National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for near-field scanning optical

  1. Observation of nonlinear bands in near-field scanning optical microscopy of a photonic-crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, A.; Huisman, S. R.; Ctistis, G. Mosk, A. P.; Pinkse, P. W. H.; Korterik, J. P.; Herek, J. L.

    2015-01-21

    We have measured the photonic bandstructure of GaAs photonic-crystal waveguides with high resolution in energy as well as in momentum using near-field scanning optical microscopy. Intriguingly, we observe additional bands that are not predicted by eigenmode solvers, as was recently demonstrated by Huisman et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 155154 (2012)]. We study the presence of these additional bands by performing measurements of these bands while varying the incident light power, revealing a non-linear power dependence. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the observed additional bands are caused by a waveguide-specific near-field tip effect not previously reported, which can significantly phase-modulate the detected field.

  2. Remote optical sensing on the nanometer scale with a bowtie aperture nano-antenna on a fiber tip of scanning near-field optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atie, Elie M.; Xie, Zhihua; El Eter, Ali; Salut, Roland; Baida, Fadi I.; Grosjean, Thierry; Nedeljkovic, Dusan; Tannous, Tony

    2015-04-13

    Plasmonic nano-antennas have proven the outstanding ability of sensing chemical and physical processes down to the nanometer scale. Sensing is usually achieved within the highly confined optical fields generated resonantly by the nano-antennas, i.e., in contact to the nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate the sensing capability of nano-antennas to their larger scale environment, well beyond their plasmonic confinement volume, leading to the concept of “remote” (non contact) sensing on the nanometer scale. On the basis of a bowtie-aperture nano-antenna (BNA) integrated at the apex of a SNOM (Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy) fiber tip, we introduce an ultra-compact, moveable, and background-free optical nanosensor for the remote sensing of a silicon surface (up to distance of 300?nm). Sensitivity of the BNA to its large scale environment is high enough to expect the monitoring and control of the spacing between the nano-antenna and a silicon surface with sub-nanometer accuracy. This work paves the way towards an alternative class of nanopositioning techniques, based on the monitoring of diffraction-free plasmon resonance, that are alternative to nanomechanical and diffraction-limited optical interference-based devices.

  3. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, X.D.; Schultz, P.G.; Wei, T.

    1998-10-13

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an end wall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity. 17 figs.

  4. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Schultz, Peter G.; Wei, Tao

    1998-01-01

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an endwall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity.

  5. Near-Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Welp, Ulrich; and Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  6. Near Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Welp, Ulrich; Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  7. Scanning Near-Field Microwave Microscopy of VO2 and CVD Graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Scanning Near-Field Microwave Microscopy of VO2 and CVD Graphene Authors: Tselev, Alexander 1 ; Lavrik, Nickolay V 1 ; Kolmakov, Andrei 2 ; Kalinin, Sergei V 1 + ...

  8. Dynamic near-field optical interaction between oscillating nanomechanical structures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, Phillip; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen; Ford, Matthew; Rosenmann, Daniel; Jung, II Woong; Sun, Cheng; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2015-05-27

    Near-field optical techniques exploit light-matter interactions at small length scales for mechanical sensing and actuation of nanomechanical structures. Here, we study the optical interaction between two mechanical oscillators—a plasmonic nanofocusing probe-tip supported by a low frequency cantilever, and a high frequency nanomechanical resonator—and leverage their interaction for local detection of mechanical vibrations. The plasmonic nanofocusing probe provides a confined optical source to enhance the interaction between the two oscillators. Dynamic perturbation of the optical cavity between the probe-tip and the resonator leads to nonlinear modulation of the scattered light intensity at the sum and difference of their frequencies. This double-frequencymore » demodulation scheme is explored to suppress unwanted background and to detect mechanical vibrations with a minimum detectable displacement sensitivity of 0.45pm/Hz1/2, which is limited by shot noise and electrical noise. We explore the demodulation scheme for imaging the bending vibration mode shape of the resonator with a lateral spatial resolution of 20nm. We also demonstrate the time-resolved aspect of the local optical interaction by recording the ring-down vibrations of the resonator at frequencies of up to 129MHz. The near-field optical technique is promising for studying dynamic mechanical processes in individual nanostructures.« less

  9. Dynamic near-field optical interaction between oscillating nanomechanical structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Phillip; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen; Ford, Matthew; Rosenmann, Daniel; Jung, II Woong; Sun, Cheng; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2015-05-27

    Near-field optical techniques exploit light-matter interactions at small length scales for mechanical sensing and actuation of nanomechanical structures. Here, we study the optical interaction between two mechanical oscillators—a plasmonic nanofocusing probe-tip supported by a low frequency cantilever, and a high frequency nanomechanical resonator—and leverage their interaction for local detection of mechanical vibrations. The plasmonic nanofocusing probe provides a confined optical source to enhance the interaction between the two oscillators. Dynamic perturbation of the optical cavity between the probe-tip and the resonator leads to nonlinear modulation of the scattered light intensity at the sum and difference of their frequencies. This double-frequency demodulation scheme is explored to suppress unwanted background and to detect mechanical vibrations with a minimum detectable displacement sensitivity of 0.45pm/Hz1/2, which is limited by shot noise and electrical noise. We explore the demodulation scheme for imaging the bending vibration mode shape of the resonator with a lateral spatial resolution of 20nm. We also demonstrate the time-resolved aspect of the local optical interaction by recording the ring-down vibrations of the resonator at frequencies of up to 129MHz. The near-field optical technique is promising for studying dynamic mechanical processes in individual nanostructures.

  10. Near field optical probe for critical dimension measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stallard, B.R.; Kaushik, S.

    1999-05-18

    A resonant planar optical waveguide probe for measuring critical dimensions on an object in the range of 100 nm and below is disclosed. The optical waveguide includes a central resonant cavity flanked by Bragg reflector layers with input and output means at either end. Light is supplied by a narrow bandwidth laser source. Light resonating in the cavity creates an evanescent electrical field. The object with the structures to be measured is translated past the resonant cavity. The refractive index contrasts presented by the structures perturb the field and cause variations in the intensity of the light in the cavity. The topography of the structures is determined from these variations. 8 figs.

  11. Multipass laser amplification with near-field far-field optical separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagen, Wilhelm F.

    1979-01-01

    This invention discloses two classes of optical configurations for high power laser amplification, one allowing near-field and the other allowing far-field optical separation, for the multiple passage of laser pulses through one or more amplifiers over an open optical path. These configurations may reimage the amplifier or any other part of the cavity on itself so as to suppress laser beam intensity ripples that arise from diffraction and/or non-linear effects. The optical cavities combine the features of multiple passes, spatial filtering and optical reimaging and allow sufficient time for laser gain recovery.

  12. Near field optical scanning system employing microfabricated solid immersion lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cozier, Kenneth B.; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Kino, Gordon S.; Quate, Calvin F.; Soh, Hyongsok T.

    2002-08-27

    A solid immersion lens integrated on a flexible support such as a cantilever or membrane is described, together with a method of forming the integrated structure.

  13. Conference Paper NFO-7:7th International Conference on Near-Field Optics and Related Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prof.Dr. Lukas Novotny

    2004-10-18

    The seventh conference in the NFO conference series, held here in Rochester, provided to be the principal forum for advances in sub-wavelength optics, near-field optical microscopy, local field enhancement, instrumental developments and the ever-increasing range of applications. This conference brought together the diverse scientific communities working on the theory and application of near-field optics (NFO) and related techniques.

  14. Near-Field Magneto-Optical Microscope (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; FIBER OPTICS; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MICROSCOPES; POLARIZATION; RESOLUTION; DESIGN; OPERATION Word Cloud...

  15. Optical scanning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villarreal, R.A.

    1985-11-06

    An optical scanner employed in a radioactive environment for reading indicia imprinted about a cylindrical surface of an article by means of an optical system including metallic reflective and mirror surfaces resistant to degradation and discoloration otherwise imparted to glass surfaces exposed to radiation is described.

  16. Spectroscopic infrared near-field microscopy and x-ray reflectivity studies of order and clustering in lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Generosi, J.; Margaritondo, G.; Sanghera, J. S.; Aggarwal, I. D.; Tolk, N. H.; Piston, D. W.; Castellano, A. Congiu; Cricenti, A.

    2006-12-04

    Lipid membranes were studied by infrared scanning near-field optical microscopy at several wavelengths and by x-ray reflectivity. Together with the x-ray data, the optical images indicate the formation of locally ordered multiple bilayers, and the topographical micrographs reveal the presence of islands at the surface, both critically important features for biotechnology and medical applications such as biosensors and gene therapy.

  17. Scanning optical microscope with long working distance objective

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2010-10-19

    A scanning optical microscope, including: a light source to generate a beam of probe light; collimation optics to substantially collimate the probe beam; a probe-result beamsplitter; a long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective; scanning means to scan a beam spot of the focused probe beam on or within a sample; relay optics; and a detector. The collimation optics are disposed in the probe beam. The probe-result beamsplitter is arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light from the sample. The beamsplitter reflects the probe beam into the objective and transmits resultant light. The long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective is also arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light. It focuses the reflected probe beam onto the sample, and collects and substantially collimates the resultant light. The relay optics are arranged to relay the transmitted resultant light from the beamsplitter to the detector.

  18. Terahertz near-field imaging of surface plasmon waves in graphene structures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mitrofanov, O.; Yu, W.; Thompson, R. J.; Jiang, Y.; Greenberg, Z. J.; Palmer, J.; Brener, I.; Pan, W.; Berger, C.; de Heer, W. A.; et al

    2015-09-08

    In this study, we introduce a near-field scanning probe terahertz (THz) microscopy technique for probing surface plasmon waves on graphene. Based on THz time-domain spectroscopy method, this near-field imaging approach is well suited for studying the excitation and evolution of THz plasmon waves on graphene as well as for mapping of graphene properties at THz frequencies on the sub-wavelength scale.

  19. SCAN+

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determinemore »the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  20. SCAN+

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determinemore » the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  1. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for the first underground repository for permanent disposal of spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors as well as for other types high-level nuclear waste. Emplacement of high-level radioactive waste, especially commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. The heating rate will decrease with time, creating a thermal pulse. Over a period of several thousand years, the rock temperature will rise initially, then drop when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. Besides raising the rock temperature, much of this heat will vaporize water, which will then condense in cooler regions. The condensate is likely to form a gravity-driven heat pipe above the repository, creating the possibility that water may drain back onto the waste packages (WPs) or that it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. The long-term importance of these effects has been investigated through the development, testing, and application of thermohydrologic (TH) models. Other effects, such coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may also influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. A recent report on thermally driven coupled processes (Hardin and Chesnut, 1997) provides a qualitative assessment of the probable significance of these processes for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) and is the phenomenological framework for the present report. This report describes the conceptual and numerical models that have been developed to predict the thermal, mechanical, hydrologic, and chemical responses to the cumulative heat production of the potential host rock at Yucca Mountain. As proposed, the repository horizon will be situated within the Topopah Spring tuff, in the adjacent middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF/AZ performance. The selection and presentation of contributions are intended to show the iterative development of understand

  2. Optical scanning apparatus for indicia imprinted about a cylindrical axis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villarreal, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    An optical scanner employed in a radioactive environment for reading indicia imprinted about a cylindrical surface of an article by means of an optical system including metallic reflective and mirror surfaces resistant to degradation and discoloration otherwise imparted to glass surfaces exposed to radiation.

  3. A unidirectional subwavelength focusing near-field plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2014-01-28

    Near-field plates consist of non-periodically patterned surfaces that can overcome the diffraction limit and confine electromagnetic fields to subwavelength dimensions. Previous near-field plates experimentally demonstrated extreme field tailoring capabilities. However, their performance suffered from radiation/reflection in undesired directions, those other than the subwavelength focus. This issue can limit the practical use of near-field plates. In this paper, we address this issue by designing a unidirectional near-field plate that can form a subwavelength focal pattern, while suppressing the field radiated/reflected in other directions. The design and operation of the proposed unidirectional near-field plate are verified through full-wave simulation. The unidirectional near-field plate may find application in high resolution imaging and probing, high density data storage, and wireless power transfer systems. As an example, its utility as a high resolution probe is demonstrated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation.

  4. High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-FieldCathodolumine...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-Field Cathodoluminescence of Quantum Dots. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy ...

  5. Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M.

    2014-06-23

    Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.

  6. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, J. E.; Marrese-Reading, C. M.; Thornber, B.; Dang, L.; Johnson, L. K.; Katz, I.

    2007-09-15

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

  7. High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-Field

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cathodoluminescence of Quantum Dots. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-Field Cathodoluminescence of Quantum Dots. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Resolution Photocurrent Microscopy Using Near-Field Cathodoluminescence of Quantum Dots. Abstract not provided. Authors: Talin, Albert Alec Publication Date: 2013-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1145404 Report Number(s): SAND2013-4169J 453180 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource

  8. X-ray optics for scanning fluorescence microscopy and other applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryon, R.W.; Warburton, W.K.

    1992-05-01

    Scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy is analogous to scanning electron microscopy. Maps of chemical element distribution are produced by scanning with a very small x-ray beam. Goal is to perform such scanning microscopy with resolution in the range of <1 to 10 {mu}m, using standard laboratory x-ray tubes. We are investigating mirror optics in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. K-B optics uses two curved mirrors mounted orthogonally along the optical axis. The first mirror provides vertical focus, the second mirror provides horizontal focus. We have used two types of mirrors: synthetic multilayers and crystals. Multilayer mirrors are used with lower energy radiation such as Cu K{alpha}. At higher energies such as Ag K{alpha}, silicon wafers are used in order to increase the incidence angles and thereby the photon collection efficiency. In order to increase the surface area of multilayers which reflects x-rays at the Bragg angle, we have designed mirrors with the spacing between layers graded along the optic axis in order to compensate for the changing angle of incidence. Likewise, to achieve a large reflecting surface with silicon, the wafers are placed on a specially designed lever arm which is bent into a log spiral by applying force at one end. In this way, the same diffracting angle is maintained over the entire surface of the wafer, providing a large solid angle for photon collection.

  9. Apparatus comprising a tunable nanomechanical near-field grating and method for controlling far-field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Dustin Wade; Bogart, Gregory Robert

    2007-02-06

    A tunable nanomechanical near-field grating is disclosed which is capable of varying the intensity of a diffraction mode of an optical output signal. The tunable nanomechanical near-field grating includes two sub-gratings each having line-elements with width and thickness less than the operating wavelength of light with which the grating interacts. Lateral apertures in the two sub-gratings are formed from the space between one line-element of the first sub-grating and at least one line-element of the second sub-grating. One of the sub-gratings is capable of motion such that at least one of aperture width and aperture depth changes, causing a perturbation to the near-field intensity distribution of the tunable nanomechanical near-field grating and a corresponding change to the far-field emission of thereof.

  10. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2010-06-29

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  11. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2009-10-27

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  12. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2009-11-10

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  13. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2010-07-13

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  14. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  15. Near-field radiative heat transfer between metamaterials coated with silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Soumyadipta Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-19

    In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic plasmons associated with s polarization, while strong surface phonon polariton exists for SiC. By careful tuning of the optical properties of metamaterial, it is possible to excite electrical and magnetic resonances for the metamaterial and surface phonon polaritons for SiC at different spectral regions, resulting in the enhanced heat transfer. The effect of the SiC film thickness at different vacuum gaps is investigated. Results obtained from this study will be beneficial for application of thin film coatings for energy harvesting.

  16. System and method for chromatography and electrophoresis using circular optical scanning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balch, Joseph W.; Brewer, Laurence R.; Davidson, James C.; Kimbrough, Joseph R.

    2001-01-01

    A system and method is disclosed for chromatography and electrophoresis using circular optical scanning. One or more rectangular microchannel plates or radial microchannel plates has a set of analysis channels for insertion of molecular samples. One or more scanning devices repeatedly pass over the analysis channels in one direction at a predetermined rotational velocity and with a predetermined rotational radius. The rotational radius may be dynamically varied so as to monitor the molecular sample at various positions along a analysis channel. Sample loading robots may also be used to input molecular samples into the analysis channels. Radial microchannel plates are built from a substrate whose analysis channels are disposed at a non-parallel angle with respect to each other. A first step in the method accesses either a rectangular or radial microchannel plate, having a set of analysis channels, and second step passes a scanning device repeatedly in one direction over the analysis channels. As a third step, the scanning device is passed over the analysis channels at dynamically varying distances from a centerpoint of the scanning device. As a fourth step, molecular samples are loaded into the analysis channels with a robot.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding Excavation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding Excavations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding ...

  18. Near-field effects of asteroid impacts in deep water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gisler, Galen R; Weaver, Robert P; Gittings, Michael L

    2009-06-11

    Our previous work has shown that ocean impacts of asteroids below 500 m in diameter do not produce devastating long-distance tsunamis. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the ocean lies close enough to land that near-field effects may prove to be the greatest danger from asteroid impacts in the ocean. Crown splashes and central jets that rise up many kilometres into the atmosphere can produce, upon their collapse, highly non-linear breaking waves that could devastate shorelines within a hundred kilometres of the impact site. We present illustrative calculations, in two and three dimensions, of such impacts for a range of asteroid sizes and impact angles. We find that, as for land impacts, the greatest dangers from oceanic impacts are the short-term near-field, and long-term atmospheric effects.

  19. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-12-15

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

  20. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Diana C.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones; Steven M.

    2010-02-23

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.

  1. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2015-05-14

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency.

  2. Terahertz Near-Field Imaging of Surface Plasmon Waves in Graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Terahertz Near-Field Imaging of Surface Plasmon Waves in Graphene Structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Terahertz Near-Field Imaging of Surface Plasmon Waves in...

  3. Near-field microwave microscopy of high-? oxides grown on graphene with an organic seeding layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tselev, Alexander Kalinin, Sergei V.; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.; Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208

    2013-12-09

    Near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) is used for non-destructive nanoscale characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} films grown on epitaxial graphene on SiC by atomic layer deposition using a self-assembled perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride seeding layer. SMM allows imaging of buried inhomogeneities in the dielectric layer with a spatial resolution close to 100?nm. The results indicate that, while topographic features on the substrate surface cannot be eliminated as possible sites of defect nucleation, the use of a vertically heterogeneous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} stack suppresses formation of large outgrowth defects in the oxide film, ultimately improving lateral uniformity of the dielectric film.

  4. A novel mathematical model for controllable near-field electrospinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ru, Changhai E-mail: luojun@shu.edu.cn; Robotics and Microsystems Center, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 ; Chen, Jie; Shao, Zhushuai; Pang, Ming; Luo, Jun E-mail: luojun@shu.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    Near-field electrospinning (NFES) had better controllability than conventional electrospinning. However, due to the lack of guidance of theoretical model, precise deposition of micro/nano fibers could only accomplished by experience. To analyze the behavior of charged jet in NFES using mathematical model, the momentum balance equation was simplified and a new expression between jet cross-sectional radius and axial position was derived. Using this new expression and mass conservation equation, expressions for jet cross-sectional radius and velocity were derived in terms of axial position and initial jet acceleration in the form of exponential functions. Based on Slender-body theory and Giesekus model, a quadratic equation for initial jet acceleration was acquired. With the proposed model, it was able to accurately predict the diameter and velocity of polymer fibers in NFES, and mathematical analysis rather than experimental methods could be applied to study the effects of the process parameters in NFES. Moreover, the movement velocity of the collector stage can be regulated by mathematical model rather than experience. Therefore, the model proposed in this paper had important guiding significance to precise deposition of polymer fibers.

  5. Photoconductive terahertz near-field detector with a hybrid nanoantenna array cavity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting S.; Reno, John L.

    2015-11-19

    Nanoscale structuring of optical materials leads to modification of their properties and can be used for improving efficiencies of photonic devices and for enabling new functionalities. In ultrafast optoelectronic switches for generation and detection of terahertz (THz) radiation, incorporation of nanostructures allows us to overcome inherent limitations of photoconductive materials. We propose and demonstrate a nanostructured photoconductive THz detector for sampling highly localized THz fields, down to the level of λ/150. The nanostructure that consists of an array of optical nanoantennas and a distributed Bragg reflector forms a hybrid cavity, which traps optical gate pulses within the photoconductive layer. Themore » effect of photon trapping is observed as enhanced absorption at a designed wavelength. This optically thin photoconductive THz detector allows us to detect highly confined evanescent THz fields coupled through a deeply subwavelength aperture as small as 2 μm (λ/150 at 1 THz). As a result, by monolithically integrating the THz detector with apertures ranging from 2 to 5 μm we realize higher spatial resolution and higher sensitivity in aperture-type THz near-field microscopy and THz time-domain spectroscopy.« less

  6. Photoconductive terahertz near-field detector with a hybrid nanoantenna array cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting S.; Reno, John L.

    2015-11-19

    Nanoscale structuring of optical materials leads to modification of their properties and can be used for improving efficiencies of photonic devices and for enabling new functionalities. In ultrafast optoelectronic switches for generation and detection of terahertz (THz) radiation, incorporation of nanostructures allows us to overcome inherent limitations of photoconductive materials. We propose and demonstrate a nanostructured photoconductive THz detector for sampling highly localized THz fields, down to the level of λ/150. The nanostructure that consists of an array of optical nanoantennas and a distributed Bragg reflector forms a hybrid cavity, which traps optical gate pulses within the photoconductive layer. The effect of photon trapping is observed as enhanced absorption at a designed wavelength. This optically thin photoconductive THz detector allows us to detect highly confined evanescent THz fields coupled through a deeply subwavelength aperture as small as 2 μm (λ/150 at 1 THz). As a result, by monolithically integrating the THz detector with apertures ranging from 2 to 5 μm we realize higher spatial resolution and higher sensitivity in aperture-type THz near-field microscopy and THz time-domain spectroscopy.

  7. Near-field modeling in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pohlmann, K.; Shirley, C.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the effects of nuclear testing in underground test areas (the UGTA program) at the Nevada Test Site. The principal focus of the UGTA program is to better understand and define subsurface radionuclide migration. The study described in this report focuses on the development of tools for generating maps of hydrogeologic characteristics of subsurface Tertiary volcanic units at the Frenchman Flat corrective Action Unit (CAU). The process includes three steps. The first step involves generation of three-dimensional maps of the geologic structure of subsurface volcanic units using geophysical logs to distinguish between two classes: densely welded tuff and nonwelded tuff. The second step generates three-dimensional maps of hydraulic conductivity utilizing the spatial distribution of the two geologic classes obtained in the first step. Each class is described by a correlation structure based on existing data on hydraulic conductivity, and conditioned on the generated spatial location of each class. The final step demonstrates the use of the maps of hydraulic conductivity for modeling groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in volcanic tuffs from an underground nuclear test at the Frenchman Flat CAU. The results indicate that the majority of groundwater flow through the volcanic section occurs through zones of densely welded tuff where connected fractures provide the transport pathway. Migration rates range between near zero to approximately four m/yr, with a mean rate of 0.68 m/yr. This report presents the results of work under the FY96 Near-Field Modeling task of the UGTA program.

  8. Nonlinear optical properties of bulk cuprous oxide using single beam Z-scan at 790?nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serna, J.; Rueda, E.; García, H.

    2014-11-10

    The two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient ? and the nonlinear index of refraction n{sub 2} for bulk cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) direct gap semiconductor single crystal have been measured by using a balance-detection Z-scan single beam technique, with an excellent signal to noise ratio. Both coefficients were measured at 790?nm using a 65 fs laser pulse at a repetition rate of 90.9?MHz, generated by a Ti:Sapphire laser oscillator. The experimental values for ? were explained by using a model that includes allowed-allowed, forbidden-allowed, and forbidden-forbidden transitions. It was found that the forbidden-forbidden transition is the dominant mechanism, which is consistent with the band structure of Cu{sub 2}O. The low value for ? found in bulk, as compared with respect to thin film, is explained in terms of the structural change in thin films that result in opposite parities of the conduction and valence band. The n{sub 2} is also theoretically calculated by using the TPA dispersion curve and the Kramers-Kronig relations for nonlinear optics.

  9. Determination of pigments in colour layers on walls of some selected historical buildings using optical and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skapin, A. Sever Ropret, P. Bukovec, P.

    2007-11-15

    For successful restoration of painted walls and painted coloured finishing coats it is necessary to determine the composition of the original colour layers. Identification of the pigments used in The Cistercian Abbey of Sticna and The Manor of Novo Celje was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples of wall paintings were inspected by the combined application of an optical microscope and a low-vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope to determine their colour and structural features and to identify the position of individual pigment grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine the elemental distribution on selected surfaces and elemental composition of individual pigments. It was found that the most abundantly used pigments were iron oxide red, cinnabar, green earth, umber, calcium carbonate white, ultramarine, yellow ochre and carbon black. These identifications have allowed us to compare the use of various pigments in buildings from different historical periods.

  10. Lessons Learned from the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Near Field Data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Associated Modeling Efforts (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Lessons Learned from the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Near Field Data and Associated Modeling Efforts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lessons Learned from the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Near Field Data and Associated Modeling Efforts Authors: Antoun, T ; Vorobiev, O ; Ezzedine, S ; Glenn, L Publication Date: 2015-12-23 OSTI Identifier: 1237559 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-680536 DOE Contract Number:

  11. Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding Excavations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding Excavations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding Excavations Authors: Kelkar, Sharad M. [1] ; Stauffer, Philip H. [1] ; Robinson, Bruce Alan [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2015-01-09 OSTI Identifier: 1167232 Report Number(s): LA-UR-14-27717 DOE Contract Number:

  12. A GPU-based Calculation Method for Near Field Effects of Cherenkov

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Induced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Neutrinos (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: A GPU-based Calculation Method for Near Field Effects of Cherenkov Radiation Induced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Neutrinos Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A GPU-based Calculation Method for Near Field Effects of Cherenkov Radiation Induced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Neutrinos Authors: Hu, Chia-Yu ; Chen, Chih-Ching ; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. ; Chen,

  13. Elucidating the sole contribution from electromagnetic near-fields in plasmon-enhanced Cu2O photocathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DuChene, Joseph S.; Williams, Benjamin P.; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Qiu, Jingjing; Gomes, Mathieu; Amilhau, Maxime; Bejleri, Donald; Weng, Jiena; Su, Dong; Huo, Fengwei; et al

    2015-11-05

    Despite many promising reports of plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis, the inability to identify the individual contributions from multiple enhancement mechanisms has delayed the development of general design rules for engineering efficient plasmonic photocatalysts. Herein, we construct a plasmonic photocathode comprised of Au@SiO2 (core@shell) nanoparticles embedded within a Cu2O nanowire network to exclusively examine the contribution from one such mechanism: electromagnetic near-field enhancement. The influence of the local electromagnetic field intensity is correlated with the overall light-harvesting efficiency of the device through variation of the SiO2 shell thickness (5—22 nm) to systematically tailor the distance between the plasmonic Au nanoparticles and the Cu2Omore » nanowires. A three-fold increase in device photocurrent is achieved upon integrating the Au@SiO2 nanoparticles into the Cu2O nanowire network, further enabling a ~40% reduction in semiconductor film thickness while maintaining photocathode performance. Photoelectrochemical results are further correlated with photoluminescence studies and optical simulations to confirm that the near-field enhancement is the sole mechanism responsible for increased light absorption in the plasmonic photocathode.« less

  14. Parallel-plate submicron gap formed by micromachined low-density pillars for near-field radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Kota; Miura, Atsushi; Iizuka, Hideo; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2015-02-23

    Near-field radiative heat transfer has been a subject of great interest due to the applicability to thermal management and energy conversion. In this letter, a submicron gap between a pair of diced fused quartz substrates is formed by using micromachined low-density pillars to obtain both the parallelism and small parasitic heat conduction. The gap uniformity is validated by the optical interferometry at four corners of the substrates. The heat flux across the gap is measured in a steady-state and is no greater than twice of theoretically predicted radiative heat flux, which indicates that the parasitic heat conduction is suppressed to the level of the radiative heat transfer or less. The heat conduction through the pillars is modeled, and it is found to be limited by the thermal contact resistance between the pillar top and the opposing substrate surface. The methodology to form and evaluate the gap promotes the near-field radiative heat transfer to various applications such as thermal rectification, thermal modulation, and thermophotovoltaics.

  15. Noise analysis for near field 3-D FM-CW radar imaging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, David M.

    2015-06-19

    Near field radar imaging systems are used for several applications including concealed weapon detection in airports and other high-security venues. Despite the near-field operation, phase noise and thermal noise can limit the performance in several ways including reduction in system sensitivity and reduction of image dynamic range. In this paper, the effects of thermal noise, phase noise, and processing gain are analyzed in the context of a near field 3-D FM-CW imaging radar as might be used for concealed weapon detection. In addition to traditional frequency domain analysis, a time-domain simulation is employed to graphically demonstrate the effect of these noise sources on a fast-chirping FM-CW system.

  16. Near-Field Spectroscopy and Imaging of Subwavelength Plasmonic Terahertz Resonators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Khromova, Irina; Siday, Thomas; Thompson, Robert J.; Ponomarev, Andrey N.; Brener, Igal; Reno, John L.

    2016-04-22

    We describe the temporal evolution of the terahertz (THz) field leading to the excitation of plasmonic resonances in carbon microfibers. The field evolution is mapped in space and time for the 3/2 wavelength resonance using a subwavelength aperture THz near-field probe with an embedded THz photoconductive detector. The excitation of surface waves at the fiber tips leads to the formation of a standing wave along the fiber. Local THz time-domain spectroscopy at one of the standing wave crests shows a clear third-order resonance peak at 1.65 THz, well described by the Lorentz model. Lastly, this application of the subwavelength aperturemore » THz near-field microscopy for mode mapping and local spectroscopy demonstrates the potential of near-field methods for studies of subwavelength plasmonic THz resonators.« less

  17. Local extinction and near-field structure in piloted turbulent CH4/air jet

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    flames with inhomogeneous inlets (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Local extinction and near-field structure in piloted turbulent CH4/air jet flames with inhomogeneous inlets Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 14, 2017 Title: Local extinction and near-field structure in piloted turbulent CH4/air jet flames with inhomogeneous inlets Authors: Barlow, R. S. Search SciTech Connect for author "Barlow, R. S." Search SciTech

  18. NEAR FIELD MODELING OF SPE1 EXPERIMENT AND PREDICTION OF THE SECOND SOURCE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS (SPE2) (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect NEAR FIELD MODELING OF SPE1 EXPERIMENT AND PREDICTION OF THE SECOND SOURCE PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS (SPE2) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NEAR FIELD MODELING OF SPE1 EXPERIMENT AND PREDICTION OF THE SECOND SOURCE PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS (SPE2) Motion along joints and fractures in the rock has been proposed as one of the sources of near-source shear wave generation, and demonstrating the validity of this hypothesis is a focal

  19. Near field and altered zone environmental report Volume I: technical bases for EBS design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilder, D. G., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an updated summary of results for the waste package (WP) and engineered barrier system (EBS) evaluations, including materials testing, waste-form characterization, EBS performance assessments, and near-field environment (NFE) characterization. Materials testing, design criteria and concept development, and waste-form characterization all require an understanding of the environmental conditions that will interact with the WP and EBS. The Near-Field Environment Report (NFER) was identified in the Waste Package Plan (WPP) (Harrison- Giesler, 1991) as the formal means for transmitting and documenting this information.

  20. Benchmark Modeling of the Near-Field and Far-Field Wave Effects of Wave Energy Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E.; Haller, Merrick C.; Ozkan-Haller, H. Tuba

    2013-01-26

    This project is an industry-led partnership between Columbia Power Technologies and Oregon State University that will perform benchmark laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the near-field and far-field impacts of wave scattering from an array of wave energy devices. These benchmark experimental observations will help to fill a gaping hole in our present knowledge of the near-field effects of multiple, floating wave energy converters and are a critical requirement for estimating the potential far-field environmental effects of wave energy arrays. The experiments will be performed at the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (Oregon State University) and will utilize an array of newly developed Buoys that are realistic, lab-scale floating power converters. The array of Buoys will be subjected to realistic, directional wave forcing (1:33 scale) that will approximate the expected conditions (waves and water depths) to be found off the Central Oregon Coast. Experimental observations will include comprehensive in-situ wave and current measurements as well as a suite of novel optical measurements. These new optical capabilities will include imaging of the 3D wave scattering using a binocular stereo camera system, as well as 3D device motion tracking using a newly acquired LED system. These observing systems will capture the 3D motion history of individual Buoys as well as resolve the 3D scattered wave field; thus resolving the constructive and destructive wave interference patterns produced by the array at high resolution. These data combined with the device motion tracking will provide necessary information for array design in order to balance array performance with the mitigation of far-field impacts. As a benchmark data set, these data will be an important resource for testing of models for wave/buoy interactions, buoy performance, and far-field effects on wave and current patterns due to the presence of arrays. Under the proposed project we will initiate high-resolution (fine scale, very near-field) fluid/structure interaction simulations of buoy motions, as well as array-scale, phase-resolving wave scattering simulations. These modeling efforts will utilize state-of-the-art research quality models, which have not yet been brought to bear on this complex problem of large array wave/structure interaction problem.

  1. Photon sorting in the near field using subwavelength cavity arrays in the near-infrared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandel, Isroel M. Lansey, Eli; Gollub, Jonah N.; Sarantos, Chris H.; Akhmechet, Roman; Golovin, Andrii B.; Crouse, David T.

    2013-12-16

    A frequency selective metasurface capable of sorting photons in the near-infrared spectral range is designed, fabricated, and characterized. The metasurface, a periodic array of dielectric cylindrical cavities in a gold film, localizes and transmits light of two spectral frequency bands into spatially separated cavities, resulting in near-field light splitting. The design and fabrication methodologies of the metasurface are discussed. The transmittance and photon sorting properties of the designed structure is simulated numerically and the measured transmission is presented.

  2. Laminar and turbulent nozzle-jet flows and their acoustic near-field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bühler, Stefan; Obrist, Dominik; Kleiser, Leonhard

    2014-08-15

    We investigate numerically the effects of nozzle-exit flow conditions on the jet-flow development and the near-field sound at a diameter-based Reynolds number of Re{sub D} = 18?100 and Mach number Ma = 0.9. Our computational setup features the inclusion of a cylindrical nozzle which allows to establish a physical nozzle-exit flow and therefore well-defined initial jet-flow conditions. Within the nozzle, the flow is modeled by a potential flow core and a laminar, transitional, or developing turbulent boundary layer. The goal is to document and to compare the effects of the different jet inflows on the jet flow development and the sound radiation. For laminar and transitional boundary layers, transition to turbulence in the jet shear layer is governed by the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. With the turbulent nozzle boundary layer, the jet flow development is characterized by a rapid changeover to a turbulent free shear layer within about one nozzle diameter. Sound pressure levels are strongly enhanced for laminar and transitional exit conditions compared to the turbulent case. However, a frequency and frequency-wavenumber analysis of the near-field pressure indicates that the dominant sound radiation characteristics remain largely unaffected. By applying a recently developed scaling procedure, we obtain a close match of the scaled near-field sound spectra for all nozzle-exit turbulence levels and also a reasonable agreement with experimental far-field data.

  3. Low level absorptance measurements and scans of high performance optical coatings for atomic vapor laser isotope separation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Taylor, J.R.; Wu, Z.L.; Krupka, R.; Yang, T.

    1998-01-24

    A surface thermal lensing and a radiometric technique was used to characterize the absorptance dependence on time, power, site, and technique of low absorptance optical multilayered coatings.

  4. Indium tin oxide nanowires as hyperbolic metamaterials for near-field radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Jui-Yung; Basu, Soumyadipta Wang, Liping

    2015-02-07

    We investigate near-field radiative heat transfer between Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowire arrays which behave as type 1 and 2 hyperbolic metamaterials. Using spatial dispersion dependent effective medium theory to model the dielectric function of the nanowires, the impact of filling fraction on the heat transfer is analyzed. Depending on the filling fraction, it is possible to achieve both types of hyperbolic modes. At 150?nm vacuum gap, the heat transfer between the nanowires with 0.5 filling fraction can be 11 times higher than that between two bulk ITOs. For vacuum gaps less than 150?nm the heat transfer increases as the filling fraction decreases. Results obtained from this study will facilitate applications of ITO nanowires as hyperbolic metamaterials for energy systems.

  5. Dipolar resonances in conductive carbon micro-fibers probed by near-field terahertz spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khromova, I.; Navarro-Cía, M.; Brener, I.; Reno, J. L.; Ponomarev, A.; Mitrofanov, O.

    2015-07-13

    In this study, we observe dipole resonances in thin conductive carbon micro-fibers by detecting an enhanced electric field in the near-field of a single fiber at terahertz (THz) frequencies. Time-domain analysis of the electric field shows that each fiber sustains resonant current oscillations at the frequency defined by the fiber's length. Strong dependence of the observed resonance frequency and degree of field enhancement on the fibers' conductive properties enable direct non-contact probing of the THz conductivity in single carbon micro-fibers. We find the conductivity of the fibers to be within the range of 1– 5∙104 S/m. This approach is suitablemore » for experimental characterization of individual doped semiconductor resonators for THz metamaterials and devices.« less

  6. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PD Meyer; RJ Serne

    1999-12-21

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method for disposing of the portion that is classified as immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) is to vitrify the waste and place the product in new-surface, shallow land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment (PA) Activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists LMHC in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL's tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information are contained in this report, the Near-Field Hydrology Data Package.

  7. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinn, Diane; Stolz, Christopher J.; Wu, Zhouling; Huber, Robert; Weinzapfel, Carolyn

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  8. Elucidating the sole contribution from electromagnetic near-fields in plasmon-enhanced Cu2O photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DuChene, Joseph S.; Williams, Benjamin P.; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Qiu, Jingjing; Gomes, Mathieu; Amilhau, Maxime; Bejleri, Donald; Weng, Jiena; Su, Dong; Huo, Fengwei; Stach, Eric A.; Wei, Wei David

    2015-11-05

    Despite many promising reports of plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis, the inability to identify the individual contributions from multiple enhancement mechanisms has delayed the development of general design rules for engineering efficient plasmonic photocatalysts. Herein, we construct a plasmonic photocathode comprised of Au@SiO2 (core@shell) nanoparticles embedded within a Cu2O nanowire network to exclusively examine the contribution from one such mechanism: electromagnetic near-field enhancement. The influence of the local electromagnetic field intensity is correlated with the overall light-harvesting efficiency of the device through variation of the SiO2 shell thickness (5—22 nm) to systematically tailor the distance between the plasmonic Au nanoparticles and the Cu2O nanowires. A three-fold increase in device photocurrent is achieved upon integrating the Au@SiO2 nanoparticles into the Cu2O nanowire network, further enabling a ~40% reduction in semiconductor film thickness while maintaining photocathode performance. Photoelectrochemical results are further correlated with photoluminescence studies and optical simulations to confirm that the near-field enhancement is the sole mechanism responsible for increased light absorption in the plasmonic photocathode.

  9. Nanomechanical near-field grating apparatus and acceleration sensor formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Dustin Wade; Bogart, Gregory Robert; Keeler, Bianca E. N.

    2008-03-04

    A nanomechanical near-field grating device is disclosed which includes two sub-gratings vertically spaced by a distance less than or equal to an operating wavelength. Each sub-grating includes a plurality of line-elements spaced apart by a distance less than or equal to the operating wavelength. A light source (e.g., a VCSEL or LED) can provide light at the operating wavelength for operation of the device. The device can operate as an active grating, with the intensity of a reflected or transmitted portion of the light varying as the relative positions of the sub-gratings are controlled by an actuator. The device can also operate as a passive grating, with the relative positions of the sub-gratings changing in response to an environmentally-induced force due to acceleration, impact, shock, vibration, gravity, etc. Since the device can be adapted to sense an acceleration that is directed laterally or vertically, a plurality of devices can be located on a common substrate to form a multi-axis acceleration sensor.

  10. Near-Field Hydrology Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility 2005 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Saripalli, Prasad; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2004-06-25

    CH2MHill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is designing and assessing the performance of an Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) to receive immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), Low-Level and Mixed Low-Level Wastes (LLW/MLLW), and the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) melters used to vitrify the ILAW. The IDF Performance Assessment (PA) assesses the performance of the disposal facility to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface water resources, and inadvertent intruders. The PA requires prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities, which is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the pore water of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists CHG in its performance assessment activities. One of PNNL’s tasks is to provide estimates of the physical, hydraulic, and transport properties of the materials comprising the disposal facilities and the disturbed region around them. These materials are referred to as the near-field materials. Their properties are expressed as parameters of constitutive models used in simulations of subsurface flow and transport. In addition to the best-estimate parameter values, information on uncertainty in the parameter values and estimates of the changes in parameter values over time are required to complete the PA. These parameter estimates and information were previously presented in a report prepared for the 2001 ILAW PA. This report updates the parameter estimates for the 2005 IDF PA using additional information and data collected since publication of the earlier report.

  11. Electromagnetic model for near-field microwave microscope with atomic resolution: Determination of tunnel junction impedance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reznik, Alexander N.

    2014-08-25

    An electrodynamic model is proposed for the tunneling microwave microscope with subnanometer space resolution as developed by Lee et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183111 (2010)]. Tip-sample impedance Z{sub a} was introduced and studied in the tunneling and non-tunneling regimes. At tunneling breakdown, the microwave current between probe and sample flows along two parallel channels characterized by impedances Z{sub p} and Z{sub t} that add up to form overall impedance Z{sub a}. Quantity Z{sub p} is the capacitive impedance determined by the near field of the probe and Z{sub t} is the impedance of the tunnel junction. By taking into account the distance dependences of effective tip radius r{sub 0}(z) and tunnel resistance R{sub t}(z)?=?Re[Z{sub t}(z)], we were able to explain the experimentally observed dependences of resonance frequency f{sub r}(z) and quality factor Q{sub L}(z) of the microscope. The obtained microwave resistance R{sub t}(z) and direct current tunnel resistance R{sub t}{sup dc}(z) exhibit qualitatively similar behavior, although being largely different in both magnitude and the characteristic scale of height dependence. Interpretation of the microwave images of the atomic structure of test samples proved possible by taking into account the inductive component of tunnel impedance ImZ{sub t}?=??L{sub t}. Relation ?L{sub t}/R{sub t}???0.235 was obtained.

  12. Report on THMC Modeling of the Near Field Evolution of a Generic Clay Repository: Model Validation and Demonstration Rev 2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Shale and clay-rich rock formations have been considered as potential host rocks for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world: modeling thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) of the near field of generic clay repository is discussed.

  13. Near Field Intensity Trends of Main Laser Alignment Images in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, R R; Beltsar, I; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Kamm, V M; Salmon, T; Wilhelmsen, K

    2015-01-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes 192 high-energy laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to potentially initiate a fusion reaction. NIF has been operational for six years; during that time, thousands of successful laser firings or shots have been executed. Critical instrument measurements and camera images are carefully recorded for each shot. The result is a massive and complex database or ‘big data’ archive that can be used to investigate the state of the laser system at any point in its history or to locate and track trends in the laser operation over time. In this study, the optical light throughput for more than 1600 NIF shots for each of the 192 main laser beams and 48 quads was measured over a three year period from January 2009 to October 2012. The purpose was to verify that the variation in the transmission of light through the optics over time performed within design expectations during this time period. Differences between average or integrated intensity from images recorded by the input sensor package (ISP) and by the output sensor package (OSP) in the NIF beam-line were examined. A metric is described for quantifying changes in the integrated intensity measurements and was used to view potential trends. Results are presented for the NIF input and output sensor package trends and changes over the three year time-frame.

  14. Scanning evanescent electro-magnetic microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Schultz, Peter G.; Wei, Tao

    2003-01-01

    A novel scanning microscope is described that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties. The novel microscope is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The inventive scanning evanescent wave electromagnetic microscope (SEMM) can map dielectric constant, tangent loss, conductivity, complex electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. The quantitative map corresponds to the imaged detail. The novel microscope can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  15. Scanning evanescent electro-magnetic microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen

    2001-01-01

    A novel scanning microscope is described that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties. The novel microscope is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The inventive scanning evanescent wave electromagnetic microscope (SEMM) can map dielectric constant, tangent loss, conductivity, complex electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. The quantitative map corresponds to the imaged detail. The novel microscope can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  16. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, John S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  17. Optical microspectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2004-05-25

    An optical microspectrometer comprises a grism to disperse the spectra in a line object. A single optical microspectrometer can be used to sequentially scan a planar object, such as a dye-tagged microchip. Because the optical microspectrometer is very compact, multiple optical microspectrometers can be arrayed to provide simultaneous readout across the width of the planar object The optical microspectrometer can be fabricated with lithographic process, such as deep X-ray lithography (DXRL), with as few as two perpendicular exposures.

  18. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California, as a near-field natural analog of a radioactive waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-11-01

    Since high concentrations of radionuclides and high temperatures are not normally encountered in salt domes or beds, finding an exact geologic analog of expected near-field conditions in a mined nuclear waste repository in salt will be difficult. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, however, provides an opportunity to investigate the migration and retardation of naturally occurring U, Th, Ra, Cs, Sr and other elements in hot brines which have been moving through clay-rich sedimentary rocks for up to 100,000 years. The more than thirty deep wells drilled in this field to produce steam for electrical generation penetrate sedimentary rocks containing concentrated brines where temperatures reach 365/sup 0/C at only 2 km depth. The brines are primarily Na, K, Ca chlorides with up to 25% of total dissolved solids; they also contain high concentrations of metals such as Fe, Mn, Li, Zn, and Pb. This report describes the geology, geophysics and geochemistry of this system as a prelude to a study of the mobility of naturally occurring radionuclides and radionuclide analogs within it. The aim of this study is to provide data to assist in validating quantitative models of repository behavior and to use in designing and evaluating waste packages and engineered barriers. 128 references, 33 figures, 13 tables.

  19. Near-field thermal radiative transfer and thermoacoustic effects from vapor plumes produced by pulsed CO{sub 2} laser ablation of bulk water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Lyon, Kevin; Allen, S. D.

    2006-12-15

    Submillimeter deep heating of bulk water by thermal radiation from ablative water plumes produced by a 10.6 {mu}m transversely excited atmospheric CO{sub 2} laser and the related acoustic generation has been studied using a contact time-resolved photoacoustic technique. Effective penetration depths of thermal radiation in water were measured as a function of incident laser fluence and the corresponding plume temperatures were estimated. The near-field thermal and thermoacoustic effects of thermal radiation in laser-ablated bulk water and their potential near-field implications are discussed.

  20. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  1. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  2. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL to characterize the planetary boundary layer height (PBL) and the transition zone thickness, for the RACORO and CARES and CalNex campaigns as we have done for previous campaigns. 4. Investigated how optical properties measured by HSRL vary near clouds. 5. Assessed model simulations of aerosol spatial distributions and optical and microphysical properties.

  3. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R.

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  4. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2009-06-23

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  5. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2013-01-22

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  6. Expected near-field thermal environments in a sequentially loaded spent-fuel or high-level waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Arbital, J.G.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the effect of realistic waste emplacement schedules on repository thermal environments. Virtually all estimates to date have been based on instantaneous loading of wastes having uniform properties throughout the repository. However, more realistic scenarios involving sequential emplacement of wastes reflect the gradual filling of the repository over its lifetime. These cases provide temperatures that can be less extreme than with the simple approximation. At isolated locations in the repository, the temperatures approach the instantaneous-loading limit. However, for most of the repository, temperature rises in the near-field are 10 to 40 years behind the conservative estimates depending on the waste type and the location in the repository. Results are presented for both spent-fuel and high-level reprocessing waste repositories in salt, for a regional repository concept, and for a single national repository concept. The national repository is filled sooner and therefore more closely approximates the instantaneously loaded repository. However, temperatures in the near-field are still 20/sup 0/C or more below the values in the simple model for 40 years after startup of repository emplacement operations. The results suggest that current repository design concepts based on the instantaneous-loading predictions are very conservative. Therefore, experiments to monitor temperatures in a test and evaluation facility, for example, will need to take into account the reduced temperatures in order to provide data used in predicting repository performance.

  7. Simultaneous near-field and far-field imaging of the 11.9-nm Ni-like Sn soft-x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staub, F.; Braud, M.; Balmer, J.E.; Nilsen, J.; Bajt, S.

    2004-07-01

    We report on two-dimensional near-field imaging experiments of the 11.9-nm Sn x-ray laser that were performed with a set of Mo/Y multilayer mirrors having reflectivities of up to {approx}45% at normal and at 45 deg. incidence. Second-moment analysis of the x-ray laser emission was used to determine values of the x-ray beam propagation factor M{sup 2} for a range of irradiation parameters. The results reveal a reduction of M{sup 2} with increasing prepulse amplitude. The spatial size of the output is a factor of {approx}2 smaller than previously measured for the 14.7-nm Pd x-ray laser, while the distance of the x-ray emission with respect to the target surface remains roughly the same.

  8. ARM Scanning Radar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scanning Radar Azores Graciosa Deployment Cloud Climatology for Azores AMF Site: Graciosa Island in the Azores (28 o W 39 o N) * Small Low Island * No Direct Continental Influence * MBL Depths 1-2 km Stratocumulus Cumulus Under Stratocumulus Small Cumulus Large Cumulus Avg Winds Scanning W-band ARM Cloud Radar Same radar frequency as NASA's CloudSat Capable of detecting all radiatively significant clouds in a radius of 5-10* km Scanning capabilities: 1. Horizon to Horizon (fixed azimuth) 2.

  9. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  10. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  11. High throughput optical scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

  12. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  13. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  14. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Scanning Defect Mapping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Defect Mapping Using optical scattering in the scanning defect mapping system (SDMS) produces a way to quickly identify and map defect distributions in silicon semiconductor wafers. In this process, a wafer is first treated with a National-Renewable-Energy-Laboratory-developed etch of hydrofluoric, acetic, and nitric acids to enhance the light scattered by the defects. The SDMS moves the treated wafer across a stationary laser beam and maps the defects for each location on the wafer. The amount

  15. Solid state optical microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  16. Solid state optical microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  17. Only critical information was scanned

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Only critical information was scanned. Entire document is available upon request - Click here to email a...

  18. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oliver, Warren C. (Knoxville, TN); Blau, Peter J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  19. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  20. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  1. Free motion scanning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sword, Charles K. (Pleasant Hills, PA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner system and method for the imaging of a part system, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface of the part including at least two tracking signals for emitting radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of the waves to be reflected from the part, at least one detector for receiving the radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive the radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzer for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals based on the emitted radiation, a differential converter for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a device such as a computer for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.

  2. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R.

    2001-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  3. Molecular near-field antenna effect in resonance hyper-Raman scattering: Intermolecular vibronic intensity borrowing of solvent from solute through dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, Rintaro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o

    2014-05-28

    We quantitatively interpret the recently discovered intriguing phenomenon related to resonance Hyper-Raman (HR) scattering. In resonance HR spectra of all-trans-?-carotene (?-carotene) in solution, vibrations of proximate solvent molecules are observed concomitantly with the solute ?-carotene HR bands. It has been shown that these solvent bands are subject to marked intensity enhancements by more than 5 orders of magnitude under the presence of ?-carotene. We have called this phenomenon the molecular-near field effect. Resonance HR spectra of ?-carotene in benzene, deuterated benzene, cyclohexane, and deuterated cyclohexane have been measured precisely for a quantitative analysis of this effect. The assignments of the observed peaks are made by referring to the infrared, Raman, and HR spectra of neat solvents. It has been revealed that infrared active and some Raman active vibrations are active in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed spectra in the form of difference spectra (between benzene/deuterated benzene and cyclohexane/deuterated cyclohexane) are quantitatively analyzed on the basis of the extended vibronic theory of resonance HR scattering. The theory incorporates the coupling of excited electronic states of ?-carotene with the vibrations of a proximate solvent molecule through solute–solvent dipole–dipole and dipole–quadrupole interactions. It is shown that the infrared active modes arise from the dipole–dipole interaction, whereas Raman active modes from the dipole–quadrupole interaction. It is also shown that vibrations that give strongly polarized Raman bands are weak in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed solvent HR spectra are simulated with the help of quantum chemical calculations for various orientations and distances of a solvent molecule with respect to the solute. The observed spectra are best simulated with random orientations of the solvent molecule at an intermolecular distance of 10 Å.

  4. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webber, Nels W.

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  5. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  6. Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR): Instrument Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunagan, Stephen; Johnson, Roy; Zavaleta, Jhony; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Flynn, Connor J.; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Livingston, J.; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal

    2013-08-06

    The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) combines airborne sun tracking and sky scanning with diffraction spectroscopy, to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air-pollution/climate. Direct beam hyper-spectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements will tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/ sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. Technical challenges include compact optical collector design, radiometric dynamic range and stability, and broad spectral coverage. Test results establishing the performance of the instrument against the full range of operational requirements are presented, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and scientific field campaign data and results.

  7. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross J.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-10-15

    We outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. The impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  8. Analysis of Contribution from Edge Radiation to Optical Diffraction Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Liu, P. Evtushenko, A. Freyberger, C. Liu, A.H. Lumpkin

    2009-05-01

    Beam size measurement with near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) has been carried out successfully at CEBAF. The ODR station is installed on the Hall-A beam line after eight bending magnets. The ODR images were affected by an unexpected radiation. Some calculations for analyzing the source of the radiation will be presented. Furthermore, two schemes will be proposed to alleviate the contamination.

  9. ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Cross-Wind RHI Scan...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cross-Wind RHI Scan Title: ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Cross-Wind RHI Scan X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Cross-Wind RHI Scan Authors: Dan Nelson ; Joseph ...

  10. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  11. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Brown, G.

    2015-10-07

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine powermore »performance analysis and annual energy production. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation when arc scans are used for wind resource assessment.« less

  12. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  13. Scanning probe microscopy competency development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawley, M.E.; Reagor, D.W.; Jia, Quan Xi

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project collaborators developed an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (UHV-STM) capability, integrated it with existing scanning probe microscopes, and developed new, advanced air-based scanning force techniques (SPMs). Programmatic, basic, and industrially related laboratory research requires the existence of SPMs, as well as expertise capable of providing local nano-scale information. The UHV-STM capability, equipped with load-lock system and several surface science techniques, will allow introduction, examination, and reaction of surfaces prepared under well-controlled vacuum conditions, including the examination of morphology and local bonding associated with the initial stages of film growth under controlled growth conditions. The resulting capabilities will enable the authors to respond to a variety of problems requiring local characterization of conducting and nonconducting surfaces in liquids, air, and UHV.

  14. Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunaevskiy, Mikhail; Dontsov, Anton; Monakhov, Andrei; Alekseev, Prokhor; Titkov, Alexander; Baranov, Alexei; Girard, Paul; Arinero, Richard; Teissier, Roland

    2015-04-27

    An operating semiconductor laser has been studied using a scanning probe microscope. A shift of the resonance frequency of probe that is due to its heating by laser radiation has been analyzed. The observed shift is proportional to the absorbed radiation and can be used to measure the laser near field or its output power. A periodical dependence of the measured signal has been observed as a function of distance between the probe and the surface of the laser due to the interference of the outgoing and cantilever-reflected waves. Due to the multiple reflections resulting in the interference, the light absorption by the probe cantilever is greatly enhanced compared with a single pass case. Interaction of infrared emission of a diode laser with different probes has been studied.

  15. DECOVALEX-THMC Task D: Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes inthe EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic andCrystaline-Bentonite Systems, Status Report October 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.; Barr, D.

    2005-11-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperativeproject initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, withparticipation of about 10 international organizations. The name DECOVALEXstands for DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation againstExperiments. The general goal of this project is to encouragemultidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modelingcoupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performanceassessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-yearproject stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade,mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanicalprocesses.Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX isunder way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal,Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stageaims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previousDECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes importantfor repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leadsTask D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled "Long-termPermeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC andTHM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems." In itsleadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction forthe cooperative research activities of the international research teamsengaged in Task D.

  16. Scanned_Agreement.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ScannedAgreement.pdf PDF icon ScannedAgreement.pdf More Documents & Publications MOEDoftheItalianRepublic.PDF InternationalAgreementsJanuary2001December2004.pdf ...

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - NSA Scanning Radar IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scanning radar observations for a variety of sampling modes assess the real-time signal processing of the 3-cm wave precipitation scanning radar by collecting IQ time...

  18. Optical Distance Measurement Device And Method Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2004-06-15

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target by scanning the target. An optical beam is provided by a light source and modulated by a frequency source. The modulated optical beam is transmitted to an acousto-optical deflector capable of changing the angle of the optical beam in a predetermined manner to produce an output for scanning the target. In operation, reflected or diffused light from the target may be received by a detector and transmitted to a controller configured to calculate the distance to the target as well as the measurement uncertainty in calculating the distance to the target.

  19. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  20. Fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    We have developed a hand-held fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for scanning of the oral cavity We have produced, using this scanning device, in viva cross-sectional images of hard and soft dental tissues in human volunteers Clinically relevant anatomical structures, including the gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction, were visible in all the images The dento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone were identifiable in approximately two thirds of the images These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in viva OCT images of human dental tissue.

  1. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  2. Optical extensometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Ray A.; Reich, Fred R.; Russell, James T.

    1978-01-01

    An optical extensometer is described using sequentially pulsed light beams for measuring the dimensions of objects by detecting two opposite edges of the object without contacting the object. The light beams may be of different distinguishable light characteristics, such as polarization or wave length, and are time modulated in an alternating manner at a reference frequency. The light characteristics are of substantially the same total light energy and are distributed symmetrically. In the preferred embodiment two light beam segments of one characteristic are on opposite sides of a middle segment of another characteristic. As a result, when the beam segments are scanned sequentially across two opposite edges of the object, they produce a readout signal at the output of a photoelectric detector that is compared with the reference signal by a phase comparator to produce a measurement signal with a binary level transition when the light beams cross an edge. The light beams may be of different cross sectional geometries, including two superimposed and concentric circular beam cross sections of different diameter, or two rectangular cross sections which intersect with each other substantially perpendicular so only their central portions are superimposed. Alternately, a row of three light beams can be used including two outer beams on opposite sides and separate from a middle beam. The three beams may all be of the same light characteristic. However it is preferable that the middle beam be of a different characteristic but of the same total energy as the two outer beams.

  3. Final Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Final Optics Schematic layout of NIF's final optics assembly (FOA). The suite of optics for one beamline is on the right. The final optics assemblies (FOAs) are the last element of the main laser system and the first of the target area systems. Each FOA contains four integrated optics modules (IOMs) that incorporate beam conditioning, frequency conversion, focusing, diagnostic sampling, and debris shielding capabilities into a single compact assembly. These optics are shown in the figure at

  4. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Scanning Probe Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scanning Probe Microscopy Photo of NREL researcher using scanning probe microscope. Capability of use with ultra-high vacuum makes NREL Scanning Probe Microscopy particularly valuable for certain applications. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) provides surface images at up to atomic scale and other valuable high-resolution data. SPM encompasses a group of techniques that use very sharp tips that scan extremely closely (several nm) to or in contact with the material being analyzed. The interaction

  5. Method for producing damage resistant optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Burnham, Alan K.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Wegner, Paul J.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Feit, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a system that mitigates the growth of surface damage in an optic. Damage to the optic is minimally initiated. In an embodiment of the invention, damage sites in the optic are initiated, located, and then treated to stop the growth of the damage sites. The step of initiating damage sites in the optic includes a scan of the optic using a laser to initiate defects. The exact positions of the initiated sites are identified. A mitigation process is performed that locally or globally removes the cause of subsequent growth of the damaged sites.

  6. Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R. Rox; Webb, Robert H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    1999-01-01

    A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.

  7. ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Corner Reflector Raster Scan

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Corner Reflector Raster Scan Title: ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Corner Reflector Raster Scan Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Corner Reflector Raster Scan Authors: Dan Nelson ; Joseph Hardin ; Iosif [1] ; Bradley Isom ; Karen Johnson ; Nitin Bharadwaj + Show Author Affiliations (Andrei) Lindenmaier Publication Date: 2012-07-19 OSTI Identifier: 1095596 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725

  8. The Film Scanning and Reanalysis Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Film Scanning National Security Science Latest Issue:April 2016 past issues All Issues » submit The Film Scanning and Reanalysis Project Scientists on a search-and-rescue mission find and scan nuclear weapons test films-before they disintegrate-and find surprises as they reanalyze the images with modern techniques. July 1, 2015 The Film Scanning Lawrence Livermore's Greg Spriggs (foreground) and Alan Carr, Los Alamos National Laboratory historian, dig through boxes of films in the vast Los

  9. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  10. ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  11. ARM: W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  12. ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  13. ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    2011-05-24

    Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  14. ARM: W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    1990-01-01

    W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  15. ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    2011-09-14

    X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  16. Optical probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  17. Optical keyboard

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  18. Developing new optical imaging techniques for single particle and molecule tracking in live cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Wei

    2010-12-15

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a far-field as well as wide-field optical imaging technique. Since it is non-invasive and requires no sample staining, DIC microscopy is suitable for tracking the motion of target molecules in live cells without interfering their functions. In addition, high numerical aperture objectives and condensers can be used in DIC microscopy. The depth of focus of DIC is shallow, which gives DIC much better optical sectioning ability than those of phase contrast and dark field microscopies. In this work, DIC was utilized to study dynamic biological processes including endocytosis and intracellular transport in live cells. The suitability of DIC microscopy for single particle tracking in live cells was first demonstrated by using DIC to monitor the entire endocytosis process of one mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) into a live mammalian cell. By taking advantage of the optical sectioning ability of DIC, we recorded the depth profile of the MSN during the endocytosis process. The shape change around the nanoparticle due to the formation of a vesicle was also captured. DIC microscopy was further modified that the sample can be illuminated and imaged at two wavelengths simultaneously. By using the new technique, noble metal nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were selectively imaged. Among all the examined metal nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles in rod shapes were found to be especially useful. Due to their anisotropic optical properties, gold nanorods showed as diffraction-limited spots with disproportionate bright and dark parts that are strongly dependent on their orientation in the 3D space. Gold nanorods were developed as orientation nanoprobes and were successfully used to report the self-rotation of gliding microtubules on kinesin coated substrates. Gold nanorods were further used to study the rotational motions of cargoes during the endocytosis and intracellular transport processes in live mammalian cells. New rotational information was obtained: (1) during endocytosis, cargoes lost their rotation freedom at the late stage of internalization; (2) cargoes performed train-like motion when they were transported along the microtubule network by motor proteins inside live cells; (3) During the pause stage of fast axonal transport, cargoes were still bound to the microtubule tracks by motor proteins. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is another non-invasive and far-field optical imaging technique. Because of its near-field illumination mechanism, TIRFM has better axial resolution than epi-fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy. In this work, an auto-calibrated, prism type, angle-scanning TIRFM instrument was built. The incident angle can range from subcritical angles to nearly 90{sup o}, with an angle interval less than 0.2{sup o}. The angle precision of the new instrument was demonstrated through the finding of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angle of metal film coated glass slide. The new instrument improved significantly the precision in determining the axial position. As a result, the best obtained axial resolution was {approx} 8 nm, which is better than current existing instruments similar in function. The instrument was further modified to function as a pseudo TIRF microscope. The illumination depth can be controlled by changing the incident angle of the excitation laser beam or adjusting the horizontal position of the illumination laser spot on the prism top surface. With the new technique, i.e., variable-illumination-depth pseudo TIRF microscopy, the whole cell body from bottom to top was scanned.

  19. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Microscopy Researcher using field-emission scanning electron microscope. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) JEOL 6320F. This FE-SEM equipped with a cold field-emission source and in-lens detectors is designed for ultra-high resolution at low accelerating voltage. Compositional mapping by energy-dispersive microscopy and Electron Backscattered Diffraction are available. In basic scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a beam of highly energetic (0.1-50 keV) electrons is

  20. Flashback: Rapid scanning for radiological threats

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flashback: Rapid scanning for radiological threats Flashback: Rapid scanning for radiological threats The ability to identify distinct material density enables the Multi-Mode Passive Detection System (MMPDS)to quickly detect unshielded to heavily shielded nuclear threats, as well as gamma rays, with near-zero false alarms. November 1, 2015 Decision Science Decision Science Decision Sciences' Multi-Mode Passive Detection System: Rapid scanning forradiological threats Click on headline to go to

  1. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a newer technique called infrared scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR s-SNOM) and an older tried-and-true technique called Fourier transform infrared...

  2. Nanomaterials Analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanomaterials Analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope Technology available for licensing: Steradian X-ray detection system increases the detection capability of SEMs during...

  3. Rapid Scan AERI Observations: Benefits and Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rapid Scan AERI Observations: Benefits and Analysis W. F. Feltz, D. D. Turner, R. O. ... Madison, Wisconsin D. D. Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratory ...

  4. ScanArc ASA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: ScanArc ASA Place: Hoyanger, Norway Product: Norway-based firm that provides advice on and develops processes and applications of plasma energy....

  5. H2Scan LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: H2Scan LLC Place: Valencia, California Zip: 91355 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Hydrogen specific sensing systems, uniquely able to detect hydrogen against...

  6. Optical Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    seven wonders Optical Switch A key component in the laser chain, an optical switch called a plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC), was invented and developed at LLNL. A Pockels cell rotates the polarization of a laser beam when a voltage is applied across an electro-optic crystal. Depending on the voltage applied, the Pockels cell either allows light to pass through or to reflect off a polarizer, creating an optical switch. For each of NIF's 192 beamlines, a PEPC allows the laser pulse to make

  7. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  8. ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) RHI Scans, which...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) RHI Scans, which can vary in elevation range and azimuth Authors: Dan Nelson ; Joseph Hardin ; Iosif 1 ; Bradley Isom ; Karen Johnson ; ...

  9. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  10. ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Corner Reflector Raster Scan

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer W-SACR) Corner Reflector Raster Scan Title: ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Corner Reflector Raster Scan X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Corner Reflector Raster Scan Authors: Dan Nelson ; Joseph Hardin ; Iosif [1] ; Bradley Isom ; Karen Johnson ; Nitin Bharadwaj + Show Author Affiliations (Andrei) Lindenmaier Publication Date: 2014-03-07 OSTI Identifier: 1150295 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric

  11. Scanning fluorescent microthermal imaging apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, D.L.; Tangyunyong, P.

    1998-01-06

    A scanning fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI) apparatus and method is disclosed, useful for integrated circuit (IC) failure analysis, that uses a scanned and focused beam from a laser to excite a thin fluorescent film disposed over the surface of the IC. By collecting fluorescent radiation from the film, and performing point-by-point data collection with a single-point photodetector, a thermal map of the IC is formed to measure any localized heating associated with defects in the IC. 1 fig.

  12. Scanning fluorescent microthermal imaging apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, Daniel L.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon

    1998-01-01

    A scanning fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI) apparatus and method is disclosed, useful for integrated circuit (IC) failure analysis, that uses a scanned and focused beam from a laser to excite a thin fluorescent film disposed over the surface of the IC. By collecting fluorescent radiation from the film, and performing point-by-point data collection with a single-point photodetector, a thermal map of the IC is formed to measure any localized heating associated with defects in the IC.

  13. A simple scanning spectrometer based on a stretchable elastomeric reflective grating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghisleri, C.; Milani, P., E-mail: paolo.milani@mi.infn.it [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); WISE srl, Piazza Duse 2, 20122 Milano (Italy); Potenza, M. A. C.; Bellacicca, A. [CIMAINA and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ravagnan, L. [WISE srl, Piazza Duse 2, 20122 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    We report a scanning optical spectrometer based on the use of a stretchable elastomeric reflective grating. The grating is obtained by supersonic cluster beam implantation of silver nanoparticles on polydimethylsiloxane previously grooved by molding to create a replica of a commercial digital versatile disk grating. The use of a stretchable grating allows the spectrometer spanning the whole optical wavelength range by solely extending the diffraction element by more than 100% of its original dimensions. The stretchable reflective optical grating shows excellent performances and stability upon thousands of stretching cycles. The use of this elastomeric element makes the optical layout and the mechanics of the spectrometer extremely simple and advantageous for those applications where spectral resolution is not a major requirement. As a proof of principle, we present the absorption spectrum of Rhodamine B in solution obtained by our spectrometer and compared to commercial instruments.

  14. Novel Scanning Lens Instrument for Evaluating Fresnel Lens Performance: Equipment Development and Initial Results (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrero, R.; Miller, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.; Anton, I.; Sala, G.

    2013-07-01

    A system dedicated to the optical transmittance characterization of Fresnel lenses has been developed at NREL, in collaboration with the UPM. The system quantifies the optical efficiency of the lens by generating a performance map. The shape of the focused spot may also be analyzed to understand change in the lens performance. The primary instrument components (lasers and CCD detector) have been characterized to confirm their capability for performing optical transmittance measurements. Measurements performed on SoG and PMMA lenses subject to a variety of indoor conditions (e.g., UV and damp heat) identified differences in the optical efficiency of the evaluated lenses, demonstrating the ability of the Scanning Lens Instrument (SLI) to distinguish between the aged lenses.

  15. Quantum optics with single nanodiamonds flying over gold films: Towards a Robust quantum plasmonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mollet, O.; Drezet, A.; Huant, S.

    2013-12-04

    A nanodiamond (ND) hosting nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers is attached on the apex of an optical tip for near-field microscopy. Its fluorescence is used to launch surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) in a thin polycrystalline gold film. It is shown that the quantum nature of the initial source of light is preserved after conversion to SPPs. This opens the way to a deterministic quantum plasmonics, where single SPPs can be injected at well-defined positions in a plasmonic device produced by top-down approaches.

  16. Optical characterization of femtosecond laser induced active channel waveguides in lithium fluoride crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiamenti, I.; Kalinowski, H. J.; Bonfigli, F.; Montereali, R. M.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Michelotti, F.

    2014-01-14

    We successfully realized broad-band light-emitting color center waveguides buried in LiF crystals by using femtosecond laser pulses. The characterization of the waveguides was performed by optical microscopy, photoluminescence spectra, loss measurements and near-field profiling. The experimental results show that the direct-writing fabrication process induces low-index contrast active channel waveguides: their wavelength-dependent refractive index changes, estimated from 10{sup −3} to 10{sup −4} depending on the writing conditions, allow supporting few modes at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  17. Optical analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, A.D.

    1987-09-28

    An optical analyzer wherein a sample of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter is placed in a combustion tube, and light from a light source is passed through the sample. The temperature of the sample is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample is detected as the temperature is raised. A data processor, differentiator and a two pen recorder provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample. These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample. Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates or heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters. 7 figs.

  18. Optical coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2004-06-15

    In a camera or similar radiation sensitive device comprising a pixilated scintillation layer, a light guide and an array of position sensitive photomultiplier tubes, wherein there exists so-called dead space between adjacent photomultiplier tubes the improvement comprising a two part light guide comprising a first planar light spreading layer or portion having a first surface that addresses the scintillation layer and optically coupled thereto at a second surface that addresses the photomultiplier tubes, a second layer or portion comprising an array of trapezoidal light collectors defining gaps that span said dead space and are individually optically coupled to individual position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. According to a preferred embodiment, coupling of the trapezoidal light collectors to the position sensitive photomultiplier tubes is accomplished using an optical grease having about the same refractive index as the material of construction of the two part light guide.

  19. Optical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  20. Optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reedy, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  1. Optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reedy, R.P.

    1987-11-10

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

  2. ARM - Campaign Instrument - scan-irt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsscan-irt Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Scanning IRT (SCAN-IRT) Instrument Categories Radiometric Campaigns Cloudiness Inter-Comparison IOP [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2003.02.21 - 2003.04.21 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison IOP [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2003.02.21 - 2003.04.21 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered scientifically

  3. Scanning and storage of electrophoretic records

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKean, Ronald A. (Royal Oak, MI); Stiegman, Jeff (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1990-01-01

    An electrophoretic record that includes at least one gel separation is mounted for motion laterally of the separation record. A light source is positioned to illuminate at least a portion of the record, and a linear array camera is positioned to have a field of view of the illuminated portion of the record and orthogonal to the direction of record motion. The elements of the linear array are scanned at increments of motion of the record across the field of view to develop a series of signals corresponding to intensity of light at each element at each scan increment.

  4. Optical Measurement Technology For Aluminium Extrusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moe, Per Thomas; Willa-Hansen, Arnfinn; Stoeren, Sigurd

    2007-04-07

    Optical measurement techniques such as laser scanning, structured light scanning and photogrammetry can be used for accurate shape control for aluminum extrusion and downstream processes. The paper presents the fundamentals of optical shape measurement. Furthermore, it focuses on how full-field in- and off-line shape measurement during pure-bending of aluminum extrusions has been performed with stripe projection (structured light) using white light. Full field shape measurement is difficult to implement industrially, but is very useful as a laboratory tool. For example, it has been clearly shown how moderate internal air pressure (less than 5 bars) can significantly reduce undesirable cross-sectional shape distortions during pure bending, and how buckling of the compressive flange occurs at an early stage. Finally, a stretch-bending set-up with adaptive shape control using internal gas pressure and optical techniques is presented.

  5. Scanning Photocurrent Microscopy of Si and Ge nanowires (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Scanning Photocurrent Microscopy of Si and Ge nanowires Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scanning Photocurrent Microscopy of Si and Ge nanowires You are ...

  6. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy Title: Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy Methods and ...

  7. ARM: X-SAPR Surveillance scan (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: X-SAPR Surveillance scan X-SAPR Surveillance scan Authors: Widener, Kevin ; Nelson, Dan ; Bharadwaj, Nitin ; Lindenmaier, Iosif 1 ; Collis, Scott + Show Author ...

  8. Apparatus for controlling the scan width of a scanning laser beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, G.W.

    1996-10-22

    Swept-wavelength lasers are often used in absorption spectroscopy applications. In experiments where high accuracy is required, it is desirable to continuously monitor and control the range of wavelengths scanned (the scan width). A system has been demonstrated whereby the scan width of a swept ring-dye laser, or semiconductor diode laser, can be measured and controlled in real-time with a resolution better than 0.1%. Scan linearity, or conformity to a nonlinear scan waveform, can be measured and controlled. The system of the invention consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer, three CAMAC interface modules, and a microcomputer running a simple analysis and proportional-integral control algorithm. With additional modules, multiple lasers can be simultaneously controlled. The invention also includes an embodiment implemented on an ordinary PC with a multifunction plug-in board. 8 figs.

  9. Apparatus for controlling the scan width of a scanning laser beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Swept-wavelength lasers are often used in absorption spectroscopy applications. In experiments where high accuracy is required, it is desirable to continuously monitor and control the range of wavelengths scanned (the scan width). A system has been demonstrated whereby the scan width of a swept ring-dye laser, or semiconductor diode laser, can be measured and controlled in real-time with a resolution better than 0.1%. Scan linearity, or conformity to a nonlinear scan waveform, can be measured and controlled. The system of the invention consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer, three CAMAC interface modules, and a microcomputer running a simple analysis and proportional-integral control algorithm. With additional modules, multiple lasers can be simultaneously controlled. The invention also includes an embodiment implemented on an ordinary PC with a multifunction plug-in board.

  10. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  11. Quantum Optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Optics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  12. Optical analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Anthony D.

    1989-01-01

    An optical analyzer (10) wherein a sample (19) of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter (20) is placed in a combustion tube (11), and light from a light source (14) is passed through the sample (19). The temperature of the sample (19) is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample (19) is detected (18) as the temperature is raised. A data processor (23), differentiator (28) and a two pen recorder (24) provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample (19). These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample (19). Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates of heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters.

  13. Local extinction and near-field structure in piloted turbulent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 162; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0010-2180 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy ...

  14. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samborsky, James K. (605 Groves Blvd., N. Augusta, SC 29841)

    1993-01-01

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

  15. Power optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, V V

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The theoretical estimates are compared with the experimental data. We discuss the issues related to the technology of fabrication of power optics elements based on materials with a porous structure, of lightweight highly stable large optics based on highly porous materials, multi-layer honeycomb structures and silicon carbide, as well as problems of application of physical and technical fundamentals of power optics in modern cutting-edge technology. (invited paper)

  16. Laser scanning system for object monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Timothy James [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie Curtis [Powell, TN; Chiaro, Jr; John, Peter [Clinton, TN

    2008-04-22

    A laser scanner is located in a fixed position to have line-of-sight access to key features of monitored objects. The scanner rapidly scans pre-programmed points corresponding to the positions of retroreflecting targets affixed to the key features of the objects. The scanner is capable of making highly detailed scans of any portion of the field of view, permitting the exact location and identity of targets to be confirmed. The security of an object is verified by determining that the cooperative target is still present and that its position has not changed. The retroreflecting targets also modulate the reflected light for purposes of returning additional information back to the location of the scanner.

  17. Macroscopic model of scanning force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerra-Vela, Claudio; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-10-05

    A macroscopic version of the Scanning Force Microscope is described. It consists of a cantilever under the influence of external forces, which mimic the tip-sample interactions. The use of this piece of equipment is threefold. First, it serves as direct way to understand the parts and functions of the Scanning Force Microscope, and thus it is effectively used as an instructional tool. Second, due to its large size, it allows for simple measurements of applied forces and parameters that define the state of motion of the system. This information, in turn, serves to compare the interaction forces with the reconstructed ones, which cannot be done directly with the standard microscopic set up. Third, it provides a kinematics method to non-destructively measure elastic constants of materials, such as Young's and shear modules, with special application for brittle materials.

  18. CS-Studio Scan System Parallelization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasemir, Kay; Pearson, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    For several years, the Control System Studio (CS-Studio) Scan System has successfully automated the operation of beam lines at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As it is applied to additional beam lines, we need to support simultaneous adjustments of temperatures or motor positions. While this can be implemented via virtual motors or similar logic inside the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), doing so requires a priori knowledge of experimenters requirements. By adding support for the parallel control of multiple process variables (PVs) to the Scan System, we can better support ad hoc automation of experiments that benefit from such simultaneous PV adjustments.

  19. High-speed massively parallel scanning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, Derek E.

    2010-07-06

    A new technique for recording a series of images of a high-speed event (such as, but not limited to: ballistics, explosives, laser induced changes in materials, etc.) is presented. Such technique(s) makes use of a lenslet array to take image picture elements (pixels) and concentrate light from each pixel into a spot that is much smaller than the pixel. This array of spots illuminates a detector region (e.g., film, as one embodiment) which is scanned transverse to the light, creating tracks of exposed regions. Each track is a time history of the light intensity for a single pixel. By appropriately configuring the array of concentrated spots with respect to the scanning direction of the detection material, different tracks fit between pixels and sufficient lengths are possible which can be of interest in several high-speed imaging applications.

  20. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Scanning

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Scanning Resources with Additional Information Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanner Courtesy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 'Positron Emission Tomography ... [is a medical imaging technique that] can track chemical reactions in living tissues and merges chemistry with biological imaging. Its strength has been in studies of the brain where there has been significant progress in investigations of drug addiction, aging, mental illness,

  1. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, C. Glen; Simmons, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal.

  2. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Transmission/Scanning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Electron Microscopy Transmission/Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy In transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a thin sample, typically less than 200 nm, is bombarded by a highly focused beam of single-energy electrons. The beam has enough energy for the electrons to be transmitted through the sample, and the transmitted or scattered electron signal is greatly magnified by a series of electromagnetic lenses. The magnified signal may be observed by electron diffraction,

  3. Parallel optical sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  4. Hadamard multimode optical imaging transceiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, Bradly J; Guenther, David C; Tiee, Joe J; Kellum, Mervyn J; Olivas, Nicholas L; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Judd, Stephen L; Braun, Thomas R

    2012-10-30

    Disclosed is a method and system for simultaneously acquiring and producing results for multiple image modes using a common sensor without optical filtering, scanning, or other moving parts. The system and method utilize the Walsh-Hadamard correlation detection process (e.g., functions/matrix) to provide an all-binary structure that permits seamless bridging between analog and digital domains. An embodiment may capture an incoming optical signal at an optical aperture, convert the optical signal to an electrical signal, pass the electrical signal through a Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA) to create an LNA signal, pass the LNA signal through one or more correlators where each correlator has a corresponding Walsh-Hadamard (WH) binary basis function, calculate a correlation output coefficient for each correlator as a function of the corresponding WH binary basis function in accordance with Walsh-Hadamard mathematical principles, digitize each of the correlation output coefficient by passing each correlation output coefficient through an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), and performing image mode processing on the digitized correlation output coefficients as desired to produce one or more image modes. Some, but not all, potential image modes include: multi-channel access, temporal, range, three-dimensional, and synthetic aperture.

  5. Optical microphone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2000-01-11

    An optical microphone includes a laser and beam splitter cooperating therewith for splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and a signal beam. A reflecting sensor receives the signal beam and reflects it in a plurality of reflections through sound pressure waves. A photodetector receives both the reference beam and reflected signal beam for heterodyning thereof to produce an acoustic signal for the sound waves. The sound waves vary the local refractive index in the path of the signal beam which experiences a Doppler frequency shift directly analogous with the sound waves.

  6. Optical microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotz, K.T.; Noble, K.A.; Faris, G.W. [Molecular Physics Laboratory, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2004-09-27

    We present a method for the control of small droplets based on the thermal Marangoni effect using laser heating. With this approach, droplets covering five orders of magnitude in volume ({approx}1.7 {mu}L to 14 pL), immersed in decanol, were moved on an unmodified polystyrene surface, with speeds of up to 3 mm/s. When two droplets were brought into contact, they spontaneously fused and rapidly mixed in less than 33 ms. This optically addressed microfluidic approach has many advantages for microfluidic transport, including exceptional reconfigurability, low intersample contamination, large volume range, extremely simple substrates, no electrical connections, and ready scaling to large arrays.

  7. Optical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-07-13

    An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

  8. Optical interconnect assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Daric; Abel, Philip

    2015-06-09

    An optical assembly includes a substrate with a first row of apertures and a second row of apertures. A first optical die includes a first plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each transducer element is aligned with an aperture of the first row of optical apertures. A second optical die includes a second plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each of the second plurality of optical transducer elements is aligned with an aperture of the second row of optical apertures. A connector configured to mate with the optical assembly supports a plurality of optical fibers. A terminal end of each optical fiber protrudes from the connector and extends into one of the apertures when the connector is coupled with the optical assembly.

  9. Circular zig-zag scan video format

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.

    1992-06-09

    A circular, ziz-zag scan for use with vidicon tubes is disclosed. A sine wave is generated, rectified and its fourth root extracted. The fourth root, and its inverse, are used to generate horizontal ramp and sync signals. The fourth root is also used to generate a vertical sync signal, and the vertical sync signal, along with the horizontal sync signal, are used to generate the vertical ramp signal. Cathode blanking and preamplifier clamp signals are also obtained from the vertical sync signal. 10 figs.

  10. Optical manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falicoff, Waqidi; Chaves, Julio C.; Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.

    2010-02-23

    Optical systems are described that have at least one source of a beam of blue light with divergence under 15.degree.. A phosphor emits yellow light when excited by the blue light. A collimator is disposed with the phosphor and forms a yellow beam with divergence under 15.degree.. A dichroic filter is positioned to transmit the beam of blue light to the phosphor and to reflect the beam of yellow light to an exit aperture. In different embodiments, the beams of blue and yellow light are incident upon said filter with central angles of 15.degree., 22.degree., and 45.degree.. The filter may reflect all of one polarization and part of the other polarization, and a polarization rotating retroreflector may then be provided to return the unreflected light to the filter.

  11. REC ScanWafer AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ScanWafer AS Jump to: navigation, search Name: REC ScanWafer AS Place: Hovik, Norway Zip: 1323 Product: Norwegian manufacturer of multicrystalline wafers. Coordinates: 58.002571,...

  12. Scanned_Joint_Declaration_(English).pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    English).pdf ScannedJointDeclaration(English).pdf PDF icon ScannedJointDeclaration(English).pdf More Documents & Publications Joint Statement by Energy Ministers of G8, The ...

  13. V-119: IBM Security AppScan Enterprise Multiple Vulnerabilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: IBM Security AppScan Enterprise Multiple Vulnerabilities V-119: IBM Security AppScan Enterprise Multiple Vulnerabilities March 26, 2013 - 12:56am Addthis PROBLEM: IBM Security...

  14. Experimental stress–strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2014-04-21

    We experimentally determine tensile force–elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force–elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress–strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius.

  15. Optical data latch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2010-08-31

    An optical data latch is formed on a substrate from a pair of optical logic gates in a cross-coupled arrangement in which optical waveguides are used to couple an output of each gate to an photodetector input of the other gate. This provides an optical bi-stability which can be used to store a bit of optical information in the latch. Each optical logic gate, which can be an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter) or an optical NOR gate, includes a waveguide photodetector electrically connected in series with a waveguide electroabsorption modulator. The optical data latch can be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or GaAs substrate) from III-V compound semiconductor layers. A number of optical data latches can be cascaded to form a clocked optical data shift register.

  16. Smart align -- A new tool for robust non-rigid registration of scanning microscope data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Lewys; Yang, Hao; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Van Aert, Sandra; Browning, Nigel D.; Castell, Martin R.; Nellist, Peter D.

    2015-07-10

    Many microscopic investigations of materials may benefit from the recording of multiple successive images. This can include techniques common to several types of microscopy such as frame averaging to improve signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or time series to study dynamic processes or more specific applications. In the scanning transmission electron microscope, this might include focal series for optical sectioning or aberration measurement, beam damage studies or camera-length series to study the effects of strain; whilst in the scanning tunnelling microscope, this might include bias voltage series to probe local electronic structure. Whatever the application, such investigations must begin with the careful alignment of these data stacks, an operation that is not always trivial. In addition, the presence of low-frequency scanning distortions can introduce intra-image shifts to the data. Here, we describe an improved automated method of performing non-rigid registration customised for the challenges unique to scanned microscope data specifically addressing the issues of low-SNR data, images containing a large proportion of crystalline material and/or local features of interest such as dislocations or edges. Careful attention has been paid to artefact testing of the non-rigid registration method used, and the importance of this registration for the quantitative interpretation of feature intensities and positions is evaluated.

  17. Smart align -- A new tool for robust non-rigid registration of scanning microscope data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, Lewys; Yang, Hao; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Van Aert, Sandra; Browning, Nigel D.; Castell, Martin R.; Nellist, Peter D.

    2015-07-10

    Many microscopic investigations of materials may benefit from the recording of multiple successive images. This can include techniques common to several types of microscopy such as frame averaging to improve signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or time series to study dynamic processes or more specific applications. In the scanning transmission electron microscope, this might include focal series for optical sectioning or aberration measurement, beam damage studies or camera-length series to study the effects of strain; whilst in the scanning tunnelling microscope, this might include bias voltage series to probe local electronic structure. Whatever the application, such investigations must begin with the carefulmore » alignment of these data stacks, an operation that is not always trivial. In addition, the presence of low-frequency scanning distortions can introduce intra-image shifts to the data. Here, we describe an improved automated method of performing non-rigid registration customised for the challenges unique to scanned microscope data specifically addressing the issues of low-SNR data, images containing a large proportion of crystalline material and/or local features of interest such as dislocations or edges. Careful attention has been paid to artefact testing of the non-rigid registration method used, and the importance of this registration for the quantitative interpretation of feature intensities and positions is evaluated.« less

  18. Rapid scanning system for fuel drawers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, J.T.; Fehlau, P.E.; France, S.W.

    A nondestructive method for uniquely distinguishing among and quantifying the mass of individual fuel plates in situ in fuel drawers utilized in nuclear reactors is described. The method is both rapid and passive, eliminating the personnel hazard of the commonly used irradiation techniques which require that the analysis be performed in proximity to an intense neutron source such as a reactor. In the present technique, only normally decaying nuclei are observed. This allows the analysis to be performed anywhere. This feature, combined with rapid scanning of a given fuel drawer (in approximately 30 s), and the computer data analysis allows the processing of large numbers of fuel drawers efficiently in the event of a loss alert.

  19. Scanning systems for particle cancer therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trbojevic, Dejan

    2015-08-04

    A particle beam to treat malignant tissue is delivered to a patient by a gantry. The gantry includes a plurality of small magnets sequentially arranged along a beam tube to transfer the particle beam with strong focusing and a small dispersion function, whereby a beam size is very small, allowing for the small magnet size. Magnets arranged along the beam tube uses combined function magnets where the magnetic field is a combination of a bending dipole field with a focusing or defocusing quadrupole field. A triplet set of combined function magnets defines the beam size at the patient. A scanning system of magnets arranged along the beam tube after the bending system delivers the particle beam in a direction normal to the patient, to minimize healthy skin and tissue exposure to the particle beam.

  20. Rapid scanning system for fuel drawers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, John T. (Los Alamos, NM); Fehlau, Paul E. (Los Alamos, NM); France, Stephen W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A nondestructive method for uniqely distinguishing among and quantifying the mass of individual fuel plates in situ in fuel drawers utilized in nuclear reactors is described. The method is both rapid and passive, eliminating the personnel hazard of the commonly used irradiation techniques which require that the analysis be performed in proximity to an intense neutron source such as a reactor. In the present technique, only normally decaying nuclei are observed. This allows the analysis to be performed anywhere. This feature, combined with rapid scanning of a given fuel drawer (in approximately 30 s), and the computer data analysis allows the processing of large numbers of fuel drawers efficiently in the event of a loss alert.

  1. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  2. Advanced Optical Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diffractive Membrane Optic The first diffractive membrane optic, designed for a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) project, was completed on July 25, 2011. The ...

  3. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part I: Operational Sampling Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollias, Pavlos; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Jo, Ieng; Johnson, Karen

    2014-03-01

    Probing clouds in three-dimensions has never been done with scanning millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radars in a continuous operating environment. The acquisition of scanning cloud radars by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and research institutions around the world generate the need for developing operational scan strategies for cloud radars. Here, the first generation of sampling strategies for the Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) is discussed. These scan strategies are designed to address the scientific objectives of the ARM program, however, they introduce an initial framework for operational scanning cloud radars. While the weather community uses scan strategies that are based on a sequence of scans at constant elevations, the SACRs scan strategies are based on a sequence of scans at constant azimuth. This is attributed to the cloud properties that are vastly different for rain and snow shafts that are the primary target of precipitation radars. A “cloud surveillance” scan strategy is introduced (HS-RHI) based on a sequence of horizon-to-horizon Range Height Indicator (RHI) scans that sample the hemispherical sky (HS). The HS-RHI scan strategy is repeated every 30 min to provide a static view of the cloud conditions around the SACR location. Between HS-RHI scan strategies other scan strategies are introduced depending on the cloud conditions. The SACRs are pointing vertically in the case of measurable precipitation at the ground. The radar reflectivities are corrected for water vapor attenuation and non-meteorological detection are removed. A hydrometeor detection mask is introduced based on the difference of cloud and noise statistics is discussed.

  4. Optical NAND gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.; Raring, James; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    2011-08-09

    An optical NAND gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator and a photodetector. One pair of the optical waveguide devices is electrically connected in parallel to operate as an optical AND gate; and the other pair of the optical waveguide devices is connected in series to operate as an optical NOT gate (i.e. an optical inverter). The optical NAND gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NAND function output. The optical NAND gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  5. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer ismore » severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.« less

  6. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer is severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.

  7. Optical XOR gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2013-11-12

    An optical XOR gate is formed as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) from two sets of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each set of the optical waveguide devices including an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical XOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs to generate an XOR function digital optical output. The optical XOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  8. Optical NOR gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    2011-09-06

    An optical NOR gate is formed from two pair of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each pair of the optical waveguide devices consisting of an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical NOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs and a continuous light input to provide a NOR function digital optical output. The optical NOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  9. Fiber optic connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajic, S.; Muhs, J.D.

    1996-10-22

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded are disclosed. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled. 3 figs.

  10. Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeulen, Karen C.; Mameren, Joost van; Stienen, Ger J.M.; Peterman, Erwin J.G.; Wuite, Gijs J.L.; Schmidt, Christoph F.

    2006-01-15

    Displacements of optically trapped particles are often recorded using back-focal-plane interferometry. In order to calibrate the detector signals to displacements of the trapped object, several approaches are available. One often relies either on scanning a fixed bead across the waist of the laser beam or on analyzing the power spectrum of movements of the trapped bead. Here, we introduce an alternative method to perform this calibration. The method consists of very rapidly scanning the laser beam across the solvent-immersed, trapped bead using acousto-optic deflectors while recording the detector signals. It does not require any knowledge of solvent viscosity and bead diameter, and works in all types of samples, viscous or viscoelastic. Moreover, it is performed with the same bead as that used in the actual experiment. This represents marked advantages over established methods.

  11. System and method for compressive scanning electron microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Bryan W

    2015-01-13

    A scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) system is disclosed. The system may make use of an electron beam scanning system configured to generate a plurality of electron beam scans over substantially an entire sample, with each scan varying in electron-illumination intensity over a course of the scan. A signal acquisition system may be used for obtaining at least one of an image, a diffraction pattern, or a spectrum from the scans, the image, diffraction pattern, or spectrum representing only information from at least one of a select subplurality or linear combination of all pixel locations comprising the image. A dataset may be produced from the information. A subsystem may be used for mathematically analyzing the dataset to predict actual information that would have been produced by each pixel location of the image.

  12. On-the-fly scans for X-ray ptychography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelz, Philipp M.; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Johnson, Ian; Holler, Mirko; Menzel, Andreas; Thibault, Pierre

    2014-12-22

    With the increasing importance of nanotechnology, the need for reliable real-time imaging of mesoscopic objects with nanometer resolution is rising. For X-ray ptychography, a scanning microscopy technique that provides nanometric resolution on extended fields of view, and the settling time of the scanning system is one of the bottlenecks for fast imaging. Here, we demonstrate that ptychographic on-the-fly scans, i.e., collecting diffraction patterns while the sample is scanned with constant velocity, can be modelled as a state mixture of the probing radiation and allow for reliable image recovery. Characteristics of the probe modes are discussed for various scan parameters, and the application to significantly reducing the scanning time is considered.

  13. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (''first echo''). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and

  14. Results from Vernier scans during the RHIC 2008 PP Run

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drees,A.; D Ottavio, T.

    2009-05-04

    Using the vernier scan or Van der Meer scan technique, where one beam is swept stepwise across the other while measuring the collision rate as a function of beam displacement, the transverse beam profiles, the luminosity and the effective cross section of the detector in question can be measured. This report briefly recalls the vernier scan method and presents results from the 100 GeV 2008 RHIC polarized proton (pp) run.

  15. TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook The Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) measures the size distribution of aerosols ranging from 10 nm up to 1000 nm. The SMPS uses a bipolar aerosol charger to keep particles within a known charge distribution. Charged particles are classified

  16. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEPatents Data Explorer Search Results Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy Title: Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of

  17. Multi-level scanning method for defect inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey (Oakland, CA); Jeong, Seongtae (Richmond, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for performing scanned defect inspection of a collection of contiguous areas using a specified false-alarm-rate and capture-rate within an inspection system that has characteristic seek times between inspection locations. The multi-stage method involves setting an increased false-alarm-rate for a first stage of scanning, wherein subsequent stages of scanning inspect only the detected areas of probable defects at lowered values for the false-alarm-rate. For scanning inspection operations wherein the seek time and area uncertainty is favorable, the method can substantially increase inspection throughput.

  18. Scanned_Joint_Declaration_(Italian).pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon ScannedJointDeclaration(Italian).pdf More Documents & Publications FTCP Face to Face Meeting - March 30, 2010 Introduccin al Conocimiento de Energa Energy Education ...

  19. System Provides Clear Brain Scans of Awake, Unrestrained Mice...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Provides Clear Brain Scans of Awake, Unrestrained Mice dynamic imaging of mice ... obtain detailed, functional images of the brain of a conscious mouse as it moves around. ...

  20. ARM: AOS: Scanning-Mobility Particle Sizer; temperature and RH...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AOS: Scanning-Mobility Particle Sizer; temperature and RH output Authors: Derek Hageman ; Bill Behrens ; Janek Uin ; Robert Bullard ; Cynthia Salwen ; Cynthia Salwen ; Annette ...

  1. TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility ... studies, smog chamber evaluations, engine exhaust and combustion studies, materials ...

  2. Demonstration of scan path optimization in proton therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Joanne H.; Wilkens, Jan J.; Oelfke, Uwe

    2007-09-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) intensity modulated proton therapy treatment plan to be delivered by magnetic scanning may comprise thousands of discrete beam positions. This research presents the minimization of the total scan path length by application of a fast simulated annealing (FSA) optimization algorithm. Treatment plans for clinical prostate and head and neck cases were sequenced for continuous raster scanning in two ways, and the resulting scan path lengths were compared: (1) A simple back-and-forth, top-to-bottom (zigzag) succession, and (2) an optimized path produced as a solution of the FSA algorithm. Using a first approximation of the scanning dynamics, the delivery times for the scan sequences before and after path optimization were calculated for comparison. In these clinical examples, the FSA optimization shortened the total scan path length for the 3D target volumes by approximately 13%-56%. The number of extraneous spilled particles was correspondingly reduced by about 13%-54% due to the more efficient scanning maps that eliminated multiple crossings through regions of zero fluence. The relative decrease in delivery time due to path length minimization was estimated to be less than 1%, due to both a high scanning speed and time requirements that could not be altered by optimization (e.g., time required to change the beam energy). In a preliminary consideration of application to rescanning techniques, the decrease in delivery time was estimated to be 4%-20%.

  3. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of ... Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and ...

  4. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems Designing an adaptive ...

  5. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems You are accessing a ...

  6. Latching micro optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  7. Active optical zoom system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  8. ProxiScan?: A Novel Camera for Imaging Prostate Cancer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ralph James

    2010-01-08

    ProxiScan is a compact gamma camera suited for high-resolution imaging of prostate cancer. Developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Hybridyne Imaging Technologies, Inc., ProxiScan won a 2009 R&D 100 Award, sponsored by R&D Magazine to recognize t

  9. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.

    1994-11-08

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage. 5 figs.

  10. High bandwidth optical mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Donald A.; Kuklo, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    An optical mount, which directs a laser beam to a point by controlling the position of a light-transmitting optic, is stiffened so that a lowest resonant frequency of the mount is approximately one kilohertz. The optical mount, which is cylindrically-shaped, positions the optic by individually moving a plurality of carriages which are positioned longitudinally within a sidewall of the mount. The optical mount is stiffened by allowing each carriage, which is attached to the optic, to move only in a direction which is substantially parallel to a center axis of the optic. The carriage is limited to an axial movement by flexures or linear bearings which connect the carriage to the mount. The carriage is moved by a piezoelectric transducer. By limiting the carriage to axial movement, the optic can be kinematically clamped to a carriage.

  11. ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Boundary Layer RHI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Boundary Layer RHI Scan X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Boundary Layer RHI Scan Authors: Dan Nelson ; Joseph Hardin ; ...

  12. Fiber optic micro accelerometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.

    2005-07-26

    An accelerometer includes a wafer, a proof mass integrated into the wafer, at least one spring member connected to the proof mass, and an optical fiber. A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially reflective surface on the proof mass and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. The two partially reflective surfaces are used to detect movement of the proof mass through the optical fiber, using an optical detection system.

  13. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  14. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  15. Rapid imaging of mycoplasma in solution using Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Chikara; Manaka, Sachie; Nakane, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Miyata, Makoto; Maruyama, Yuusuke

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mycoplasma mobile was observed in buffer with the Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M. mobile attached to sialic acid on the SiN film surface within minutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells were observed at low concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASEM should promote study and early-stage diagnosis of mycoplasma. -- Abstract: Mycoplasma is a genus of bacterial pathogen that causes disease in vertebrates. In humans, the species Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes 15% or more of community-acquired pneumonia. Because this bacterium is tiny, corresponding in size to a large virus, diagnosis using optical microscopy is not easy. In current methods, chest X-rays are usually the first action, followed by serology, PCR amplification, and/or culture, but all of these are particularly difficult at an early stage of the disease. Using Mycoplasma mobile as a model species, we directly observed mycoplasma in buffer with the newly developed Atmospheric Scanning Electron Microscope (ASEM). This microscope features an open sample dish with a pressure-resistant thin film window in its base, through which the SEM beam scans samples in solution, from below. Because of its 2-3 {mu}m-deep scanning capability, it can observe the whole internal structure of mycoplasma cells stained with metal solutions. Characteristic protein localizations were visualized using immuno-labeling. Cells were observed at low concentrations, because suspended cells concentrate in the observable zone by attaching to sialic acid on the silicon nitride (SiN) film surface within minutes. These results suggest the applicability of the ASEM for the study of mycoplasmas as well as for early-stage mycoplasma infection diagnosis.

  16. Detailed optical characterization of a near diffraction limited xenon fluoride laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Londono, C. ); Smith, M.J.; Trainor, D.W.; Itzkan, I. ); Berggren, R. ); Fulghum, S.F. )

    1988-12-01

    A 1 m gain length, electron beam pumped xenon fluoride laser (lambda = 353, 351 nm) utilizing two laser mixtures of lean and rich NF/sub 3/, with Xe and balance Ne, was operated with a confocal unstable resonator with magnification of 2.24. The resultant beam quality was diagnosed with both shearing interferometry to measure near-field phase and far-field focal spot evaluation techniques. These measurements resulted in a beam quality of <1.15 times the diffraction limit with no evidence of the wide angle energy loss. This laser device was fully characterized with regard to electron beam deposition uniformity, transient refractive index effects, and optical quality of the resonator and diagnostic components.

  17. Nanopatterning and tuning of optical taper antenna apex for tip-enhanced Raman scattering performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharintsev, S. S.; Rogov, A. M.; Kazarian, S. G.

    2013-09-15

    This paper focuses on finding optimal electrochemical conditions from linear sweep voltammetry analysis for preparing highly reproducible tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) conical gold tips with dc-pulsed voltage etching. Special attention is given to the reproducibility of tip apex shapes with different etchant mixtures. We show that the fractional Brownian motion model enables a mathematical description of the decaying current kinetics during the whole etching process up to the cutoff event. Further progress in preparation of highly reproducible smooth and sharp tip apexes is related to the effect of an additive, such as isopropanol, to aqueous acids. A finite-difference time-domain method based near-field analysis provides evidence that TERS performance depends critically on tip orientation relative to a highly focused laser beam. A TERS based criterion for recognizing gold tips able to couple/decouple optical near- and far-fields is proposed.

  18. Nikon PTIPHOT-88 Optical Microscope

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OPTIPHOT-88 Optical Microscope micro1.jpg (69171 bytes)

  19. Directed assembly of hybrid nanostructures using optically resonant nanotweezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, David

    2015-09-09

    This represents the final report for this project. Over the course of the project we have made significant progress in photonically driven nano-assembly including: (1) demonstrating the first direct optical tweezer based manipulation of proteins, (2) the ability to apply optical angular torques to microtubuals and other rod-shaped microparticles, (3) direct assembly of hybrid nanostructures comprising of polymeric nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes and, (4) the ability to drive biological reactions (specifically protein aggregation) that are thermodynamically unfavorable by applying localized optical work. These advancements are described in the list of papers provided in section 2.0 of the below. Summary details are provided in prior year annual reports. We have two additional papers which will be submitted shortly based on the work done under this award. An updated publication list will be provided to the program manager when those are accepted. In this report, we report on a new advancement made in the final project year, which uses the nanotweezer technology to perform direct measurements of particle-surface interactions. Briefly, these measurements are important for characterizing the stability and behavior of colloidal and nanoparticle suspensions and current techniques are limited in their ability to measure piconewton scale interaction forces on sub-micrometer particles due to signal detection limits and thermal noise. In this project year we developed a new technique called “Nanophotonic Force Microscopy” which uses the localized region of exponentially decaying, near-field, light to confine small particles close to a surface. From the statistical distribution of the light intensity scattered by the particle the technique maps out the potential well of the trap and directly quantify the repulsive force between the nanoparticle and the surface. The major advantage of the technique is that it can measure forces and energy wells below the thermal noise limit, resolving interaction forces smaller than 1 pN on dielectric particles as small as 100 nm in diameter.

  20. Heuristic optimization of the scanning path of particle therapy beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pardo, J.; Donetti, M.; Bourhaleb, F.; Ansarinejad, A.; Attili, A.; Cirio, R.; Garella, M. A.; Giordanengo, S.; Givehchi, N.; La Rosa, A.; Marchetto, F.; Monaco, V.; Pecka, A.; Peroni, C.; Russo, G.; Sacchi, R.

    2009-06-15

    Quasidiscrete scanning is a delivery strategy for proton and ion beam therapy in which the beam is turned off when a slice is finished and a new energy must be set but not during the scanning between consecutive spots. Different scanning paths lead to different dose distributions due to the contribution of the unintended transit dose between spots. In this work an algorithm to optimize the scanning path for quasidiscrete scanned beams is presented. The classical simulated annealing algorithm is used. It is a heuristic algorithm frequently used in combinatorial optimization problems, which allows us to obtain nearly optimal solutions in acceptable running times. A study focused on the best choice of operational parameters on which the algorithm performance depends is presented. The convergence properties of the algorithm have been further improved by using the next-neighbor algorithm to generate the starting paths. Scanning paths for two clinical treatments have been optimized. The optimized paths are found to be shorter than the back-and-forth, top-to-bottom (zigzag) paths generally provided by the treatment planning systems. The gamma method has been applied to quantify the improvement achieved on the dose distribution. Results show a reduction of the transit dose when the optimized paths are used. The benefit is clear especially when the fluence per spot is low, as in the case of repainting. The minimization of the transit dose can potentially allow the use of higher beam intensities, thus decreasing the treatment time. The algorithm implemented for this work can optimize efficiently the scanning path of quasidiscrete scanned particle beams. Optimized scanning paths decrease the transit dose and lead to better dose distributions.

  1. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  2. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, Joseph B.; Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Tobin, Kenneth W.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  3. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

    1983-06-30

    A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

  4. Open Source Scanning Probe Microscopy Control Software package GXSM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahl, P.; Wagner, T.; Moller, R.; Klust, A.

    2010-05-01

    GXSM is a full featured and modern scanning probe microscopy (SPM) software. It can be used for powerful multidimensional image/data processing, analysis, and visualization. Connected to an instrument, it is operating many different flavors of SPM, e.g., scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy or, in general, two-dimensional multichannel data acquisition instruments. The GXSM core can handle different data types, e.g., integer and floating point numbers. An easily extendable plug-in architecture provides many image analysis and manipulation functions. A digital signal processor subsystem runs the feedback loop, generates the scanning signals, and acquires the data during SPM measurements. The programmable GXSM vector probe engine performs virtually any thinkable spectroscopy and manipulation task, such as scanning tunneling spectroscopy or tip formation. The GXSM software is released under the GNU general public license and can be obtained via the internet.

  5. LandScan 2013 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  6. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides Monday, May 23, 2011 - 3:30pm SSRL Conference room 137-322 Professor Tom Vogt, NanoCenter & Department of Chemistry, University of South Carolina High-Angle-Annular-Dark-Field/Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF/STEM) is a technique uniquely suited for detailed studies of the structure and composition of complex oxides. The HAADF detector collects electrons

  7. Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in coherent x-ray imaging (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging Authors: Deng, Junjing ; Nashed, Youssef S. G. ; Chen, Si ; Phillips, Nicholas W. ; Peterka, Tom ; Ross, Rob ; Vogt, Stefan ; Jacobsen, Chris ;

  8. Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report Atmospheric aerosols influence global climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight (direct effects) and by changing the microphysical structure, lifetime, and coverage of clouds (indirect effects). While

  9. Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in coherent x-ray imaging (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging « Prev Next » Title: Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging Authors: Deng, Junjing ; Nashed, Youssef S. G. ; Chen, Si ; Phillips, Nicholas W. ; Peterka, Tom ; Ross, Rob ; Vogt, Stefan ; Jacobsen, Chris ; Vine, David J. Publication Date: 2015-02-23 OSTI Identifier: 1222333

  10. CT Scan of Earth Links Mantle Plumes with Volcanic Hotspots

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CT Scan of Earth Links Mantle Plumes with Volcanic Hotspots CT Scan of Earth Links Mantle Plumes with Volcanic Hotspots Simulations Run at NERSC Show How Seismic Waves Travel Through Mantle September 2, 2015 Robert Sanders, rlsanders@berkeley.edu, (510) 643-6998 NERSC PI: Barbara Romanowicz Lead Institution: University of California, Berkeley Project Title: Imaging and Calibration of Mantle Structure at Global and Regional Scales Using Full-Waveform Seismic Tomography NERSC Resources Used:

  11. Advance in bottle scanning could enhance airport security and benefit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    passengers Advance in bottle scanning could enhance airport security Advance in bottle scanning could enhance airport security and benefit passengers Los Alamos scientists have advanced a Magnetic Resonance Imaging technology that may provide a breakthrough for screening liquids at airport security. November 25, 2013 MagRay engineer Larry Schultz puts a bottle of surrogate material that mimics home made explosives into the MagRay bottle scanner. MagRay engineer Larry Schultz puts a bottle of

  12. A large scanning radiometer for characterizing fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Klems, J.; Selkowitz, S.

    1987-11-01

    A large scanning radiometer for measuring the bidirectional transmittance and reflectance of fenestration systems and components is described. Examples of measured data obtained for simple non-specular samples using the radiometer are presented. A method of obtaining the overall bidirectional properties of systems by calculation from scanning radiometer measurements of components is suggested. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method appears promising.

  13. LINEAR SCANNING METHOD BASED ON THE SAFT COARRAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, C. J.; Martinez-Graullera, O.; Romero, D.; Ullate, L. G.; Higuti, R. T.

    2010-02-22

    This work presents a method to obtain B-scan images based on linear array scanning and 2R-SAFT. Using this technique some advantages are obtained: the ultrasonic system is very simple; it avoids the grating lobes formation, characteristic in conventional SAFT; and subaperture size and focussing lens (to compensate emission-reception) can be adapted dynamically to every image point. The proposed method has been experimentally tested in the inspection of CFRP samples.

  14. LandScan 2000 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-12-31

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  15. LandScan 2004 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  16. LandScan 2008 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  17. LandScan 2003 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  18. LandScan 2010 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  19. LandScan 2002 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  20. LandScan 2007 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  1. LandScan 2009 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  2. LandScan 2006 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  3. LandScan 2011 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-11-19

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  4. LandScan 2005 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  5. Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical Design for Extremely Large Telescope Adaptive Optics Systems Designing an adaptive optics (AO) system for extremely large telescopes (ELT's) will present new optical engineering challenges. Several of these challenges are addressed in this work, including first-order design of multi-conjugate adaptive optics

  6. Surface-enhanced raman optical data storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1994-01-01

    An improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage System (SERODS) is disclosed. In the improved system, entities capable of existing in multiple reversible states are present on the storage device. Such entities result in changed Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) when localized state changes are effected in less than all of the entities. Therefore, by changing the state of entities in localized regions of a storage device, the SERS emissions in such regions will be changed. When a write-on device is controlled by a data signal, such a localized regions of changed SERS emissions will correspond to the data written on the device. The data may be read by illuminating the surface of the storage device with electromagnetic radiation of an appropriate frequency and detecting the corresponding SERS emissions. Data may be deleted by reversing the state changes of entities in regions where the data was initially written. In application, entities may be individual molecules which allows for the writing of data at the molecular level. A read/write/delete head utilizing near-field quantum techniques can provide for a write/read/delete device capable of effecting state changes in individual molecules, thus providing for the effective storage of data at the molecular level.

  7. Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1994-06-28

    An improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage System (SERODS) is disclosed. In the improved system, entities capable of existing in multiple reversible states are present on the storage device. Such entities result in changed Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) when localized state changes are effected in less than all of the entities. Therefore, by changing the state of entities in localized regions of a storage device, the SERS emissions in such regions will be changed. When a write-on device is controlled by a data signal, such a localized regions of changed SERS emissions will correspond to the data written on the device. The data may be read by illuminating the surface of the storage device with electromagnetic radiation of an appropriate frequency and detecting the corresponding SERS emissions. Data may be deleted by reversing the state changes of entities in regions where the data was initially written. In application, entities may be individual molecules which allows for the writing of data at the molecular level. A read/write/delete head utilizing near-field quantum techniques can provide for a write/read/delete device capable of effecting state changes in individual molecules, thus providing for the effective storage of data at the molecular level. 18 figures.

  8. Linearization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, S.L.

    1991-01-15

    A means and method for producing linearization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors in laser scanning system including presenting an elliptical convex surface to the scanning beam to reflect the scanning beam to the focal plane of the scanning line. The elliptical surface is shaped to produce linear velocity of the reflective scanning beam at the focal plane. Maximization of linearization is accomplished by considering sets of criteria for different scanning applications. 6 figures.

  9. Linearization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chen, Shun-Le

    1991-01-15

    A means and method for producing linerization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors in laser scanning system including presenting an elliptical convex surface to the scanning beam to reflect the scanning beam to the focal plane of the scanning line. The elliptical surface is shaped to produce linear velocity of the reflective scanning beam at the focal plane. Maximization of linerization is accomplished by considering sets of criteria for different scanning applications.

  10. Multichannel optical sensing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    1985-08-16

    A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outdoor sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optical elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

  11. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  12. Transpiration purged optical probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2004-01-06

    An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

  13. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  14. Multichannel optical sensing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outr sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optic elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

  15. Measurement of nonlinear index by a relay-imaged top-hat Z-scan technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, T.; Kurnit, N.A.; Sheik-Bahae, M.

    1996-04-01

    Measurements of the nonlinear index of a number of optical materials of interest for the National Ignition Facility have been performed at 1,064 nm and 355 nm by a modified version of the ``top-hat`` technique and the results compared with the more standard gaussian-beam Z-scan technique. The top-hat technique has the advantages of higher sensitivity and smaller uncertainties introduced by beam-quality considerations. The authors have made what they feel to be an additional improvement by placing the defining aperture for the top hat at the front focal plane of the lens that focuses the beam into the sample and then reimaging the input aperture with a second lens onto a ccd camera. Reimaging eliminates diffraction fringes and provides a stationary image even for a wedged sample; recording the entire image permits minimization of spurious effects such as varying interference fringes.

  16. Optical atomic magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  17. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  18. Optical contact micrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Steven D.

    2014-08-19

    Certain examples provide optical contact micrometers and methods of use. An example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable lenses to receive an object and immobilize the object in a position. The example optical contact micrometer includes a pair of opposable mirrors positioned with respect to the pair of lenses to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses. The example optical contact micrometer includes a microscope to facilitate viewing of the object through the lenses via the mirrors; and an interferometer to obtain one or more measurements of the object.

  19. Optical amplifiers and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klimov, Victor I.; Mikhailovski, Alexandre; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Leatherdale, Catherine A.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2004-11-16

    An optical amplifier and laser having both broad band and wide range specific band capability can be based on semiconductor nanocrystal solids.

  20. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  1. Prismatic optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Brewster, Calvin

    2004-06-29

    A spatially modulated light beam is projected, reflected, and redirected through a prismatic optical panel to form a video image for direct viewing thereon.

  2. Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

  3. Controlled-Resonant Surface Tapping-Mode Scanning Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the advancement of a controlled-resonance surface tapping-mode single capillary liquid junction extraction/ESI emitter for mass spectrometry imaging. The basic instrumental setup and the general operation of the system were discussed and optimized performance metrics were presented. The ability to spot sample, lane scan and chemically image in an automated and controlled fashion were demonstrated. Rapid, automated spot sampling was demonstrated for a variety of compound types including the cationic dye basic blue 7, the oligosaccharide cellopentaose, and the protein equine heart cytochrome c. The system was used for lane scanning and chemical imaging of the cationic dye crystal violet in inked lines on glass and for lipid distributions in mouse brain thin tissue sections. Imaging of the lipids in mouse brain tissue under optimized conditions provided a spatial resolution of approximately 35 m based on the ability to distinguish between features observed both in the optical and mass spectral chemical images. The sampling spatial resolution of this system was comparable to the best resolution that has been reported for other types of atmospheric pressure liquid extraction-based surface sampling/ionization techniques used for mass spectrometry imaging.

  4. Lessons learned on the presentation of scan data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David A.; Vitkus, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Technicians performed a radiological survey of a surplus metal tank to support disposition planning at an Oak Ridge, Tennessee site. The survey included radiation scans to identify contamination and, if identified, define the boundary and magnitude of contamination. Fixed-point 1-minute measurements were also collected at randomly selected locations for comparison against the site's free release limit of 5,000 disintegrations per minute per 100 cm² (dpm/100 cm²) (0.83 Bq/cm²). Scan data were recorded using a data logger as a means to document surveyor observation - logged data captured at 1-second intervals and converted to counts per minute (cpm) by the data logger software were presented in the project report. Both the qualitative scan data (in cpm) and the quantitative direct measurement (in dpm/100 cm²) were reported for completeness, so stakeholders had all available information to support disposition decisions. However, a new stakeholder - introduced to the project at the reporting phase of work - used the instrument efficiency and background data to convert the scan data from cpm to dpm/100 cm², then compared the converted results to the site limit. Many of the converted values exceeded 5,000 dpm/100 cm². This resulted in delays in tank disposition and additional project costs which could have been avoided if the proper use and interpretation of scan data, and implications of radon progeny buildup on oxidized metal surfaces, had been better communicated.

  5. Multimode optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  6. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  7. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E. Victor; Schipper, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  8. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E.V.; Schipper, J.F.

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a T configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  9. Stepped inlet optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

  10. Flexible optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.

  11. XrayOpticsConstants

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-06-20

    This application (XrayOpticsConstants) is a tool for displaying X-ray and Optical properties for a given material, x-ray photon energy, and in the case of a gas, pressure. The display includes fields such as the photo-electric absorption attenuation length, density, material composition, index of refraction, and emission properties (for scintillator materials).

  12. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  13. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  14. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.

    1994-05-10

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

  15. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  16. Graphitization of polymer surfaces by scanning ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koval, Yuri [Department of Physics, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    Graphitization of polymer surfaces was performed by low-energy Ar{sup +} and He{sup +} ion irradiation. A method of scanning irradiation was implemented. It was found that by scanning ion irradiation, a significantly higher electrical conductivity in the graphitized layers can be achieved in comparison with a conventional broad-beam irradiation. The enhancement of the conductance becomes more pronounced for narrower and better collimated ion beams. In order to analyze these results in more detail, the temperature dependence of conductance of the irradiated samples was investigated. The results of measurements are discussed in terms of weak localization corrections to conductance in disordered metals. The observed effects can be explained by enlargement of graphitic patches, which was achieved with the scanning ion irradiation method.

  17. Composition analysis by scanning femtosecond laser ultraprobing (CASFLU).

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Campbell, E. Michael; Stuart, Brent C.; Perry, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The composition analysis by scanning femtosecond ultraprobing (CASFLU) technology scans a focused train of extremely short-duration, very intense laser pulses across a sample. The partially-ionized plasma ablated by each pulse is spectrometrically analyzed in real time, determining the ablated material's composition. The steering of the scanned beam thus is computer directed to either continue ablative material-removal at the same site or to successively remove nearby material for the same type of composition analysis. This invention has utility in high-speed chemical-elemental, molecular-fragment and isotopic analyses of the microstructure composition of complex objects, e.g., the oxygen isotopic compositions of large populations of single osteons in bone.

  18. Nonlinear optical characterization of ZnS thin film synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G, Sreeja V; Anila, E. I. R, Reshmi John, Manu Punnan; V, Sabitha P; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2014-10-15

    ZnS thin film was prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction method and Z scan technique. XRD pattern showed that ZnS thin film has hexagonal structure with an average size of about 5.6nm. The nonlinear optical properties of ZnS thin film was studied by open aperture Z-Scan technique using Q-switched Nd-Yag Laser at 532nm. The Z-scan plot showed that the investigated ZnS thin film has saturable absorption behavior. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity were also estimated.

  19. C-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR) Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    C-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR) Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: C-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR) Handbook The C-band scanning ...

  20. Perfusion lung scan: an aid in detection of lymphangitic carcinomatosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, S.E.; Tranum, B.L.

    1982-07-15

    Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is usually a late manifestation of metastatic disease. The patient usually presents with cough or dyspnea, and the chest radiograph is often nondiagnostic. Two patients are presented who developed symptoms while on adjuvant chemotherapy. Both had abnormal perfusion lung scans. One had matching ventilation defects; the other a normal ventilation study. Biopsy revealed metastatic carcinoma; in one case tumor was seen in both the pulmonary lymphatics and arterioles; in the other, tumor was identified but the site could not be specified. The radionuclide lung scan is a technique which can speed diagnosis and institution of therapy in lymphangitic carcinomatosis.

  1. ARM - PI Product - Kinematic and Hydrometer Data Products from Scanning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radars during MC3E ProductsKinematic and Hydrometer Data Products from Scanning Radars during MC3E Citation DOI: 10.5439/1241493 [ What is this? ] ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Kinematic and Hydrometer Data Products from Scanning Radars during MC3E [ research data - ASR funded ] Recently the Radar Meteorology Group at Colorado State University has completed major case studies of

  2. Projection optics box

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  3. Reproducible strain measurement in electronic devices by applying integer multiple to scanning grating in scanning moiré fringe imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Suhyun Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Kondo, Yukihito

    2014-10-15

    Scanning moiré fringe (SMF) imaging by high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to measure the strain field in the channel of a transistor with a CoSi{sub 2} source and drain. Nanometer-scale SMFs were formed with a scanning grating size of d{sub s} at integer multiples of the Si crystal lattice spacing d{sub l} (d{sub s} ? nd{sub l}, n = 2, 3, 4, 5). The moiré fringe formula was modified to establish a method for quantifying strain measurement. We showed that strain fields in a transistor measured by SMF images were reproducible with an accuracy of 0.02%.

  4. Concentrator Optics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Concentrator Optics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Concentrator Optics Place: Marburg, Germany Zip: 35037 Product: A Germany-based company engaged in the design and production...

  5. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Aerosol optical properties The optical properties of aerosols, including asymmetry factor, phase-function, single-scattering albedo, refractive index, and backscatter...

  6. ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Corner Reflector...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Corner Reflector Calibration Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Corner Reflector Calibration Authors: Dan Nelson ; ...

  7. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  8. Scalable optical quantum computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manykin, E A; Mel'nichenko, E V [Institute for Superconductivity and Solid-State Physics, Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr{sup 3+}, regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications. (quantum computer)

  9. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  10. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  11. Silicon fiber optic sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-02

    A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

  12. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope Control Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-08-05

    User Interface and control software or C++ to run on specifically equipped computer running Windows Operating Systems. Program performs specific control functions required to operate Interferometer controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at ALS beamlines 532 and 11.0.2. Graphical user interface facilitates control, display images and spectra.

  13. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-08-04

    Scanning probe microscopy may include a method for generating a band excitation (BE) signal and simultaneously exciting a probe at a plurality of frequencies within a predetermined frequency band based on the excitation signal. A response of the probe is measured across a subset of frequencies of the predetermined frequency band and the excitation signal is adjusted based on the measured response.

  14. Wind Measurements from Arc Scans with Doppler Wind Lidar

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Clifton, Andy; Pryor, S. C.

    2015-11-25

    When defining optimal scanning geometries for scanning lidars for wind energy applications, we found that it is still an active field of research. Our paper evaluates uncertainties associated with arc scan geometries and presents recommendations regarding optimal configurations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The analysis is based on arc scan data from a Doppler wind lidar with one elevation angle and seven azimuth angles spanning 30° and focuses on an estimation of 10-min mean wind speed and direction. When flow is horizontally uniform, this approach can provide accurate wind measurements required for wind resource assessments in part because of itsmore » high resampling rate. Retrieved wind velocities at a single range gate exhibit good correlation to data from a sonic anemometer on a nearby meteorological tower, and vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, though derived from range gates located on a conical surface, match those measured by mast-mounted cup anemometers. Uncertainties in the retrieved wind velocity are related to high turbulent wind fluctuation and an inhomogeneous horizontal wind field. Moreover, the radial velocity variance is found to be a robust measure of the uncertainty of the retrieved wind speed because of its relationship to turbulence properties. It is further shown that the standard error of wind speed estimates can be minimized by increasing the azimuthal range beyond 30° and using five to seven azimuth angles.« less

  15. Partial growth plate closure: apex view on bone scan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howman-Giles, R.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.; Middleton, R.; Barrett, I.; Scougall, J.; Whiteway, D.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique of using /sup 99m/Tc bone scan to assess partial closure of the growth plate is described. The site and degree of osseous fusion can be obtained by using the apex view. The technique has the potential of assessing serially the growth of a plate before and after surgery.

  16. Wind Measurements from Arc Scans with Doppler Wind Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Clifton, Andy; Pryor, S. C.

    2015-11-25

    When defining optimal scanning geometries for scanning lidars for wind energy applications, we found that it is still an active field of research. Our paper evaluates uncertainties associated with arc scan geometries and presents recommendations regarding optimal configurations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The analysis is based on arc scan data from a Doppler wind lidar with one elevation angle and seven azimuth angles spanning 30° and focuses on an estimation of 10-min mean wind speed and direction. When flow is horizontally uniform, this approach can provide accurate wind measurements required for wind resource assessments in part because of its high resampling rate. Retrieved wind velocities at a single range gate exhibit good correlation to data from a sonic anemometer on a nearby meteorological tower, and vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, though derived from range gates located on a conical surface, match those measured by mast-mounted cup anemometers. Uncertainties in the retrieved wind velocity are related to high turbulent wind fluctuation and an inhomogeneous horizontal wind field. Moreover, the radial velocity variance is found to be a robust measure of the uncertainty of the retrieved wind speed because of its relationship to turbulence properties. It is further shown that the standard error of wind speed estimates can be minimized by increasing the azimuthal range beyond 30° and using five to seven azimuth angles.

  17. Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Diels, Jean-Claude M.

    2007-06-26

    An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

  18. Multi-tipped optical component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2010-04-13

    An optical component has a plurality of parallel noncontiguous optical conduits of at least one protrusive phase material embedded in a recessive phase material that acts as a support structure. The optical conduits extend from a proximal surface to a distal surface of the optical component. The distal surface has a plurality of spaced apart surface features of the protrusive phase material. Each independent optical conduits act as waveguides for a wavelength or range of wavelengths. The optical component can be formed such that the protruding surface features at the distal end of the component form an ordered array. An optical instrument can include the optical component in conjunction with a light source for illuminating a sample and a detector in optical communication optical component via the optical conduits.

  19. Lessons learned on the presentation of scan data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, David A.; Vitkus, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Technicians performed a radiological survey of a surplus metal tank to support disposition planning at an Oak Ridge, Tennessee site. The survey included radiation scans to identify contamination and, if identified, define the boundary and magnitude of contamination. Fixed-point 1-minute measurements were also collected at randomly selected locations for comparison against the site's free release limit of 5,000 disintegrations per minute per 100 cm² (dpm/100 cm²) (0.83 Bq/cm²). Scan data were recorded using a data logger as a means to document surveyor observation - logged data captured at 1-second intervals and converted to counts per minute (cpm) by the datamore » logger software were presented in the project report. Both the qualitative scan data (in cpm) and the quantitative direct measurement (in dpm/100 cm²) were reported for completeness, so stakeholders had all available information to support disposition decisions. However, a new stakeholder - introduced to the project at the reporting phase of work - used the instrument efficiency and background data to convert the scan data from cpm to dpm/100 cm², then compared the converted results to the site limit. Many of the converted values exceeded 5,000 dpm/100 cm². This resulted in delays in tank disposition and additional project costs which could have been avoided if the proper use and interpretation of scan data, and implications of radon progeny buildup on oxidized metal surfaces, had been better communicated.« less

  20. Metasurface optical antireflection coating

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Boyang; Hendrickson, Joshua; Nader, Nima; Chen, Hou -Tong; Guo, Junpeng

    2014-12-15

    Light reflection at the boundary of two different media is one of the fundamental phenomena in optics, and reduction of reflection is highly desirable in many optical systems. Traditionally, optical antireflection has been accomplished using single- or multiple-layer dielectric films and graded index surface structures in various wavelength ranges. However, these approaches either impose strict requirements on the refractive index matching and film thickness, or involve complicated fabrication processes and non-planar surfaces that are challenging for device integration. Here, we demonstrate an antireflection coating strategy, both experimentally and numerically, by using metasurfaces with designer optical properties in the mid-wave infrared.more » Our results show that the metasurface antireflection is capable of eliminating reflection and enhancing transmission over a broad spectral band and a wide incidence angle range. The demonstrated antireflection technique has no requirement on the choice of materials and is scalable to other wavelengths.« less

  1. Optical fiber switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  2. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallman, Clifford S.

    1987-01-01

    An improved optical system which provides the operator a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  3. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  4. Optical gamma thermometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, Glen Peter; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon Kwee

    2013-08-06

    An optical gamma thermometer includes a metal mass having a temperature proportional to a gamma flux within a core of a nuclear reactor, and an optical fiber cable for measuring the temperature of the heated metal mass. The temperature of the heated mass may be measured by using one or more fiber grating structures and/or by using scattering techniques, such as Raman, Brillouin, and the like. The optical gamma thermometer may be used in conjunction with a conventional reactor heat balance to calibrate the local power range monitors over their useful in-service life. The optical gamma thermometer occupies much less space within the in-core instrument tube and costs much less than the conventional gamma thermometer.

  5. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  6. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  7. Optical displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Dustin W.

    2008-04-08

    An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

  8. Metasurface optical antireflection coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Boyang; Hendrickson, Joshua; Nader, Nima; Chen, Hou -Tong; Guo, Junpeng

    2014-12-15

    Light reflection at the boundary of two different media is one of the fundamental phenomena in optics, and reduction of reflection is highly desirable in many optical systems. Traditionally, optical antireflection has been accomplished using single- or multiple-layer dielectric films and graded index surface structures in various wavelength ranges. However, these approaches either impose strict requirements on the refractive index matching and film thickness, or involve complicated fabrication processes and non-planar surfaces that are challenging for device integration. Here, we demonstrate an antireflection coating strategy, both experimentally and numerically, by using metasurfaces with designer optical properties in the mid-wave infrared. Our results show that the metasurface antireflection is capable of eliminating reflection and enhancing transmission over a broad spectral band and a wide incidence angle range. The demonstrated antireflection technique has no requirement on the choice of materials and is scalable to other wavelengths.

  9. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  10. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  11. Fiber optics welder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  12. Binary Optics Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-02

    This software is a set of tools for the design and analysis of binary optics. It consists of a series of stand-alone programs written in C and some scripts written in an application-specific language interpreted by a CAD program called DW2000. This software can be used to optimize the design and placement of a complex lens array from input to output and produce contours, mask designs, and data exported for diffractive optic analysis.

  13. Relaying an optical wavefront

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

    2007-03-06

    A wavefront rely devices samples an incoming optical wavefront at different locations, optically relays the samples while maintaining the relative position of the samples and the relative phase between the samples. The wavefront is reconstructed due to interference of the samples. Devices can be designed for many different wavelengths, including for example the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and even longer wavelengths such as millimeter waves. In one application, the device function as a telescope but with negligible length.

  14. Multifunctional optical correlator for picosecond ultraviolet laser pulse measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Wang, Yang; Garcia, Frances; Long, Cary D.; Huang, Chunning; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    A compact optical correlator system that measures both the autocorrelation between two infrared (IR) lights and the cross-correlation between an IR and an ultraviolet (UV) light using a single nonlinear optical crystal has been designed and experimentally demonstrated. The rapid scanning of optical delay line, switching between auto and cross-correlations, crystal angle tuning, and data acquisition and processing are all computer controlled. Pulse widths of an IR light from a mode-locked laser are measured by the correlator and the results are compared with a direct measurement using a high-speed photodetector system. The correlator has been used to study the parametermore » dependence of the pulse width of a macropulse UV laser designed for laser-assisted hydrogen ion (H-) beam stripping for the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.« less

  15. High speed two-dimensional optical beam position detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutten, Paul Edmond

    2011-07-15

    Disclosed is the design of a high speed two-dimensional optical beam position detector which outputs the X and Y displacement and total intensity linearly. The experimental detector measures the displacement from DC to 123 MHz and the intensity of an optical spot in a similar way as a conventional quadrant photodiode detector. The design uses four discrete photodiodes and simple dedicated optics for the position decomposition which enables higher spatial accuracy and faster electronic processing than conventional detectors. Measurements of the frequency response and the spatial sensitivity demonstrate high suitability for atomic force microscopy, scanning probe data storage applications, and wideband wavefront sensing. The operation principle allows for position measurements up to 20 GHz and more in bandwidth.

  16. Solar-optical properties of multilayer fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Winkelmann, F.

    1986-11-01

    The bidirectional solar-optical properties of a fenestration system are necessary to accurately determine its luminous and thermal performance. Bidirectional transmittance and reflectance can be determined experimentally for fenestration systems of arbitrary complexity using a scanning radiometer, after which the total directional absorptance can be calculated. However, for the case of multilayer fenestration systems, this approach does not provide information about the net absorptance of each layer. Moreover, the same layers can be ordered in more than one way, resulting in fenestration systems with different solar-optical properties, the determination which requires additional experimental procedures. This paper describes a mathematical model for the calculation of the bidirectional solar-optical properties of multi-layer fenestration systems, using the bidirectional solar-optical properties of each layer. The model is based on the representation of the bidirectional solar-optical properties using matrices. Matrix operations are then used to calculate the bidirectional solar-optical properties of any combination of layers, considering the interreflections between them. This approach offers two advantages: (1) the reduction of the experimental procedures to those required for the determination of the bidirectional transmittance and reflectance of fenestration layers, rather than complete fenestration systems, and (2) the determination of the net absorptance of each layer as part of the fenestration system, rather than the total absorptance of the complete fenestration system. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction pathlengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  18. Optical pumping in a whispering-mode optical waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-08-11

    A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide are described. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  19. Fault location in optical networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Rick C.; Kryzak, Charles J.; Keeler, Gordon A.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Geib, Kent M.; Kornrumpf, William P.

    2008-07-01

    One apparatus embodiment includes an optical emitter and a photodetector. At least a portion of the optical emitter extends a radial distance from a center point. The photodetector provided around at least a portion of the optical emitter and positioned outside the radial distance of the portion of the optical emitter.

  20. Fibre optics: Forty years later

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dianov, Evgenii M

    2010-01-31

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed. (fiber optics)

  1. Embedded fiducials in optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    Embedded fiducials are provided in optical surfaces and a method for embedding the fiducials. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspheres. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data, and the equation describing the asphere, to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface of the optic and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.

  2. Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2013-12-02

    Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

  3. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  4. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krempasky, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-23

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a 'master' controlling the undulator 'slave' energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  5. Micron-Scale Differential Scanning Calorimeter on a Chip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavicchi, Richard E.; Poirier, Gregory Ernest; Suehle, John S.; Gaitan, Michael; Tea, Nim H.

    1998-06-30

    A differential scanning microcalorimeter produced on a silicon chip enables microscopic scanning calorimetry measurements of small samples and thin films. The chip may be fabricated using standard CMOS processes. The microcalorimeter includes a reference zone and a sample zone. The reference and sample zones may be at opposite ends of a suspended platform or may reside on separate platforms. An integrated polysilicon heater provides heat to each zone. A thermopile consisting of a succession of thermocouple junctions generates a voltage representing the temperature difference between the reference and sample zones. Temperature differences between the zones provide information about the chemical reactions and phase transitions that occur in a sample placed in the sample zone.

  6. Measurement of Semiconductor Surface Potential using the Scanning Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, J. T.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2012-02-15

    We calibrate the secondary electron signal from a standard scanning electron microscope to voltage, yielding an image of the surface or near-surface potential. Data on both atomically abrupt heterojunction GaInP/GaAs and diffused homojunction Si solar cell devices clearly show the expected variation in potential with position and applied bias, giving depletion widths and locating metallurgical junctions to an accuracy better than 10 nm. In some images, distortion near the p-n junction is observed, seemingly consistent with the effects of lateral electric fields (patch fields). Reducing the tube bias removes this distortion. This approach results in rapid and straightforward collection of near-surface potential data using a standard scanning electron microscope.

  7. A fast map-making preconditioner for regular scanning patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Næss, Sigurd K.; Louis, Thibaut E-mail: thibaut.louis@astro.ox.ac.uk

    2014-08-01

    High-resolution Maximum Likelihood map-making of the Cosmic Microwave Background is usually performed using Conjugate Gradients with a preconditioner that ignores noise correlations. We here present a new preconditioner that approximates the map noise covariance as circulant, and show that this results in a speedup of up to 400% for a realistic scanning pattern from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The improvement is especially large for polarized maps.

  8. Evaluation of three lidar scanning strategies for turbulence measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Newman, J. F.; Klein, P. M.; Wharton, S.; Sathe, A.; Bonin, T. A.; Chilson, P. B.; Muschinski, A.

    2015-11-24

    Several errors occur when a traditional Doppler-beam swinging (DBS) or velocity–azimuth display (VAD) strategy is used to measure turbulence with a lidar. To mitigate some of these errors, a scanning strategy was recently developed which employs six beam positions to independently estimate the u, v, and w velocity variances and covariances. In order to assess the ability of these different scanning techniques to measure turbulence, a Halo scanning lidar, WindCube v2 pulsed lidar and ZephIR continuous wave lidar were deployed at field sites in Oklahoma and Colorado with collocated sonic anemometers. Results indicate that the six-beam strategy mitigates somemore »of the errors caused by VAD and DBS scans, but the strategy is strongly affected by errors in the variance measured at the different beam positions. The ZephIR and WindCube lidars overestimated horizontal variance values by over 60 % under unstable conditions as a result of variance contamination, where additional variance components contaminate the true value of the variance. A correction method was developed for the WindCube lidar that uses variance calculated from the vertical beam position to reduce variance contamination in the u and v variance components. The correction method reduced WindCube variance estimates by over 20 % at both the Oklahoma and Colorado sites under unstable conditions, when variance contamination is largest. This correction method can be easily applied to other lidars that contain a vertical beam position and is a promising method for accurately estimating turbulence with commercially available lidars.« less

  9. Deployment of AAF Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Deployment of ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Field Campaign Report J Wang March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that

  10. Multifocal Multiphoton Laser-Scanning Structured Illumination Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Whole-Field Detection - Energy Innovation Portal Multifocal Multiphoton Laser-Scanning Structured Illumination Microscopy with Whole-Field Detection Colorado School of Mines Contact CSM About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis invention describes a multiphoton imaging process in conjunction with whole field detection which gives it the ability to penetrate deeper into highly scattering media. DescriptionThis system may be used for imaging beyond the diffraction limit in

  11. Perfusion lung scan: an aid in detection of lymphangitic carcinomatosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, S.E.; Tranum, B.L.

    1982-07-15

    Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is usually a late manifestation of metastatic disease. The patient usually presents with cough or dyspnea, and the chest radiograph is often nondiagnostic. Two patients are presented who developed symptoms while on adjuvant chemotherapy. Both had abnormal perfusion lung scans. One had matching ventilation defects; the other a normal ventilation study. Biopsy revealed metastatic carcinoma; in one case tumor was seen in both the pulmonary lymphatics and arterioles; in technique which can speed diagnosis and institution of therapy in lymphangitic carcinomatosis.

  12. Scanning Tunneling Microscope Data Acquistion and Control System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    SHOESCAN is a PC based code that acquires and displays data for Scanning Tunneling Microscopes (STM). SHOESCAN interfaces with the STM through external electronic feedback and raster control circuits that are controlled by I/O boards on the PC bus. Data is displayed on a separate color monitor that is interfaced to the PC through an additional frame-grabber board. SHOESCAN can acquire a wide range of surface topographic information as well as surface electronic structure information.

  13. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  14. Optic for industrial endoscope/borescope with narrow field of view and low distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Gary F.; Trebes, James E.

    2005-08-16

    An optic for the imaging optics on the distal end of a flexible fiberoptic endoscope or rigid borescope inspection tool. The image coverage is over a narrow (<20 degrees) field of view with very low optical distortion (<5% pin cushion or barrel distortion), compared to the typical <20% distortion. The optic will permit non-contact surface roughness measurements using optical techniques. This optic will permit simultaneous collection of selected image plane data, which data can then be subsequently optically processed. The image analysis will yield non-contact surface topology data for inspection where access to the surface does not permit a mechanical styles profilometer verification of surface topology. The optic allows a very broad spectral band or range of optical inspection. It is capable of spectroscopic imaging and fluorescence induced imaging when a scanning illumination source is used. The total viewing angle for this optic is 10 degrees for the full field of view of 10 degrees, compared to 40-70 degrees full angle field of view of the conventional gradient index or GRIN's lens systems.

  15. Optical key system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA); Clough, Robert E. (Danville, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  16. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, Bruce R.; Prather, William S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.

  17. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  18. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  19. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1992-10-06

    An apparatus and method are described for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer. 4 figs.

  20. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  1. Interactive optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

  2. Interactive optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

  3. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  4. Full spectrum optical safeguard

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Mark R.

    2008-12-02

    An optical safeguard device with two linear variable Fabry-Perot filters aligned relative to a light source with at least one of the filters having a nonlinear dielectric constant material such that, when a light source produces a sufficiently high intensity light, the light alters the characteristics of the nonlinear dielectric constant material to reduce the intensity of light impacting a connected optical sensor. The device can be incorporated into an imaging system on a moving platform, such as an aircraft or satellite.

  5. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1996-12-17

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  6. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    1998-10-06

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference lines a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line to the reflection surface along the desired edge ray through the point. 35 figs.

  7. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deri, R. J.

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  8. Optical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Optical Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Optical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) conducts optical characterization of large solar concentration devices. Concentration solar power (CSP) mirror panels and concentrating solar systems are tested with an emphasis is on measurement of parabolic trough mirror panels. The Optical Characterization Laboratory provides state-of-the-art characterization and testing capabilities for assessing the optical surface quality and optical performance for various CSP technologies including parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel, dishes, and heliostats.

  9. CT head-scan dosimetry in an anthropomorphic phantom and associated measurement of ACR accreditation-phantom imaging metrics under clinically representative scan conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunner, Claudia C.; Stern, Stanley H.; Chakrabarti, Kish; Minniti, Ronaldo; Parry, Marie I.; Skopec, Marlene

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To measure radiation absorbed dose and its distribution in an anthropomorphic head phantom under clinically representative scan conditions in three widely used computed tomography (CT) scanners, and to relate those dose values to metrics such as high-contrast resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom.Methods: By inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) in the head of an anthropomorphic phantom specially developed for CT dosimetry (University of Florida, Gainesville), we measured dose with three commonly used scanners (GE Discovery CT750 HD, Siemens Definition, Philips Brilliance 64) at two different clinical sites (Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, National Institutes of Health). The scanners were set to operate with the same data-acquisition and image-reconstruction protocols as used clinically for typical head scans, respective of the practices of each facility for each scanner. We also analyzed images of the ACR CT accreditation phantom with the corresponding protocols. While the Siemens Definition and the Philips Brilliance protocols utilized only conventional, filtered back-projection (FBP) image-reconstruction methods, the GE Discovery also employed its particular version of an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm that can be blended in desired proportions with the FBP algorithm. We did an objective image-metrics analysis evaluating the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and CNR for images reconstructed with FBP. For images reconstructed with ASIR, we only analyzed the CNR, since MTF and NPS results are expected to depend on the object for iterative reconstruction algorithms.Results: The OSLD measurements showed that the Siemens Definition and the Philips Brilliance scanners (located at two different clinical facilities) yield average absorbed doses in tissue of 42.6 and 43.1 mGy, respectively. The GE Discovery delivers about the same amount of dose (43.7 mGy) when run under similar operating and image-reconstruction conditions, i.e., without tube current modulation and ASIR. The image-metrics analysis likewise showed that the MTF, NPS, and CNR associated with the reconstructed images are mutually comparable when the three scanners are run with similar settings, and differences can be attributed to different edge-enhancement properties of the applied reconstruction filters. Moreover, when the GE scanner was operated with the facility's scanner settings for routine head exams, which apply 50% ASIR and use only approximately half of the 100%-FBP dose, the CNR of the images showed no significant change. Even though the CNR alone is not sufficient to characterize the image quality and justify any dose reduction claims, it can be useful as a constancy test metric.Conclusions: This work presents a straightforward method to connect direct measurements of CT dose with objective image metrics such as high-contrast resolution, noise, and CNR. It demonstrates that OSLD measurements in an anthropomorphic head phantom allow a realistic and locally precise estimation of magnitude and spatial distribution of dose in tissue delivered during a typical CT head scan. Additional objective analysis of the images of the ACR accreditation phantom can be used to relate the measured doses to high contrast resolution, noise, and CNR.

  10. Superlattice optical device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, R.M.; Fritz, I.J.; Gourley, P.L.; Osbourn, G.C.

    A semiconductor optical device which includes a superlattice having direct transitions between conduction band and valence band states with the same wave vector, the superlattice being formed from a plurality of alternating layers of two or more different materials, at least the material with the smallest bandgap being an indirect bandgap material.

  11. Split image optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  12. Superlattice optical device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Fritz, Ian J.; Gourley, Paul L.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    1986-01-01

    A semiconductor optical device which includes a superlattice having direct transitions between conduction band and valence band states with the same wave vector, the superlattice being formed from a plurality of alternating layers of two or more different materials, at least the material with the smallest bandgap being an indirect bandgap material.

  13. Split image optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  14. Measurement of bidirectional optical properties of complex shading devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klems, J.H.; Warner, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of predicting the solar heat gain through complex fenestration systems involving nonspecular layers such as shades or blinds has been examined in a project jointly sponsored by ASHRAE and DOE. In this method, a scanning radiometer is used to measure the bidirectional radiative transmittance and reflectance of each layer of a fenestration system. The properties of systems containing these layers are then built up computationally from the measured layer properties using a transmission/multiple-reflection calculation. The calculation produces the total directional-hemispherical transmittance of the fenestration system and the layer-by-layer absorptances. These properties are in turn combined with layer-specific measurements of the inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy to produce the overall solar heat gain coefficient. This paper describes the method of measuring the spatially averaged bidirectional optical properties using an automated, large-sample gonioradiometer/photometer, termed a ``Scanning Radiometer.`` Property measurements are presented for one of the most optically complex systems in common use, a venetian blind. These measurements will form the basis for optical system calculations used to test the method of determining performance.

  15. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore » and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  16. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  17. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars. Part I: Operational Sampling Strategies (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect I: Operational Sampling Strategies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scanning ARM Cloud Radars. Part I: Operational Sampling Strategies Authors: Kollias P. ; Johnson K. ; Bharadwaj, N. ; Widener, K. ; Jo, I. Publication Date: 2014-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1143615 Report Number(s): BNL--105483-2014-JA R&D Project: 2015-BNL-EE630EECA-Budg; KP1701000 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: J.

  18. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  19. Optical apparatus for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Ricco, A.J.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1999-05-18

    Optical apparatus is disclosed for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors. The optical apparatus comprises one or more diffractive optical elements formed on a substrate for receiving light from a source and processing the incident light. The optical apparatus includes an addressing element for alternately addressing each diffractive optical element thereof to produce for one unit of time a first correlation with the incident light, and to produce for a different unit of time a second correlation with the incident light that is different from the first correlation. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the optical apparatus is in the form of a correlation spectrometer; and in other embodiments, the apparatus is in the form of an optical processor. In some embodiments, the optical apparatus comprises a plurality of diffractive optical elements on a common substrate for forming first and second gratings that alternately intercept the incident light for different units of time. In other embodiments, the optical apparatus includes an electrically-programmable diffraction grating that may be alternately switched between a plurality of grating states thereof for processing the incident light. The optical apparatus may be formed, at least in part, by a micromachining process. 24 figs.

  20. Optical apparatus for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Michael A.; Ricco, Antonio J.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Senturia, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    Optical apparatus for forming correlation spectrometers and optical processors. The optical apparatus comprises one or more diffractive optical elements formed on a substrate for receiving light from a source and processing the incident light. The optical apparatus includes an addressing element for alternately addressing each diffractive optical element thereof to produce for one unit of time a first correlation with the incident light, and to produce for a different unit of time a second correlation with the incident light that is different from the first correlation. In preferred embodiments of the invention, the optical apparatus is in the form of a correlation spectrometer; and in other embodiments, the apparatus is in the form of an optical processor. In some embodiments, the optical apparatus comprises a plurality of diffractive optical elements on a common substrate for forming first and second gratings that alternately intercept the incident light for different units of time. In other embodiments, the optical apparatus includes an electrically-programmable diffraction grating that may be alternately switched between a plurality of grating states thereof for processing the incident light. The optical apparatus may be formed, at least in part, by a micromachining process.

  1. Imaging of the surface resistance of an SRF cavity by low-temperature laser scanning microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Ciovati, S.M. Anlage, A.V. Gurevich

    2013-06-01

    Temperature mapping of the outer surface of a superconducting radio-frequency cavity is a technique that is often used to identify lossy areas on the cavity surface. In this contribution, we present 2-D images of the superconducting state surface resistance R{sub s} of the inner surface of a superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity obtained by low-temperature laser scanning microscopy. This technique, which is applied for the first time to study lossy regions in an operating SRF cavity, allows identifying 'hotspots' with about one order of magnitude better spatial resolution ( ~2 mm) than by thermometry. The R{sub s}-resolution is of the order of 1 {micro}{Ohm} at 3.3 GHz. Surface resistance maps with different laser power and optical images of the cavity surface are discussed in this contribution. It is also shown that the thermal gradient on the niobium surface created by the laser beam can move some of the hotspots, which are identified as locations of trapped bundle of fluxoids. The prospects for this microscope to identify defects that limit the performance of SRF cavities will also be discussed.

  2. Diagnostics Implemented on NIF - Optical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Streaked Optical Pyrometer Shared LOS 90-315 DIM LLNL SOP measures the breakout time of an optically emitting shock. Robert M. Malone et al., "Combining a thermal-imaging...

  3. 4-ID-D optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-ID-D Beamline Optics A schetch of the major optical components for beam line 4-ID-D are shown above. All these components located in the B-station upstream from the D...

  4. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  5. Magneto-optic current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lanagan, Michael T.; Valsko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Fisher, Brandon L.; Welp, Ulrich

    2003-10-07

    An optical current transducer configured to sense current in the conductor is disclosed. The optical current transducer includes a light source and a polarizer that generates linearly polarized light received from a the light source. The light is communicated to a magneto-optic garnet that includes, among other elements, bismuth, iron and oxygen and is coupled to the conductor. The magneto-optic garnet is configured to rotate the polarization of the linearly polarized light received from the polarizer. The optical current transducer also includes an analyzer in optical communication with the magneto-optic garnet. The analyzer detects the rotation of the linearly polarized light caused by the magneto-optic garnet.

  6. Optics learning through affordable kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P, Anusha N E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Shaji, Chitra E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com Sharan, Alok E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  7. Crooker named Optical Society Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crooker named Optical Society Fellow Crooker named Optical Society Fellow The society recognized Crooker for "the development and application of magneto-optical spectroscopies to colloidal quantum dots and to electron spin transport and noise in semiconductors." January 23, 2014 Scott Crooker Scott Crooker Crooker's research focuses on the development of ultra-sensitive optical techniques to measure the static and dynamic properties of electron spins and magnetization in semiconductor

  8. A Case Study in Proton Pencil-Beam Scanning Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooy, Hanne M.; Clasie, Benjamin M.; Lu, H.-M.; Madden, Thomas M.; Bentefour, Hassan; Depauw, Nicolas M.S.; Adams, Judy A.; Trofimov, Alexei V.; Demaret, Denis; Delaney, Thomas F.; Flanz, Jacob B.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: We completed an implementation of pencil-beam scanning (PBS), a technology whereby a focused beam of protons, of variable intensity and energy, is scanned over a plane perpendicular to the beam axis and in depth. The aim of radiotherapy is to improve the target to healthy tissue dose differential. We illustrate how PBS achieves this aim in a patient with a bulky tumor. Methods and Materials: Our first deployment of PBS uses 'broad' pencil-beams ranging from 20 to 35 mm (full-width-half-maximum) over the range interval from 32 to 7 g/cm{sup 2}. Such beam-brushes offer a unique opportunity for treating bulky tumors. We present a case study of a large (4,295 cc clinical target volume) retroperitoneal sarcoma treated to 50.4 Gy relative biological effectiveness (RBE) (presurgery) using a course of photons and protons to the clinical target volume and a course of protons to the gross target volume. Results: We describe our system and present the dosimetry for all courses and provide an interdosimetric comparison. Discussion: The use of PBS for bulky targets reduces the complexity of treatment planning and delivery compared with collimated proton fields. In addition, PBS obviates, especially for cases as presented here, the significant cost incurred in the construction of field-specific hardware. PBS offers improved dose distributions, reduced treatment time, and reduced cost of treatment.

  9. A scanning Kelvin probe analysis of aluminum and aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, D.C.; Grecsek, G.E.; Roberts, R.O.

    1999-07-01

    A scanning Kelvin probe was used to determine a correlation between work function measurements in air and corrosion potential measurements in solution of pure metals. Test panels of AA2024-T3 treated with various surface preparations and primer/coatings were also analyzed using this technique. Filiform corrosion was observed on a scribed panel that had been exposed to a humid environment, whereas on a non-scribed and non-exposed test panel, holidays in the coating were observed and clearly defined. Work function (wf) analysis yielded more noble values for areas within the scribe mark and more active values were observed for areas adjacent to the scribe mark where delamination of the coating and filiform corrosion was observed. The tips of corrosion filaments were found to be anodic in relation to the body of the filament, with areas of activity extending away from the filaments themselves. Measurements made on an aircraft access panel resulted in the detection of a potential gradient within the repair area. These results indicate that the scanning Kelvin probe is a useful non-destructive technique for the detection of delamination and disbanding of coatings, coating anomalies and corrosion susceptibility of coatings on aluminum aircraft alloys.

  10. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, J.M.

    1996-03-26

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 {micro}m. 30 figs.

  11. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprehn, G.A.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Sandler, P.H.

    1997-11-04

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency. 4 figs.

  12. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprehn, Gregory A. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Sandler, Pamela H. (San Marino, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency.

  13. Large core fiber optic cleaver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device and method for cleaving optical fibers which yields cleaved optical fiber ends possessing high damage threshold surfaces. The device can be used to cleave optical fibers with core diameters greater than 400 .mu.m.

  14. X-band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (X-SAPR) Instrument Handbook...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (X-SAPR) Instrument Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (X-SAPR) Instrument Handbook ...

  15. Black optic display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

  16. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  17. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    2000-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  18. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1998-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  19. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1996-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  20. Modular optical detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  1. Nonimaging Optical Illumination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland

    1994-02-22

    A nonimaging illumination or concentration optical device. An optical device is provided having a light source, a light reflecting surface with an opening and positioned partially around the light source which is opposite the opening of the light reflecting surface. The light reflecting surface is disposed to produce a substantially uniform intensity output with the reflecting surface defined in terms of a radius vector R.sub.i in conjunction with an angle .phi..sub.i between R.sub.i, a direction from the source and an angle .theta..sub.i between direct forward illumination and the light ray reflected once from the reflecting surface. R.sub.i varies as the exponential of tan (.phi..sub.i -.theta..sub.i)/2 integrated over .phi..sub.i.

  2. Thin optical display panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James Thomas

    1997-01-01

    An optical display includes a plurality of optical waveguides each including a cladding bound core for guiding internal display light between first and second opposite ends by total internal reflection. The waveguides are stacked together to define a collective display thickness. Each of the cores includes a heterogeneous portion defining a light scattering site disposed longitudinally between the first and second ends. Adjacent ones of the sites are longitudinally offset from each other for forming a longitudinal internal image display over the display thickness upon scattering of internal display light thereagainst for generating a display image. In a preferred embodiment, the waveguides and scattering sites are transparent for transmitting therethrough an external image in superposition with the display image formed by scattering the internal light off the scattering sites for defining a heads up display.

  3. Triggered optical biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Xuedong; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-10-02

    An optical biosensor is provided for the detection of a multivalent target biomolecule, the biosensor including a substrate having a bilayer membrane thereon, a recognition molecule situated at the surface, the recognition molecule capable of binding with the multivalent target biomolecule, the recognition molecule further characterized as including a fluorescence label thereon and as being movable at the surface and a device for measuring a fluorescence change in response to binding between the recognition molecule and the multivalent target biomolecule.

  4. MicroSight Optics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    MicroSight is an innovative gunsight technology that allows a marksman's eye to focus on both the front gunsight and the intended target. The MicroSight improves both firearm safety and performance by imaging two objects at different focal distances. The MicroSight was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, and has been licensed by Apollo Optical Systems. You can learn more about INL's research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  6. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  7. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Peter B.; Looney, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  8. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  9. Optical ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

  10. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, F.W.

    1985-04-05

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

  11. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  12. Optical polarizer material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebbers, C.A.

    1999-08-31

    Several crystals have been identified which can be grown using standard single crystals growth techniques and which have a high birefringence. The identified crystals include Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, LiNaCO.sub.3, LiKCO.sub.3, LiRbCO.sub.3 and LiCsCO.sub.3. The condition of high birefringence leads to their application as optical polarizer materials. In one embodiment of the invention, the crystal has the chemical formula LiK.sub.(1-w-x-y) Na.sub.(1-w-x-z) Rb.sub.(1-w-y-z) Cs.sub.(1-x-y-z) CO.sub.3, where w+x+y+z=1. In another embodiment, the crystalline material may be selected from a an alkali metal carbonate and a double salt of alkali metal carbonates, where the polarizer has a Wollaston configuration, a Glan-Thompson configuration or a Glan-Taylor configuration. A method of making an LiNaCO.sub.3 optical polarizer is described. A similar method is shown for making an LiKCO.sub.3 optical polarizer.

  13. Optical polarizer material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebbers, Christopher A.

    1999-01-01

    Several crystals have been identified which can be grown using standard single crystals growth techniques and which have a high birefringence. The identified crystals include Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, LiNaCO.sub.3, LiKCO.sub.3, LiRbCO.sub.3 and LiCsCO.sub.3. The condition of high birefringence leads to their application as optical polarizer materials. In one embodiment of the invention, the crystal has the chemical formula LiK.sub.(1-w-x-y) Na.sub.(1-w-x-z) Rb.sub.(1-w-y-z) Cs.sub.(1-x-y-z) CO.sub.3, where w+x+y+z=1. In another embodiment, the crystalline material may be selected from a an alkali metal carbonate and a double salt of alkali metal carbonates, where the polarizer has a Wollaston configuration, a Glan-Thompson configuration or a Glan-Taylor configuration. A method of making an LiNaCO.sub.3 optical polarizer is described. A similar method is shown for making an LiKCO.sub.3 optical polarizer.

  14. Optical ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Lowry, M.E.

    1994-03-29

    An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium. 3 figures.

  15. Probing graphene defects and estimating graphene quality with optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Shen [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kyu Jang, Sung [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jae Song, Young, E-mail: yjsong@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungjoo, E-mail: leesj@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-27

    We report a simple and accurate method for detecting graphene defects that utilizes the mild, dry annealing of graphene/Cu films in air. In contrast to previously reported techniques, our simple approach with optical microscopy can determine the density and degree of dislocation of defects in a graphene film without inducing water-related damage or functionalization. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman and atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis were performed to demonstrate that our nondestructive approach to characterizing graphene defects with optimized thermal annealing provides rapid and comprehensive determinations of graphene quality.

  16. SU-E-T-594: Preliminary Active Scanning Results of KHIMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C; Yang, T; Chang, S; Kim, H; Lee, H; Kim, J; Jang, H; Han, G; Park, D; Hwang, W; Kim, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify the design criteria on heavy ion beam irradiation, developing a proto type active scanning system was purposed. The active scanning system consists of scanning magnet, power supplies, beam monitors, energy modulation system, and irradiation control system. Methods: Each components of the active scanning system was designed for carbon beam first. For the fast ramping a laminated yoke was purposed. To measure incoming dose and profile, a plate and strip type of ion chambers were designed. Also, ridge filter and range shifter was manufactured. And, the scanning system was modified to adopt 45 MeV of proton beam because of the absence of carbon ion beam in Korea. The system was installed in a beam line at MC-50, KIRAMS. Also, the irradiation control system and planning software was provided. Results: The scanning experiment was performed by drawing KHIMA logo on GaF film. The logo was scanned by 237 scanning points through time normalized intensity modulation. Also, a grid points scanning was performed to measure the scanning resolution and intensity resolution. Conclusion: A prototype active scanning system was successfully designed and manufactured. Also, an initial experiment to print out a drawing on GaF film through the scanning system was completed. More experiments would be required to specify the system performance.

  17. Charged particle beam scanning using deformed high gradient insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu -Jiuan

    2015-10-06

    Devices and methods are provided to allow rapid deflection of a charged particle beam. The disclosed devices can, for example, be used as part of a hadron therapy system to allow scanning of a target area within a patient's body. The disclosed charged particle beam deflectors include a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) with a hollow center and a dielectric wall that is substantially parallel to a z-axis that runs through the hollow center. The dielectric wall includes one or more deformed high gradient insulators (HGIs) that are configured to produce an electric field with an component in a direction perpendicular to the z-axis. A control component is also provided to establish the electric field component in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis and to control deflection of a charged particle beam in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis as the charged particle beam travels through the hollow center of the DWA.

  18. Multicomponent wavefield characterization with a novel scanning laser interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, Thomas E.; Wijk, Kasper van; Pouet, Bruno; Wartelle, Alexis

    2010-07-15

    The in-plane component of the wavefield provides valuable information about media properties from seismology to nondestructive testing. A new compact scanning laser ultrasonic interferometer collects light scattered away from the angle of incidence to provide the absolute ultrasonic displacement for both the out-of-plane and an in-plane components. This new system is tested by measuring the radial and vertical polarization of a Rayleigh wave in an aluminum half-space. The estimated amplitude ratio of the horizontal and vertical displacement agrees well with the theoretical value. The phase difference exhibits a small bias between the two components due to a slightly different frequency response between the two processing channels of the prototype electronic circuitry.

  19. Target motion tracking with a scanned particle beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert, Christoph; Saito, Nami; Schmidt, Alexander; Chaudhri, Naved; Schardt, Dieter; Rietzel, Eike

    2007-12-15

    Treatment of moving targets with scanned particle beams results in local over- and under-dosage due to interplay of beam and target motion. To mitigate the impact of respiratory motion, a motion tracking system has been developed and integrated in the therapy control system at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung. The system adapts pencil beam positions as well as the beam energy according to target motion to irradiate the planned position. Motion compensation performance of the tracking system was assessed by measurements with radiographic films and a 3D array of 24 ionization chambers. Measurements were performed for stationary detectors and moving detectors using the tracking system. Film measurements showed comparable homogeneity inside the target area. Relative differences of 3D dose distributions within the target volume were 1{+-}2% with a maximum of 4%. Dose gradients and dose to surrounding areas were in good agreement. The motion tracking system successfully preserved dose distributions delivered to moving targets and maintained target conformity.

  20. Ferroelectric Switching by the Grounded Scanning Probe Microscopy Tip

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ievlev, Anton; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-01-01

    The process of polarization reversal by the tip of scanning probe microscope was intensively studied for last two decades. Number of the abnormal switching phenomena was reported by the scientific groups worldwide. In particularly it was experimentally and theoretically shown that slow dynamics of the surface screening controls kinetics of the ferroelectric switching, backswitching and relaxation and presence of the charges carriers on the sample surface and in the sample bulk significantly change polarization reversal dynamics. Here we experimentally demonstrated practical possibility of the history dependent polarization reversal by the grounded SPM tip. This phenomenon was attributed to induction ofmore » the slowly dissipating charges into the surface of the grounded tip that enables polarization reversal under the action of the produced electric field. Analytical and numerical electrostatic calculations allow additional insight into nontrivial abnormal switching phenomena reported earlier.« less

  1. Ferroelectric Switching by the Grounded Scanning Probe Microscopy Tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ievlev, Anton; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-01-01

    The process of polarization reversal by the tip of scanning probe microscope was intensively studied for last two decades. Number of the abnormal switching phenomena was reported by the scientific groups worldwide. In particularly it was experimentally and theoretically shown that slow dynamics of the surface screening controls kinetics of the ferroelectric switching, backswitching and relaxation and presence of the charges carriers on the sample surface and in the sample bulk significantly change polarization reversal dynamics. Here we experimentally demonstrated practical possibility of the history dependent polarization reversal by the grounded SPM tip. This phenomenon was attributed to induction of the slowly dissipating charges into the surface of the grounded tip that enables polarization reversal under the action of the produced electric field. Analytical and numerical electrostatic calculations allow additional insight into nontrivial abnormal switching phenomena reported earlier.

  2. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2012-10-09

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  3. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  4. Pedestal substrate for coated optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry N.; Patterson, Steven R.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  5. Parallel-scanning tomosynthesis using a slot scanning technique: Fixed-focus reconstruction and the resulting image quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Koichi, E-mail: shibatak@suzuka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science 1001-1, Kishioka-cho, Suzuka 510-0293 (Japan); Notohara, Daisuke; Sakai, Takihito [R and D Department, Medical Systems Division, Shimadzu Corporation 1, Nishinokyo-Kuwabara-cho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8511 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Parallel-scanning tomosynthesis (PS-TS) is a novel technique that fuses the slot scanning technique and the conventional tomosynthesis (TS) technique. This approach allows one to obtain long-view tomosynthesis images in addition to normally sized tomosynthesis images, even when using a system that has no linear tomographic scanning function. The reconstruction technique and an evaluation of the resulting image quality for PS-TS are described in this paper. Methods: The PS-TS image-reconstruction technique consists of several steps (1) the projection images are divided into strips, (2) the strips are stitched together to construct images corresponding to the reconstruction plane, (3) the stitched images are filtered, and (4) the filtered stitched images are back-projected. In the case of PS-TS using the fixed-focus reconstruction method (PS-TS-F), one set of stitched images is used for the reconstruction planes at all heights, thus avoiding the necessity of repeating steps (1)–(3). A physical evaluation of the image quality of PS-TS-F compared with that of the conventional linear TS was performed using a R/F table (Sonialvision safire, Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan). The tomographic plane with the best theoretical spatial resolution (the in-focus plane, IFP) was set at a height of 100 mm from the table top by adjusting the reconstruction program. First, the spatial frequency response was evaluated at heights of ?100, ?50, 0, 50, 100, and 150 mm from the IFP using the edge of a 0.3-mm-thick copper plate. Second, the spatial resolution at each height was visually evaluated using an x-ray test pattern (Model No. 38, PTW Freiburg, Germany). Third, the slice sensitivity at each height was evaluated via the wire method using a 0.1-mm-diameter tungsten wire. Phantom studies using a knee phantom and a whole-body phantom were also performed. Results: The spatial frequency response of PS-TS-F yielded the best results at the IFP and degraded slightly as the distance from the IFP increased. A visual evaluation of the spatial resolution using the x-ray test pattern indicated that the resolution was 1.8 lp/mm at the IFP and 1.2 lp/mm at heights of ?100 and 100 mm from the IFP. The authors demonstrated that a spatial resolution of 1.2–1.8 lp/mm could be obtained within heights of 200 mm of the IFP. The slice sensitivity varied between 11.1 and 13.8 mm for heights between ?50 and 100 mm, and there was no critical change in the slice sensitivity within a height range of 150 mm around the IFP. The phantom results demonstrated that tomosynthesis and long-view images could be reconstructed. Conclusions: PS-TS-F provides tomosynthesis images while using low-cost systems that have no tomographic scanning function, such as tableside-controlled universal R/F systems or universal radiographic systems.

  6. All-optical switching in optically induced nonlinear waveguide couplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diebel, Falko Boguslawski, Martin; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia; Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2014-06-30

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical vortex switching in nonlinear coupled waveguide arrays optically induced in photorefractive media. Our technique is based on multiplexing of nondiffracting Bessel beams to induce various types of waveguide configurations. Using double- and quadruple-well potentials, we demonstrate precise control over the coupling strength between waveguides, the linear and nonlinear dynamics and symmetry-breaking bifurcations of guided light, and a power-controlled optical vortex switch.

  7. Nano-scale luminescence characterization of individual InGaN/GaN quantum wells stacked in a microcavity using scanning transmission electron microscope cathodoluminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Gordon Müller, Marcus; Veit, Peter; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Glauser, Marlene; Carlin, Jean-François; Cosendey, Gatien; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2014-07-21

    Using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy directly performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope at liquid helium temperatures, the optical and structural properties of a 62 InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well embedded in an AlInN/GaN based microcavity are investigated at the nanometer scale. We are able to spatially resolve a spectral redshift between the individual quantum wells towards the surface. Cathodoluminescence spectral linescans allow directly visualizing the critical layer thickness in the quantum well stack resulting in the onset of plastic relaxation of the strained InGaN/GaN system.

  8. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Land, C.E.; Martin, S.J.; Pfeifer, K.B.

    1993-11-30

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image. 7 figures.

  9. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  10. Optical humidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarvin, J.A.

    1987-02-10

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

  11. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Michael A.; Land, Cecil E.; Martin, Stephen J.; Pfeifer, Kent B.

    1993-01-01

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image.

  12. Integrated optical XY coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G.A.; Hadley, G.R.

    1997-05-06

    An integrated optical XY coupler having two converging input waveguide arms meeting in a central section and a central output waveguide arm and two diverging flanking output waveguide arms emanating from the central section. In-phase light from the input arms constructively interferes in the central section to produce a single mode output in the central output arm with the rest of the light being collected in the flanking output arms. Crosstalk between devices on a substrate is minimized by this collection of the out-of-phase light by the flanking output arms of the XY coupler. 9 figs.

  13. Integrated optical XY coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen; Hadley, G. Ronald

    1997-01-01

    An integrated optical XY coupler having two converging input waveguide arms meeting in a central section and a central output waveguide arm and two diverging flanking output waveguide arms emanating from the central section. In-phase light from the input arms constructively interfers in the central section to produce a single mode output in the central output arm with the rest of the light being collected in the flanking output arms. Crosstalk between devices on a substrate is minimized by this collection of the out-of-phase light by the flanking output arms of the XY coupler.

  14. Nonimaging Optical Illumination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL)

    1994-08-02

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing selected intensity output over an angular range. The device includes a light reflecting surface (24, 26) around a light source (22) which is disposed opposite the aperture opening of the light reflecting surface (24, 26). The light source (22) has a characteristic dimension which is small relative to one or more of the distance from the light source (22) to the light reflecting surface (24, 26) or the angle subtended by the light source (22) at the light reflecting surface (24, 26).

  15. Method for optical and mechanically coupling optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for splicing optical fibers. A fluorescing solder glass frit having a melting point lower than the melting point of first and second optical fibers is prepared. The solder glass frit is then attached to the end of the first optical fiber and/or the end of the second optical fiber. The ends of the optical fibers are aligned and placed in close proximity to each other. The solder glass frit is then heated to a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the first and second optical fibers, but which is high enough to melt the solder glass frit. A force is applied to the first and second optical fibers pushing the ends of the fibers towards each other. As the solder glass flit becomes molten, the layer of molten solder glass is compressed into a thin layer between the first and second optical fibers. The thin compressed layer of molten solder glass is allowed to cool such that the first and second optical fibers are bonded to each other by the hardened layer of solder glass. 6 figs.

  16. Method for optical and mechanically coupling optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for splicing optical fibers. A fluorescing solder glass frit having a melting point lower than the melting point of first and second optical fibers is prepared. The solder glass frit is then attached to the end of the first optical fiber and/or the end of the second optical fiber. The ends of the optical fibers are aligned and placed in close proximity to each other. The solder glass frit is then heated to a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the first and second optical fibers, but which is high enough to melt the solder glass frit. A force is applied to the first and second optical fibers pushing the ends of the fibers towards each other. As the solder glass flit becomes molten, the layer of molten solder glass is compressed into a thin layer between the first and second optical fibers. The thin compressed layer of molten solder glass is allowed to cool such that the first and second optical fibers are bonded to each other by the hardened layer of solder glass.

  17. Nonlinear optical coupler using a doped optical waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pantell, Richard H.; Sadowski, Robert W.; Digonnet, Michel J. F.; Shaw, Herbert J.

    1994-01-01

    An optical mode coupling apparatus includes an Erbium-doped optical waveguide in which an optical signal at a signal wavelength propagates in a first spatial propagation mode and a second spatial propagation mode of the waveguide. The optical signal propagating in the waveguide has a beat length. The coupling apparatus includes a pump source of perturbational light signal at a perturbational wavelength that propagates in the waveguide in the first spatial propagation mode. The perturbational signal has a sufficient intensity distribution in the waveguide that it causes a perturbation of the effective refractive index of the first spatial propagation mode of the waveguide in accordance with the optical Kerr effect. The perturbation of the effective refractive index of the first spatial propagation mode of the optical waveguide causes a change in the differential phase delay in the optical signal propagating in the first and second spatial propagation modes. The change in the differential phase delay is detected as a change in the intensity distribution between two lobes of the optical intensity distribution pattern of an output signal. The perturbational light signal can be selectively enabled and disabled to selectively change the intensity distribution in the two lobes of the optical intensity distribution pattern.

  18. Device for translating negative film image to a line scan

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, G.W.

    1998-05-19

    A negative film reader records high-resolution optical density changes across negative film radiographic images to allow precise image dimensions to be determined. A laser light source capable of high-resolution focusing is passed through an intensity control filter, focused by a lens, and reflected off a mirror to focus in the plane of the negative film. The light transmitted through the film is collected by a second lens and directed to a photo diode detector which senses the transmitted intensity. The output of the photo diode signal amplifier is sent to the Y-axis input of an X-Y recorder. The film sample is transported in a plane perpendicular to the beam axis by means of a slide. The film position is monitored, with the signal amplified and recorded as the X-axis on the X-Y recorder. The linear dimensions and positions of image components can be determined by direct measurement of the amplified recording.

  19. Bundled monocapillary optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirsch, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    A plurality of glass or metal wires are precisely etched to form the desired shape of the individual channels of the final polycapillary optic. This shape is created by carefully controlling the withdrawal speed of a group of wires from an etchant bath. The etched wires undergo a subsequent operation to create an extremely smooth surface. This surface is coated with a layer of material which is selected to maximize the reflectivity of the radiation being used. This reflective surface may be a single layer of material, or a multilayer coating for optimizing the reflectivity in a narrower wavelength interval. The collection of individual wires is assembled into a close-packed multi-wire bundle, and the wires are bonded together in a manner which preserves the close-pack configuration, irrespective of the local wire diameter. The initial wires are then removed by either a chemical etching procedure or mechanical force. In the case of chemical etching, the bundle is generally segmented by cutting a series of etching slots. Prior to removing the wire, the capillary array is typically bonded to a support substrate. The result of the process is a bundle of precisely oriented radiation-reflecting hollow channels. The capillary optic is used for efficiently collecting and redirecting the radiation from a source of radiation which could be the anode of an x-ray tube, a plasma source, the fluorescent radiation from an electron microprobe, a synchrotron radiation source, a reactor or spallation source of neutrons, or some other source.

  20. Tapered capillary optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirsch, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    A metal or glass wire is etched with great precision into a very narrowly tapering cone which has the shape of the desired final capillary-optics bore. By controlling the rate of removal of the wire from an etchant bath, a carefully controlled taper is produced. A sensor measures the diameter of the wire as it leaves the surface of the etchant. This signal is used for feedback control of the withdrawal speed. The etched wire undergoes a treatment to produce an extremely low surface-roughness. The etched and smoothed wire is coated with the material of choice for optimizing the reflectivity of the radiation being focused. This could be a vacuum evaporation, sputtering, CVD or aqueous chemical process. The coated wire is either electroplated, built up with electroless plating, or encapsulated in a polymer cylinder such as epoxy to increase the diameter of the wire for easier handling and greater robustness. During this process, the wire is vertically oriented and tensioned to assure that the wire is absolutely straight. The coated and electroformed wire is bonded to a flat, rigid substrate and is then periodically segmented by cutting or etching a series of narrow slits or grooves into the wire. The wire is vertically oriented and tensioned during the bonding process to assure that it is straight. The original wire material is then chemically etched away through the slits or otherwise withdrawn to leave the hollow internal bore of the final tapered-capillary optical element.

  1. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    A transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

  2. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1997-07-22

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

  3. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  4. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-03-04

    This invention consists of a transcutaneous bilirubin detector comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient.

  5. Optical transcutaneous bilirubin detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-11-09

    A transcutaneous bilirubin detector is designed comprising a source of light having spectral components absorbable and not absorbable by bilirubin, a handle assembly, electronic circuitry and a fiber optic bundle connecting the assembly to the light source and circuitry. Inside the assembly is a prism that receives the light from one end of the fiber optic bundle and directs it onto the skin and directs the reflected light back into the bundle. The other end of the bundle is trifucated, with one end going to the light source and the other two ends going to circuitry that determines how much light of each kind has been reflected. A relatively greater amount absorbed by the skin from the portion of the spectrum absorbable by bilirubin may indicate the presence of the illness. Preferably, two measurements are made, one on the kneecap and one on the forehead, and compared to determine the presence of bilirubin. To reduce the impact of light absorption by hemoglobin in the blood carried by the skin, pressure is applied with a plunger and spring in the handle assembly, the pressure limited by points of a button slidably carried in the assembly that are perceived by touch when the pressure applied is sufficient. 6 figures.

  6. System for testing optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  7. System for testing optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golob, J.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.; Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector. 2 figs.

  8. Spatial optic multiplexer/diplexer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tremblay, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for simultaneous transmission of optic signals having different wavelengths over a single optic fiber. Multiple light signals are transmitted through optic fibers that are formed into a circumference surrounding a central core fiber. The multiple light signals are directed by a lens into a single receiving fiber where the light combines and is then focused into the central core fiber which transmits the light to a wavelength discriminating receiver assembly.

  9. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  10. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  11. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, J.D.

    1999-03-09

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments. 14 figs.

  12. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, Jonathan David

    1999-01-01

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments.

  13. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling Testbed AOD : Aerosol Optical Depth, derived from atmospheric extinction of solar irradiance AATS : Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer...

  14. Crooker named Optical Society Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Society (OSA). The Society selected 71 new Fellows based on their overall impact on optics, as gauged through specific scientific, engineering and technological contributions,...

  15. Sandia Energy - Sensors & Optical Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Optical Diagnostics Home CRF Permalink Gallery CRF Article Chosen by The Journal of Chemical Physics to Commemorate 80th Anniversary CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events,...

  16. Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

    2014-02-18

    Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

  17. Multiphase Carbon-14 Transport in a Near-Field-Scale Unsaturated Column of Natural Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. T. Fox; Mitchell A. Plummer; Larry C. Hull; D. Craig Cooper

    2004-03-01

    Wastes buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory include activated metals that release radioactive carbon-14 (14C) as they corrode. To better understand 14C phase partitioning and transport in the SDA sediments, we conducted a series of transport experiments using 14C (radio-labeled sodium carbonate) and nonreactive gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and aqueous (bromide and tritiated water) tracers in a large (2.6-m high by 0.9-m diameter) column of sediments similar to those used as cover material at the SDA. We established steady-state unsaturated flow prior to injecting tracers into the column. Tracer migration was monitored using pore-water and pore-gas samples taken from co-located suction lysimeters and gas ports inserted at ~0.3-m intervals along the column’s length. Measurements of 14C discharged from the sediment to the atmosphere (i.e., 14CO2 flux) indicate a positive correlation between CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in the column and changes in 14CO2 flux. Though 14CO2 diffusion is expected to be independent of pCO2, changes of pCO2 affect pore water chemistry sufficiently to affect aqueous/gas phase 14C partitioning and consequently 14C2 flux. Pore-water and -gas 14C activity measurements provide an average aqueous/gas partitioning ratio, Kag, of 4.5 (±0.3). This value is consistent with that calculated using standard carbonate equilibrium expressions with measured pH, suggesting the ability to estimate Kag from carbonate equilibrium. One year after the 14C injection, the column was cored and solid-phase 14C activity was measured. The average aqueous/solid partition coefficient, Kd, (1.6 L kg-1) was consistent with those derived from small-scale and short-term batch and column experiments using SDA sediments, suggesting that bench-scale measurements are a valid means of estimating aqueous/solid partitioning at the much larger spatial scale considered in these meso-scale experiments. However, limitations at the bench scale prevent observation of spatially- and temporally-varying parameters that affect contaminant transport in the natural environment. In addition to a temporally-variable 14CO2 flux, in response to changes of pCO2, we observed non-uniformities in Kag and Kd that were not observed in bench-scale studies. Our results suggest that 14C transport is effectively controlled by gas diffusion with minimal retardation by partitioning onto the solid phase, and little long-term retention. The implication for the SDA is that 14C released via corrosion of activated metals is primarily transported by gas-phase diffusion rather than by liquid-phase advection. Calculations show that, because the atmospheric boundary is so much closer than the aquifer boundary at the SDA, most of the 14C will diffuse upward to the atmosphere.

  18. Report on THMC Modeling of the Near Field Evolution of a Generic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    field setting for modeling the geo-mechanical behavior of the buffer. The analysis highlights the complex coupled geo-mechanical behavior in the buffer and its...

  19. A GPU-based Calculation Method for Near Field Effects of Cherenkov...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Authors: Hu, Chia-Yu ; Chen, Chih-Ching ; Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. ; Chen, Pisin ; Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U....

  20. Efficient near-field wireless energy transfer using adiabatic system variations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Karalis, Aristeidis; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin

    2013-01-29

    Disclosed is a method for transferring energy wirelessly including transferring energy wirelessly from a first resonator structure to an intermediate resonator structure, wherein the coupling rate between the first resonator structure and the intermediate resonator structure is .kappa..sub.1B, transferring energy wirelessly from the intermediate resonator structure to a second resonator structure, wherein the coupling rate between the intermediate resonator structure and the second resonator structure is .kappa..sub.B2, and during the wireless energy transfers, adjusting at least one of the coupling rates .kappa..sub.1B and .kappa..sub.B2 to reduce energy accumulation in the intermediate resonator structure and improve wireless energy transfer from the first resonator structure to the second resonator structure through the intermediate resonator structure.

  1. Efficient near-field wireless energy transfer using adiabatic system variations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamam, Rafif E; Karalis, Aristeidis; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-16

    Disclosed is a method for transferring energy wirelessly including transferring energy wirelessly from a first resonator structure to an intermediate resonator structure, wherein the coupling rate between the first resonator structure and the intermediate resonator structure is .kappa..sub.1B, transferring energy wirelessly from the intermediate resonator structure to a second resonator structure, wherein the coupling rate between the intermediate resonator structure and the second resonator structure is .kappa..sub.B2, and during the wireless energy transfers, adjusting at least one of the coupling rates .kappa..sub.1B and .kappa..sub.B2 to reduce energy accumulation in the intermediate resonator structure and improve wireless energy transfer from the first resonator structure to the second resonator structure through the intermediate resonator structure.

  2. NEAR FIELD MODELING OF SPE1 EXPERIMENT AND PREDICTION OF THE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GEODYN, GEODYN-L), and the far-field seismic propagation with an elastic wave ... This spiral development cycle wherein simulations are used to guide experimental design ...

  3. Report on Modeling Coupled Processes in the Near Field of a Clay Repository

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world. Coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) processes have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. This report documents results from three R&D activities: (1) implementation and validation of constitutive relationships, (2) development of a discrete fracture network (DFN) model for investigating coupled processes in the excavation damaged zone, and (3) development of a THM model for the Full-Scale Emplacement Experiment tests at Mont Terri, Switzerland, for the purpose of model validation. One major goal is to provide a better understanding of the evolution of the excavation damage zone in clay repositories.

  4. Thermal conductivity prediction of magnetic composite sheet for near-field electromagnetic absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Joonsik; Nam, Baekil; Ko, Frank K.; Kim, Ki Hyeon

    2015-05-07

    The magnetic composite sheets were designed by using core-shell structured magnetic fillers instead of uncoated magnetic fillers to resolve concurrently the electromagnetic interference and thermal radiation problems. To predict the thermal conductivity of composite sheet, we calculated the thermal conductivity of the uncoated magnetic fillers and core-shell structured fillers. And then, the thermal conductivity of the magnetic composites sheet filled with core-shell structured magnetic fillers was calculated and compared with that of the uncoated magnetic fillers filled in composite sheet. The magnetic core and shell material are employed the typical Fe-Al-Si flake (60??m?×?60??m?×?1??m) and 250?nm-thick AlN with high thermal conductivity, respectively. The longitudinal thermal conductivity of the core-shell structured magnetic composite sheet (2.45?W/m·K) enhanced about 33.4% in comparison with that of uncoated magnetic fillers (1.83?W/m·K) for the 50 vol. % magnetic filler in polymer matrix.

  5. A GPU-based Calculation Method for Near Field Effects of Cherenkov...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  6. NEAR FIELD MODELING OF SPE1 EXPERIMENT AND PREDICTION OF THE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND PREDICTION OF THE SECOND SOURCE PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS ... as Russian and French nuclear test data in granitic rocks. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English ...

  7. Mechanical Behavior of the Near-field Host Rock Surrounding Excavation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: DOELANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Geosciences(58) Energy Sciences Word Cloud More Like This Full Text File size NAView Full ...

  8. Volume II: near-field and altered-zone environment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1996-08-23

    This report contains chapters 2-11 and the appendix covering topics such as hydrology, geochemistry, geomechanics, radiation effects, field testing and thermal tests.

  9. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  10. Future of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Odyniec, Grazyna; Bravina, L.; Foka, Y.; Kabana, S.

    2015-05-29

    The first exploratory phase of a very successful Beam Energy Scan Program at RHIC was completed in 2014 with Au+Au collisions at energies ranging from 7 to 39 GeV. Data sets taken earlier extended the upper limit of energy range to the √sNN of 200 GeV. This provided an initial look into the uncharted territory of the QCD phase diagram, which is considered to be the single most important graph of our field. The main results from BES phase I, although effected by large statistical errors (steeply increasing with decreasing energy), suggest that the highest potential for discovery of themore » QCD Critical Point lies bellow √sNN 20 GeV. Here, we discuss the plans and the preparation for phase II of the BES program, with an order of magnitude larger statistics, which is planned for 2018-2019. The BES II will focus on Au+Au collisions at √sNN from 20 to 7 GeV in collider mode, and from √sNN 7 to 3.5 GeV in the fixed target mode, which will be run concurrently with the collider mode operation.« less

  11. Dual energy scanning beam laminographic x-radiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.F.

    1998-04-21

    A multiple x-ray energy level imaging system includes a scanning x-ray beam and two detector design having a first low x-ray energy sensitive detector and a second high x-ray energy sensitive detector. The low x-ray energy detector is placed next to or in front of the high x-ray energy detector. The low energy sensitive detector has small stopping power for x-rays. The lower energy x-rays are absorbed and converted into electrical signals while the majority of the higher energy x-rays pass through undetected. The high energy sensitive detector has a large stopping power for x-rays as well as it having a filter placed between it and the object to absorb the lower energy x-rays. In a second embodiment; a single energy sensitive detector is provided which provides an output signal proportional to the amount of energy in each individual x-ray it absorbed. It can then have an electronic threshold or thresholds set to select two or more energy ranges for the images. By having multiple detectors located at different positions, a dual energy laminography system is possible. 6 figs.

  12. Dual energy scanning beam laminographic x-radiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Wojcik, Randolph F.

    1998-01-01

    A multiple x-ray energy level imaging system includes a scanning x-ray beam and two detector design having a first low x-ray energy sensitive detector and a second high x-ray energy sensitive detector. The low x-ray energy detector is placed next to or in front of the high x-ray energy detector. The low energy sensitive detector has small stopping power for x-rays. The lower energy x-rays are absorbed and converted into electrical signals while the majority of the higher energy x-rays pass through undetected. The high energy sensitive detector has a large stopping power for x-rays as well as it having a filter placed between it and the object to absorb the lower energy x-rays. In a second embodiment; a single energy sensitive detector is provided which provides an output signal proportional to the amount of energy in each individual x-ray it absorbed. It can then have an electronic threshold or thresholds set to select two or more energy ranges for the images. By having multiple detectors located at different positions, a dual energy laminography system is possible.

  13. Scanning Synchronization of Colliding Bunches for MEIC Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Popov, V. P.; Chernousov, Y. D.; Kazakevich, G. M.

    2015-09-01

    Synchronization of colliding beams is one of the major issues of an electron-ion collider (EIC) design because of sensitivity of ion revolution frequency to beam energy. A conventional solution for this trouble is insertion of bent chicanes in the arcs space. In our report we consider a method to provide space coincidence of encountering bunches in the crab-crossing orbits Interaction Region (IR) while repetition rates of two beams do not coincide. The method utilizes pair of fast kickers realizing a bypass for the electron bunches as the way to equalize positions of the colliding bunches at the Interaction Point (IP). A dipole-mode warm or SRF cavities fed by the magnetron transmitters are used as fast kickers, allowing a broad-band phase and amplitude control. The proposed scanning synchronization method implies stabilization of luminosity at a maximum via a feedback loop. This synchronization method is evaluated as perspective for the Medium Energy Electron-Ion collider (MEIC) project of JLab with its very high bunch repetition rate.

  14. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-05-28

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  15. Future of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odyniec, Grazyna; Bravina, L.; Foka, Y.; Kabana, S.

    2015-05-29

    The first exploratory phase of a very successful Beam Energy Scan Program at RHIC was completed in 2014 with Au+Au collisions at energies ranging from 7 to 39 GeV. Data sets taken earlier extended the upper limit of energy range to the ?sNN of 200 GeV. This provided an initial look into the uncharted territory of the QCD phase diagram, which is considered to be the single most important graph of our field. The main results from BES phase I, although effected by large statistical errors (steeply increasing with decreasing energy), suggest that the highest potential for discovery of the QCD Critical Point lies bellow ?sNN 20 GeV. Here, we discuss the plans and the preparation for phase II of the BES program, with an order of magnitude larger statistics, which is planned for 2018-2019. The BES II will focus on Au+Au collisions at ?sNN from 20 to 7 GeV in collider mode, and from ?sNN 7 to 3.5 GeV in the fixed target mode, which will be run concurrently with the collider mode operation.

  16. Optical Microscopy Characterization for Borehole U-15n#12 in Support of NCNS Source Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Jennifer E.; Sussman, Aviva Joy

    2015-05-22

    Optical microscopy characterization of thin sections from corehole U-15n#12 is part of a larger material characterization effort for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The SPE program was conducted in Nevada with a series of explosive tests designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves inside Stock quartz monzonite. Optical microscopy analysis includes the following: 1) imaging of full thin sections (scans and mosaic maps); 2) high magnification imaging of petrographic texture (grain size, foliations, fractures, etc.); and 3) measurement of microfracture density.

  17. Measurement and control of optical nonlinearities of importance to glass laser fusion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurnit, N.A.; Shimada, T.; Sorem, M.S.; Taylor, A.J.; Rodriguez, G.; Clement, T.S.; James, D.F.V.; Milonni, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    Results of a number of studies carried out at Los Alamos, both experimental and theoretical, of nonlinear optical phenomena important to the design of the National Ignition Facility are summarized. These include measurements of nonlinear index coefficients, Raman scattering in atmospheric oxygen, and theoretical studies of harmonic conversion. The measurements were made by two different techniques in order to increase confidence in the results. One method was an application of a recently-developed technique for measuring the amplitude and phase of an ultrashort pulse by Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG). The other utilized a modified version of the Z-scan technique that measures beam distortion introduced by scanning a sample through the focus of a beam. The measurements by both techniques for fused silica were consistent with the lower range of previously measured values, indicating that it should not be necessary to further expand the beam size in the NIF to stay below the self-focusing threshold.

  18. Determination and application of bidirectional solar-optical properties of fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Klems, J.; Selkowitz, S.

    1988-03-01

    Accurate determination of the luminous and thermal performance of fenestration systems that incorporate optically complex components requires detailed knowledge of their radiant behavior. We describe a large scanning radiometer used to measure the bidirectional transmittance and reflectance of fenestration systems and components. We present examples of measured data obtained for simple non-specular samples. We describe a method of obtaining the overall properties of fenestration systems by calculation from scanning radiometer measurements of fenestration components. Finally, we describe the application of bidirectional solar-optical properties of fenestration systems to determine their luminous and thermal performance with respect to building energy consumption and occupants' comfort. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of the method, which appears to be promising.

  19. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  20. Multilayer optical dielectric coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Emmett, John L.

    1990-01-01

    A highly damage resistant, multilayer, optical reflective coating includes alternating layers of doped and undoped dielectric material. The doping levels are low enough that there are no distinct interfaces between the doped and undoped layers so that the coating has properties nearly identical to the undoped material. The coating is fabricated at high temperature with plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques to eliminate defects, reduce energy-absorption sites, and maintain proper chemical stoichiometry. A number of differently-doped layer pairs, each layer having a thickness equal to one-quarter of a predetermined wavelength in the material are combined to form a narrowband reflective coating for a predetermined wavelength. Broadband reflectors are made by using a number of narrowband reflectors, each covering a portion of the broadband.

  1. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  2. Optically transduced MEMS magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Langlois, Eric

    2014-03-18

    MEMS magnetometers with optically transduced resonator displacement are described herein. Improved sensitivity, crosstalk reduction, and extended dynamic range may be achieved with devices including a deflectable resonator suspended from the support, a first grating extending from the support and disposed over the resonator, a pair of drive electrodes to drive an alternating current through the resonator, and a second grating in the resonator overlapping the first grating to form a multi-layer grating having apertures that vary dimensionally in response to deflection occurring as the resonator mechanically resonates in a plane parallel to the first grating in the presence of a magnetic field as a function of the Lorentz force resulting from the alternating current. A plurality of such multi-layer gratings may be disposed across a length of the resonator to provide greater dynamic range and/or accommodate fabrication tolerances.

  3. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, A.D.; Smartt, H.B.; Taylor, P.L.

    1994-01-04

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control is described. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties. 6 figures.

  4. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Taylor, Paul L.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties.

  5. Fast optimization and dose calculation in scanned ion beam therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hild, S.; Graeff, C.; Trautmann, J.; Kraemer, M.; Zink, K.; Durante, M.; Bert, C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Particle therapy (PT) has advantages over photon irradiation on static tumors. An increased biological effectiveness and active target conformal dose shaping are strong arguments for PT. However, the sensitivity to changes of internal geometry complicates the use of PT for moving organs. In case of interfractionally moving objects adaptive radiotherapy (ART) concepts known from intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can be adopted for PT treatments. One ART strategy is to optimize a new treatment plan based on daily image data directly before a radiation fraction is delivered [treatment replanning (TRP)]. Optimizing treatment plans for PT using a scanned beam is a time consuming problem especially for particles other than protons where the biological effective dose has to be calculated. For the purpose of TRP, fast optimization and fast dose calculation have been implemented into the GSI in-house treatment planning system (TPS) TRiP98. Methods: This work reports about the outcome of a code analysis that resulted in optimization of the calculation processes as well as implementation of routines supporting parallel execution of the code. To benchmark the new features, the calculation time for therapy treatment planning has been studied. Results: Compared to the original version of the TPS, calculation times for treatment planning (optimization and dose calculation) have been improved by a factor of 10 with code optimization. The parallelization of the TPS resulted in a speedup factor of 12 and 5.5 for the original version and the code optimized version, respectively. Hence the total speedup of the new implementation of the authors' TPS yielded speedup factors up to 55. Conclusions: The improved TPS is capable of completing treatment planning for ion beam therapy of a prostate irradiation considering organs at risk in this has been overseen in the review process. Also see below 6 min.

  6. Results of mobile gamma scanning activities in St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, R E; Witt, D A; Cottrell, W D; Carrier, R F

    1991-06-01

    From 1942 through approximately 1966, the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works operated four plants in St. Louis, Missouri, for the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. A variety of production processes using uranium- and radium-bearing ore materials were performed at the plants. It is the policy of the DOE to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Guidelines for release and use of such sites have become more stringent as research has provided more information since previous cleanups. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established as part of that effort to confirm the closeout status of facilities under contract to agencies preceding DOE during early nuclear energy development. Under the FUSRAP program, the Mallinckrodt properties have been previously investigated to determine the extent of on-site radiological contamination. At the request of DOE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a survey in May 1990, of public roadways and suspected haul routes between the Mallinckrodt plant and storage sites in St. Louis to ensure that no residual radioactive materials were conveyed off-site. A mobile gamma scanning van with an on-board computer system was used to identify possible anomalies. Suspect areas are those displaying measurements deviating from gamma exposure rates identified as typical for radiologically unenhanced areas in the vicinity of the areas of interest. The instrumentation highlighted three anomaly locations each of which measured less than 1m{sup 2} in size. None of the slightly elevated radiation levels originated from material associated with former AEC-related processing operations in the area. The anomalies resulted from elevated concentrations of radionuclides present in phosphate fertilizers, increased thorium in road-base gravel, and emanations from the radioactive storage site near the Latty Avenue airport. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Growth plate closure: Apex view on bone scan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, P.H.; Trochei, M.; Yeates, K.

    1984-01-01

    Angular deformities of the extremities in children following premature closure of the growth plate are well known. The deformities depend on the position of an osseus bridge which forms between the epiphysis and metaphysis. Several surgical procedures including resection of the osseus bridge have been described, however, delineation of the site of fusion is difficult to define. The commonest site of growth plate arrest is the distal femoral or proximal tibial growth plate. A new technique using the bone scan has been developed which accurately defines the area and position of these osseus bridges. Two hours after injection of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate apex views of the affected distal femoral growth plate were performed. The knee was flexed into its smallest angle. Using a pinhole collimator the gamma camera was angled to face the affected growth plate end on. The image was collected onto computer and analysed by: (I) regions of interest over segments of the growth plate to calculate the relative area of total growth plate affected: (II) generating histograms: (III) thresholding or performing isocontours to accentuate abnormal areas. The growth plate is normally uniformly increased when compared to the normal shaft of the bone. Fusion across the plate appears as an area of diminished uptake. The apex view gives a unique functional map of the growth plate such that abnormal areas are displayed, and the site, size and position of osseus fusion obtained. The technique has the potential for determining the metabolic activity of the growth plate before and after surgery. Serial studies will allow assessment of regneration of the plate and reformation of new osseus bridges.

  8. Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

  9. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  10. Bi-stable optical actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holdener, Fred R. (Tracy, CA); Boyd, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  11. Optical set-reset latch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2013-01-29

    An optical set-reset (SR) latch is formed from a first electroabsorption modulator (EAM), a second EAM and a waveguide photodetector (PD) which are arranged in an optical and electrical feedback loop which controls the transmission of light through the first EAM to latch the first EAM in a light-transmissive state in response to a Set light input. A second waveguide PD controls the transmission of light through the second EAM and is used to switch the first EAM to a light-absorptive state in response to a Reset light input provided to the second waveguide PD. The optical SR latch, which may be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or a GaAs substrate) as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC), stores a bit of optical information and has an optical output for the logic state of that bit of information.

  12. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abel, Philip; Watterson, Carl

    2011-02-15

    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  13. ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Zenith Pointing PPI

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Zenith Pointing PPI Title: ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Zenith Pointing PPI Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Zenith Pointing PPI Authors: Dan Nelson ; Joseph Hardin ; Iosif [1] ; Bradley Isom ; Karen Johnson ; Nitin Bharadwaj + Show Author Affiliations (Andrei) Lindenmaier Publication Date: 2014-04-14 OSTI Identifier: 1140236 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type:

  14. Remote control of a scanning electron microscope aperture and gun alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cramer, Charles E.; Campchero, Robert J.

    2003-10-07

    This invention relates to a remote control system which through gear motors coupled to the scanning electron microscope (SEM) manual control knobs readily permits remote adjustments as necessary.

  15. ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, filtered spectral data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, filtered spectral data, co-polarized mode Authors: Dan Nelson ; Joseph Hardin ; Iosif 1 ; Bradley Isom ; Karen Johnson ; Nitin Bharadwaj + Show ...

  16. ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, filtered spectral data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, filtered spectral data, co-polarized mode Authors: Dan Nelson ; Joseph Hardin ; Iosif 1 ; Bradley Isom ; Karen Johnson ; Nitin Bharadwaj + Show ...

  17. The role of lanthanides in optical materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    A survey is presented of the use of the lanthanides as chemical components in transmitting optical materials and as activators in materials for luminescent, electro-optic, magneto-optic, and various photosensitive applications.

  18. Polyhedral integrated and free space optical interconnection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erteza, I.A.

    1998-01-06

    An optical communication system uses holographic optical elements to provide guided wave and non-guided communication, resulting in high bandwidth, high connectivity optical communications. Holograms within holographic optical elements route optical signals between elements and between nodes connected to elements. Angular and wavelength multiplexing allow the elements to provide high connectivity. The combination of guided and non-guided communication allows compact polyhedral system geometries. Guided wave communications provided by multiplexed substrate-mode holographic optical elements eases system alignment. 7 figs.

  19. Polyhedral integrated and free space optical interconnection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erteza, Ireena A.

    1998-01-01

    An optical communication system uses holographic optical elements to provide guided wave and non-guided communication, resulting in high bandwidth, high connectivity optical communications. Holograms within holographic optical elements route optical signals between elements and between nodes connected to elements. Angular and wavelength multiplexing allow the elements to provide high connectivity. The combination of guided and non-guided communication allows compact polyhedral system geometries. Guided wave communications provided by multiplexed substrate-mode holographic optical elements eases system alignment.

  20. Power inverter with optical isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Paul G.; Schroeder, John Alan

    2005-12-06

    An optically isolated power electronic power conversion circuit that includes an input electrical power source, a heat pipe, a power electronic switch or plurality of interconnected power electronic switches, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the input power source, a mechanism for connecting comprising an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or input bus bars, an optically isolated drive circuit connected to the switch, a heat sink assembly upon which the power electronic switch or switches is mounted, an output load, a mechanism for connecting the switch to the output load, the mechanism for connecting including an interconnecting cable and/or bus bar or plurality of interconnecting cables and/or output bus bars, at least one a fiber optic temperature sensor mounted on the heat sink assembly, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the load interconnection cable and/or output bus bar, at least one fiber optic current sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar, and at least one fiber optic voltage sensor mounted on the input power interconnection cable and/or input bus bar.