to methanol with...for commercial economics. See N. D. Parkyns...How-ever, most methane (CH4) is in locations...desirable to convert methane into liquid products...process termed steam reforming (l): CH4 + H2O-C...

Roy A. Periana; Douglas J. Taube; Eric R. Evitt; Daniel G. Lffler; Paul R. Wentrcek; George Voss; Toshihiko Masuda

1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Ultrasonic studies in binary solutions of pyridine with water, methanol, and ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The velocity and absorption of ultrasound at 19.5 MHz were studied as a function of the concentration in binary solutions of pyridine with water methanol and ethanol. In addition the compressibility and volume viscosity were calculated. Molecular processes are suggested to explain the variation of the ultrasonic properties of these binary solutions with respect to concentration.

K. N. Thomas; F. B. Stumpf

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Surfactant effects on methanol oxidation at PtRu/C coated glassy carbon electrode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A stock solution of 0.5M H2SO4...was prepared with Millipore water. Standard addition of methanol was made to have a concentration in the range of 02M. The solution was stirred using a magnetic stirrer. The mi...

N. Karthikeyan; V. V. Giridhar; D. Vasudevan

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Catalytic conversion of methanol to low molecular weight olefins in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

followed by a polimerization of the divalent carbenoid species to explain the olefinic formation. H-CH, -OH -----~ HaO + :CHa n:CH, -----~ (CH, )n n=2, 3, 4, 5 Swabb and Gates (1972), in their study of the dehydration of methanol over H...

Garza Tobias, Ricardo

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The nature and formation of coke in the reaction of methanol to hydrocarbons over chabazite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). Reactant: methanol t-butanol 1-heotanol Reaction conditions Temp. (K) LHSV (hr ) 644 1. 0 644 1. 0 644 0. 7 Conversion (g) 1 00 100 99. 9 Hydrocarbon distribution (wt g) methane ethane ethylene propane propylene i-butane n-butane bu...

McLaughlin, Kenneth Woot

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

223

Determination of Syngas Premixed Gasoline and Methanol Combustion Products at Chemical Equilibrium via Lagrange Multipliers Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(10) Several patents for generating hydrogen-rich syngas out of methanol to combust the syngas in an automotive engine have been published. ... On the other hand, the high flame speed of hydrogen causes higher NOx emissions and combustion instability when syngas is combusted with a near-stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. ...

Osman Sinan Ssl; Ipek Becerik

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

224

Numerical study on the combustion and emission characteristics of a methanol/diesel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An improved multi-dimensional model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics mechanism was applied to investigate the combustion and emission characteristics of a methanol/diesel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine. The fuel was supplied separately by directly injecting diesel fuel into cylinder well before top dead center, while premixing methanol through the intake port in the tested methanol/diesel RCCI engine. The effects of mass fraction of premixed methanol, start of injection (SOI) of diesel and initial in-cylinder temperature at intake valve closing (IVC) on engine combustion and emission were investigated in detail. The results show that both methanol mass fraction and SOI have a significant impact on cetane number (CN) distribution, i.e. fuel reactivity distribution, which determines the ignition delay and peak of heat release rate (HRR). Due to larger area with high-temperature region and more homogeneous fuel distribution with increased methanol, and the oxygen atom contained by methanol molecule, all the emissions are reduced with moderate methanol addition. Advanced SOI with high combustion temperature is favorable to hydrocarbon (HC) and soot reduction, yet not to the decrease of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Both increasing methanol fraction and advancing the SOI are beneficial to improve fuel economy and avoid engine knock. Moreover, it was revealed that the initial temperature must be increased with increased methanol fraction to keep the 50% burn point (CA50) constant, which results in decrease of the equivalent indicated specific fuel consumption (EISFC) and all emissions, except for slight increase in \\{NOx\\} due to the higher burning temperature.

Yaopeng Li; Ming Jia; Yaodong Liu; Maozhao Xie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Influence of preparation method on performance of Cu(Zn)(Zr)-alumina catalysts for the hydrogen production via steam reforming of methanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The selective production of hydrogen via steam reforming of methanol (SRM)...?C. Reverse water gas shift reaction and methanol decomposition reactions also take place simultaneously with the steam reforming react...

Sanjay Patel; K. K. Pant

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

A High-Yield, Liquid-Phase Approach for the Partial Oxidation of Methane to Methanol using SO3 as the Oxidant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approach for producing methanol from methane in a three-step, liquid phase process is reported is hydrolyzed in the presence of an organic solvent, to produce an organic phase con- taining methanol the facile separation of methanol. Con- centrated sulfuric acid is produced as a by-product, which can either

Bell, Alexis T.

227

A Theoretical Study of Methanol Synthesis from CO(2) Hydrogenation on Metal-doped Cu(111) Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were employed to investigate the methanol synthesis reaction from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation (CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2} {yields} CH{sub 3}OH + H{sub 2}O) on metal-doped Cu(111) surfaces. Both the formate pathway and the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction followed by a CO hydrogenation pathway (RWGS + CO-Hydro) were considered in the study. Our calculations showed that the overall methanol yield increased in the sequence: Au/Cu(111) < Cu(111) < Pd/Cu(111) < Rh/Cu(111) < Pt/Cu(111) < Ni/Cu(111). On Au/Cu(111) and Cu(111), the formate pathway dominates the methanol production. Doping Au does not help the methanol synthesis on Cu(111). Pd, Rh, Pt, and Ni are able to promote the methanol production on Cu(111), where the conversion via the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathway is much faster than that via the formate pathway. Further kinetic analysis revealed that the methanol yield on Cu(111) was controlled by three factors: the dioxomethylene hydrogenation barrier, the CO binding energy, and the CO hydrogenation barrier. Accordingly, two possible descriptors are identified which can be used to describe the catalytic activity of Cu-based catalysts toward methanol synthesis. One is the activation barrier of dioxomethylene hydrogenation, and the other is the CO binding energy. An ideal Cu-based catalyst for the methanol synthesis via CO{sub 2} hydrogenation should be able to hydrogenate dioxomethylene easily and bond CO moderately, being strong enough to favor the desired CO hydrogenation rather than CO desorption but weak enough to prevent CO poisoning. In this way, the methanol production via both the formate and the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathways can be facilitated.

Liu P.; Yang, Y.; White, M.G.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

228

COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project. Overall plant availability (defined as the percentage of time that the LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit was able to operate, with the exclusion of scheduled outages) was 97.5%, and the longest operating run without interruption of any kind was 94 days. Over 103.9 million gallons of methanol was produced; Eastman accepted all of the available methanol for use in the production of methyl acetate, and ultimately cellulose acetate and acetic acid.

E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers from Medicina survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report VLBI observations of methanol masers in the brightest 5(1)-6(0) A+ transition at 6.7 GHz in NGC 281W, 18151-1208 and 19388+2357. Using the fringe rate method absolute positions were obtained for all observed sources. A linear ordered structure with a velocity gradient was revealed in NGC 281W. Under assumption that such structure is an edge-on Keplerian disk around the central object with a mass of 30Msun located at a distance of 3.5 kpc from the Sun, we estimated that methanol masers are situated at the distance about 400 a.u. from the center of the disk. A second epoch of observations was reported for L1206, GL2789 and 20062+3550. The upper limits on the relative motions of maser spots are estimated to be 4.7 km/s and 28 km/s for L1206 and GL2789 respectively.

Voronkov, M A; Palagi, F; Tofani, G

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers from Medicina survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report VLBI observations of methanol masers in the brightest 5(1)-6(0) A+ transition at 6.7 GHz in NGC 281W, 18151-1208 and 19388+2357. Using the fringe rate method absolute positions were obtained for all observed sources. A linear ordered structure with a velocity gradient was revealed in NGC 281W. Under assumption that such structure is an edge-on Keplerian disk around the central object with a mass of 30Msun located at a distance of 3.5 kpc from the Sun, we estimated that methanol masers are situated at the distance about 400 a.u. from the center of the disk. A second epoch of observations was reported for L1206, GL2789 and 20062+3550. The upper limits on the relative motions of maser spots are estimated to be 4.7 km/s and 28 km/s for L1206 and GL2789 respectively.

M. A. Voronkov; V. I. Slysh; F. Palagi; G. Tofani

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

Prediction of Transport Properties by Molecular Simulation: Methanol and Ethanol and their mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport properties of liquid methanol and ethanol are predicted by molecular dynamics simulation. The molecular models for the alcohols are rigid, non-polarizable and of united-atom type. They were developed in preceding work using experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium data only. Self- and Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients as well as the shear viscosity of methanol, ethanol and their binary mixture are determined using equilibrium molecular dynamics and the Green-Kubo formalism. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics is used for predicting the thermal conductivity of the two pure substances. The transport properties of the fluids are calculated over a wide temperature range at ambient pressure and compared with experimental and simulation data from the literature. Overall, a very good agreement with the experiment is found. For instance, the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity are predicted with average deviations of less 8% for the pure alcohols and 12% for the mixture. The predicted thermal...

Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Vrabec, Jadran; Hasse, Hans

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Theoretical model for methanol formation from CO and H/sub 2/ on zinc oxide surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Models are developed for the polar (0001) and nonpolar (1010) surfaces of ZnO in order to consider methanol formation from adsorbed carbon monoxide and hydrogen atoms. The heats of adsorption of H/sub x/CO and OH/sub x/CO (x = 0-3) species involved in methanol formation are computed to determine the enthalpy changes of reaction. Reaction sequences involving formyl or formate intermediates are considered. The reaction mechanism is catalyzed by the Cu/sup +/ to proceed through a methoxy intermediate on Cu/sup +//ZnO with a lower of the energy pathway. The ZnO surfaces are poor donors and function primarily as acceptors of electron density from CO. The donor role of Cu/sup +/ is demonstrated on the polar surface by increasing the heat of adsorption of acceptor adspecies and decreasing the heat of adsorption of donor adspecies. 22 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

Baetzold, R.C.

1985-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

233

Mechanism of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on copper catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine possible mechanisms of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on supported copper catalysts. Two broad categories of reaction mechanism can be identified: (a) Type I: Carbon monoxide, adsorbed on the copper surface, is hydrogenated by the addition of hydrogen atoms while the C-O bond remains intact. A second C-O bond is neither formed nor broken. (b) Type II: Carbon monoxide (or a partially hydrogenated intermediate, e.g., HCO) reacts with an oxygen atom on the catalyst surface to give an intermediate, typically a formate, which contains two C-O bonds. Subsequent reaction leads overall to methanol and the reformation of the surface oxygen atom. Both mechanisms are discussed.

Fakley, M.E.; Jennings, J.R.; Spencer, M.S. (ICI Chemicals and Polymers Ltd, Billingham, Cleveland (England))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the Gasification Engineering Corporation and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, financial, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility Study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility and for fence-line commercial plants operated at The Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations (i.e. the Commercial Embodiment Plant or CEP) (2) Research, development, and testing to address any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Ltd., plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. During the reporting period work was furthered to support the development of capital and operating cost estimates associated with the installation of liquid or gas phase methanol synthesis technology in a Commercial Embodiment Plant (CEP) utilizing the six cases previously defined. In addition, continued development of the plant economic model was accomplished by providing combined cycle performance data. Performance and emission estimates for gas turbine combined cycles was based on revised methanol purge gas information. The economic model was used to evaluate project returns with various market conditions and plant configurations and was refined to correct earlier flaws. Updated power price projections were obtained and incorporated in the model. Sensitivity studies show that break-even methanol prices which provide a 12% return are 47-54 cents/gallon for plant scenarios using $1.25/MM Btu coal, and about 40 cents/gallon for most of the scenarios with $0.50/MM Btu petroleum coke as the fuel source. One exception is a high power price and production case which could be economically attractive at 30 cents/gallon methanol. This case was explored in more detail, but includes power costs predicated on natural gas prices at the 95th percentile of expected price distributions. In this case, the breakeven methanol price is highly sensitive to the required project return rate, payback period, and plant on-line time. These sensitivities result mainly from the high capital investment required for the CEP facility ({approx}$500MM for a single train IGCC-methanol synthesis plant). Finally, during the reporting period the Defense Contractor Audit Agency successfully executed an accounting audit of Global Energy Inc. for data accumulated over the first year of the IMPPCCT project under the Cooperative Agreement.

Doug Strickland

2001-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

235

Adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of methanol decomposition on Cu(100)  

SciTech Connect

The adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method was used to calculate the dynamics of methanol decomposition on Cu(100) at room temperature over a time scale of minutes. Mechanisms of reaction were found using min-mode following saddle point searches based upon forces and energies from density functional theory. Rates of reaction were calculated with harmonic transition state theory. The dynamics followed a pathway from CH3-OH, CH3-O, CH2-O, CH-O and finally C-O. Our calculations confirm that methanol decomposition starts with breaking the O-H bond followed by breaking C-H bonds in the dehydrogenated intermediates until CO is produced. The bridge site on the Cu(100) surface is the active site for scissoring chemical bonds. Reaction intermediates are mobile on the surface which allows them to find this active reaction site. This study illustrates how the adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method can model the dynamics of surface chemistry from first principles.

Xu, Lijun; Mei, Donghai; Henkelman, Graeme A.

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Economic feasibility study of a wood gasification-based methanol plant: A subcontract report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an economic feasibility study for a wood-gasification-based methanol plant. The objectives were to evaluate the current commercial potential of a small-scale, wood-fed methanol plant using the SERI oxygen-blown, pressurized, down-draft gasifier technology and to identify areas requiring further R and D. The gasifier gas composition and material balance were based on a computer model of the SERI gasifier since acceptable test data were not available. The estimated capital cost was based on the Nth plant constructed. Given the small size and commercial nature of most of the equipment, N was assumed to be between 5 and 10. Only large discrepancies in gasifier output would result in significant charges in capital costs. 47 figs., 55 tabs.

Not Available

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over several years, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana.

Albert Tsang

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the third report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 30, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) External evaluation of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design, set up and initial testing of the autothermal reactor, (3) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (4) Catalyst degradation studies, and (5) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

239

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the seventh report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in these areas. These areas are: (1) Steam reformer transient response, (2) Heat transfer enhancement, (3) Catalyst degradation, (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies, and (5) Autothermal reforming of coal-derived methanol. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

240

Low-energy positron scattering from methanol and ethanol: Total cross sections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report total cross sections for positron scattering from two primary alcohols, methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (C2H5OH). The energy range of the present study is 0.140eV. The ethanol measurement appears to be original while for methanol we compare our data to the only previous result from Kimura and colleagues [Adv. Chem. Phys. 111, 537 (2000)], with a significant discrepancy between them being found at the lower energies. Positronium formation threshold energies for both species, deduced from the present respective total cross section data sets, are found to be consistent with those expected on the basis of their known ionization energies. There are currently no theoretical results against which we can compare our total cross sections.

Antonio Zecca, Luca Chiari, A. Sarkar, Kate L. Nixon, and Michael J. Brunger

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Effect of under-inhibition with methanol and ethylene glycol on the hydrate control process  

SciTech Connect

Hydrate control can be achieved by chemical injection. Currently, methanol and ethylene glycol are the most widely used inhibitors in offshore hydrate control operations. To achieve effective hydrate inhibition, a sufficient amount of inhibitor must be injected to shift the thermodynamic equilibrium condition for hydrate formation outside the pipeline operating pressure and temperature. Recently published field experiments showed that hydrate blockages form more readily in under-inhibited systems than in systems completely without inhibitor. A laboratory study is conducted to determine the effect of low concentration (1--5wt%) methanol and ethylene glycol on the hydrate formation process. The results show that, although these chemicals are effective hydrate inhibitors when added in sufficient quantities, they actually enhance the rate of hydrate formation when added at low concentrations to the water. Furthermore, the presence of these chemicals seems to affect the size of the forming hydrate particles.

Yousif, M.H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

Methanol synthesis from CO2 over Cu/ZnO catalysts prepared from various coprecipitated precursors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various precursors of Cu/ZnO catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation methods. By varying the conditions of coprecipitation, precursors having different structures (aurichalcite, malachite, hydrozincite, or their mixture) were obtained at given Cu/Zn ratios, ranging from 30/70 to 70/30. In a wide range of the Cu/Zn ratios, the catalysts derived from the precursors containing aurichalcite exhibited high performance in the methanol synthesis from CO2.

Shin-ichiro Fujita; Yoshinori Kanamori; Agus Muhamad Satriyo; Nobutsune Takezawa

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Kinetics of methyl radical-hydroxyl radical collisions and methanol decomposition.  

SciTech Connect

The CH{sub 3} + OH bimolecular reaction and the dissociation of methanol are studied theoretically at conditions relevant to combustion chemistry. Kinetics for the CH{sub 3} + OH barrierless association reaction and for the H + CH{sub 2}OH and H + CH{sub 3}O product channels are determined in the high-pressure limit using variable reaction coordinate transition state theory and multireference electronic structure calculations to evaluate the fragment interaction energies. The CH{sub 3} + OH {yields} {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O abstraction reaction and the H{sub 2} + HCOH and H{sub 2} + H{sub 2}CO product channels feature localized dynamical bottlenecks and are treated using variational transition state theory and QCISD(T) energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The {sup 1}CH{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O product channel has two dynamical regimes, featuring both an inner saddle point and an outer barrierless region, and it is shown that a microcanonical two-state model is necessary to properly describe the association rate for this reaction over a broad temperature range. Experimental channel energies for the methanol system are reevaluated using the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach. Pressure dependent, phenomenological rate coefficients for the CH{sub 3} + OH bimolecular reaction and for methanol decomposition are determined via master equation simulations. The predicted results agree well with experimental results, including those from a companion high-temperature shock tube determination for the decomposition of methanol.

Jasper, A. W.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

246

Total electron scattering cross sections for methanol and ethanol at intermediate energies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Absolute total cross section (TCS) measurements of electron scattering from gaseous methanol and ethanol molecules are reported for impact energies from 60 to 500 eV, using the linear transmission method. The attenuation of intensity of a collimated electron beam through the target volume is used to determine the absolute TCS for a given impact energy, using the BeerLambert law to first approximation. Besides these experimental measurements, we have also determined TCS using the additivity rule.

D G M Silva; T Tejo; J Muse; D Romero; M A Khakoo; M C A Lopes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Optimization of direct conversion of wet algae to biodiesel under supercritical methanol conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study demonstrated a one-step process for direct liquefaction and conversion of wet algal biomass containing about 90% of water to biodiesel under supercritical methanol conditions. This one-step process enables simultaneous extraction and transesterification of wet algal biomass. The process conditions are milder than those required for pyrolysis and prevent the formation of by-products. In the proposed process, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) can be produced from polar phospholipids, free fatty acids, and triglycerides. A response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the influence of the three process variables, namely, the wet algae to methanol (wt./vol.) ratio, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time, on the \\{FAMEs\\} conversion. Algal biodiesel samples were analyzed by ATR-FTIR and GCMS. Based on the experimental analysis and RSM study, optimal conditions for this process are reported as: wet algae to methanol (wt./vol.) ratio of around 1:9, reaction temperature and time of about 255C, and 25min respectively. This single-step process can potentially be an energy efficient and economical route for algal biodiesel production.

Prafulla D. Patil; Veera Gnaneswar Gude; Aravind Mannarswamy; Shuguang Deng; Peter Cooke; Stuart Munson-McGee; Isaac Rhodes; Pete Lammers; Nagamany Nirmalakhandan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Integrating Glycerol to Methanol vs. Glycerol to Ethanol within the Production of Biodiesel from Algae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, we use a superstrucutre optimization approach for the comparison between traditional biodiesel plants and the integration of glycerol to methanol production or its use to obtain ethanol within the production of biodiesel from algae. In the first case the glycerol is reformed, either autoreforming or steam reforming, the raw syngas purified and whose composition (H2:CO ratio) is adjusted for the production of methanol. The methanol once purified is used for the transesterification of the oil produced from the algae. In the second case we take advantage of the fact that the algae composition allows the simultaneous production of ethanol and biodiesel. The starch is liquified and saccharified to obtain glucose that is fermented to ethanol. On the other hand, the oil is transesterified with ethanol to produce biodiesel, either using an enzymatic or an homogeneous catalysts. The glycerol is fermented to ethanol. Both water-ethanol, streams from glucose and from glycerol are fed to a multieffect column and later to a molecular sieve. The dehydrated ethanol is used for the transesterification of the oil while the excess is sold as biofuel. Glycerol as byproduct is still interesting as long as its price is over $0.05 /kg. In terms of integrated facilities, the use of glycerol to produce ethanol requires almost twice the investment, but the production cost is a fourth lower with an increased production of biofuels by 50 %.

Mariano Martn; Ignacio Grossmann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

On the effect of gas diffusion layers hydrophobicity on direct methanol fuel cell performance and degradation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Degradation and mass transport phenomena management are two of the main issues hindering direct methanol fuel cell commercialization. Water and methanol crossover through the membrane, regulated by both anode and cathode gas diffusion layers hydrophobic properties, is widely studied in the literature, while the effect of mass transport phenomena evolution on the direct methanol fuel cell degradation has not been investigated yet. This work aims to present a combined experimental and modeling analysis on the effect of the gas diffusion layers hydrophobicity on DMFC degradation, through the comparison of performance characterization and degradation tests of two different fuel cells. In one of them, the lower diffusion layer hydrophobicity and the absence of anode microporous layer determines the onset of cathode flooding, negatively affecting performance and degradation. However, the cathode surface area loss is similar between the two fuel cells, meaning that flooding does not involve modifications in cathode permanent degradation mechanisms, but it mainly determines the amplification of the cathode surface area loss effects.

F. Bresciani; C. Rabissi; M. Zago; R. Marchesi; A. Casalegno

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

First methanol-to-gasoline plant nears startup in New Zealand  

SciTech Connect

Sometime during the summer 1985, New Zealand Synthetic Fuels Co. was scheduled to begin operating its new plant at Motunui, New Zealand. It marks the first commercial application of the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. Moreover, as the result of a modular approach directed by Bechtel Corp. personnel, the plant represents a major construction success. It is also the first example of a new technology that may seriously challenge traditional Fischer-Tropsch chemistry as a route to synthetic fuels and organic feedstocks. The MTG plant will produce 14,000 barrels per day of gasoline with an octane number rating of 92 to 94 (according to research results). This amount is about one third of present New Zealand demand. The gasoline will be made by catalytic conversion of methanol coming from two plants, each producing about 220 metric tons per day for the single-train MTG plant. The methanol, in turn, is derived from reforming of natural gas from offshore fields in the Tasman Sea.

Haggin, J.

1985-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

251

Conversion of methanol to gasoline. Operation of the demonstration plant. Milestone report  

SciTech Connect

The 100 BPD fluid-bed methanol to gasoline (MTG) demonstration plant operation has exceeded the original process objectives. Specifically, the results show: stable unit operation is achieved with excellent gas/catalyst mixing resulting in complete methanol conversion; bed temperature control is readily accomplished, although the process is highly exothermic; catalyst attrition is low, which confirms the mechanical strength of the catalyst - the small make-up used for activity control at normal conditions exceeds the low attrition rate; process parameters can be varied to obtain the desired gasoline yield and quality; and engineering design parameters have been confirmed at the pilot plant stage and a scale-up to a commercial-size MTG fluid-bed system is now deemed feasible. The results obtained gave a broad basis for the conceptual design of a coal-based commercial-size plant for the production of MTG gasoline. This study is presently in preparation and will be completed by the middle of 1985. The conceptual design will be based on a 2500 tonnes/day methanol plant feeding a single MTG fluid-bed reactor. Six trains will be used for a maximum plant capacity of 15,000 tonnes/day. 43 figs., 26 tabs.

Edwards, M.; Gierlich, H.; Gould, R.; Thiagarajan, N.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Coking of zeolites during methanol conversion: Basic reactions of the MTO-, MTP- and MTG processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Deactivation of acidic zeolite catalysts during methanol conversion is investigated for elucidating how spatial constraints interfere mechanistically. Detailed product composition including retained organic matter is determined in a time resolved mode. At 270300C with H-ZSM-5, first unsaturated hydrocarbons are formedmethane being the indicative co-product. Then the reaction rate increases auto-catalytically, but soon declines because of exhaustive pore filling. The retained organic matter consists mainly of ethyl-trimethyl-benzene- and isopropyl-dimethyl-benzene molecules. Alkylation of benzene rings with ethene and propene produces the deactivating molecules. At 475C, alkylation of benzene rings with olefins has shifted to the reverse, reactivating the H-ZSM-5 catalyst. Coke forms slowly on the surface of H-ZSM-5 crystallites. Spatial constraints suppress the formation of 2-ring aromatics. With the wide pore zeolite H-Y, fast deactivation is noticedbigger aromatic molecules can be formed and are retained. Methanol reactions on the protonic catalyst sites are visualized as CH3+ attack for methylation and dehydrogenation, methane being the hydrogen-rich co-product. Methanol conversion on zeolites H-ZSM-58, H-EU-1 and H-Beta is comparatively investigated. Zone ageing is discussed for favorable reactor design. It is shown, how a multi-compound product composition is the source of information for elucidating complex reaction mechanisms.

Hans Schulz

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

The effect of ZnO in methanol synthesis catalysts on Cu dispersion and the specific activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of ZnO in Cu/ZnO catalysts prepared by the coprecipitation method has been studied using measurements of the surface area of Cu, the specific activity for the methanol synthesis by hydrogenation of CO2

T. Fujitani; J. Nakamura

254

Membranen aus [(A)n(B)m]x-Multiblockcopolymeren fr den Einsatz in der Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzelle (DMFC).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Aramide and arylene ether multiblock copolymers of (AB)n-type with various degrees of sulfonation have been prepared for use in direct methanol fuel cells. Aramid- und (more)

Taeger, Antje

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Vibrational relaxation of the free terminal hydroxyl stretch in methanol oligomers: Indirect pathway to hydrogen bond breaking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vibrational relaxation of methanol-d MeOD in carbon tetrachloride has been investigated via ultrafast infrared such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or alkanes. Unlike water, which is only sparingly soluble in nonpolar

Fayer, Michael D.

256

Promotive SMSI effect for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol on a Pd/CeO{sub 2} catalyst  

SciTech Connect

This article reports strong metal support interaction (SMSI) appearing in supported palladium catalysts which improves greatly the selectivity and lifetime of the catalysts for methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals and fuels such as methanol has recently been recognized as one of the promising recycling technologies for emitted CO{sub 2}. 33 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

NONE

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Cold flow tudy of a fluidized bed reactor for catalytic conversion of methanol to low molecular weight hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mixture of rare-earth chlorides, to selectively convert methanol to ethylene, propylene and propane with carbon yields of 70 to 90 percent. Chang Clarence and Silvestri (1977) claimed the use of erionite, zeolite T, zeolite ZK-5, chabazite and other... mixture of rare-earth chlorides, to selectively convert methanol to ethylene, propylene and propane with carbon yields of 70 to 90 percent. Chang Clarence and Silvestri (1977) claimed the use of erionite, zeolite T, zeolite ZK-5, chabazite and other...

Mehta, Shirish Ramniklal

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

258

A Comparative Study of the Adsorption of Water and Methanol in Zeolite BEA: A Molecular Simulation Study  

SciTech Connect

Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were carried out to study the equilibrium adsorption concentration of methanol and water in all-silica zeolite BEA over the wide temperature and pressure ranges. For both water and methanol, their adsorptive capacity increases with increasing pressure and decreasing temperature. The onset of methanol adsorption occurs at much lower pressures than water adsorption at all temperatures. Our GCMC simulation results also indicate that the adsorption isotherms of methanol exhibit a gradual change with pressure while water adsorption shows a sharp first-order phase transition at low temperatures. To explore the effects of Si/Al ratio on adsorption, a series of GCMC simulations of water and methanol adsorption in zeolites HBEA with Si/Al=7, 15, 31, 63 were performed. As the Si/Al ratio decreases, the onsets of both water and methanol adsorption dramatically shift to lower pressures. The type V isotherm obtained for water adsorption in hydrophobic BEA progressively changes to type I isotherm with decreasing Si/Al ratio in hydrophilic HBEA. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

Nguyen, Van T.; Nguyen, Phuong T.; Dang, Liem X.; Mei, Donghai; Wick, Collin D.; Do, Duong D.

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Underground coal gasification (UCG) gas to methanol and MTG-gasoline: an economic and sensitivity study, Task B  

SciTech Connect

This report, identified as Task B, examines the technical and economic aspects of the production of methanol and MTG-Gasoline using gas from an underground coal gasification (UCG) facility. The report is a sequel to a previous study performed in 1981 and identified as Task A. The Task A report, titled Cost Saving Concepts on the Production of Methanol from Underground Gasified Coal, examined the economics of producing fuel grade methanol using UCG gas. In this study we examine the economics of producing MTG-Gasoline as well as a number of other aspects of the economics of upgrading UCG gas. Capital and operating costs for three different capacities of MTG-Gasoline plant are presented. These are 1600 BPD, 4800 BPD, and 9600 BPD. These capacities are equivalent to fuel grade methanol plants having capacities of 4000 BPD, 12,000 BPD, and 24,000 BPD - the methanol capacities considered in the previous studies. The economics of the MTG-Gasoline plant were developed using published information and our best estimate of the processing steps in the MTG-Gasoline process. As part of this study, several sensitivity studies were undertaken to examine the sensitivity of both methanol and MTG-Gasoline product cost to changes in technical and economic parameters. Table 1.1 lists the various sensitivity studies undertaken. All cost figures are in first quarter 1982 dollars.

Not Available

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-Gas technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and later COP and the industrial partners investigated the use of syngas produced by the E-Gas technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort were to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from syngas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The intended result of the project was to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that would be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The EECP study conducted in Phase 1 of the IMPPCCT Project confirmed that the concept for the integration of gasification-based (E-Gas) electricity generation from coal and/or petroleum coke and methanol production (Liquid Phase Methanol or LPMEOH{trademark}) processes was feasible for the coproduction of power and chemicals. The results indicated that while there were minimal integration issues that impact the deployment of an IMPPCCT CEP, the major concern was the removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, which are known methanol catalyst poisons, from the syngas. However, economic concerns in the domestic methanol market which is driven by periodic low natural gas prices and cheap offshore supplies limit the commercial viability of this more capital intensive concept. The objective of Phase 2 was to conduct RD&T as outlined in the Phase 1 RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. Studies were designed to address the technical concerns that would mak

Conocophillips

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Strahlenchemie von alkoholenIX : Die UV-photolyse (? = 185 nm) von methanol in flssiger phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Zusammenfassung Bei der Photolyse (? = 185 nm) von flssigem Methanol entstehen Wasserstoff, Glykol, Formaldehyd und Methan sowie Spuren than. Die Quantenausbeuten (bezogen auf ?(H2) = 04 des thanol -Aktinometers (5 mol/1 in Wasser)) betragen 083, 078, 0058, 005 bzw. 0002. Die Isotopenverteilung des bei der Photolyse von CH3OD entstehenden Wasserstoffs (85% HD) zeigt, dass in der flssigen Phase, hnlich wie in der Gasphase,2 die Spaltung der O?H-Bindung (1) der wichtigste Zerfallsprozess ist. CH3OH + hv (? = 185 nm) ? CH3O + H (1) In Mischungen mit Wasser, in denen das Wasser fast keinen Anteil der Strahlung absorbiert, werden die Quantenausbeuten der Produkte Wasserstoff, Glykol, Methan und than stark erniedrigt, whrend die Formaldehydausbeute konstant bleibt. In 1 molarer Lsung betrgt ?(H2) = 042, ?(Glykol) = 032, ?(CH4) = 610?4. than ist nicht mehr nachweisbar. The UV photolysis (? = 185 nm) of liquid methanol yields hydrogen, glycol, formaldehyde, methane and traces of ethane in quantum yields of 083, 078, 0058, 005 and 0002 resp. (related to ?(H2) = 04 of the ethanol-actinometer (5 mole/1 in water)). The isotopic distribution of the hydrogen (85% HD) formed in the photolysis of CH3OD shows, that as in the gasphase2 the scission of the O?H-bond (1) is the major process. CH3OH + hv (? = 185 nm) ? CH3O + H (1) In methanoi-water mixtures (nearly all the light of the wavelength ? = 185 nm is absorbed by methanol) the quantum yields of hydrogen, glycol, methane and ethane are greatly reduced, while the formaldehyde yield remains unaffected. In 1 molar solution ?(H2) = 042, ?(glycol) = 032 and ?(CH4) = 6 x 10?4 is obtained. Ethane cannot be detected.

C. Von Sonntag

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Evaluation of platinum-based catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation in phosphoric acid electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-supported catalysts of Pt, Pt/Ru, Pt/Ru/W, and Pt/Ru/Pd were evaluated for the electro-oxidation of methanol in phosphoric acid at 180 C. These catalysts were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and x-ray diffraction. Addition of Ru to a 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2} Pt catalyst (1:1 atomic ratio) caused a large reduction in polarization. The open-circuit voltage was reduced by 100 mV and polarization at 400 mA/cm{sup 2} was reduced by 180 mV. A Pt/Ru (5:2) catalyst with the same Pt content lowered the open-circuit voltage 70 mV. Additions of W to form Pt/Ru/W (1:1:1, atomic ratio) and Pd to form Pt/Ru/Pd (2:2:1), all with the same platinum loading, gave the same performance as Pt/Ru (1:1) without the additions. All of the catalysts showed two Tafel slopes, 140 mV/dec at lower polarizations and 100 to 120 mV/dec at higher polarizations, indicating that the reaction mechanisms are the same for all of the catalysts. Methanol oxidation is greatly enhanced at 180 C in phosphoric acid compared to the lower operating temperatures of a perfluorosulfonic acid electrolyte. The exchange current density for methanol oxidation is higher than that for O{sub 2} reduction. Ru metal dissolves from catalysts at high potentials. Hydrogen oxidation in the presence of 1 mole percent carbon monoxide showed carbon monoxide tolerance in the order: Pt/Ru/Pd > Pt/Ru > Pt.

He, C.; Kunz, H.R.; Fenton, J.M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol  

SciTech Connect

The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Inhibitory Effect of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) Leaves Methanolic Extract on Listeria monocytogenes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dried leaves (100 g) were ground and extracted with methanol (1:10, w/v) in a sonicator apparatus for 15 min, filtered through Whatman no. ... (14) An Agilent 1100 series HPLC system, provided with a diode array detector (DAD) model G 1315 A, an G 1313 A autosampler, and a G 1311 A pump, was used. ... A Varian 1200 L triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (Palo Alto, CA) coupled with a ProStar 410 autosampler and two ProStar 210 pumps and a 1200 L triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was used with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. ...

Nadhem Aissani; Valentina Coroneo; Sami Fattouch; Pierluigi Caboni

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

265

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOEP") Demonstration Project at K.ingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L, P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOHY Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. On 4 October 1994, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and signed the agreements that would form the Partnership, secure the demonstration site, and provide the financial commitment and overall project management for the project. These partnership agreements became effective on 15 March 1995, when DOE authorized the commencement of Budget Period No. 2 (Mod. AO08 to the Cooperative Agreement). The Partnership has subcontracted with Air Products to provide the overall management of the project, and to act as the primary interface with DOE. As subcontractor to the Partnership, Air Products will also provide the engineering design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and will provide the technical and engineering supervision needed to conduct the operational testing program required as part of the project. As subcontractor to Air Products, Eastman will be responsible for operation of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and for the interconnection and supply of synthesis gas, utilities, product storage, and other needed sewices. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas fi-om Eastman's integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOHTM process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small 3,200 gallons per day, DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates.

None

1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Catalytic decomposition of methanol at various temperatures and several liquid hourly space velocities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DISTRIBUTION FOR COMPOSITE CATALYST B POSSIBLE REACTOR CONFIGURATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF A GASEOUS FUEL ~Pa e 12 15 21 23 26 28 33 35 37 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Methanol can be produced from coal, and natural gas from foreign sources can... increase in 0 temperature resulted in a rapid increase in the production of C02, CO, C2H4, H2 and CH4 with a corresponding decrease in the production of dimethyl ether. In the case of zinc oxide catalyst the formation of dimethyl ether was almost...

Gupta, Yashpal Satyapal

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Experimental Observations in the Morita Baylis-Hillman Reaction in Methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-energy barrier of 63.2 kcal/mol would lead to rates that are roughly 1030 lower than experimentally observed rates. Fan and coworkers B3LYP/6- 311+G**/CPCM study of a trimethylamine / acrolein / formaldehyde /methanol model reaction supports the Aggarwal... / Harvey proton-shuttle mechanism.28 The calculated ?G? of 50 kcal/mol would lead to rates that are 20 orders of magnitude lower than experimentally observed rates. Li and Jiang did a B3LYP/6-31+G**/CPCM study of a trimethylamine / acrolein...

Plata, Robert Erik

2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

268

Analysis of kinetic models of the methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process in an integral reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From experimental results obtained in a wide range of operating conditions (temperature and contact time) in an isothermal fixed bed integral reactor, the validity both of the kinetic models proposed in the literature as well as their modifications, for the methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process at zero time on-stream, has been studied. The kinetic parameters for the various models have been calculated by solving the equation of mass conservation in the reactor for the lumps of the kinetic models. The usefulness of the model of Schipper and Krambeck for simulating the operation in the isothermal fixed bed integral reactor has been proven in the 573648 K range.

Ana G. Gayubo; Pedro L. Benito; Andrs T. Aguayo; Itziar Aguirre; Javier Bilbao

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250C to 380C. High temperatures (e.g. 380C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSVs and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pd particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons ... (1, 3-6) Methanol and derived dimethyl ether (DME) are also excellent fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE) and in a new generation of direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFC), as well as convenient starting materials for producing light olefins (ethylene and propylene) and subsequently practically any derived hydrocarbon product. ... Methanol produced this way was used in the 19th century for lighting, cooking, and heating purposes but was later replaced by cheaper fuels, especially kerosene. ...

George A. Olah; Alain Goeppert; G. K. Surya Prakash

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

271

Preparation of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for a micro methanol reformer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst suitable for low-temperature methanol reforming is proposed. The catalyst achieved by optimization of the temperature and pH of preparation and the addition of boehmite has superior catalytic activity to commercial catalysts. The catalytic activity is found to depend on the Cu surface area, which is related to the amount of Cu dispersed within ZnO. Dispersion of Cu is promoted by precipitation at low temperature, which results in the formation of small crystallites of the precursor. Enlarged BET surface area by the addition of boehmite as the third component derives high catalytic activity. Under optimized pH, it is predicted that the excess of Cu species existing as amorphous-like malachite in the precursor, in addition to aurichalcite, facilitates the dispersion of Cu. The proposed catalyst system can achieve methanol reforming at temperatures 2025C lower than conventional catalysts, representing an improved source of H2 for small proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems.

Yoshihiro Kawamura; Kazuto Yamamoto; Naotsugu Ogura; Takashi Katsumata; Akira Igarashi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Analysis of depolarization ratios of ClNO{sub 2} dissolved in methanol  

SciTech Connect

A detailed analysis of the resonance Raman depolarization ratio dispersion curve for the NO symmetric stretch of nitryl chloride in methanol at excitation wavelengths spanning the D absorption band is presented. The depolarization ratios are modeled using the time-dependent formalism for Raman scattering with contributions from two excited states (2{sup 1}A{sub 1} and 3{sup 1}B{sub 1}), which are taken as linearly dissociative along the ClN coordinate. The analysis focuses on the interplay between different types of broadening revealing the importance of inhomogenous broadening in determining the relative contributions of the two electronic transitions. We find that the transition dipole moment (M) for 2{sup 1}A{sub 1} is greater than for 3{sup 1}B{sub 1}, in agreement with gas phase calculations in the literature [A. Lesar, M. Hdoscek, M. Muhlhauser, and S. D. Peyerimhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 84 (2004)]. However, we find that the polarity of the solvent influences the excited state energetics, leading to a reversal in the ordering of these two states with 3{sup 1}B{sub 1} shifting to lower energies. Molecular dynamics simulations along with linear response and ab initio calculations support the evidence extracted from resonance Raman intensity analysis, providing insights on ClNO{sub 2} electronic structure, solvation effects in methanol, and the source of broadening, emphasizing the importance of a contribution from inhomogeneous linewidth.

Trimithioti, Marilena; Hayes, Sophia C., E-mail: shayes@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678, Nicosia (Cyprus); Akimov, Alexey V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Prezhdo, Oleg V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

273

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the first such report that will be submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1--December 31, 2003. This quarter saw progress in three areas. These areas are: (1) Evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor, as well as (3) Set up and data collection of baseline performance using the steam reformer. All of the projects are proceeding on schedule. During this quarter one conference paper was written that will be presented at the ASME Power 2004 conference in March 2004, which outlines the research direction and basis for looking at the coal to hydrogen pathway.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas via a supercritical methanol process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents the conceptual design and economic evaluation of a production of methyl esters (biodiesel) from Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) via a supercritical methanol process with glycerol as a by-product. The process consists of four major units: transesterification (PFR), methanol recovery (FT) and (DC1), recovery of glycerol (DEC), and biodiesel purification (DC2). The material and heat balance are also presented here. A biodiesel production of 40,000tonnes-yr?1 is taken as case study. Biodiesel obtained from supercritical transesterification with Jatropha curcas oil as feedstock resulting in high purity methyl esters (99.96%) with almost pure glycerol (96.49%) obtained as by-product. The biodiesel can be sold at USD 0.78kg?1, while the manufacturing and capital investment costs are in the range of USD 25.39million-year?1 and USD 9.41millionyear?1, respectively. This study proved that biodiesel from JCO is the least expensive with purities comparable to those found in other studies.

N.N.A.N. Yusuf; S.K. Kamarudin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

On the origin of the selectivity of oxygen reduction of ruthenium-containing electrocatalysts in methanol-containing electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

The reactivity with water and methanol of oxygen-reducing (Ru{sub 1{minus}x}Mo{sub x}SeO{sub z}) and oxygen (from water)-evolving electrocatalysts (RuS{sub 2}, RuO{sub 2}), which permit electron transfer via ruthenium d-states, was studied using electrochemical techniques and differential electrochemical mass spectroscopy (DEMS). In contrast to platinum, which is depolarized by methanol, ruthenium compounds show a high reactivity with water species and an extremely low reactivity with methanol. The authors conclude that the ruthenium-centered coordination chemical reactivity with water channels electrochemical currents, thus producing kinetic selectivity. The reason for the higher reactivity with water of Ru d-states as compared to platinum is seen in the higher density of d-states near the Fermi level as shown by this comparative study.

Alonso-Vante, N.; Bogdanoff, P.; Tributsch, H.

2000-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

276

Photochemistry of "Super" Photoacids. 2. Excited-State Proton Transfer in Methanol/Water Kyril M. Solntsev,*,, Dan Huppert, Noam Agmon, and Laren M. Tolbert  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photochemistry of "Super" Photoacids. 2. Excited-State Proton Transfer in Methanol/Water Mixtures of ultrafast excited-state proton transfer reactions of exceptionally strong photoacids in methanol/waterVed: December 23, 1999; In Final Form: March 6, 2000 Excited-state proton transfer to solvent (PTTS) of 5-cyano

Agmon, Noam

277

Size-selected Pt Nanoparticles Synthesized via Micelle Encapsulation: Effect of Pretreatment and Oxidation State on the Activity for Methanol Decomposition and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Oxidation State on the Activity for Methanol Decomposition and Oxidation Jason R. Croya , S. Mostafaa,b , H-synthesized Pt nanoparticles supported on ZrO2 was studied for methanol decomposition and oxidation reactions. An O2-pretreatment is observed to be effective for producing clean, stable, and active nanoparticles

Kik, Pieter

278

Basic metal oxides as cocatalysts for Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalysts in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic behavior of Cu catalysts supported on ultrapure silica and promoted with Ca, Zn, and La oxides was investigated in the hydrogenation of CO and CO{sub 2} to methanol at high pressure. Cu on very pure silica produces hardly any methanol, while the addition of basic oxides and the use of {gamma}-alumina as support improve the catalyst performance. The strong promoting effect of Ca and La oxide on the silica-supported Cu and the weak promoting effect for alumina-supported Cu suggest that the basic oxide additives must be close to or in contact with the Cu particles to be effective in methanol synthesis. The methanol activity of Zn/Cu/SiO{sub 2} increased with increasing CO{sub 2} content in a CO-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture, suggesting that CO{sub 2} is the main carbon source for methanol.

Gotti, A.; Prins, R. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry] [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry

1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

279

Recent Advances in Catalysts for Methanol Synthesis via Hydrogenation of CO and CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cu?Zn sites are basically metallic, in which the Cu atoms catalyze the hydrogenation in methanol synthesis; therefore, aurichalcite should be an excellent precursor in the preparation of Cu/ZnO catalyst. ... Previous studies70-73 indicate that precipitation parameters strongly affect the performance of a CuO?ZnO-based catalyst, in which Cu/ZnO catalysts are prepared using precursors such as hydrozincite Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6, aurichalcite (Cux,Zn1-x)5(CO3)2(OH)6, malachite Cu2(CO3)(OH)2, rosasite (Cux,Zn1-x)2(CO3)(OH)2, or their mixtures. ... 70,71 Only catalysts prepared using the aurichalcite precursor are more active to CO hydrogenation. ...

Xin-Mei Liu; G. Q. Lu; Zi-Feng Yan; Jorge Beltramini

2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

280

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day) took place on 06 April 1997. Pressure drop and resistance coefficient across the gas sparger at the bottom of the reactor increased over this initial operating period. The demonstration unit was shut down from 08 May -17 June 1997 as part of a scheduled complex outage for the Kingsport site. During this outage, the gas sparger was removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. After completion of other maintenance activities, the demonstration unit was restarted, and maintained stable operation through the remainder of the reporting period. Again, the gas sparger showed an increase in pressure drop and resistance since the restart, although not as rapidly as during the April-May operation. Fresh oil was introduced online for the first time to a new flush connection on the gas inlet line to the reactov the flush lowered the pressure drop by 1 psi. However, the effects were temporary, and the sparger resistance coefficient continued to increase. Additional flushing with both fresh oil and entrained slurry recovered in the cyclone and secondary oil knock-out drum will be attempted in order to stabilize the sparger resistance coefficient.

None

1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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281

Catalyst inks and method of application for direct methanol fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Inks are formulated for forming anode and cathode catalyst layers and applied to anode and cathode sides of a membrane for a direct methanol fuel cell. The inks comprise a Pt catalyst for the cathode and a Pt--Ru catalyst for the anode, purified water in an amount 4 to 20 times that of the catalyst by weight, and a perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer in an amount effective to provide an ionomer content in the anode and cathode surfaces of 20% to 80% by volume. The inks are prepared in a two-step process while cooling and agitating the solutions. The final solution is placed in a cooler and continuously agitated while spraying the solution over the anode or cathode surface of the membrane as determined by the catalyst content.

Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Davey, John (Los Alamos, NM); Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Thomas, Sharon C. (Vancouver, CA)

2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

282

SHAPE SELECTIVE NANO-CATALYSTS: TOWARD DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

A series of bimetallic core-shell-alloy type Au-Pt nanomaterials with various morphologies, aspect ratios and compositions, were produced in a heterogenous epitaxial fashion. Gold nanoparticles with well-controlled particle size and shape, e.g. spheres, rods and cubes, were used as 'seeds' for platinum growth in the presence of a mild reducing agent, ascorbic acid and a cationic surfactant cethyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The reactions take place in air and water, and are quick, economical and amenable for scaling up. The synthesized nanocatalysts were characterized by electron microscopy techniques and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Nafion membranes were embedded with the Au-Pt nanomaterials and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for their potential in direct methanol fuel cells applications.

Murph, S.

2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

283

FTP Emissions Test Results from Flexible-Fuel Methanol Dodge Spirits and Ford Econoline Vans  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

FTP Emissions Test Results from Flexible-Fuel FTP Emissions Test Results from Flexible-Fuel Methanol Dodge Spirits and Ford Econoline Vans Kenneth J. Kelly, Brent K. Bailey, and Timothy C. Coburn National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wendy Clark Automotive Testing Laboratories, Inc. Leslie Eudy ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc. Peter Lissiuk Environmental Research and Development Corp. Presented at Society for Automotive Engineers International Spring Fuels and Lubricants Meeting Dearborn, MI May 6-8, 1996 The work described here was wholly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a U.S. government agency. As such, this information is in the public domain, may be copied and otherwise accessed freely, and is not subject to copyright laws. These papers were previously published in hard copy form by the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

284

Control-theoretic cyber-physical system modeling and synthesis: A case study of an active direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A joint optimization of the physical system and the cyber world is one of the key problems in the design of a cyber-physical system (CPS). The major mechanical forces and/or chemical reactions in a plant are commonly modified by actuators in the balance-of-plant ... Keywords: Balance of plants system, Cyber-physical systems, Direct methanol fuel cell

Donghwa Shin; Jaehyun Park; Younghyun Kim; Jaeam Seo; Naehyuck Chang

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Corrosion, Passivation, and the Effect of Water Addition on an n-GaAs(100)/Methanol Photoelectrochemical Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corrosion, Passivation, and the Effect of Water Addition on an n-GaAs(100)/Methanol of corrosion of the cell on the PL-V profile is examined in detail. It is found that the inclusion of the redox couple gives some protection from corrosion, but the addition of a small amount of water

Richmond, Geraldine L.

286

Abrupt Decline in the Open-Circuit Voltage of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells at Critical Oxygen Feed Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PEMFCs . In an effort to reduce methanol crossover, many researchers have sought either to develop new is more sluggish than that of hydrogen. Thus, more reactive electrocatalysts are desired.1,8,9 The second depresses the cathode potential as well as poisons the cathode electrocatalyst.2 In addition, the permeated

Zhao, Tianshou

287

Methanol as a Sensitive Probe for Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio  

SciTech Connect

The 6.7 and 12.2 GHz masers, corresponding to the 5{sub 1}{yields}6{sub 0}A{sup +} and 2{sub 0}{yields}3{sub -1}E transitions in methanol (CH{sub 3}OH), respectively, are among the brightest radio objects in the sky. We present calculations for the sensitivity of these and other transitions in the ground state of methanol to a variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. We show that the sensitivity is greatly enhanced due to a cancellation of energies associated with the hindered internal rotation and the overall rotation of the molecule. We find sensitivities of K{sub {mu}=}-42 and K{sub {mu}=}-33, for the 5{sub 1}{yields}6{sub 0}A{sup +} and 2{sub 0}{yields}3{sub -1}E transitions, respectively. The sensitivities of other transitions in the different isotopologues of methanol range from -88 to 330. This makes methanol a sensitive probe for spatial and temporal variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio.

Jansen, Paul; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L. [Institute for Lasers, Life and Biophotonics, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Xu Lihong [Department of Physics and Centre for Laser, Atomic, and Molecular Sciences, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick E2L 4L5 (Canada); Kleiner, Isabelle [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), CNRS UMR 7583 et Universites Paris 7 et Paris Est, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France)

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

288

Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

mode engine for a blend of gasoline and E85 for the best fuel economy - Development of a cost effective and reliable dual combustion mode engine - Development of a model-based SI...

289

Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

290

Deployment of FlexCHP System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cygan Gas Technology Institute U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

291

DOE-FLEX: DOE's Telework Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The directive establishes the requirements and responsibilities for the Departments telework program. Canceled by DOE O 314.1.

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

292

DOE-FLEX: DOE's Telework Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The order establishes the requirements and responsibilities for the Departments telework program. Cancels DOE N 314.1.

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

293

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

294

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the GEC and an Industrial Consortia are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

2002-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

295

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. During the reporting period, effort continues on identifying potential technologies for removing contaminants from synthesis gas to the level required by methanol synthesis. A liquid phase Claus process and a direct sulfur oxidation process were evaluated. Preliminary discussion was held with interested parties on cooperating on RD&T in Phase II of the project. Also, significant progress was made during the period in the submission of project deliverables. A meeting was held at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown between GEC and the DOE IMPPCCT Project Manager on the status of the project, and reached an agreement on the best way to wrap up Phase I and transition into the Phase II RD&T. Potential projects for the Phase II, cost, and fund availability were also discussed.

Albert Tsang

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

296

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. During the reporting period, various methods to remove low-level contaminants for the synthesis gas were reviewed. In addition, there was a transition of the project personnel for GEC which has slowed the production of the outstanding project reports.

Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

297

WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)  

SciTech Connect

The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and offered commercially by COP as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC, and now COP and the industrial partners are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an EECP located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry.

Thomas Lynch

2004-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

298

A role for glutathione, independent of oxidative stress, in the developmental toxicity of methanol  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the teratogenicity of methanol (MeOH) in rodents, both in vivo and in embryo culture. We explored the ROS hypothesis further in vivo in pregnant C57BL/6J mice. Following maternal treatment with a teratogenic dose of MeOH, 4 g/kg via intraperitoneal (ip) injection on gestational day (GD) 12, there was no increase 6 h later in embryonic ROS formation, measured by 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence, despite an increase observed with the positive control ethanol (EtOH), nor was there an increase in embryonic oxidatively damaged DNA, quantified as 8-oxo-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation. MeOH teratogenicity (primarily ophthalmic anomalies, cleft palate) also was not altered by pre- and post-treatment with varying doses of the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). In contrast, pretreatment with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, depleted maternal hepatic and embryonic GSH, and enhanced some new anomalies (micrognathia, agnathia, short snout, fused digits, cleft lip, low set ears), but not the most common teratogenic effects of MeOH (ophthalmic anomalies, cleft palate) in this strain. These results suggest that ROS did not contribute to the teratogenic effects of MeOH in this in vivo mouse model, in contrast to results in embryo culture from our laboratory, and that the protective effect of GSH in this model may arise from its role as a cofactor for formaldehyde dehydrogenase in the detoxification of formaldehyde. - Highlights: In vivo, a free radical scavenger did not block methanol (MeOH) teratogenesis. MeOH did not increase embryonic reactive oxygen species formation or DNA oxidation. MeOH teratogenesis was enhanced by glutathione (GSH) depletion. GSH may protect as the cofactor for formaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH3). Formaldehyde may be a ROS-independent proximate teratogenic species in vivo.

Siu, Michelle T.; Shapiro, Aaron M. [Division of Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wiley, Michael J. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wells, Peter G., E-mail: pg.wells@utoronto.ca [Division of Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Exhaust-catalyst development for methanol-fueled vehicles. II. Synergism between palladium and silver in methanol and carbon monoxide oxidation over an alumina-supported palladium-silver catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Methanol and carbon monoxide oxidation were examined over 0.01 Pd, 5% Ag, and 0.01% Pd/5% Ag catalysts - all supported on ..gamma..-alumina. The bimetallic catalyst showed greater CO and CH/sub 3/OH oxidation activity than either of the single-component catalysts; moreover, the Pd and Ag interacted synergistically in the bimetallic catalyst to produce greater CO and CH/sub 3/OH oxidation rates and lower yields of methanol partial oxidation products than expected from a mixture of the single-component catalysts. Temperature-programmed oxidation experiments and reactivity experiments involving changes in O/sub 2/ partial pressure both provided evidence that the Pd-Ag synergism results from Pd promoting the rate of O/sub 2/ adsorption and reaction with CO and CH/sub 3/OH on Ag. The data also indicate that virtually all of the Pd in the bimetallic catalyst is present in Pd-Ag crystallites.

McCabe, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1996  

SciTech Connect

A series of CuMgCeO{sub x} catalysts have been prepared. Range of Cu dispersion, determined by N{sub 2}O titration, was 19-48% and are among the highest reported in the literature for Cu-based methanol and higher alcohol synthesis catalysts. Kinetics of MeOH and EtOH coupling reactions on Cu/ZnO and K-Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts indicate that Cu promotes alcohol dehydrogenation. Acetaldehyde is a reactive intermediate. High-pressure isobutanol synthesis studies have been carried out on K- and Cs-promoted Cu/MgO/CeO{sub 2} catalysts. The K promoter is more active than Cs for CO conversion, but the Cs promoter activates the C{sub 1} to C{sub 2} step more effectively. Catalysts with high alkali loading resulted in low conversions. Temperature programmed surface reaction studies of MeOH, EtOH, and acetaldehyde on MgO/CeO{sub 2}-based Cu catalysts show evolution of acetone, crotonaldehyde, methyl ethyl ketone, H2, carbon oxides. Neither EtOH nor acetaldehyde produces propionaldehyde or 1- propanol, suggesting that these C{sub 3} species can only form via reactions involving C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} oxygenate species.

NONE

1996-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

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301

Methanol and methyl fuel catalysts. Final technical report, September 1978-August 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Cu/ZnO methanol synthesis catalysts were investigated for (1) the role of additives such as alumina, ceria, and lanthana, (2) the effect of carbon dioxide in the H/sub 2//CO synthesis gas, (3) the chemisorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide on the catalysts, and (4) the chemical poisoning of the catalysts by sulfur- and chlorine-containing compounds. Maximum activity and selectivity were obtained with a binary catalyst having a composition of Cu/ZnO = 30/70 metal atomic percent and with a synthesis gas of H/sub 2//CO/CO/sub 2/ = 70/28/2 volume percent in the absence of strongly reducing or strongly oxidizing chemical poisons. Both the binary and the ternary catalysts were fully characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction, electron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and surface area-pore distribution measurements. Structural and morphologic information is presented in this report in detail for very active Cu/ZnO/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts prepared from acetates and for other catalysts in which the third component caused a loss of activity.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1980-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

The mechanical properties of Zircaloy-2 after exposure to iodine-methanol solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An investigation is described into the changes in mechanical properties of Zircaloy-2 after corrosion in boiling iodinemethanol solutions. As-received specimens, 0.7 mm thick, corroded rapidly in the boiling solution (0.25 g of iodine/litre of methanol); for preoxidised specimens the presence of an intact oxide film inhibited corrosive attack in direct proportion to the oxide thickness. Preoxidised specimens showed reduced corrosion resistance after prestraining 2.0 0.25% before corrosion. Tensile tests at room temperature indicated that when the corrosion weight loss exceeded 7 mg/dm2, the strength and uniform ductility became adversely effected. Such changes were associated with extensive intergranular attack in as-received specimens or with localized intergranular attack below cracks in the oxide in preoxidised specimens. The final failure was always by a transgranular ductile tearing process. Thus above 7 mg/dm2 weight loss, corresponding to a maximum of 70 ?m intergranular penetration, the fall in strength was due to the loss of load-bearing section in this specimen geometry and section thickness.

R.D. Nicholson

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Economic analysis of coal-based polygeneration system for methanol and power production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polygeneration system for chemical and power co-production has been regarded as one of promising technologies to use fossil fuel more efficiently and cleanly. In this paper the thermodynamic and economic performances of three types of coal-based polygeneration system were investigated and the influence of energy saving of oxygenation systems on system economic performance was revealed. The primary cost saving ratio (PCS) is presented as a criterion, which represents the cost saving of polygeneration system compared with the single-product systems with the same products outputs, to evaluate economic advantages of polygeneration system. As a result, the system, adopting un-reacted syngas partly recycled to the methanol synthesis reactor and without the shift process, can get the optimal PCS of 11.8%, which results from the trade-off between the installed capital cost saving and the energy saving effects on the cost saving, and represents the optimal coupling relationship among chemical conversion, energy utilization and economic performance. And both of fuel price and the level of equipment capital cost affect on PCS faintly. This paper provides an evaluation method for polygeneration systems based on both technical and economic viewpoints.

Hu Lin; Hongguang Jin; Lin Gao; Wei Han

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Dynamic Cu/Zn Interaction in SiO2 Supported Methanol Synthesis Catalysts Unraveled by in Situ XAFS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fujitani et al.(15) already observed that formation of an intimately mixed Cu/Zn/carbonate aurichalcite phase during the preparation stage enhanced the creation of a CuZn alloy, which they identified as the main active site in methanol synthesis after calcination and reduction. ... method through a precursor of aurichalcite is ascribed to both improvements in the Cu surface area and the specific activity. ...

Didier Grandjean; Vladimir Pelipenko; Erdni D. Batyrev; Johannes C. van den Heuvel; Alexander A. Khassin; Tamara. M. Yurieva; Bert M. Weckhuysen

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

HRX-SAFT Equation of State for Fluid Mixtures:? Application to Binary Mixtures of Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Methanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

HRX-SAFT Equation of State for Fluid Mixtures:? Application to Binary Mixtures of Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Methanol ... In this work, we extend the pure fluid crossover statistical associating fluid theory (HRX-SAFT) equation of state (EOS) (Kiselev et al., Fluid Phase Equilib. ... HRX-SAFT incorporates non-analytic scaling laws in the critical region and is transformed into the analytical, classical HR-SAFT EOS far away from the critical point. ...

S. B. Kiselev; J. F. Ely; S. P. Tan; H. Adidharma; M. Radosz

2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

306

Synthesis of biodiesel from vegetable oils wastewater sludge by in-situ subcritical methanol transesterification: Process evaluation and optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biodiesel are gaining increased public and scientific attention as an alternative to petroleum diesel fuel, driven by factors such as oil price spikes, energy security and environmental concerns. In this study, low grade wastewater sludge originated from wastewater treatment unit of vegetable oil factory as a viable alternative lipid source for biodiesel production was evaluated. The lipid mass fraction of the dry and ash-free sludge was 12.440.87%, which mainly comprised of C16C18 fatty acids. The in-situ transesterification process under subcritical water and methanol conditions was applied as a green pathway to convert lipids into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The reaction parameters investigated were temperatures (155215C), pressures (5.56.5MPa) and methanol to lipid mass ratios (1:1, 5:1 and 9:1). The highest FAME yield of 92.673.23% was obtained at 215C, 6.5MPa and methanol to lipid mass ratio of 5:1. Statistical analysis based on response surface methodology in 3-factor-3-level central composite designed experiments and analysis of variance were applied to examine the relation between input parameters and the response and to locate the optimum condition. Results showed that 98% of the variability in the response could be adequately explained by the second-order polynomial model. The optimum FAME yield (90.37%) was obtained at 215C, 6.5MPa and methanol to lipid mass ratio of 5.12:1. Experimental validation (N=3) demonstrated satisfactory agreement between the observed and predicted values with an error of at most 3.3%.

Farrel Gunawan; Alfin Kurniawan; Iwan Gunawan; Yi-Hsu Ju; Aning Ayucitra; Felycia E. Soetaredjo; Suryadi Ismadji

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Promoting effect of polyoxyethylene octylphenol ether on Cu/ZnO catalysts for low-temperature methanol synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cu/ZnO catalysts were prepared by the co-precipitation method with the addition of OP-10 (polyoxyethylene octylphenol ether) and were chemically and structurally characterized by means of XRD, BET, H2-TPR, CO-TPD and N2O-titration. The effect of OP-10 addition on the activity of Cu/ZnO for the slurry phase methanol synthesis at 150 C was evaluated. The results showed that Cu/ZnO prepared with addition of 8% OP-10 (denoted as C8) exhibited the promoted activity for the methanol synthesis. The conversion of CO and the STY (space time yield) of methanol were 42.5% and 74.6% higher than those of Cu/ZnO prepared without addition of OP-10 (denoted as C0), respectively. The precursor of C8 contained more aurichalcite and rosasite, and the concerted effect of Cu-Zn in C8 was found to be stronger than that in C0. Compared with C0, C8 showed smaller particle size, lower reduction temperature and larger BET and Cu surface areas.

Ling Liu; Tiansheng Zhao; Qingxiang Ma; Yufang Shen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Combustion and emission characteristics of a turbocharged diesel engine using high premixed ratio of methanol and diesel fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel diesel engine with high premixed ratio of methanol (PRm) were investigated. Experiments were performed on a 6-cylinder turbocharged, inter-cooling diesel engine. Methanol was injected through the intake port and ignited by direct injected diesel in the cylinder, the maximum \\{PRm\\} was over 70%. The experimental results showed that with high PRm, the maximum in-cylinder pressure increased from medium to high engine load but varied little or even decreased at low engine speed and load. High \\{PRm\\} prolonged the ignition delay but shortened the combustion duration and decreased the in-cylinder gas temperature at ignition timing. Hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde emissions and the proportion of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in nitrogen oxides (NOX) increased significantly with the increase of \\{PRm\\} while NOX and dry soot emissions were significantly reduced, which meant the trade-off relationship between NOX and soot emissions disappeared. The increased HC, CO and formaldehyde emissions could be effectively reduced by diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) when the exhaust gas temperature reached the light off temperature of the DOC. After DOC, the NO2 proportion in NOX was greatly reduced to less than that of baseline engine at methanol premixed mode but increased slightly at pure diesel mode. The maximum \\{PRm\\} was confined by in-cylinder pressure at high engine speed and load. But at low engine speed and load, it was confined by the high emissions of HC, CO and formaldehyde even after DOC.

Lijiang Wei; Chunde Yao; Quangang Wang; Wang Pan; Guopeng Han

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Mechanism of methanol synthesis on Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(100) surfaces: Comparative dipped adcluster model study  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} on Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(100) surfaces was studied using the dipped adcluster model (DAM) combined with ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and second-order Moeller-Plesset (MP2) calculations. On clean Cu(100) surface, calculations show that five successive hydrogenations are involved in the hydrogenation of adsorbed CO{sub 2} to methanol, and the intermediates are formate, dioxomethylene, formaldehyde, and methoxy. The rate-limiting step is the hydrogenation of formate to formaldehyde, and the Cu-Cu site is responsible for the reaction on Cu(100). The roles of Zn on Zn/Cu(100) catalyst are to modify the rate-limiting step of the reaction: to lower the activation energies of this step and to stabilize the dioxomethylene intermediate at the Cu-Zn site. The present comparative results indicate that the Cu-Zn site is the active site, which cooperates with the Cu-Cu site to catalyze methanol synthesis on a Cu-based catalyst. Electron transfer from surface to adsorbates is the most important factor in affecting the reactivity of these surface catalysts.

Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Hu, Zhenming

2000-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

310

Successful scale-up of the fluid-bed methanol to gasoline (MTG) process to 100 BPD demonstration plant  

SciTech Connect

The 100 BPD fluid-bed methanol to gasoline (MTG) demonstration plant operation has exceeded the original process objectives. Specifically, the results show: stable unit operation is achieved with excellent gas/catalyst mixing resulting in complete methanol conversion; bed temperature control is readily accomplished although the process is highly exothemic; catalyst attrition is low, which confirms the mechanical strength of the catalyst; the small make-up used for activity control at normal conditions exceeds the low attrition rate; process parameters can be varied to obtain the desired gasoline yield and quality; and engineering design parameters have been confirmed at the pilot plant stage and scale-up to a commercial-size MTG fluid-bed system is now deemed feasible. The results obtained gave a broad basis for the conceptual design of a coal based commercial size plant for the production of MTG gasoline. This study is presently in preparation and will be completed by the middle of 1985. The conceptual design will be based on a 2500 tonnes/day methanol feeding a single fluid-bed. Six trains will be used for a maximum plant capacity of 15,000 tonnes/day. 12 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Gierlich, H.H.; Keim, K.H.; Thiagarajan, N.; Nitschke, E.; Kam, A.Y.; Daviduk, N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

The effect of acid strength on the MTO reaction : Conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons over H-SAPO-34 and high silica Chabazite (H-SSZ-13).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process for the production of polymer-grade olefins is a possible step in the upgrading of natural gas. The preferred MTO catalyst is (more)

Bleken, Francesca

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Catalytic dehydromethylation of methylcyclohexane and the simultaneous transformation of fractions of straight-run gasoline and methanol with modified forms of mordenite and pentasil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results are presented from studies of the dehydromethylation (DHM) of methylcyclohexane (MCH) and the simultaneous transformation of straight-run gasoline fractions and methanol on modified forms of...2, CO2). Hi...

Kh. M. Alimardanov; F. M. Velieva; S. I. Abasov; N. M. Ragimova

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

PdZnAl Catalysts for the Reactions of Water-Gas-Shift, Methanol Steam Reforming, and Reverse-Water-Gas-Shift  

SciTech Connect

Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were studied for water-gas-shift (WGS), methanol steam reforming, and reverse-water-gas-shift (RWGS) reactions. WGS activity was found to be dependent on the Pd:Zn ratio with a maximum activity obtained at approximately 0.50, which was comparable to that of a commercial Pt-based catalyst. The catalyst stability was demonstrated for 100 hours time-on-stream at a temperature of 3600C without evidence of metal sintering. WGS reaction rates were approximately 1st order with respect to CO concentration, and kinetic parameters were determined to be Ea = 58.3 kJ mol-1 and k0 = 6.1x107 min-1. During methanol steam reforming, the CO selectivities were observed to be lower than the calculated equilibrium values over a range of temperatures and steam/carbon ratios studied while the reaction rate constants were approximately of the same magnitude for both WGS and methanol steam reforming. These results indicate that although Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 are active WGS catalysts, WGS is not involved in methanol steam reforming. RWGS rate constants are on the order of about 20 times lower than that of methanol steam reforming, suggesting that RWGS reaction could be one of the sources for small amount of CO formation in methanol steam reforming.

Dagle, Robert A.; Platon, Alexandru; Datye, Abhaya K.; Vohs, John M.; Wang, Yong; Palo, Daniel R.

2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

314

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process  

SciTech Connect

he Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOEP Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. The LPMEOHW Demonstration Facility completed its first year of operation on 02 April 1998. The LPMEOW Demonstration Facility also completed the longest continuous operating run (65 days) on 21 April 1998. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laboratory autoclave), was monitored throughout the reporting period. During a six-week test at a reactor temperature of 225oC and Balanced Gas flowrate of 700 KSCFH, the rate of decline in catalyst activity was steady at 0.29-0.36% per day. During a second one-month test at a reactor temperature of 220oC and a Balanced Gas flowrate of 550-600 KSCFH, the rate of decline in catalyst activity was 0.4% per day, which matched the pefiorrnance at 225"C, as well as the 4-month proof-of-concept run at the LaPorte AFDU in 1988/89. Beginning on 08 May 1998, the LPMEOW Reactor temperature was increased to 235oC, which was the operating temperature tier the December 1997 restart with the fresh charge of catalyst (50'Yo of design loading). The flowrate of the primary syngas feed stream (Balanced Gas) was also increased to 700-750 KSCFH. During two stable operating periods between 08 May and 09 June 1998, the average catalyst deactivation rate was 0.8% per day. Due to the scatter of the statistical analysis of the results, this test was extended to better quanti& the catalyst aging behavior. During the reporting perio~ two batches of fresh catalyst were activated and transferred to the reactor (on 02 April and 20 June 1998). The weight of catalyst in the LPMEOW Reactor has reached 80% of the design value. At the end of the reporting period, a step-change in the pressure-drop profile within the LPMEOW Reactor and an increase in the pressure of the steam system which provides cooling to the LPMEOW Reactor were observed. No change in the calculated activity of the catalyst was detected during either of these transients. These parameters will be monitored closely for any additional changes.

None

1998-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

315

Investigation of MEA degradation in a passive direct methanol fuel cell under different modes of operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) durability tests were conducted in three different operational modes: continuous operation with constant load (LT1), onoff operation with constant load (LT2) and onoff operation with variable load (LT3). Porous carbon nanofiber (CNF) anode layers were employed in three sets of single passive DMFCs; each membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was run continuously in durability testing for 3000h. The objective of this study is to investigate the degradation mechanisms in an MEA with a porous CNF anode layer under different modes of operation. The polarization curves of single passive \\{DMFCs\\} before and after durability tests were compared. The degradation of DMFC performance under the cyclic LT1 mode was much more severe than that of LT2 and LT3 operation. The loss of maximum power density after degradation tests was 49.5%, 28.4% and 43.7% for LT1, LT2 and LT3, respectively. TEM, SEM and EDS mapping were used to investigate the causes of degradation. The lower power loss for LT2 was mainly attributed to the reversible degradation caused by poor water discharge, which thus reduced the air supply. Catalyst agglomeration was especially observed in LT1 and LT3 and is related to carbon corrosion due to possible fuel starvation. The loss of active catalyst area was a major cause of performance degradation in LT1 and LT3. In addition to this, the dissolution and migration of Ru catalyst from the anode to cathode was identified and correlated with degraded cell performance. In the DMFC, the carbon nanofiber anode catalyst support exhibited higher performance stability with less catalyst agglomeration than the cathode catalyst support, carbon black. This study helps understand and elucidate the failure mechanism of MEAs, which could thus help to increase the lifetime of DMFCs.

A.M. Zainoodin; S.K. Kamarudin; M.S. Masdar; W.R.W. Daud; A.B. Mohamad; J. Sahari

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons (Biomimetic catalysis of the conversion of methane to methanol). Final report  

SciTech Connect

In addition to inorganic catalysts that react with methane, it is well-known that a select group of aerobic soil/water bacteria called methanotrophs can efficiently and selectively utilize methane as the sole source of their energy and carbon for cellular growth. The first reaction in this metabolic pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) forming methanol. Methanol is a technology important product from this partial oxidation of methane since it can be easily converted to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels (gasoline), used directly as a liquid fuel or fuel additive itself, or serve as a feedstock for chemicals production. This naturally occurring biocatalyst (MMO) is accomplishing a technologically important transformation (methane directly to methanol) for which there is currently no analogous chemical (non-biological) process. The authors approach has been to use the biocatalyst, MMO, as the initial focus in the development of discrete chemical catalysts (biomimetic complexes) for methane conversion. The advantage of this approach is that it exploits a biocatalytic system already performing a desired transformation of methane. In addition, this approach generated needed new experimental information on catalyst structure and function in order to develop new catalysts rationally and systematically. The first task is a comparative mechanistic, biochemical, and spectroscopic investigation of MMO enzyme systems. This work was directed at developing a description of the structure and function of the catalytically active sites in sufficient detail to generate a biomimetic material. The second task involves the synthesis, characterization, and chemical reactions of discrete complexes that mimic the enzymatic active site. These complexes were synthesized based on their best current understanding of the MMO active site structure.

Watkins, B.E.; Taylor, R.T.; Satcher, J.H. [and others

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

UHV and electrochemical studies of CO and methanol adsorbed at platinum/ruthenium surfaces, and reference to fuel cell catalysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reviews surface chemistry of carbon monoxide and methanol in ultra high vacuum (UHV) and in the electrochemical environment on clean and Ru modified Pt single crystal surfaces, and on Pt and Pt/Ru nanoparticles. The results show that CO behaves very similarly in UHV and in the electrochemical environment. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and radioactive labeling all show similar behavior in terms of numbers of peaks, peak splitting etc. Both UHV and CV measurements show that there is about a 200-meV change in the potential for CO removal in the presence of ruthenium. Earlier 13C EC-NMR data indicated a 30% reduction in the Ef-LDOS of CO bound to Ru islands deposited on platinum, and 15% of CO bound to Pt sites, and TPD and CV also show that the binding of CO is modified. The present data confirm that Pt atoms away from Ru are only weakly affected, and the overall CO binding energy modification is quite moderate. We conclude that the changes in the CO binding energy only play a small role in enhancing methanol electrooxidation rates. Instead, the main effect of the ruthenium is to activate water to form OH. Quantitative estimates of the reduction in CO desorption barrier indicate that the effect of bifunctional mechanism is about four times larger than that of ligand effect. In contrast to the results for CO, methanol behaves quite differently in UHV and in an electrochemical environment. Pt(111) is unreactive at room temperature in UHV, while Pt(110) is quite reactive. Initially, clean Pt(111) is less reactive than clean Pt(110) even in the electrochemical environment. However, Pt(110) is quickly poisoned in the electrochemical environment, so at steady state, Pt(111) is more reactive than Pt(110). Another issue is that the mechanism of methanol decomposition is quite different in UHV and in the electrochemical environment. There are three pathways in UHV, a simple decomposition via a methoxonium (CH3O?(ad)) intermediate, an SN1 pathway via a methoxonium cation ([CH3OH2]+), and an SN2 pathway via a methoxonium intermediate. So far, none of these pathways have been observed in an electrochemical environment. Instead, the decomposition goes mainly through a hydroxymethyl (?CH2OH(ad)) intermediate. These results show that there are both similarities and differences in the behavior of simple molecules in UHV and in the electrochemical environment.

P. Waszczuk; G.-Q. Lu; A. Wieckowski; C. Lu; C. Rice; R.I. Masel

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The First Fixed-Bed Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Plant: Design and Scale-Up Considerations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The first commercial application of the Mobil Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) process is now in operation for over a year in the Gas-to-Gasoline (GTG) Complex in New Zealand. The unique catalyst and reaction mechanism impose important design constraints. The paper discusses the scale-up considerations in the design of the fixed-bed reactor system. Design philosophy and selection of equipment to meet the stipulated process and operating objectives are reviewed. Such unique designs for this plant's effluent heat exchanger and the utilization of computer dynamic simulation for design control will be highlighted.

D.E. Krohn; M.G. Melconian

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion  

SciTech Connect

We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

320

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Development of vanadium-phosphate catalysts for methanol production by selective oxidation of methane. Quarterly technical progress report 10, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This document is the tenth quarterly technical progress report under Contract No. DE-AC22-92PC92110 {open_quotes}Development of Vanadium-Phosphate Catalysts for Methanol Production by Selective Oxidation of Methane{close_quotes}. Activities focused on testing of additional modified and promoted catalysts and characterization of these materials. Attempts at improving the sensitivity of our GC based analytical systems were also made with some success. Methanol oxidation studies were initiated. These results are reported. Specific accomplishments include: (1) Methane oxidation testing of a suite of catalysts promoted with most of the first row transition metals was completed. Several of these materials produced low, difficult to quantify yields of formaldehyde. (2) Characterization of these materials by XRD and FTIR was performed with the goal of correlating activity and selectivity with catalyst properties. (3) We began to characterize catalysts prepared via modified synthesis methods designed to enhance acidity using TGA measurements of acetonitrile chemisorption and methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether as a test reaction. (4) A catalyst prepared in the presence of naphthalene methanol as a structural disrupter was tested for activity in methane oxidation. It was found that this material produced low yields of formaldehyde which were difficult to quantify. (5) Preparation of catalysts with no Bronsted acid sites. This was accomplished by replacement of exchangeable protons with potassium, and (6) Methanol oxidation studies were initiated to provide an indication of catalyst activity for decomposition of this desired product and as a method of characterizing the catalyst surface.

McCormick, R.L.

1995-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

322

Long-term methanol vehicle test program. Final subcontract report, 1 November 1992--1 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

Work was sperformed to determine effects of methanol fuel on engine performance and exhaust emissions during long-term use in a 1988 Chevrolet Corsica. Engine wear, gasket performance, fuel economy, emissions level, oil consumption, and overall vehicle performance were monitored over 22,000 miles. Baselines were established at the beginning for comparison: engine was disassembled, bearing/ring clearances and cam profiles were measured. Higher flow rate fuel injectors from AC Rochester were installed and the computer system calibrated for M100 fuel. The vehicle durability test increased oil consumption by 26% under cold-start conditions, 9% under hot start. Oil consumption under hot start was higher than under cold start by as much as 56%; effect of component temperatures on oil viscosity appears to be the cause. It is recommended that oil consumption of a gasoline-fueled vehicle be measured in order to normalize the effect of methanol operation on oil consumption, and to study the effect of steady-state and transient conditions on oil consumption.

Jones, J.C.; Maxwell, T.T.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Remarkable Improvement in Hydrogen Recovery and Reaction Efficiency of a Methanol Reforming?Membrane Reactor by Using a Novel Knudsen Membrane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we employed a methanol reforming?mesoporous membrane reactor combined with water gas shift reaction to achieve three important aims simultaneously:? methanol conversion improvement, high hydrogen recovery, and CO elimination. ... Colloidal silica sol of 100 nm in particle size was synthesized from base-catalyzed hydrolysis?condensation reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) purchased from Aldrich. ... The feed side of the membrane was pressurized by pure hydrogen or nitrogen, while the permeate side of the membrane was under atmospheric pressure without a sweeping gas. ...

Dong-Wook Lee; Sang-Jun Park; Chang-Yeol Yu; Son-Ki Ihm; Kew-Ho Lee

2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

324

A kinetic study of methanol synthesis in a slurry reactor using a CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the CuO/ZnO, CuO/ZnO/Cr203 and CuO/ZnO/A1203 catalysts, other catalysts are being investigated for practical use. Maj et al. (1985) prepared and characterized ?Th02 snd NH4-Th02 catalysts for methanol production that produced CO conversions of 3'/o.../Thx were reported to demonstrate activity towards methanol synthesis. Recently, Stiles et al. (1991) prepared a catalyst system (~Zn/Co/Cr/(K+Cs) = 4/3/1/0. 028/(15 wt. '/o+4. 0 wt '/o)) with high activity for producing higher alcohols. 1. 2 Objectives...

Al-Adwani, Hamad Abdulwahab

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment Demonstration - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Todd Ramsden National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401 Phone: (303) 275-3704 Email: todd.ramsden@nrel.gov DOE Manager HQ: Peter Devlin Phone: (202) 586-4905 Email: Peter.Devlin@ee.doe.gov Subcontractor: Oorja Protonics, Inc., Fremont, CA Project Start Date: June 1, 2010 Project End Date: March 31, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Operate and maintain fuel-cell-powered material * handling equipment (MHE) using direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) technology. Compile operational data of DMFCs and validate their * performance under real-world operating conditions. Provide an independent technology assessment that * focuses on DMFC system performance, operation, and

326

Methanol Synthesis over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3: The Active Site in Industrial Catalysis  

SciTech Connect

Unlike homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts that have been optimized through decades are typically so complex and hard to characterize that the nature of the catalytically active site is not known. This is one of the main stumbling blocks in developing rational catalyst design strategies in heterogeneous catalysis. We show here how to identify the crucial atomic structure motif for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. Using a combination of experimental evidence from bulk-, surface-sensitive and imaging methods collected on real high-performance catalytic systems in combination with DFT calculations. We show that the active site consists of Cu steps peppered with Zn atoms, all stabilized by a series of well defined bulk defects and surface species that need jointly to be present for the system to work.

Behrens, Malte

2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

327

An Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen Production via High-Temperature Electrolysis Using the Sodium Cooled Advanced Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Integration of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast spectrum reactor into nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) architectures is the focus of the present study. A techno-economic evaluation of several conceptual system designs was performed for the integration of a sodium-cooled Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) with the electric grid in conjunction with wind-generated electricity. Cases in which excess thermal and electrical energy would be reapportioned within an integrated energy system to a chemical plant are presented. The process applications evaluated include hydrogen production via high temperature steam electrolysis and methanol production via steam methane reforming to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen which feed a methanol synthesis reactor. Three power cycles were considered for integration with the AFR, including subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles and a modified supercritical carbon dioxide modified Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiencies of all of the modeled power conversions units were greater than 40%. A thermal efficiency of 42% was adopted in economic studies because two of the cycles either performed at that level or could potentially do so (subcritical Rankine and S-CO2 Brayton). Each of the evaluated hybrid architectures would be technically feasible but would demonstrate a different internal rate of return (IRR) as a function of multiple parameters; all evaluated configurations showed a positive IRR. As expected, integration of an AFR with a chemical plant increases the IRR when must-take wind-generated electricity is added to the energy system. Additional dynamic system analyses are recommended to draw detailed conclusions on the feasibility and economic benefits associated with AFR-hybrid energy system operation.

Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Wesley R. Deason; Michael G. McKellar

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Utilization of coal mine methane for methanol and SCP production. Topical report, May 5, 1995--March 4, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of utilizing a biological process to reduce methane emissions from coal mines and to produce valuable single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol as a product has been demonstrated. The quantities of coal mine methane from vent gas, gob wells, premining wells and abandoned mines have been determined in order to define the potential for utilizing mine gases as a resource. It is estimated that 300 MMCFD of methane is produced in the United States at a typical concentration of 0.2-0.6 percent in ventilation air. Of this total, almost 20 percent is produced from the four Jim Walter Resources (JWR) mines, which are located in very gassy coal seams. Worldwide vent gas production is estimated at 1 BCFD. Gob gas methane production in the U.S. is estimated to be 38 MMCFD. Very little gob gas is produced outside the U.S. In addition, it is estimated that abandoned mines may generate as much as 90 MMCFD of methane. In order to make a significant impact on coal mine methane emissions, technology which is able to utilize dilute vent gases as a resource must be developed. Purification of the methane from the vent gases would be very expensive and impractical. Therefore, the process application must be able to use a dilute methane stream. Biological conversion of this dilute methane (as well as the more concentrated gob gases) to produce single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol has been demonstrated in the Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) laboratories. SCP is used as an animal feed supplement, which commands a high price, about $0.11 per pound.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol?Diesel Fuel Blends at Different Injection Timings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol?Diesel Fuel Blends at Different Injection Timings ... Because of their fuel economy and high reliability, compression-ignition (CI) engines known as diesel engines have been penetrating a number of markets around the world. ...

Mustafa Canakci; Cenk Sayin; Metin Gumus

2008-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

331

Investigation on the Effect of Port-Injected Methanol on the Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine at Different Engine Speeds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation on the Effect of Port-Injected Methanol on the Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine at Different Engine Speeds ... Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China ... State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China ...

C. S. Cheung; Z. H. Zhang; T. L. Chan; Chunde Yao

2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

332

First-Principles Study on the Origin of the Different Selectivities for Methanol Steam Reforming on Cu(111) and Pd(111)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and the final products are dominated by carbon dioxide and hydrogen. On Pd(111), formaldehyde is also found is considered as a promising alternative because of its high hydrogen to carbon ratio, no carbon-carbon bond, and easy storage and handling requirements.4,5 Hydrogen production from methanol can be performed by three

Li, Weixue

333

Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process  

SciTech Connect

Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Hydrogen production from methanol decomposition over Pt/Al2O3 and ceria promoted Pt/Al2O3 catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rights reserved. Keywords: Methanol decomposition; Pt/alumina; Ceria; Hydrogen; PEM fuel cell 1 exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cell system. PEM fuel cells convert hydrogen gas into useful electric power is seen as an attractive means of providing the necessary hydrogen to the fuel cell. With the exception

Gulari, Erdogan

335

Selective production of hydrogen for fuel cells via oxidative steam reforming of methanol over CuZnAl(Zr)-oxide catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cell powered vehicles using hydrogen (H2) as a fuel are currently being developed in an effort to mitigate the emissions of green house gases such as CO2, NOx, and hydrocarbons. The H2 fuel is extracted from methanol onboard a vehicle by steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reaction. A considerable amount of CO is produced as a by-product, which is a poison to the Pt anode of the fuel cell. Very recently, we have demonstrated that a combined SRM and partial oxidation of methanol (POM), which we labeled as oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM) reaction is more efficient for the selective production of H2 relatively at a lower temperature of around 230C over CuZnAl(Zr)-oxide catalysts derived from hydroxycarbonate precursors containing hydrotalcite (HT)-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs)/aurichalcite phases. There are several operating parameters such as catalyst composition, reaction temperature, O2/CH3OH and H2O/CH3OH molar ratios and methanol injection rate that are need to be optimized in order to produce H2 suitable for fuelling a fuel cell. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of these variable parameters on the catalytic performance over a series of CuZnAl- and CuZnAlZr-oxide catalysts. Our study indicated that among the CuZn-based catalysts, those containing Zr were the most active. The optimum O2/CH3OH and H2O/CH3OH molar ratios should be in the ranges 0.200.30 and 1.31.6, respectively, in order to achieve a better catalytic performance. Studies of the effect of methanol contact time on the catalytic performance over a Zr-containing catalyst revealed that the OSRM reaction proceeds through the formation of formaldehyde intermediate. CO was produced as a secondary product by the decomposition of formaldehyde and it is subsequently transformed into CO2 and H2 by the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction.

S Velu; K Suzuki; M.P Kapoor; F Ohashi; T Osaki

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Influence of preparation methods and Zr and Y promoters on Cu/ZnO catalysts used for methanol steam reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Binary Cu/ZnO catalysts were prepared using three different methods (coprecipitation, sequential precipitation and homogeneous precipitation) and tested in a methanol steam reforming reaction. Zirconium and yttrium were tested as promoters, and their effects were evaluated in the same reaction. The studied preparation methods influenced the surface area of the Cu-based catalysts and consequently their catalytic activity; however, we verified that surface area was not the only factor influencing activity. Different structural changes in the aurichalcite precursor resulted from the different preparation methods used, and these differences were also observed in the reduced catalysts. An expansion of the Cu lattice with an increase in microstrain were identified and attributed to the formation of a CuZn alloy. Based on the correlation found between these structural changes and the catalytic activity, the CuZn alloy was proposed as active site. We concluded that the preparation methods used influenced Cu dispersion and overall catalyst structure, and CuZn alloy formation resulted from the incorporation of Zn atoms into the Cu lattice. This influence was more pronounced in the catalysts prepared by homogeneous precipitation and coprecipitation. The yttrium promoter did not provide textural or structural advantages. In contrast, the incorporation of Zr promoted both greater Cu dispersion and structural changes in the Cu lattice.

S.G. Sanches; J. Huertas Flores; R.R. de Avillez; M.I. Pais da Silva

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Role of Pyridine as a Biomimetic Organo-Hydride for Homogeneous Reduction of CO2 to Methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use quantum chemical calculations to elucidate a viable homogeneous mechanism for pyridine-catalyzed reduction of CO2 to methanol. In the first component of the catalytic cycle, pyridine (Py) undergoes a H+ transfer (PT) to form pyridinium (PyH+) followed by an e- transfer (ET) to produce pyridinium radical (PyH0). Examples of systems to effect this ET to populate the LUMO of PyH+(E0calc ~ -1.3V vs. SCE) to form the solution phase PyH0 via highly reducing electrons include the photo-electrochemical p-GaP system (ECBM ~ -1.5V vs. SCE at pH= 5) and the photochemical [Ru(phen)3]2+/ascorbate system. We predict that PyH0 undergoes further PT-ET steps to form the key closed-shell, dearomatized 1,2-dihydropyridine (PyH2) species. Our proposed sequential PT-ET-PT-ET mechanism transforming Py into PyH2 is consistent with the mechanism described in the formation of related dihydropyridines. Because it is driven by its proclivity to regain aromaticity, PyH2 is a potent recyclable organo-hydride donor that mimics the ...

Lim, Chern-Hooi; Hynes, James T; Musgrave, Charles B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Development of a silicon-based passive gas-liquid separation system for microscale direct methanol fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design, fabrication and performance characterisation of a passive gas-liquid separation system is presented in this paper. The gas-liquid separation system is silicon-based and its fabrication is compatible with the existing CMU design of the microscale direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Both gas and liquid separators consist of staggered arrays of etched-through holes fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The gas separator is coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic polymer to substantiate the gas-liquid separation. To visually characterise the system performance, the gas-liquid separation system is made on a single wafer with a glass plate bonded on the top to form a separation chamber with a narrow gap in between. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) is applied for the low-temperature bonding. The maximum pressure for the liquid leakage of the gas separators is experimentally determined and compared with the values predicted theoretically. Several successful gas-liquid separations are observed at liquid pressures between 14.2 cmH2O and 22.7 cmH2O, liquid flow rates between 0.705 cc/min and 1.786 cc/min, and CO2 flow rates between 0.15160 cc/min to 0.20435 cc/min.

C.C. Hsieh; S.C. Yao; Yousef Alyousef

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

CFD analysis of the effects of the flow distribution and heat losses on the steam reforming of methanol in catalytic (Pd/ZnO) microreactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation study of the effects of the flow distribution and the heat losses on the performance of microchannels and microslits reactors for the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) over Pd/ZnO is presented. Several flow distributing headers covering a wide range of the flow diffuser expansion angle (?) have been considered. Large values of ? lead to flow maldistribution characterized by jet flow resulting in negative effects on the SRM conversion and hydrogen yield, especially for the microslits at high reaction temperatures and space velocities. Simulations have also evidenced that heat losses constitute a critical issue for microreactors operation, particularly at low space velocities. Heat losses may reach very high values, above 8090% of the energy supplied to the microreactor, with the consequence that it may be necessary to provide up to 9times the heat of the SRM reaction to achieve high methanol conversions.

I. Uriz; G. Arzamendi; P.M. Diguez; F.J. Echave; O. Sanz; M. Montes; L.M. Ganda

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Effect of Injection Pressure on the Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol-blended Diesel Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Injection Pressure on the Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Methanol-blended Diesel Fuel ... Recently, the use of diesel engines has increased by virtue of their low fuel consumption and high efficiencies. ... Tests on the engine fuelled with diesel only were made, and the performance evaluated to form a basis for comparison for those of ethanol-diesel dual fuelling. ...

Mustafa Canakci; Cenk Sayin; Ahmet Necati Ozsezen; Ali Turkcan

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4/In2O3 Model Catalyst: A Combined DFT and Kinetic Study  

SciTech Connect

Methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on Pd4/In2O3 has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and microkinetic modeling. In this study, three possible routes in the reaction network of CO2 + H2 ? CH3OH + H2O have been examined. Our DFT results show that the HCOO route competes with the RWGS route whereas a high activation barrier kinetically blocks the HCOOH route. DFT results also suggest that H2COO* + H* ? H2CO* +OH* and cis-COOH* + H* ?CO* + H2O* are the rate limiting steps in the HCOO route and the RWGS route, respectively. Microkinetic modeling results demonstrate that the HCOO route is the dominant reaction route for methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation. We found that the activation of H adatom on the small Pd cluster and the presence of H2O on the In2O3 substrate play important roles in promoting the methanol synthesis. The hydroxyl adsorbed at the interface of Pd4/In2O3 induces the transformation of the supported Pd4 cluster from a butterfly structure into a tetrahedron structure. This important structure change not only indicates the dynamical nature of the supported nanoparticle catalyst structure during the reaction but also shifts the final hydrogenation step from H2COH to CH3O.

Ye, Jingyun; Liu, Changjun; Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 9, July 1--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOH{trademark} Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers.

NONE

1997-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

343

Methanol Utilisation Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Around the year 2000, the car manufacturers did not yet know which fuel would be best for which fuel cell for driving a car. Therefore, they experimented with all possible fuels: gaseous hydrogen, liquid hydrogen

Martin Bertau; Hans Jrgen Wernicke

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Effects of diesel injection pressure on the performance and emissions of a HD common-rail diesel engine fueled with diesel/methanol dual fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The diesel/methanol dual fuel (DMDF) combustion mode was conducted on a turbo-charged, inter-cooling diesel engine with 6-cylinder for the heavy duty (HD) vehicle. In DMDF mode, methanol is injected into the intake port to form lean air/methanol premixed mixture, and then ignited by the direct-injected diesel fuel in cylinder. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of diesel injection pressure on the characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions from the engine with common-rail fuel system. The experimental results show that at low injection pressure, the IMEP of DMDF mode is lower than that of pure diesel combustion (D) mode. COVIEMP of DMDF mode firstly decreases and then increases with increasing injection pressure, and it remains under 2.1% for all the tests. It is found that the combustion duration in DMDF mode becomes shorter, the maximum cylinder pressure and the peak heat release rate increase, and CA50 gets close to the top dead center as the injection pressure increases. BSFC of DMDF mode decreases with the increase of injection pressure, and is lower than that of D mode for injection pressure over 115MPa. Both of NOX and smoke emissions are reduced in DMDF mode. But smoke decreases and NOX increases as the diesel injection pressure increases in DMDF mode. DMDF generates lower NO and CO2 emissions, while produces higher HC, CO, andNO2 emissions compared to D mode. As the diesel injection pressure increases, CO and HC emissions are decreased, however, CO2 and NO2 emissions are slightly increased.

Junheng Liu; Anren Yao; Chunde Yao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The effects of zirconia morphology on methanol synthesis from COand H2 over Cu/ZrO2 catalysts: Part I -- Steady-State Studies  

SciTech Connect

The effect of zirconia phase on the activity and selectivityof Cu/ZrO2 for the hydrogenation of CO has been investigated. Relativelypure t-ZrO2 and m-ZrO2 were prepared with high surface areas (~; 145m2/g). Copper was then deposited onto the surface of these materials byeither incipient-wetness impregnation or deposition-precipitation. For afixed Cu surface area, Cu/m-ZrO2 was tenfold more active for methanolsynthesis than Cu/t-ZrO2 from a feed of 3/1 H2/CO at 3.0 MPa andtemperatures between 473 and 523 K. Cu/m-ZrO2 also exhibited a higherselectivity to methanol. Increasing the Cu surface area on m-ZrO2resulted in further improvement in activity with minimal change inselectivity. Methanol productivity increased linearly for both Cu/t-ZrO2and Cu/m-ZrO2 with increasing Cu surface area. The difference in inherentactivity of each phase paralleled the stronger and larger CO adsorptioncapacity of the Cu/m-ZrO2 as quantified by CO-TPD. The higher COadsorption capacity of Cu/m-ZrO2 is attributed to the presence of a highconcentration of anionic vacancies on the surface of m-ZrO2. Suchvacancies expose cus-Zr4+ cations, which act as Lewis acid centers andenhance the Bronsted acidity of adjacent Zr-OH groups. The presence ofcus-Zr4+ sites and adjacent Bronsted acidic Zr-OH groups contributes tothe adsorption of CO as HCOO-Zr groups, which are the initial precursorsto methanol.

Rhodes, Michael J.; Bell, Alexis T.

2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

346

New approach to high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy of polar materials: Studies of water and methanol adsorption on ultrathin MgO(100) films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel approach to the application of high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy to polar materials is demonstrated in this Letter. By using a high-impact-energy beam and an off-specular scattering geometry, losses due to excitation of the adsorbates are observed in the 10004000-cm-1 range with little interference from the intense losses due to multiple surface optical phonons (Fuchs-Kliewer modes). Adsorption of water and methanol on ultrathin MgO(100) films on Mo(100) have been studied using this new approach.

Ming-Cheng Wu; Cesar A. Estrada; D. Wayne Goodman

1991-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

347

FLEX TIME (ALTERNATIVE WORK SCHEDULE) REQUEST EMPLOYEE INFORMATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Hours) Proposed Alternative Work Schedule (Hours) Days On-Site Off-Site On-Site Off-Site Monday Tuesday

Dasgupta, Dipankar

348

NSTX Upgrade TF Flex Joint and TF Bundle Stub  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineer Thomas Willard Digitally signed by Thomas Willard DN: cn=Thomas Willard, o=Engineering, ou=PPPL, email=twillard@pppl.gov, c=US Date: 2011.02.03 11:20:42 -05'00' Ali Zolfaghari Digitally signed by Ali Zolfaghari DN: cn=Ali Zolfaghari, o=PPPL, ou=Engineering, email=azolfagh@pppl. gov, c=US Date: 2011.02.03 11

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

349

Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2B: End Use and Fuel Certification Paul Machiele, Center Director for Fuel Programs, Office of Transportation & Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

350

Flex Fuel Polygeneration: Optimizing Cost, Sustainability, and Resiliency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Energy sources · Energy carriers 2 #12;Initial Analysis of FFPG Systems · Design power plants;Conventional Approaches to Energy Conversion (Coal, Biomass, Wind, Natural Gas, Photons) ( Fuel, Chemicals, Electricity, Biochar, Heat) Energy Source Energy Carrier Energy Carrier Energy Source Energy Carrier 5 #12;The

Daniels, Thomas E.

351

Advancing Plug In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting vss063bazzi2012...

352

Advancing Plug In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation vss063bazzi2011...

353

Preparation of a coprecipitated Cu/ZnO catalyst for the methanol synthesis from CO2 effects of the calcination and reduction conditions on the catalytic performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cu/ZnO catalysts having a Cu:Zn molar ratio of 50:50 were prepared from hydroxycarbonate precursors, such as aurichalcite and zincian-malachite. CuO crystallite size of the calcined catalysts obtained from aurichalcite greatly depended on the heating rate for the calcination. Very small crystallites of CuO were formed at low heating rates. On the other hand, no effect of the heating rate on the CuO crystallites was observed for the catalysts obtained from zincian-malachite. The calcined catalyst containing the very small crystallites of CuO was reduced under various conditions. The catalysts prepared were then subjected to the methanol synthesis from CO2. Activity and selectivity of the catalysts depended on the procedure for the reduction and the reductant. The most active and selective catalyst was obtained by the reduction with methanol at 443K for 17h. It was suggested that the high activity and selectivity resulted from the high dispersion of Cu and the preferential emergence of flat surface Cu sites.

Shin-ichiro Fujita; Shuhei Moribe; Yoshinori Kanamori; Miki Kakudate; Nobutsune Takezawa

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING  

SciTech Connect

Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of {approx}150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

De Buizer, James M. [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian, E-mail: jdebuizer@sofia.usra.edu [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Dark State Illuminated: Infrared Spectrum and Inverted Torsional Structure of the ?11 Out-of-Plane CH3-Rocking Mode of Methanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ?11 out-of-plane CH3-rocking band of methanol, one of the last fundamentals remaining en route to full vibrational description of this prototype internal rotor, has been identified in the Fourier transform spectrum of CH3OH in the 1150 cm-1 region. The ?11 torsional energy pattern is found to be inverted, the first such discovery for a bending state and an important pointer to potential generality of this phenomenon for the whole class of threefold internal rotor molecules. Level-crossing resonances giving transfer channels for intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) have been found, and new insights are reported for far-infrared laser emission involving ?11 levels.

R. M. Lees and Li-Hong Xu

2000-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

356

Photocatalytic hydrogen production from methanol aqueous solution under visible-light using Cu/STiO2 prepared by electroless plating method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cu was loaded on the S-doped TiO2 by electroless plating method. The prepared Cu/STiO2 exhibited high photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation, and the yield is up to 7.5mmolh?1g?1cat in methanol solution. Their physical structure and chemical properties were characterized by UVVis, XRD, XPS and EXAFS. The copper species were CuO and Cu2O, and the sample showed excellent visible light absorption ability. Comparing with the sample prepared by chemical reducing method, the electroless plated copper on STiO2 was highly dispersed, which could facilitate photo-generated charges capture, transfer and separation.

Wenyu Zhang; Shengjun Wang; Jingguo Li; Xiaoyong Yang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Ab initio calculations in heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis: I. Methanol to gasoline with ZSM-5. II. Carbonyl ligand effects on metal-metal bonds  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is composed of two studies in catalysis. The first is an exploration, using computational techniques, of the mechanism for the first carbon-carbon bond formation in the methanol to gasoline (MTG) reaction. The second is a study of the factors important to the understanding of ligand effects on metal-metal bonds, and in particular, to metal clusters. Three possibilities were considered as ways to activate a carbon in the MTG process prior to formation of C2 or higher hydrocarbons. These were a free radical mechanism, a surface ylide mechanism, and a possible defect site which might lead to steric crowding of CH[sub 2] groups. Although the free radical mechanism was found to be thermodynamically within the parameters of the MTG process, it contained a high transition state. Consideration of the molecules available prior to hydrocarbon build-up and their specific electronic structure, led to the view that the available carbon atoms (methanol, dimethyl ether, etc.) were unlikely to be activated by a free radical intermediate. The surface-stabilized ylide which has been proposed as an intermediate by many was studied to determine if in fact the ylide was stabilized. The total energy of the ylide was compared to that of the naked site on the zeolite and free methylene. Free methylene ranged, depending on the geometry of the ylide, between 50 and 80 kcal more stable. These numbers are qualitatively correct, but more electron correlation would have to be incorporated in the calculation to get an accurate value for the destabilization. Starting from a defect site, two CH[sub 2] groups were each attached to two oxygen atoms. It was thought that two CH[sub 2] groups would take up considerably more space than either than original Al atom or the four hydrogens. Molecular Mechanics calculations showed the zeolite to be sufficiently flexible to prevent crowding of the CH[sub 2]'s.

Miller, A.E.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: 6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. 6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. 6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPAR? agonist. This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPAR? whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPAR? agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPAR? agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPAR? in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPAR?-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPAR? agonists.

Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko [Alliance for Research on North Africa (ARENA), University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan) [Alliance for Research on North Africa (ARENA), University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Faculty of Life and Environment, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Neffati, Mohamed [Arid Zone Research Institute (IRA), Mdenine 4119 (Tunisia)] [Arid Zone Research Institute (IRA), Mdenine 4119 (Tunisia); Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro [Nippon Shinyaku CO., LTD., Kyoto 601-8550 (Japan)] [Nippon Shinyaku CO., LTD., Kyoto 601-8550 (Japan); Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nagao, Masaya, E-mail: mnagao@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

359

Determination of the structure of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)1.5(pyrene)2(methanol) and comparison with that of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)pyrene2(ethanol)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed comparison is made of the structures of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)1.5(pyrene)2(methanol) (new determination) and of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)pyrene2(ethanol) (data from the literature).

Herbstein, F.H.

2001-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

360

Steam reforming of methanol on binary CuZnO catalysts: Effects of preparation condition upon precursors, surface structure and catalytic activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Precursors for CuZnO catalysts, with CuZn molar ratios in the range from 1000 to 0100, were prepared by two coprecipitation methods. These methods differ by the addition rate of a mixed Cu(NO3)2Zn(NO3)2 solution to a NaHCO3 solution. Characterisation by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), FT-IR and UV/VIS spectroscopies indicated that the structure of precursors with CuZn ratios in the range of 3070 to 7030 depends greatly upon the addition rate of the mixed solution. Amorphous copper hydroxycarbonate and sodium zinc carbonate were formed prior to the various precursors such as malachite, aurichalcite and hydrozincite. The uZnO catalysts subsequently formed from the precursors showed the activity for steam reforming of methanol to vary with its composition. Based on the results of temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) with N2O and an infrared spectra of CO chemisorption, the TOF of the reaction is proposed to be associated with the surface of metallic Cu.

Guo-Cheng Shen; Shin-ichiro Fujita; Susumu Matsumoto; Nobutsun Takezawa

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

CO Coverage/Oxidation Correlated with PtRu Electroscatalyst Particle Morphology in 0.3 M Methanol by In Situ XAS  

SciTech Connect

In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements, including both X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Pt L{sub 3} and Ru K edges, were carried out on three different carbon-supported PtRu electrocatalysts in an electrochemical cell in 1 M HClO{sub 4} with 0.3 M methanol. The CO and OH adsorbate coverage on Pt and Ru were determined as a function of the applied potential via the novel delta XANES technique, and the particle morphology was determined from the EXAFS and a modeling technique. Both the bifunctional and direct CO oxidation mechanisms, the latter enhanced by electronic ligand effects, were evident for all three electrocatalysts; however, the dominant mechanism depended critically on the particle size and morphology. Both the Ru island size and overall cluster size had a very large effect on the CO oxidation mechanism and activation of water, with the bifunctional mechanism dominating for more monodispersed Ru islands, and the direct surface ligand effect dominating in the presence of larger Ru islands.

Scott,F.; Mukerjee, S.; Ramaker, D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

CO Coverage/Oxidation Correlated with PtRu Electrocatalyst Particle Morphology in 0.3 M Methanol by in situ XAS  

SciTech Connect

In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements, including both X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Pt L{sub 3} and Ru K edges, were carried out on three different carbon-supported PtRu electrocatalysts in an electrochemical cell in 1 M HClO{sub 4} with 0.3 M methanol. The CO and OH adsorbate coverage on Pt and Ru were determined as a function of the applied potential via the novel delta XANES technique, and the particle morphology was determined from the EXAFS and a modeling technique. Both the bifunctional and direct CO oxidation mechanisms, the latter enhanced by electronic ligand effects, were evident for all three electrocatalysts; however, the dominant mechanism depended critically on the particle size and morphology. Both the Ru island size and overall cluster size had a very large effect on the CO oxidation mechanism and activation of water, with the bifunctional mechanism dominating for more monodispersed Ru islands, and the direct surface ligand effect dominating in the presence of larger Ru islands.

Scott, F.; Mukerjee, S; Ramaker, D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Characterization and performance of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts prepared via decomposition of M(Cu, Zn)-ammonia complexes under sub-atmospheric pressure for methanol synthesis from H2 and CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from hydrognation of CO2 is investigated over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by decomposition of M(Cu, Zn)-ammonia complexes (DMAC) at various temperatures. The catalysts were characterized in detail, including X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, N2O chemisorption, temperature-programmed reduction and evolved gas analyses. The influences of DMAC temperature, reaction temperature and specific Cu surface area on catalytic performance are investigated. It is considered that the aurichalcite phase in the precursor plays a key role in improving the physiochemical properties and activities of the final catalysts. The catalyst from rich-aurichalcite precursor exhibits large specific Cu surface area and high space time yield of methanol (212 g/(Lcat h); T = 513 K, p = 3 MPa, SV = 12000 h?1).

Danjun Wang; Jun Zhao; Huanling Song; Lingjun Chou

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Alternative fuels for low emissions and improved performance in CI and heavy duty engines  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: Limited durability of the diesel engine with a dual-fuel system on neat sunflower oil; Analysis and testing of a high-pressure micro-compressor; Spark-assisted alcohol operation in a low heat rejection engine; Combustion improvement of heavy-duty methanol engine by using autoignition system; Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels demonstration project; Vehicle fuel economy -- the Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Safety and occupational hygiene results -- Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Vehicle reliability and maintenance -- Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Flammability tests of alcohol/gasoline vapors; Flame luminosity enhancement of neat methanol fuel by non-aromatic hydrocarbon additives; and more.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 11, January 1--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

During this quarter, the third draft of the Topical Report on Process Economics Studies was issued for review. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing on the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) was made. A liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed, and a decision to proceed with a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) is pending the release of a memo from Air Products on the catalyst targets and corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst. The off-site product-use test plan is to be updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Air Products and Acurex Environmental Corporation continued developing the listing of product-use test participants who are involved in fuel cell, transportation, and stationary power plant applications. Start-up activities (Task 3.1) began during the reporting period, and coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was introduced to the demonstration unit. The recycle compressor was tested successfully on syngas at line pressure of 700 psig, and the reactor loop reached 220 C for carbonyl burnout. Iron carbonyl in the balanced gas feed remained below the 10 ppbv detection limit for all samples but one. Within the reactor loop, iron carbonyl levels peaked out near 200 ppbv after about 40 hours on-stream, before decreasing to between 10--20 ppbv at 160 hours on -stream. Nickel carbonyl measurements reached a peak of about 60 ppbv, and decreased at all sampling locations to below the 10 ppbv detection limit by 70 hours on-stream. Catalyst activation of the nine 2,250 lb batches required for the initial catalyst charge began and concluded. All batches met or slightly exceeded the theoretical maximum uptake of 2.82 SCF of reducing gas/lb catalyst.

NONE

1997-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

366

Methanol tailgas combustor control method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for controlling the power and temperature and fuel source of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to supply heat to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual fuel inlet streams including a first fuel stream, and a second fuel stream of anode effluent from the fuel cell and reformate from the fuel processor. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is determined by regulating the amount of the first and/or second fuel streams and the quantity of the first air flow stream to support fuel processor power requirements.

Hart-Predmore, David J. (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William H. (Rochester, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies: Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Sheetak is developing a thermoelectric-based solid state cooling system to replace typical air conditioners that use vapor compression to cool air. With noisy mechanical components, vapor compression systems use a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. With no noisy moving parts or polluting refrigerants, thermoelectric systems rely on an electrical current being passed through the junction of the two different conducting materials to change temperature. Using advanced semiconductor technology, Sheetak is improving solid state cooling systems by using proprietary thermoelectric materials along with other innovations to achieve significant energy efficiency. Sheetaks new design displaces compressor-based technology; improves reliability; and decreases energy usage. Sheetaks use of semiconductor manufacturing methods leads to less material usefacilitating cheaper production.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

EnviroDB: Applied Database Systems Design for the National Environmental Assessment Toolkit (NEAT)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC), particulates (PM), air velocity (AIR_VEL), light levels at 3 locations (LGH), and a photometric camera that analyzes brightness/contrast and glare. The sensor outputs are recorded...

Kim, S. H.; Srivastava, V.; Aziz, A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Immunization Consent for Persons Under 18 (please fill in blanks neatly)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Hoarseness; sore, red or itchy eyes; cough, fever, aches. PNEUMONIA VACCINE ADVERSE REACTIONS: redness

Singh, Jaswinder Pal

370

Evaluation and Comparison of Test Methods to Measure the Oxidation Stability of Neat Biodiesel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to compare and evaluate several candidate test methods for evaluating oxidation stability of biodiesel.

Westbrook, S. R.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Optimizations of an Application-Level Protocol for Enhanced Dependability in FlexRay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

manufacturers and Tier1 (automotive electronics) suppliers. It supports up to 10 Mb/s communication speed] is an automotive standard for high-speed and reliable communication that is being widely deployed for next based on an experimental vehicle designed at General Motors. I. Introduction In future automotive

Seshia, Sanjit A.

372

FlexSplit: A Workload-Aware, Adaptive Load Balancing Strategy for Media Cluster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hewlett-Packard Laboratories 1501 Page Mill Road Palo Alto, CA 94303 lucy.cherkasova@hp.com Evgenia Smirni and medium videos (2 min-15 min), and the encoding bit rates, targeting the current Internet population

Smirni, Evgenia

373

CABS-flex predictions of protein flexibility compared with NMR ensembles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......heterogeneity in NMR ensembles, the higher...correspond to proteins with highly...has largely disordered regions of...values for each protein are given...within NMR ensembles. The degree...generate the ensembles based on NMR...generating protein residue fluctuation...of protein disordered regions......

Michal Jamroz; Andrzej Kolinski; Sebastian Kmiecik

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Constructing users in the smart gridinsights from the Danish eFlex project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The smart grid appears both in relation to the overall ... and thus create local overload in the distribution grids. Since extensions of the grid are very expensive, costbenefit analyses indicate that considerab...

Sophie Nyborg; Inge Rpke

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

SoundFLEX: Designing Audio to Guide Interactions with Shape-Retaining Deformable Interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shape-retaining freely-deformable interfaces can take innumerable distinct shapes, and creating specific target configurations can be a challenge. In this paper, we investigate how audio can guide a user in this process, through the use of either musical ... Keywords: audio feedback, deformable interfaces, multimodal interaction, shape-retaining interfaces, sonic interaction, sound design

Koray Tahiro?lu, Thomas Svedstrm, Valtteri Wikstrm, Simon Overstall, Johan Kildal, Teemu Ahmaniemi

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

377

Spectrum, Cost and Energy Efficiency in Fixed-Grid and Flex-Grid Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single and multi-carrier networks offering channel rates up to 400Gb/s are evaluated under realistic reach parameters. It is found that efficient spectrum utilization and fine bit-rate...

Angelou, Marianna; Christodoulopoulos, Konstantinos; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Klekamp, Axel; Buchali, Fred; Varvarigos, Emmanouel; Tomkos, Ioannis

378

Quantifying Spectrum, Cost, and Energy Efficiency in Fixed-Grid and Flex-Grid Networks [Invited  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single and multi-carrier networks offering channel rates up to 400Gb/s are evaluated under realistic reach parameters. It is found that efficient spectrum utilization and fine...

Palkopoulou, E; Angelou, M; Klonidis, D; Christodoulopoulos, K; Klekamp, A; Buchali, F; Varvarigos, E; Tomkos, I

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Comparison of PM emissions from a gasoline direct injected (GDI) vehicle and a port fuel injected (PFI) vehicle measured by electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) with two fuels: Gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two Euro 4 gasoline passenger vehicles (one gasoline direct injected vehicle and one port fuel injected vehicle) were tested over the cold start New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Each vehicle was respectively fueled with gasoline and M15 methanol gasoline. Particle number concentrations were measured by the electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). Particle masses were measured by gravimetric method and estimated from the number distributions using two density distributions (one is constant with the particle size and one is power law related with the size). The first 7 stages of ELPI were used for estimation. The results show that for each vehicle, PM masses measured by gravimetric method, the total PM numbers measured by ELPI and estimated PM masses for M15 are lower than those for gasoline. For each kind of fuel, PM masses by two methods and total PM numbers from the GDI vehicle are higher than those from the PFI one. PM number distribution curves of the four vehicle/fuel combinations are similar. All decline gradually and the maximum number of each curve occurs in the first stage. More than 99.9% numbers locate in the first 8 stages of which diameters are less than 1?m. PM number emissions correlate well with the acceleration of the two vehicles. The estimated particle masses were much lower than the gravimetric measurements.

Bin Liang; Yunshan Ge; Jianwei Tan; Xiukun Han; Liping Gao; Lijun Hao; Wentao Ye; Peipei Dai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

BIMA ARRAY DETECTIONS OF HCN IN COMETS LINEAR (C/2002 T7) AND NEAT (C/2001 Q4)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al. 1997; Womack, Festou, & Stern 1997; Biver et al. 1999a), Comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) (e of the first interferometric observations of HCN in Comet Hale-Bopp. From the distribution and temporal). The deviations from the Haser model were explained by the existence of jets releasing HCN gas, a conclusion

Hogerheijde, Michiel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Comparison of Neat Biodiesels and ULSD in an Optimized Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine with Electronically-Controlled Fuel Injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel SAE Int. ... The fuels were then burned in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine and evaluated for both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. ... Monyem, A.; Van Gerpen, J.; Canakcl, M.The effect of timing and oxidation on emissions from biodieselfueled engines Carbon 2001, 44 ( 1) 35 42 ...

Michael Mangus; Farshid Kiani; Jonathan Mattson; Christopher Depcik; Edward Peltier; Susan Stagg-Williams

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

X-ray photodesorption from methanol ice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......AA (2004) 425:955. Thissen R. , Delwiche J., Hubin-Franskin M.-J., Morin P., Lavollee M., Nenner I. Synchroton Radiation and Dynamics Phenomena-Beswick A., ed. (1991) AIP. 341. New York in ed. Proc. AIP Conf. 258, Thissen......

D. P. P. Andrade; M. L. M. Rocco; H. M. Boechat-Roberty

2010-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

383

Junction effect interactions in methanol synthesis catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a process of major importance for the chemicals industry. It is currently achieved by passing syngas (a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide) over a copper/zinc ... Meehan, unpublished observations). The EXAFS analysis of samples reduced in situ and reacted with syngas shows no white line from oxidized copper, and the line shape can be fitted ...

J. C. Frost

1988-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

384

Methanol: A Versatile Fuel for Immediate Use  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Specific fuel consumption-will certainly...necessitat-ing a larger fuel tank; but specific energy consumption (energy per...found that (i) fuel economy increased...Toyota (1900 cms engine, 85 brake horsepower...of knock and "Diesel operation...

T. B. Reed; R. M. Lerner

1973-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

385

Silica grain catalysis of methanol formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......molecules such as acetaldehyde (CH3CH=O), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) where the double and...Surf. Sci., 500, 823. Williams D. A. , Brown W. A., Price S. D., Rawlings J. M. C., Viti S., 2007, Astron......

T. P. M. Goumans; Adrian Wander; C. Richard A. Catlow; Wendy A. Brown

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

386

Methanol as a Hydrogen and Energy Carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The high losses during conversion from renewable power to secondary energy carriers and repowering constitute a general disadvantage. In... 1. Env...

Ludolf Plass; Martin Bertau

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Secondary kinetics of methanol decomposition : theoretical rate coefficients for {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH, {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + {sup 3}CH{sub 2}, and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3}.  

SciTech Connect

Direct variable reaction coordinate transition state theory (VRC-TST) rate coefficients are reported for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH, {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + {sup 3}CH{sub 2}, and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} barrierless association reactions. The predicted rate coefficient for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH reaction ({approx} 1.2 x 10{sup -10} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} for 300-2500 K) is 4-5 times larger than previous estimates, indicating that this reaction may be an important sink for OH in many combustion systems. The predicted rate coefficients for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + {sup 3}CH{sub 2} reactions are found to be in good agreement with the range of available experimental measurements. Product branching in the self-reaction of methylene is discussed, and the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} + 2H and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} + H{sub 2} products are predicted in a ratio of 4:1. The effect of the present set of rate coefficients on modeling the secondary kinetics of methanol decomposition is briefly considered. Finally, the present set of rate coefficients, along with previous VRC-TST determinations of the rate coefficients for the self-reactions of CH{sub 3} and OH and for the CH{sub 3} + OH reaction, are used to test the geometric mean rule for the CH{sub 3}, {sup 3}CH{sub 2}, and OH fragments. The geometric mean rule is found to predict the cross-combination rate coefficients for the {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + OH and {sup 3}CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reactions to better than 20%, with a larger (up to 50%) error for the CH{sub 3} + OH reaction.

Jasper, A. W.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Chemistry

2007-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

388

Palladium selenides as active methanol tolerant cathode materials for direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Palladium selenides, PdSe, Pd3Se and PdSe2 have been prepared by the hydrothermal method and investigated for their structural and electrocatalytic properties toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) using SEM/TEM, XRD, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetries. The crystallites of PdSe and PdSe2 are found to follow tetragonal and orthorhombic crystal structures, respectively. The PdSe electrode in 0.5M H2SO4 exhibits significantly higher electrocatalytic activity than the Pd3Se or PdSe2 electrode under similar experimental conditions. Further, a change in the palladium/selenium ratio from unity in the catalyst results in low ORR activity.

Madhu; R.N. Singh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH 3 OH + , (CHused for energy calibration of the PIE spectra. Results andwater clusters in this work. PIE curves were recorded for

Kostko, Oleg

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH 3 OH + , (CHused for energy calibration of the PIE spectra. Results andwater clusters in this work. PIE curves were recorded for

Ahmed, Musahid

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct-Injection Flex-Fuel Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct the fuel vaporization pro- cess for ethanol-gasoline fuel blends and the associated charge cooling effect experimental cylinder pressure for different gasoline-ethanol blends and various speeds and loads on a 2.0 L

Stefanopoulou, Anna

392

Pushing the Limits of Remote Online Diagnosis in FlexRay-based Networks Eric Armengaud1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract In an automotive distributed embedded system direct access to individual nodes for testing services to loop back information on a node's reception status to the tester. 1. Introduction Electronics automotive innovations now stem from elec- tronic systems [1]. In modern upper class vehicles several

393

Advancing Plug In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler Mini-Van PHEV DOE Funded Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

394

Advancing Plug In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler Mini-Van PHEV DOE Funded Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

395

Design, Fabrication and Testing of Angled Fiber Suspension for Electrostatic Actuators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by mold peeling. (a) Roughen copper surface of flex circuitby mold peeling. (a) Roughen copper surface of flex circuit

Schubert, Bryan Edward

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Flexible and Transparent Memory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrical characteristics under flex. (a) Normalized resistance vs.electrical characteristics under flex. (a) Normalized resistance vs.

KIM, SUNG MIN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

SOLUBILITIES OF CO AND H2 IN NEAT AND CO2-EXPANDED HYDROFORMYLATION REACTION MIXTURES CONTAINING 1-OCTENE AND NONANAL UP TO 80 C AND 90 BARS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Robinson equation of state (PR EoS) with van der Waals mixing rules and binary interaction parameters modeled the VLE data adequately, with much better fits for the 1-octene systems compared to the more polar nonanal systems....

Xie, Zhuanzhuan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Pulping black liquor used directly as a green and effective source for neat oil and as an emulsifier of catalytic cracking heavy oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of emulsified heavy oils to conduct the FCC reaction. The emulsified heavy oil was prepared by homogenizing. Properties of emulsified heavy oil, including int...

Ge Xu; Ji-he Yang; Hui-hui Mao; Zhi Yun

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Achievement of stable and clean combustion over a wide operating range in a spark-assisted IDI diesel engine with neat ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Spark-assisted diesel engines operated with alcohol fuels usually display misfiring or knocking problems. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a swirl chamber diesel engine with a multi-spark ignitor. In the experiments, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations and the degree of knocking were investigated by changing engine parameters over a wide operating range. The results of the investigations showed that stable ignition and smooth combustion is achieved when a flammable mixture is formed in the vicinity of the spark plug when only a small amount of the injected fuel has evaporated.

Murayama, T.; Ogawa, H.; Miyamoto, N.; Chikahisa, T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Achievement of stable and clean combustion over a wide operating range in a spark-assisted IDI diesel engine with neat ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Spark-assisted diesel engines operated with alcohol fuels usually display misfiring or knocking problems. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a swirl chamber diesel engine with a multi-spark ignitor. In the experiments, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations and the degree of knocking were investigated by changing engine parameters over a wide operating range. The results of the investigations showed that stable ignition and smooth combustion is achieved when a flammable mixture is formed in the vicinity of the spark plug when only a small amount of the injected fuel has evaporated. By optimizing the design factors, operation with high efficiency and low exhaust emissions was achieved.

Murayama, T.; Chikahisa, T.; Miyamoto, N.; Ogawa, H.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Advances in Energy Reduction in Methanol Plant Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

which are still under development are outlined. In particular, the paper presents Davy McKee's version of the next generation of synthesis reactor. The paper also examines the economic justification of the energy saving steps. To complement advances...

Huggins, P. J.; Griffiths, G. W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology have made huge reservoirs of previously untapped shale gas and shale oil formations available for use. These new resources have already made a significant impact...

Ehlinger, Victoria M.

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

403

Methanol vaporization and injection system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An engine equipped with an alcohol vaporization injection system operates as a four stroke cycle diesel engine that transfers the heat of exiting exhaust gases and cylinder head walls to the fuel. The engine runs on alcohol. The alcohol becomes vaporized and its pressure is high enough so that when a valve is opened between the high pressure fuel line and the combustion chamber (when it is at the peak of its compression ratio) enough alcohol will enter the combustion chamber to allow proper combustion. The overall advantages to this type of alcohol vaporization injection system is that it adds relatively few new mechanisms to the spark ignition four cycle internal combustion engine to enable it to operate as a diesel engine with a high thermal efficiency. This alcohol injection system exploits the engine's need for greater volumes of alcohol caused by the alcohol's relatively low heat of combustion (When compared to gasoline) by using this greater volume of fuel to return greater quantities of heat back to the engine to a much greater degree than other fuels can.

Bayley, R.I.

1980-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

404

Characterization of Microexplosion Phenomena of Methanol-Glycerol Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Chair of Committee, Jorge L. Alvarado Committee Members, Kalyan Annamalai Alex (Gwo-Ping) Fang Head of Department, Andreas A. Polycarpou August 2014 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering Copyright 2014...

Fan, Ge-Yi

2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

405

Experimental Investigation on the Interaction of Water and Methanol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For water, three desorption states were observed in the TPD spectra at 160 K, 190 K, and 250...

406

DaimlerChrysler setzt bei der Brennstoffzelle auf Methanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sechs Jahre nach der Premiere des New Electric Car (Necar 1) prsentiert DaimlerChrysler die mittlerweile fnfte Evolutionsstufe eines Fahrzeugs mit Brennstoffzellenantrieb. Mit Necar 5 zeigt der Stuttgarter K...

Jens Bchling

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Partners Budget Colorado School of Mines (CSM) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) BASF Fuel Cells (BASF) MTI MicroFuel Cells (MTI) Timeline 2009 - 2011 2009 (Aug) 2011 2010...

408

Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 October 1, 2009

409

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 October 1, 2009

410

Converting Methane to Methanol: Structural Insight into the Reaction...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

evidence for a multinuclear cluster in pMMO. References Murrell, J.C., McDonald, I.R. and Gilbert, B., (2000) Trends Microbiol., 8, 221-5. Stanley, S.H., Prior, S.D., Leak, D.J....

411

Mesosynthesis of ZnO?Silica Composites for Methanol Nanocatalysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

5 Mesoporous silica materials mostly of the MCM-41-type hosting polymers,6 noble metals,7 and semiconductors such as gallium nitride8 have been prepared successfully. ... 29,30 These precursors are characterized by low thermolysis temperatures and high solubility in aprotic solvents. ... Because the porous silica materials were carefully dried in a vacuum at 150 C for 24 h, it is rather unlikely that this hydrolysis results from water adsorbed in the pore system. ...

S. Polarz; F. Neues; M. W. E. van den Berg; W. Grnert; L. Khodeir

2005-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

412

The mid-infrared environments of 6.7 GHz methanol masers from the Methanol Multi-Beam Survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......inspection of GLIMPSE images GLIMPSE 12 arcmin fits cut-out images were obtained for all four IRAC bands via the NASA/IPAC gator database query tool, with each image centred on an MMB maser. We select images of this size as it is the typical angular size......

M. Gallaway; M. A. Thompson; P. W. Lucas; G. A. Fuller; J. L. Caswell; J. A. Green; M. A. Voronkov; S. L. Breen; L. Quinn; S. P. Ellingsen; A. Avison; D. Ward-Thompson; J. Cox

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Supercritical fluid extraction of lanthanides with fluorinated [beta]diketones and tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect

Trivalent lanthanide ions (La[sup 3+], Eu[sup 3+], and Lu[sup 3+]) in solid materials can be effectively extracted by methanol-modified carbon dioxide containing a suitable fluorinated [beta]-diketone (such as HFA, TTA, or FOD) at 60[degree]C and 150 atm. Addition of a small amount of water to the solid samples can significantly increase the extraction efficiency. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) shows a strong positive synergistic effect with the fluorinated [beta]-diketones for the extraction of the lanthanides in supercritical CO[sub 2] without methanol modifier. Quantitative extraction of the lanthanides (92-98%) from sand or a cellulose-based solid material can be achieved using a mixture of TBP and one of the fluorinated [beta]-diketones in neat CO[sub 2] at 60[degree]C and 150 atm. The synergistic effect depends on the structure and fluorine substitution in the [beta]-diketone. In soil matrix, TBP+HFA are more effective than TBP+TTA or TBP+FOD for lanthanide extraction in supercritical CO[sub 2]. Without fluorine substitution, as in the case of acetylacetone, the positive synergistic extraction of lanthanides with TBP is negligible. With the mixed-ligand approach, high efficiencies of lanthanide extraction from aqueous solutions by neat CO[sub 2] can also be accomplished. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

Lin, Y.; Wai, C.M. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States))

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Direct Visualization of Spray and Combustion Inside a DI-SI Engine and Its Implications to Flex-Fuel VVT Operations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fuel, injection timing, and valve deactivation in a DI optical accessible engine with side-mounted, multi-hole injector are investigated using CFD and high-speed imaging of sprays and combustion.

415

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Light-Duty Vehicle Search  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Type Fuel Type All Bi-Fuel Natural Gas (16) Bi-Fuel Propane (12) Biodiesel (B20) (11) Electric (13) Flex Fuel (E85) (91) Hybrid Electric (36) Hydrogen (3) Methanol (0) Natural Gas (4) Plug-in Hybrid Electric (10) Propane (2) Manufacturer All Acura (2) Audi (6) BMW (6) Bentley Motors (4) Buick (2) Cadillac (4) Chevrolet (25) Chrysler (3) Coda Automotive (0) Dodge (7) Fiat (1) Fisker Automotive (0) Ford (48) GMC (19) General Motors EV (0) HUMMER (0) Honda (8) Hyundai (2) Infiniti (4) Jaguar (6) Jeep (1) Kia (2) Land Rover (4) Lexus (5) Lincoln (2) Mazda (0) Mazda (0) McLaren (1) Mercedes-Benz (8) Mercury (0) Mitsubishi (1) Nissan (4) Plymouth (0) Porsche (2) QUANTUM-PROCON (0) Ram (5) Saab (0) Saturn (0) Scion (1) Smart (1) Solectria (0) Subaru (1) Tesla (1) Tesla Motors (0) Toyota (10) Vehicle

416

COLLEGE STATION --The first thought of a barbed wire collection might be an image of a big ball of tangled, rusted wire. But Gaylon Lane, a retired soil scientist, has neatly assembled some 269 pieces of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COLLEGE STATION -- The first thought of a barbed wire collection might be an image of a big ball to grow after acquiring the famed "Underwood" wire, patented in 1878. This brand of wire featured barbs

417

Project 106  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single Large Format Single Large Format Tube Tester Large Format OTM Tubes Multi-tube Pilot Plant Reactor, P-1 DEVELOPMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANE (OTM) FOR PRODUCTION AND TESTING OF SYNTHESIS GAS-DERIVED ULTRA-CLEAN FUELS Description Natural gas is an attractive feedstock for the production of ultra-clean fuels (UCF) because it is abundant and inexpensive, and can be converted into a number of sulfur free fuels including diesel, gasoline, dimethyl ether and derivatives, methanol and other oxygenates that can be used within the existing fuel distribution infrastructure. These fuels, when used neat, or when blended with petroleum based fuels, have the potential to dramatically reduce vehicle emissions from a number of propulsion systems including advanced IC (internal combustion) engines, fuel cells, and IC- fuel cell hybrids.

418

Investigation on Firing Behavior of the Spark-Ignition Engine Fueled with Methanol, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and Methanol/LPG During Cold Start  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It can be produced from synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen) that is formed by steam reforming of natural gas, by gasification of coal, or from biomass, all of which are available in abundance or renewable. ... Liguang et al.,(16) based on cycle-by-cycle control strategy on an EFI (electronic fuel injection) LPG engine, studied how to control the ignition cycle and performed both single-cycle and multicycle tests. ...

Changming Gong; Baoqing Deng; Shu Wang; Yan Su; Qing Gao; Xunjun Liu

2008-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

419

Development of Vanadium Phosphaate Catalysts for Methanol Production by Selective Oxidation of Methane.  

SciTech Connect

This DOE sponsored study of methane partial oxidation was initiated at Amax Research and Development in Golden, CO in October of 1993. Shortly thereafter the management of Amax closed this R&D facility and the PI moved to the Colorado School of Mines. The project was begun again after contract transfer via a novation agreement. Experimental work began with testing of vandyl pyrophosphate (VPO), a well known alkane selective oxidation catalyst. It was found that VPO was not a selective catalyst for methane conversion yielding primarily CO. However, promotion of VPO with Fe, Cr, and other first row transition metals led to measurable yields for formaldehyde, as noted in the summary table. Catalyst characterization studies indicated that the role of promoters was to stabilize some of the vanadium in the V{sup 5+} oxidation state rather than the V{sup 4+} state formally expected for (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}.

McCormick, R.L.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

PPPL-3457 PPPL-3457 Broadening and Shifting of the Methanol 119 m Gain Line  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecules J.S. Bakos, G. Djotyan, Zsuzsa Ssrlei, J. Szigeti Department of Plasma Physics, Research Institute

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

MECHANISTICAL STUDIES ON THE IRRADIATION OF METHANOL IN EXTRATERRESTRIAL ICES Chris J. Bennett,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

state and their subsequent sublimation into the gas phase can help ex- plain their high abundances models of hot molecular cores rely on rapid, high-temperature gas-phase chemistry to explain the abun- dance of these molecules; the physical processes are thought to be triggered by the sublimation

Kaiser, Ralf I.

422

Effects of the Calcination and Reduction Conditions on a Cu/ZnO Methanol Synthesis Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The CuO crystallite size of the catalysts obtained from aurichalcite greatly depends on the heating rate of...

Shin-ichiro Fujita; Shuhei Moribe

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Low Loading Pt Cathode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Derived from the Particle Size Effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent results have shown that with sputtered Pt cathode catalysts, the metal loading in PEMFC can be reduced to cathode metal loading in PEMFC, less attention has been paid to DMFC. ... The long-term performance of catalyst Pt14-050 in DMFC was examined to explore the stability of the small-sized Pt catalysts. ...

Fei Wen; Ulrich Simon

2007-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

424

Characterization of methanol-oxidizing bacteria by their growth response to various chemicals.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Strains B4 (Pseu- domonas methylotropha), Ps M27, MM (Methano- monas methanica), and Ps AM1 were received from A. Simbol-Foo, Karolinska Institutet. Strains 41, PC, E (xi -)2 z (yi- )2 where xi is the test value i for strain x, yi is...

I Khn

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Effect of Methanol on the Liquefaction Reaction of Biomass in Hot Compressed Water under Microwave Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was found that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid are the dominate products using pure water as the liquefying agent. ... As an efficient method for biomass conversion, a thermal chemical reaction, such as liquefaction, has been considered as a potential pathway for production of biofuels and chemicals. ... It is perfectly suitable for these products to be used as potential platform chemicals, such as polyols, in the polyurethane industry because the appropriate viscosity and hydroxyl number of the final products can be obtained by a slight modification using ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. ...

Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chung-yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

426

Synthesis and characterization of bulk and coatings of hydroxyapatite using methanol precursor  

SciTech Connect

Hydroxyapatite, an important bioceramic was synthesized in the bulk form and developed as a coating by a sol-gel route using alcoholic precursor. The bioactive coating was developed on bio-inert {alpha}-alumina and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates. The apatite phase began to form after the heat treatment of the precursor at 500 deg. C for 10 min. The complete crystallization of the apatite was obtained at 800 deg. C heat treatment for 10 min. The phase composition of the bulk and the coatings was identified by FT-IR spectroscopic and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Surface morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy. The study indicates different surface textures for the powder and for the coatings on {alpha}-alumina and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates.

Khongwar, Jasper K. [Chemistry Division, School of Science and Humanities, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Kannan, K.R. [SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Buvaneswari, G. [Chemistry Division, School of Science and Humanities, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: gopalbhu@yahoo.com

2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

427

Mapping Observations of 6.7GHz Methanol Masers with the Japanese VLBI Network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......figure 12) is a CO condensation at a distance of...12.2GHz and the water maser at 22GHz...detection rate, flux recovery, and small fringe...compared with that of water masers. Given this...observation, the atmospheric fluctuation is a...Strong absorption by water vapor in the atmosphere......

Koichiro Sugiyama; Kenta Fujisawa; Akihiro Doi; Mareki Honma; Hideyuki Kobayashi; Takeshi Bushimata; Nanako Mochizuki; Yasuhiro Murata

2008-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

428

Dieselzymes: development of a stable and methanol tolerant lipase for biodiesel production by directed evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metha- nol and 1.5 ml of canola oil. This mixture provides aconverting ~76% of the canola oil to biodiesel within 20with less than 15% of the canola oil being converted to

Korman, Tyler P; Sahachartsiri, Bobby; Charbonneau, David M; Huang, Grace L; Beauregard, Marc; Bowie, James U

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimalarial quinoline methanols Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

, AZ 85721 ABSTRACT Adsorption of quinoline (pKa 5 4.92) and background electrolyte (CaCl2) onto... M), and as a func- tion of quinoline concentration (0.2-1.55 mM) at fixed pH...

430

Metabolism of H2-CO2, methanol, and glucose by Butyribacterium methylotrophicum.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Exponentially growing cells exhibited a doubling...117 H2 + 135 CO2 + 808 cell C was obtained. The low CO2 and hydrogen yields (car- boxyl of intermediary...a comparison of the cell yields of B. methylotrophicum...

L H Lynd; J G Zeikus

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Dieselzymes: development of a stable and methanol tolerant lipase for biodiesel production by directed evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in terms of kg of bio- diesel produced per kg of catalyst [efficient synthesis of bio- diesel even in the presence of a

Korman, Tyler P; Sahachartsiri, Bobby; Charbonneau, David M; Huang, Grace L; Beauregard, Marc; Bowie, James U

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Viskosittsmesssungen an Dampf-Gas-Gemischen: Das System Methanol-Methan bei Atmosphrendruck  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Es wird ber Messungen mit einemRankine-Viskosimeter mit gewundener Kapillare und nach einer 1965 beschriebenen Bauart berichtet. Auf ein spezielles Temperierproblem als besondere Fehlerquelle wird hingewiesen. D...

Dr. G. Meerlender; Dr. N. A. Aziz

1972-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced direct methanol Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Chemistry 9 Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer (FHMT), 2, 032001 (2011) DOI: 10.5098hmt.v2.3.2001 Summary: Digital...

434

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Download the presentation slides from Arkema at the July 17, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webina, Fuel Cells for Portable Power.

435

Supported Single Pt1/Au1 Atoms for Methanol Steam Reforming Xiang-Kui Gu,,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, responsible for the low-temperature activity of the water-gas-shift reaction10,11 and CO oxidation,12,13 can more strongly toward the inter- mediates, improve the reaction energetics and kinetics, and change

Li, Weixue

436

Periodic class II methanol masers in G9.62+0.20E  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......thermal hydrogen plasma with densities of...spectroscopy of 1 MHz at 6.7 GHz and...2004 July. Poor atmospheric conditions forced...with 100 and 250 KHz resolution. The...emissitivity for hot thermal plasmas of temperatures 106...time-scale of a hydrogen plasma is given by (alphan......

D. J. Van Der Walt; S. Goedhart; M. J. Gaylard

2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

437

Periodic class II methanol masers in G9.62+0.20E  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of a thermal hydrogen plasma with densities of approximately...for spectroscopy of 1 MHz at 6.7 GHz and 2 MHz...early 2004 July. Poor atmospheric conditions forced any...emissitivity for hot thermal plasmas of temperatures 106...time-scale of a hydrogen plasma is given by (alphan......

D. J. Van Der Walt; S. Goedhart; M. J. Gaylard

2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

438

Molecular insights on the solvent effect of methanol additive in glycine polymorph selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In an effort to improve control and design in organic crystallization, the effect of solvent on polymorph selection has gained tremendous interest in recent years. In this thesis, molecular simulation techniques are used ...

Patala, Srikanth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

PtSn/C as a Possible Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst for DMFC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An effective method was developed for preparing highly dispersed nano-sized PtSn/C electrocatalyst synthesised by a modified polyol reduction method. From XRD patterns, the PtSn/C peaks shifted slightly to l...

Lynwill G. Martin; Ivan Green; X. Wang; Sivakumar Pasupathi

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Solidification in a thin liquid film : growing Alq? needles via methanol-vapor annealing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic electronics hold the promise of low-cost, flexible, large-area electronic and optoelectronic devices. In order to improve the performance of these devices, it is vital to control the morphology (e.g., the crystallinity) ...

Yu, Tony S. (Tony Sheung)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Substrate Specificity of the Purified Primary Alcohol Dehydrogenases from Methanol-Oxidizing Bacteria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...strain WC, Pseudomonas strain TP-1, and Pseudomonas strain...strain WC, Pseudomonas strain TP-1, and Pseudomonas strain...Hyphomicrobium strain WC was iso- lated as reported previously (20). Pseudomonas strain TP-1 ("pink organism") and...

George T. Sperl; Hugh S. Forrest; David T. Gibson

1974-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Torsion?Vibration Coupling in Methanol:? Diabatic Behavior in the CH Overtone Region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The local-mode notation, ?a and ?b, does not apply in the fundamental (vCH = 1) region because the local?local coupling ? splits the three degenerate local CH fundamentals into the normal modes ?3 and {?2, ?9}. ... Support of this work does not constitute endorsement by the DOE of views expressed in this paper. ...

David S. Perry

2007-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

443

Hydrogen Bond Properties and Dynamics of Liquid?Vapor Interfaces of Aqueous Methanol Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the authors (A.C.) would like to thank Professor C. N. R. Rao, F.R.S., for helpful communications and enlightening discussions on surface enrichment in water?alcohol mixtures. ... (21)?Ferrario, M.; Haughney, M.; Mcdonald, I. R.; Klein, M. L. J. Chem. ...

Sandip Paul; Amalendu Chandra

2005-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

444

Assessment of Methanol Synthesis Utilizing Exhaust CO2 for Chemical Storage of Electrical Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1, 2) Sequestration is principally an available and technologically feasible way to reduce the CO2 emission into the atmosphere, although there are still obvious ecological, environmental, and safety aspects to clarify before it can be implemented in large scale. ... Furthermore, these chemicals could be used also as traffic fuel, where they are applicable easily with minor modifications with the existing infrastructure and vehicle fleet. ... The product H is considered a fuel for fuel cell vehicles and a substitute for gasoline. ...

Liisa K. Rihko-Struckmann; Andreas Peschel; Richard Hanke-Rauschenbach; Kai Sundmacher

2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

445

A Methanol and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell Using Non-Noble Catalysts in Alkaline Solution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A primary goal of this work is to develop a novel liquid-based microscale fuel cell using non-noble metal catalysts. The developed fuel cell is based (more)

Sung, Woosuk

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

447

Laser-Induced Photochemical Reactions of Methanol, Ethanol, 1-Propanol, and 2-Propanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study focuses on the carbon dioxide laser-induced excitation and resultant dissociation of several members of a group of carbon-oxygen (C-O)-containing molecules, the alcohols...

Johnson, R A; Stanley, A E

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Mechanism of Methanol Synthesis on Cu through CO2 and CO Hydrogenation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Financial support for this work was provided in part by DOE/BES and by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Sandia National Laboratories, LDRD 113486. ... In Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis; Ertl, G.; Knzinger, H.; Schth, F.; Weitkamp, J., Eds.; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, 2008. ...

L. C. Grabow; M. Mavrikakis

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

449

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 10.5 Estimated Number of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use and Fuel Consumption, 1992-2010 Year Alternative and Replacement Fuels 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Compressed Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Methanol, 85 Percent (M85) 3 Methanol, Neat (M100) 4 Ethanol, 85 Percent (E85) 3,5 Ethanol, 95 Percent (E95) 3 Elec- tricity 6 Hydro- gen Other Fuels 7 Subtotal Oxygenates 2 Bio- diesel 10 Total Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether 8 Ethanol in Gasohol 9 Total Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use 11 (number) 1992 NA 23,191 90 4,850 404 172 38 1,607 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1993 NA 32,714 299 10,263 414 441 27 1,690 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994 NA 41,227 484 15,484 415 605 33 2,224 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1995 172,806 50,218 603 18,319 386 1,527

450

Life cycle inventory of biodiesel and petroleum diesel for use in an urban bus. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. It presents information on raw materials extracted from the environment, energy resources consumed, and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel substitute. It can be made from a variety of natural oils and fats. Biodiesel is made by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol such as methanol or ethanol. Methanol has been the most commonly used alcohol in the commercial production of biodiesel. In Europe, biodiesel is widely available in both its neat form (100% biodiesel, also known as B1OO) and in blends with petroleum diesel. European biodiesel is made predominantly from rapeseed oil (a cousin of canola oil). In the United States, initial interest in producing and using biodiesel has focused on the use of soybean oil as the primary feedstock mainly because the United States is the largest producer of soybean oil in the world. 170 figs., 148 tabs.

Sheehan, J.; Camobreco, V.; Duffield, J.; Graboski, M.; Shapouri, H.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

A comprehensive test method for reprogammable field programmable gate arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the interconnection resources is shown to be 35 for all sizes of Altera FLEX8000 FPGAs. The number of reprogramming steps to test the logic resources is 6 for all sizes of Altera FLEX8000 FPGAs. This yields a total of 41 programming steps. In the largest FLEX8000 FPGA...

Ashen, David Glen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

452

Use of Energy Management and Control Systems for Performance Monitoring of Retrofit Projects: Preliminary Engineering Survey, USDOE Forrestal and Germantown Facility, Summary Report, USDOE Office of Conservation and Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forrestal Building Summary: Full Proposal 05/02/91 Neat Supplies E.tffo $3,000 Wire $400/1000 4 pr, $150/1000 2 pr $1,000 Misc. Electrical Supplies Neat G&A on Supplies & Materials: $3,408 | Neat Subcontract labor_Estimates: $10,000 Electrician Hot Tap...,000 Electrician Hot Tap Contractor Steam Meter Installer Plumber Neat G&A on Subcontracts: $800 Texas A&M Lqhor $10,000 Supplemental Living Allowance $8,000 Travel to & from job Neat G&A Travel: $4,500 Neat Labor $5,000 Management $3,000 Programming & Engineeering...

Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Bryant, J.; Poyner, B.; McBride, J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Mechanism of the formation of precursors for the Cu/ZnO methanol synthesis catalysts by a coprecipitation method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Precursors of Cu/ZnO catalysts with various Cu/Zn molar ratios were prepared by a coprecipitation method. It was found that amorphous copper hydroxycarbonate and sodium zinc carbonate were intermediates for the f...

Shin-ichiro Fujita; Agus Muhamad Satriyo; Guo Cheng Shen

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

DFT Study of Direct Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde by N2O on the [Fe]2+ZSM-5 Zeolite Cluster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(63) Beckes three-parameter hybrid method(64, 65) involving the Lee, Yang, and Parr correlation functional B3LYP formalism(66) was utilized to take into account the exchange and correlation. ... The numerical calculations reported in this paper were performed at TUBITAK ULAKBIM, High Performance and Grid Computing Center (TR-Grid e-Infrastructure). ...

Mehmet Ferdi Fellah; Isik Onal

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

455

The Active Site of Methanol Synthesis over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 Industrial Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Available for free at wiki.fysik.dtu.dk/dacapo...Available for free at wiki.fysik.dtu.dk/ase. 43...density-functional theory using revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof...of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences...with density functional theory calculations. The active...

Malte Behrens; Felix Studt; Igor Kasatkin; Stefanie Khl; Michael Hvecker; Frank Abild-Pedersen; Stefan Zander; Frank Girgsdies; Patrick Kurr; Benjamin-Louis Kniep; Michael Tovar; Richard W. Fischer; Jens K. Nrskov; Robert Schlgl

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

456

UHV Studies on CO and Methanol Adsorption and Decomposition on Pristine and Oxidized Alumina-Supported Co Nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although cobalt is an important Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, there is only limited fundamental knowledge about the factors determining the elementary steps, such as the dissociation of CO, the influence of adsorbed ...

T. Nowitzki; V. Zielasek; M. Bumer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Forget storing carbon; re-use it: A company in Iceland is turning CO2 into methanol to power cars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ON THE windswept lava plains of Iceland's Reykjanes Peninsula, the 75 MW HS Orka Geothermal power plant generates clean electricity. So clean, in fact, that the same deep source of earthly, hot water that feeds its turbines also pours into the internationally popular Blue Lagoon bathing spa located next door, caressing over 400,000 bathers a year with purportedly curative properties of silica, algae and healthy bacteria.

Mark Halper

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Immunoprophylaxis of Methylcholanthrene-induced Tumors in Mice with Bacillus Calmette-Gurin and Methanol-extracted Residue  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...0146 3 75590 1 0162 5 84650 2 0166 5 86680 2 0171 5 89690 2 0177 5 93720 2 01815 95720 2 0184 6 97740 2 0186 6 99750 3 0186 8 9975 IV MCA, Day 0 100 BCG, Day +13 MCA, Day 0 84 Death no tumor 00011 2 4 8 Estimated tumor % 1 8 10 22 35 43 52 64 Tumors 6...

David H. Lavrin; Steven A. Rosenberg; Robert J. Connor; William D. Terry

1973-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations  

SciTech Connect

The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Carbon microspheres from ethanol at low temperature: Fabrication, characterization and their use as an electrocatalyst support for methanol oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Carbon microbeads were prepared by the carbonization of ethanol at low temperature. ? The low temperature carbonization of ethanol was catalyzed by iodine. ? Carbon microbeads can serve as ideal candidate for catalyst supports. -- Abstract: Carbon microspheres (CMSs) with a diameter range of 23 ?m were prepared by the iodine-catalyzed carbonization of ethanol at low temperatures by solvothermal synthesis. The reaction time, concentrations of reactants, temperatures, different alcohols as carbon precursors and reaction environments were systematically altered to determine the optimal synthesis conditions. The size and shape were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and their structure was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that abundant oxygen-containing functional groups remain on the surface of the carbon spheres. The formation mechanism involves iodine promotion of the oxidation of ethanol, which results in formation of the CMSs. The specific activity of the CMS-supported Pt catalyst is higher than that of a commercial Pt catalyst from E-TEK or the unsupported Pt catalyst.

Lian, Suoyuan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China) [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); School of Light Industry and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Ming, Hai; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Selective production of methanol from syngas over LaTi1?xCuxO3 mixed oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide hydrogenation was studied over partially substituted copper-containing LaTi1?xCuxO3 oxides and on copper supported on La2O3. The unsubstituted (x = 0) oxide was weakly active for CO hydrogenation,...

R. van Grieken; J. L. Pea; A. Lucas; G. Calleja; M. L. Rojas

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Methanol as a Prospective Fuel in Marine Applications : Chemical Aspects and Processes in a Four-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The continuous growth in world energy consumption, coupled with environmental concern and hence the goal to reduce the impact of energy industry activity, has led (more)

Okhotnikova, Evgenia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Simulation and Optimization of Distillation Processes for Separating the MethanolChlorobenzene Mixture with Separate Heat-Pump Distillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For a special distillation column with a large temperature difference between the bottom and top, the direct heating of the bottom by compressing the top stream would cause excessive energy consumption by the compressor, which would result in an increase in the overall energy consumption and operating costs; therefore, this method would not meet the energy-saving principle of heat-pump distillation. ... Rivera-Ortega, P.; Picn-Nez, M.; Torres-Reyes, E.; Gallegos-Muoz, A.Thermal Integration of Heat Pumping Systems in Distillation Columns Appl. ... Fonyo, Z.; Mizsey, P.Economic Application of Heat Pumps in Integrated Distillation Systems Heat Recovery Syst CHP 1994, 14, 249 263 ...

Xiaoxin Gao; Zhengfei Ma; Limin Yang; Jiangquan Ma

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

464

Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

465

Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation: Science Projects in...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

with a hydroxyl radical (OH). Methanol can be produced from natural gas, coal, residual oil, or biomass. Although vehicles can operate on pure methanol fuel (M100), methanol...

466

Noninvasive measurement of plasma glucose from exhaled breath in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cluster B: 2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone)which 2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone (cluster B (2-pentyl nitrate, propane, methanol, and acetone)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

practiced for years, producing methanol from wood is basedhypothetical) plants producing methanol from wood. Finally,~ ity of producing another alcohol, methanol, from wood.

Ritschard, Ronald L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Winter Weed Pressure in Winter Wheat Edward Davis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

26 Wheat ** ** * Barley *** * * Oats *** ** Canola * * * Lentil * * ** Millet ** ** Corn Beyond PrePare Maverick (Field Bioassay) #12;LENTIL OAT PEA CAMELINA CANOLA BARLEY PowerFlex ROTATIONAL

Maxwell, Bruce D.

469

BRAZILIAN'S BIOENERGY SUCCESS POWERED BY THE SUN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BRAZILIAN'S BIOENERGY SUCCESS POWERED BY THE SUN Caroline Rayol Resources and Bioenergy Project : Market opening 2003 : Flex-fuel car 2004 : Biodiesel Production and Use National Program 2006

Canet, Léonie

470

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative assembly pushes Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

transport. A cheaper and more flex- ible alternative is to use a less powerful robot that can push... that produces conservative bounds on the pushing mo- tions that ......

471

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF FOSSIL...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

application for such authority." DOEFE Order No. 2961, at 33. 8 On May 17, 2013, DOEFE granted FLEX's first non-FTA export application, conditionally authorizing it to...

472

Development and Demonstration of a Prototype Omnivorous Engine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Omnivorous engine is a research project designed to understand flex fuel combustion and optimize a single engine to run on many different fuels with optimum efficiency.

473

Clean Cities Publishes 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the options, including hybrids, flex-fuel vehicles, and vehicles that run on natural gas, propane, electricity, or biodiesel. This new guide features a comprehensive list of...

474

Utilizing Supplemental Ultra-Low-NO  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Standards and Improve System Efficiency This project developed a Flexible Combined Heat and Power (FlexCHP) system that incorporates new burner technology into a 65-kilowatt...

475

Texas's 31st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Flex Group Inc Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTexas%27s31stcongressionaldistrict&oldid204401...

476

Download  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jun 4, 1984 ... fraction was air-dried and its weight sub- tracted from the original ... slide counted and extrapolation to weight- ...... lets during FLEX'76. Helgol.

2000-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

477

Download - American Society of Limnology and Oceanography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

May 2, 1994 ... Lanes labeled 1 kb and 123 bp are molecular-weight size markers. ... (P. flex), Briareum ashestinum (B. asb), and Pseudoplexauraporosa.

478

E85 Infrastrucutre Development Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Burl Haigwood's presentation on the Flex fuel vehicle awareness campaign from the May 12, 2011, Clean Cities and Biomass Program State webinar.

479

Bruce Murray | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

student loan repayments, & waivers; worklife programs, including DOE-Flex telework, health & wellness programs, employee assistance program, dependent care, child care...

480

Going Deep vs. Going Wide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Provides an overview on the progress of four energy efficiency programs: Clean Energy Works Oregon, Efficiency Maine, Energy Upgrade California Flex Path, and EcoHouse Loan Program.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "neat methanol flex" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

482

Projecting net incomes for Texas crop producers: an application of probabilistic forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for this program, and expected prices. Payment planted acreage is calculated by subtracting set-aside, diverted and flex acres from complying base acreage. Set-aside, diverted and flex acres existed under past farm programs, but are not currently included...

Eggerman, Christopher Ryan

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

483

HIPAA NOTICE OF PRIVACY PRACTICES HEALTH CARE SERVICE CORPORATION HEALTH PLAN ("Health Plan")  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TO THIS INFORMATION. PLEASE REVIEW IT CAREFULLY. The Health Plan and the Flex Plan (collectively, the "Plans1 HIPAA NOTICE OF PRIVACY PRACTICES HEALTH CARE SERVICE CORPORATION HEALTH PLAN ("Health Plan") & HEALTH CARE SERVICE CORPORATION MASTER FLEXIBLE BENEFIT PLAN ("Flex Plan") EFFECTIVE APRIL 14, 2003

Shahriar, Selim

484

Financial and Technical Resources The HUD Perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protection Agency ? Brownfields Restoration ? Smart Growth Technical Assistance ? Water Infrastructure Funds Department of Transportation ? TIGER Grants ? FTA Programs ? FHWA Flex Funding ? United We Ride ? FHWA Livability Efforts ? State... Protection Agency ? Brownfields Restoration ? Smart Growth Technical Assistance ? Water Infrastructure Funds Department of Transportation ? TIGER Grants ? FTA Programs ? FHWA Flex Funding ? United We Ride ? FHWA Livability Efforts ? State...

Jensen, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Serviceability of Shirts Made from Cotton of Two Varieties, Regions and Seasons of Growth.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

............................. 8 ........................ Resistance to Abrasion 8 ........... Flat Abrasion with Taber Abraser 8 ...... Flat Abrasion with Universal Weartester 9 Flex Abrasion ................................ 10 Fold Abrasion... abraser and the Stoll un- iversal weartester. In addition to flat abrasion with both instruments, the fabrics also were sub- jected to fold abrasion and to flexing on the wear- tester. Flat Abrasion with Taber Abraser The broadcloths were abraded 50...

Grimes, Mary Anna; Werman, Carolyn A.

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Financial and Technical Resources for Completing Energy Efficiency Projects - The DOT/FTA Perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Transportation ? TIGER Grants ? FTA Programs ? FHWA Flex Funding ? United We Ride ? FHWA Livability Efforts ? State/Metro Planning ? Railroad Infrastructure U.S. Department of Agriculture ? Rural Efforts + Infrastructure Investment ?Urban... of Transportation ? TIGER Grants ? FTA Programs ? FHWA Flex Funding ? United We Ride ? FHWA Livability Efforts ? State/Metro Planning ? Railroad Infrastructure U.S. Department of Agriculture ? Rural Efforts + Infrastructure Investment ?Urban...

Koski, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

E-Print Network 3.0 - augusto ponzio susan Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009... , but few neat empirical studies like this," says Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo Pereira of the University of So Source: West, Stuart - School of Biological Sciences,...

488

Effect of Fuel Ethanol on Subsurface Microorganisms and its Influence on Biodegradation of BTEX Compounds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ethanol is used as fuel in neat form in some countries (Brazil and India) or blended with gasoline (Europe, Canada and the United States). The (more)

Araujo, Daniela

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Vertical compact torus injection into the STOR-M Tokamak.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Central fuelling is a fundamental issue in the neat generation tokamak ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). It is essential for optimization of the bootstrap (more)

Liu, Dazhi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Energy Efficiency Retrofits for U.S. Housing: Removing the Bottlenecks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Saver (HES)* National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) US EPA anda representative sample of energy audit tools, illustratingof California certifies energy audit tools, with the state

Bardhan, Ashok; Jaffee, Dwight; Kroll, Cynthia; Wallace, Nancy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

MagLab - Science Demonstrations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

YouTube page. Tesla Coil Watch The Tesla Coil What's behind the cool purple sparks? Neat science about resonance and transformers. (Length: 6 minutes) Shrinking Quarter Watch...

492

"The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF FIGURES Figure 1. Gasoline Blending Components v. Alternative Fuels as Sources of Non BENEFITS OF NEAT AND BLENDED GTL FUELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

493

E-Print Network 3.0 - argon chlorides Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and 266 nm photoreaction of acetyl chloride in xenon and argon... matrixes. Experimental Section Neat and argon matrix-isolated thin films of acid chlorides are deposited... -gas...

494

Vibrational spectroscopy of liquid mixtures and solid/liquid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

band of neat, heavy water, using first principles molecular dynamics and ab-initio electronic structure calculations 1. They carried out calculations using the Qbox code...

495

New MEA Materials for Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Performance, Durability, and Cost - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report James Fletcher (Primary Contact), Philip Cox University of North Florida (UNF) 1 UNF Drive Jacksonville, FL 32224 Phone: (904) 620-1844 Email: jfletche@UNF.edu DOE Managers HQ: Donna Ho Phone: (202) 586-8000 Email: Donna.Ho@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000475 Subcontractors: * University of Florida, Gainesville, FL * Northeastern University, Boston, MA * Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells, Swindon, UK

496

Ultralow platinum-loading PtPdRu@PtRuIr/C catalyst with excellent CO tolerance and high performance for the methanol oxidation reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalysts of Pd4%Pt10%Ru5%Ir2%/C, Pd4%@Pt10%Ru5%Ir2%/C, Pd4%Pt2%@Pt8%Ru5%Ir2%/C, and Pd4%Pt2%Ru2%@Pt8%Ru3%Ir2%/C were referred to as PDRI, D@PRI, PD@PRI, and PDR...

Yan-Ni Wu; Shi-Jun Liao; Hai-Fu Guo; Xiang-Ying Hao; Zhen-Xing Liang

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Performance Improvement of Nanocatalysts by Promoter-Induced Defects in the Support Material: Methanol Synthesis over Cu/ZnO:Al  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Addition of small amounts of promoters to solid catalysts can cause pronounced improvement in the catalytic properties. For the complex catalysts employed in industrial processes, the fate and mode of operation of promoters is often not well understood, ...

Malte Behrens; Stefan Zander; Patrick Kurr; Nikolas Jacobsen; Jrgen Senker; Gregor Koch; Thorsten Ressler; Richard W. Fischer; Robert Schlgl

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

498

Ultraviolet and Visible Photochemistry of Methanol at 3D Mesoporous Networks: TiO2 and AuTiO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A higher excited-state electron density arises for UV-irradiated TiO2 aerogel relative to commercial nanoparticulate TiO2, indicating that 3D networked TiO2 more efficiently separates electronhole pairs. ... For both UV and visible irradiation, the same light source was employed: a high-pressure 350-W mercury arc lamp (Oriel Corp.) equipped with a water filter to remove IR radiation. ... For visible irradiation, three bandpass filters (70 nm full-width at half-maximum transmission profile) were used with peak transmissions centered at 400, 500, or 550 nm. ...

Dimitar A. Panayotov; Paul A. DeSario; Jeremy J. Pietron; Todd H. Brintlinger; Lindsey C. Szymczak; Debra R. Rolison; John R. Morris

2013-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

499

The use of a prodrug approach to minimize potential CNS exposure of next generation quinoline methanols while maintaining efficacy in in vivo animal models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of mefloquine (MQ) for antimalarial treatment and prophylaxis has diminished largely in response to concerns about its neurologic side effects. An analog campaign designed to maintain the efficacy of M...

Jason C. Sousa; Erin Milner; Dustin Carroll

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Synthesis and catalytic performance of graphene modified CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 and graphene nanosheet (GNS) were synthesized by coprecipitation route and reduction of exfoliated graphite oxides method, respectively. GNS modified CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 nanocomposites were synthesized ...

Zheng-juan Liu, Xing-jiang Tang, Shan Xu, Xiao-lai Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z