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Sample records for naval surface warfare

  1. United States Naval Surface Warfare Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Warfare Center Jump to: navigation, search Hydro | Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Name United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Address Carderock, 9500 MacArthur Boulevard...

  2. Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division at Warminster Environmental Materials Program. Phase 1. Interim report, October 1989-May 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spadafora, S.J.; Hegedus, C.R.; Clark, K.J.; Eng, A.T.; Pulley, D.F.

    1992-06-24

    With the recent increase in awareness about the environment, there is an expanding concern of the deleterious effects of current materials and processes. Federal, state and local environmental agencies such as the EPA, State Air Resource Boards and local Air Quality Management Districts (AQMD) have issued legislation that restrict or prohibit the use and disposal of hazardous materials. National and local laws like the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and AQMD regulations are examples of rules that govern the handling and disposal of hazardous materials and waste. The Department of Defense (DoD), in support of this effort, has identified the major generators of hazardous materials and hazardous waste to be maintenance depots and operations, particularly cleaning, pretreating, plating, painting and paint removal processes. Reductions of waste in these areas has been targeted as a primary goal in the DOD. The Navy is committed to significantly reducing its current hazardous waste generation and is working to attain a near zero discharge of hazardous waste by the year 2000. In order to attain these goals, the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division at Warminster has organized and is carrying out a comprehensive program in cooperation with the Naval Air Systems Command, the Air Force and the Department of Energy that deal with the elimination or reduction of hazardous materials. .... Environmental materials, Organic coatings, Inorganic pretreatments, Paint removal techniques, Cleaners, CFC'S.

  3. Integrated Surface Geophysical Methods for Characterization of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Integrated Surface Geophysical Methods for Characterization of the Naval Air Warfare Center, New Jersey Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site:...

  4. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2013-04-02

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  5. Calculation of the Naval Long and Short Waste Package Three-Dimensional Thermal Interface Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Marr

    2006-10-25

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the thermal performance of the Naval Long and Naval Short spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste packages (WP) in the repository emplacement drift. The scope of this calculation is limited to the determination of the temperature profiles upon the surfaces of the Naval Long and Short SNF waste package for up to 10,000 years of emplacement. The temperatures on the top of the outside surface of the naval canister are the thermal interfaces for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (NNPP). The results of this calculation are intended to support Licensing Application design activities.

  6. Naval Research Laboratory Technology Marketing Summaries - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Naval Research Laboratory Technology Marketing Summaries Here you'll find marketing summaries for technologies available for licensing from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The...

  7. Management of chemical warfare injuries (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The threat of use of chemical warfare agents (agents of `mass destruction`) is no longer confined to the battlefield. Agent releases by terrorists in Japan in 1995 served to awaken the world to the dangers faced by civilian communities far removed from centers of armed conflict. The ability to save lives in the event of a chemical agent release turns on provision of immediate and correct medical care in the field and hospital. Being able to ensure availability of life-saving care depends on reaching both military and civilian medical personnel with information on chemical warfare agents and on keeping their skills and knowledge current. While this is of critical importance both to the Department of Defense and to civilian agencies charged with protecting the public, it also is a daunting and potentially expensive task in view of the numbers and geographic dispersion of persons to be trained. The Department of Defense has addressed and overcome these challenges, to the benefit of the military and civilians, by using computer technology as the vehicle by which cost-effective chemical warfare agent training may be conveniently delivered to all who require it. The multi-media instructional program, Management of Chemical Warfare Injuries, was developed for military use by the Naval Health Sciences Education and Training Command, with the technical assistance of the U.S. Army Medical Command. It was originally designed for delivery via video disc, a format used extensively within the Navy. However, in response to a request from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Office of the Secretary of Defense agreed to repackage the materials for delivery on CD-ROM in order to make them accessible to a larger audience. In addition, the Navy agreed to include on the two CD-ROMs which contain the program a ready reference not found on the video disc: the Army`s `Medical Management of Chemical Casualties` handbooks for field and medical personnel.

  8. Naval Reactors | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Naval Reactors Naval Reactors Y-12 processes the feedstock to power the nation's submarines and aircraft carriers. Y-12 processes highly enriched uranium for use by the Naval Reactors Program for Naval Nuclear Propulsion. Our support of the Naval Reactors program began in Fiscal Year 2002 and is currently planned through FY 2050 and beyond. We use dismantled weapons to provide feedstock, moving the material off-site and reducing Y-12's storage footprint and risk. The United States stopped

  9. Establishment of the United States Navy Mine Warfare Center of Excellence in the Corpus Christi Bay Area, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosclski, J.L.; Boyer, R.; Sloger, W.

    1997-08-01

    The proposed establishment of the US Navy Mine Warfare Center of Excellence (MWCE) in the Corpus Christi Bay Area, Texas, involved the collocation of the Navy`s Mine Warfare and Mine Counter Measures assets in proximity to each other at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Ingleside and Naval Air Station (NAS) Corpus Christi, Texas. Collocation of these Navy forces would provide significant advantages in meeting mission and operational requirements. This action would improve the operational training and readiness of the forces. In addition to new construction or modifications at NAVSTA Ingleside, NAS Corpus Christi, and off-base; the establishment of offshore training and operating areas was required. When the project was first proposed in 1993, considerable concern was expressed by environmental interests, shrimpers, and state and federal resource agencies regarding the impact of the proposed training activities within Gulf waters. The Navy and Turner Collie and Braden, Inc., under contract to the Navy, conducted several technical studies and extensive coordination with concerned interests during the environmental impact statement process to identify and document the potential intensity, magnitude, and duration of impact from each proposed training activity.

  10. Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers/waste packages are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred underground through the access drifts using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides long term confinement of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) placed within the disposal containers, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval operations. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time and limits radionuclide release thereafter. The waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum credible handling and rockfall loads, limits the waste form temperature after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Each naval SNF disposal container will hold a single naval SNF canister. There will be approximately 300 naval SNF canisters, composed of long and short canisters. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls and lids. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify a disposal container and its contents. Different materials will be selected for the waste package inner and outer cylinders. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and the natural barrier will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different properties prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The inner cylinder and inner cylinder lids will be constructed of stainless steel while the outer cylinder and outer cylinder lids will be made of high-nickel alloy.

  11. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD April 14, 2014 CX-012099: Categorical Exclusion Determination Kesselring Site Crafts Facility Building 118 CX(s) Applied: B1.15, B1.31, B1.33 Date: 04/14/2014 Location(s): New York Offices(s): Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program April 1, 2014 CX-012098:

  12. Thermal Evaluation for the Naval SNF Waste Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.L. Mitchell

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the thermal performance of the naval long spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) under multiple disposal conditions in a monitored geologic repository (MGR). The scope of this calculation is limited to determination of thermal temperature profiles upon the surface of, and within, the naval long SNF WP. The objective is to develop a temperature profile history within the WP, at time increments up to 10,000 years of emplacement. The results of this calculation are intended to support the Naval SNF WP Analysis and Model Report (AMR) for Site Recommendation (SR). This calculation was performed to the specifications within its Technical Development Plan (TDP) (Ref. 8.16). This calculation is developed and documented in accordance with the AP-3.12Q/REV. 0IICN. 0 procedure, Calculations.

  13. Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

  14. Naval Petroleum Reserves | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Naval Petroleum Reserves Naval Petroleum Reserves For much of the 20th century, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves served as a contingency source of fuel for the Nation's military. All that changed in 1998 when Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, known as Elk Hills, was privatized, the first of a series of major organizational changes that leave only one of the original six Federal properties in the program. Set aside in a series of Executive Orders in the early 1900s, the government-owned

  15. Geothermal energy at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, C.T.; Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine and evaluate sources of geothermal energy at two military bases in southern California, the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station. One part of the project focused on the natural geothermal characteristics beneath the naval bases. Another part focused on the geothermal energy produced by oilfield operations on and adjacent to each base. Results of the study are presented here for the US Department of the Navy to use in its program to reduce its reliance on petrolem by the development of different sources of energy. The study was accomplished under a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy's San Francisco Operations Office and the Department of the Navy's Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California, for joint research and development of geothermal energy at military installations.

  16. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  17. Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Plant Experience Naval Applications Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on March 29, 2011. PDF icon...

  18. Development Wells At Fallon Naval Air Station Area (Sabin, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fallon Naval Air Station Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Development Wells At Fallon Naval Air Station...

  19. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants | National Nuclear Security Administra...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants In naval nuclear propulsion plants, fissioning of uranium atoms in the reactor core produces heat. Because the fission process also produces...

  20. Management of Naval Reactors' Cyber Security Program, OIG-0884

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Management of Naval Reactors' Cyber Security Program" INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Naval...

  1. Special Analysis: Naval Reactor Waste Disposal Pad

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, J.R.

    2003-03-31

    This report presents the results of a special study of the Naval Reactor Waste Disposal Pad located within the boundary of the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility at the Savannah River Site.

  2. Nuclear Naval Propulsion: A Feasible Proliferation Pathway?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Alicia L.

    2014-01-31

    There is no better time than now to close the loophole in Article IV of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) that excludes military uses of fissile material from nuclear safeguards. Several countries have declared their intention to pursue and develop naval reactor technology, including Argentina, Brazil, Iran, and Pakistan, while other countries such as China, India, Russia, and the United States are expanding their capabilities. With only a minority of countries using low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in their naval reactors, it is possible that a state could produce highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the guise of a nuclear navy while actually stockpiling the material for a nuclear weapon program. This paper examines the likelihood that non-nuclear weapon states exploit the loophole to break out from the NPT and also the regional ramifications of deterrence and regional stability of expanding naval forces. Possible solutions to close the loophole are discussed, including expanding the scope of the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, employing LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in naval reactors, amending the NPT, creating an export control regime for naval nuclear reactors, and forming individual naval reactor safeguards agreements.

  3. Carderock Tow Tank 3 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3 Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock Tow Tank 3 Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing...

  4. Category:Testing Facility Operators | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Survey, LSC United States Naval Surface Warfare Center University of California, Berkeley University of California, San Diego (Scripps) U cont. University of Iowa University...

  5. Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications US Department of Energy/ Office of Naval Research Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop Washington, DC March 29, 2011 FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. *FuelCell Energy, Inc. *Renewable and Liquid Fuels Experience *HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack for Shipboard APU *Solid Oxide Experience and Applications DOE-ONR Workshop

  6. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    About Us / Our Programs / Powering the Nuclear Navy / Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants In naval nuclear propulsion plants, fissioning of uranium atoms in the reactor core produces heat. Because the fission process also produces radiation, shielding is placed around the reactor to protect the crew. Despite close proximity to a reactor core, a typical crewmember receives less exposure to radiation than one who remains ashore and works in an office building. In naval

  7. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Our Mission / Powering the Nuclear Navy / Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants In naval nuclear propulsion plants, fissioning of uranium atoms in the reactor core produces heat. Because the fission process also produces radiation, shielding is placed around the reactor to protect the crew. Despite close proximity to a reactor core, a typical crewmember receives less exposure to radiation than one who remains ashore and works in an office building. U.S. naval nuclear

  8. Naval Spent Fuel Rail Shipment Accident Exercise Objectives | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Naval Spent Fuel Rail Shipment Accident Exercise Objectives Naval Spent Fuel Rail Shipment Accident Exercise Objectives PDF icon Naval Spent Fuel Rail Shipment Accident Exercise Objectives More Documents & Publications TEC Meeting Summaries - April 2005 Presentations TEC Meeting Summaries - January - February 2007 Presentations NTSF 2014 Meeting Agenda

  9. Tissue-based standoff biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-11-18

    A tissue-based, deployable, standoff air quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent, includes: a cell containing entrapped photosynthetic tissue, the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; means for introducing an air sample into the cell and contacting the air sample with the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; a fluorometer in operable relationship with the cell for measuring photosynthetic activity of the entrapped photosynthetic tissue; and transmitting means for transmitting analytical data generated by the fluorometer relating to the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the air sample, the sensor adapted for deployment into a selected area.

  10. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the US taxpayer. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC or Elk Hills), which is responsible for operations of NPR-1 and NPR-2; the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserve in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW), which is responsible for operations of NPR-3, NOSR-1, 2, and 3 and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC); and NPOSR Headquarters in Washington, DC, which is responsible for overall program direction. Each participant shares in the unit costs and production of hydrocarbons in proportion to the weighted acre-feet of commercially productive oil and gas formations (zones) underlying the respective surface lands as of 1942. The participating shares of NPR-1 as of September 30, 1996 for the US Government and Chevron USA, Inc., are listed. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  11. About Naval Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Naval Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA

  12. Naval Nuclear Propulsion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home / Naval

  13. naval reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    naval reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA

  14. 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Naval Reactors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Naval Reactors 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Naval Reactors The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2012 and 2013 within the Naval Reactors. PDF icon APS-2012-NA-30.pdf More Documents & Publications 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, RMOTC, and Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Los Alamos Site Office 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Sandia

  15. 2013 Annual Planning Summary for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program 2013 Annual Planning Summary for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2013 and 2014 within the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. PDF icon NNSA_NR_NEPA-APS-2013.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the West Valley Demonstration Project 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the Nevada Field Office 2012

  16. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Disposition Decision Analysis and Timeline |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Disposition Decision Analysis and Timeline Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Disposition Decision Analysis and Timeline This Report to Congress provides a summary of the analysis supporting DOE's determination to dispose of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 through sale of all right, title, interest on the open market. PDF icon RMOTC Report to Congress.pdf More Documents & Publications EIS-0158-S2: Record of Decision EA-1236: Finding of No

  17. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE NAVAL SNF WASTE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.L. Mitchell

    2000-05-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the design of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methodologies and processes described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000b). The calculations that support the design of the naval SNF WP will be discussed; however, only a sub-set of such analyses will be presented and shall be limited to those identified in the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The objective of this analysis is to describe the naval SNF WP design method and to show that the design of the naval SNF WP complies with the ''Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Interface Control Document (ICD) criteria for Site Recommendation. Additional criteria for the design of the naval SNF WP have been outlined in Section 6.2 of the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the naval long WP containing one naval long SNF canister. This WP is representative of the WPs that will contain both naval short SNF and naval long SNF canisters. The following items are included in the scope of this analysis: (1) Providing a general description of the applicable design criteria; (2) Describing the design methodology to be used; (3) Presenting the design of the naval SNF waste package; and (4) Showing compliance with all applicable design criteria. The intended use of this analysis is to support Site Recommendation reports and assist in the development of WPD drawings. Activities described in this analysis were conducted in accordance with the technical product development plan (TPDP) ''Design Analysis for the Naval SNF Waste Package (CRWMS M&O 2000a).

  18. More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration About Us / Our Programs / Powering the Nuclear Navy / More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program provides militarily effective nuclear propulsion plants and ensures their safe, reliable and long-lived operation. This mission requires the combination of fully trained U.S. Navy men and women with ships that excel in endurance, stealth, speed, and independence from supply chains. Leadership Budget PDF

  19. More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Our Mission / Powering the Nuclear Navy / More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program provides militarily effective nuclear propulsion plants and ensures their safe, reliable and long-lived operation. This mission requires the combination of fully trained U.S. Navy men and women with ships that excel in endurance, stealth, speed, and independence from supply chains. Leadership Budget Executive Order 12344

  20. Naval Spent Fuel Rail Shipment Accident Exercise Objectives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    NAVAL SPENT FUEL RAIL SHIPMENT ACCIDENT EXERCISE OBJECTIVES * Familiarize stakeholders with the Naval spent fuel ACCIDENT EXERCISE OBJECTIVES Familiarize stakeholders with the Naval spent fuel shipping container characteristics and shipping practices * Gain understanding of how the NNPP escorts who accompany the spent fuel shipments will interact with civilian emergency services representatives g y p * Allow civilian emergency services agencies the opportunity to evaluate their response to a pp

  1. U.S. Naval Station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact sheet describes the Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) success story on environmental stewardship and cost savings at the U.S. Naval Station at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

  2. NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for...

  3. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Supply Depot AEC Warehouse...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Supply Depot AEC Warehouse - NY 36 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NAVAL SUPPLY DEPOT, AEC WAREHOUSE (NY.36) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DOD...

  4. Title 10, Chapter 641 Pertaining to Naval Petroleum Reserves in U.S.C. |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Title 10, Chapter 641 Pertaining to Naval Petroleum Reserves in U.S.C. Title 10, Chapter 641 Pertaining to Naval Petroleum Reserves in U.S.C. CITE: 10USC7420 CHAPTER 641--NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES CITE: 10USC7421 CHAPTER 641--NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES CITE: 10USC7422 CHAPTER 641--NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES CITE: 10USC7423 CHAPTER 641--NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES CITE: 10USC7424 CHAPTER 641--NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES CITE: 10USC7425 CHAPTER 641--NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVES CITE:

  5. Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wente, William Baker

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

  6. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Disposition Decision Analysis and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a summary of the analysis supporting DOE's determination to dispose of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 through sale of all right, title, interest on the open market. RMOTC...

  7. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Norfolk Naval Station - VA 05

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Norfolk Naval Station - VA 05 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NORFOLK NAVAL STATION (VA.05) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Norfolk , Virginia VA.05-1 Evaluation Year: 1993 VA.05-1 Site Operations: Demonstration of extinguishing a uranium fire at the Fire Fighters School for AEC contractors. VA.05-3 VA.05-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based on the limited quantity of materials

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Westinghouse Naval Ordnance - MI 02

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Naval Ordnance - MI 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: WESTINGHOUSE NAVAL ORDNANCE (MI.02 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DOD Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Detroit , Michigan MI.02-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 MI.02-2 Site Operations: Worked under contract with the Albuquerque Operations Office. No indication that radioactive material was involved under the contract. MI.02-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication radioactive

  9. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  10. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- U S Naval Radiological Defense

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Laboratory - CA 0-06 Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory - CA 0-06 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: U. S. NAVAL RADIOLOGICAL DEFENSE LABORATORY (CA.0-06) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to the DoD Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: San Francisco , California CA.0-06-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CA.0-06-1 Site Operations: NRC licensed DoD facility which used small quantities of nuclear materials for R&D purposes and decontaminated ships.

  12. Annual Adaptive Management Report for Compensatory Mitigation at Keyport Lagoon: Mitigation of Pier B Development at the Bremerton Naval Facilities - Compensatory Mitigation at Keyport Lagoon - Naval Underwater Warfare Center Division - Keyport, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vavrinec, John; Borde, Amy B.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Thom, Ronald M.; Wright, Cynthia L.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2012-06-01

    Unites States Navy capital improvement projects are designed to modernize and improve mission capacity. Such capital improvement projects often result in unavoidable environmental impacts by increasing over-water structures, which results in a loss of subtidal habitat within industrial areas of Navy bases. In the Pacific Northwest, compensatory mitigation often targets alleviating impacts to Endangered Species Act-listed salmon species. The complexity of restoring large systems requires limited resources to target successful and more coordinated mitigation efforts to address habitat loss and improvements in water quality that will clearly contribute to an improvement at the site scale and can then be linked to a cumulative net ecosystem improvement.

  13. 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the NNSA Naval Reactors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Naval Reactors 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the NNSA Naval Reactors The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2014 and 2015 within the NNSA Naval Reactors. PDF icon NNSA-NavalReactors-NEPA-APS-2014.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the NNSA Global Threat Reduction Initiative Office 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the NNSA Sandia Field Office 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the NNSA Savannah

  14. FY 2012 Budget Hearing Testimony on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Naval

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reactor Programs before the House Appropriations Committee, Energy and Water Development Subcommittee | National Nuclear Security Administration on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Naval Reactor Programs before the House Appropriations Committee, Energy and Water Development Subcommittee | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our

  15. Statement on Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation and Naval Reactors Activities

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    before the House Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy & Water Development | National Nuclear Security Administration Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation and Naval Reactors Activities before the House Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy & Water Development | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our

  16. Congressional Delegation visits Naval Reactors Facility | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Delegation visits Naval Reactors Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo

  17. NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery

  18. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Research Laboratory - DC 02

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Research Laboratory - DC 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (DC.02 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DOD Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Washington , D.C. DC.02-4 Evaluation Year: 1987 DC.02-4 Site Operations: Research and development on thermal diffusion. DC.02-4 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No Authority - AEC licensed - Military facility DC.02-4 DC.02-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive

  19. 1996 environmental monitoring report for the Naval Reactors Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1996 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The NRF is located on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and contains three naval reactor prototypes and the Expended Core Facility, which examines developmental nuclear fuel material samples, spent naval fuel, and irradiated reactor plant components/materials. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with state and federal regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  20. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaoguang (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  1. Sale of the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Petroleum Reserves » Naval Reserves » Sale of the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve Sale of the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve Energy Secretary Federico Pena (left) and Occidental Petroleum's David Hentschel sign the historic transfer agreement with Patricia Godley, DOE's Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, who orchestrated the sale, looking on. Energy Secretary Federico Pena (left) and Occidental Petroleum's David Hentschel sign the historic transfer agreement with Patricia

  2. EIS-0453: Recapitalization of Infrastructure Supporting Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Handling at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Draft EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with recapitalizing the infrastructure needed to ensure the long-term capability of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (NNPP) to support naval spent nuclear fuel handling capabilities provided by the Expended Core Facility (ECF). Significant upgrades are necessary to ECF infrastructure and water pools to continue safe and environmentally responsible naval spent nuclear fuel handling until at least 2060.

  3. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Ordnance Test Station - CA 06

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Test Station - CA 06 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NAVAL ORDNANCE TEST STATION (CA.06) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: China Lake Naval Weapons Center Salt Wells Pilot Plant CA.06-1 Location: Inyokern , California CA.06-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CA.06-1 Site Operations: Naval facility; experimental development work on shape charges and quality castings on a pilot plant scale. CA.06-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication that

  4. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Wycoff, Gary L. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2011-08-15

    The results of 3362 intensified CCD observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each observation of a system represents a combination of over 2000 short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 1970 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''78 to 72.''17, with a mean separation of 14.''76. This is the 17th in this series of papers and covers the period 2010 January 6 through December 20. Also presented are 10 pairs that are resolved for the first time.

  5. Commander, Naval Base ATTN: Ms. Cheryl Barnett Building N-26

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .J>?j 1.2 1990 Commander, Naval Base ATTN: Ms. Cheryl Barnett Building N-26 Code N 9 E Norfolk, Virginia 23511-6002 Dear Ms. Barnett: I enjoyed speaking with you on the phone. The Department of Energy (DOE) has established its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) to identify sites formerly utilized by its predecessor agencies in the early days of the nation's atomic energy program and to determine the potential for these sites to contain radiological contamination, related

  6. 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner Naval Sea Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Command | Department of Energy Naval Sea Systems Command 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner Naval Sea Systems Command PDF icon fewm13_nswcphiladelphia_highres.pdf PDF icon fewm13_nswcphiladelphia.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-005670: Categorical Exclusion Determination U.S. Navy Marine Diesel Engines and the Environment - Part 1 EIS-0259: Record of Decision

  7. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills): Supplemental environmental impact statement. Record of decision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Pursuant to the Council on Environmental Quality regulations, which implement the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act, and the US Department of Energy National Environmental Policy Act regulations, the Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, is issuing a Record of Decision on the continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California. The Department of Energy has decided to continue current operations at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 and implement additional well drilling, facility development projects and other activities necessary for continued production of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in accordance with the requirements of the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976. The final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, entitled ``Petroleum Production at Maximum Efficient Rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California (DOE/SEIS-0158),`` was released on September 3, 1993.

  8. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Dolislager, Fredrick G

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also protective. When EPA finalizes and documents a position on the matter of indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments, site-specific risk assessments should make use of modified models and criteria. Screening values such as those presented in this report may be used to assess soil or other porous media to determine whether chemical warfare agent contamination is present as part of initial site investigations (whether due to intentional or accidental releases) and to determine whether weather/decontamination has adequately mitigated the presence of agent residual to below levels of concern. However, despite the availability of scientifically supported health-based criteria, there are significant resources needs that should be considered during sample planning. In particular, few analytical laboratories are likely to be able to meet these screening levels. Analyses will take time and usually have limited confidence at these concentrations. Therefore, and particularly for the more volatile agents, soil/destructive samples of porous media should be limited and instead enhanced with headspace monitoring and presence-absence wipe sampling.

  9. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVIII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Friedman, Elizabeth A. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2012-05-15

    The results of 2490 intensified CCD observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each observation of a system represents a combination of over 2000 short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 1462 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''56 to 71.''80, with a mean separation of 14.''81. This is the 18th in this series of papers and covers the period 2011 January 3 through 2011 December 18. Also presented are four pairs which are resolved for the first time, thirteen other pairs which appear to be lost, and linear elements for four additional pairs.

  10. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Hurowitz, Haley M. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2013-09-15

    The results of 2916 intensified CCD observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each observation of a system represents a combination of over two thousand short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 1584 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''54 to 98.''09, with a median separation of 11.''73. This is the 19th in this series of papers and covers the period 2012 January 5 through 2012 December 18. Also presented are 10 pairs that are reported for the first time, 17 pairs that appear to be lost, linear elements for 18 pairs, and orbital elements for 2 additional pairs.

  11. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1999 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  12. 1997 environmental monitoring report for the Naval Reactors Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 1997 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with state and federal regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  13. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-12-01

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2000 at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  14. Naval Reactors Facility Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2003 at the Naval Reactors Facility are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Naval Reactors Facility environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-12-31

    The results of the radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs for 2001 at the Naval Reactors Facility are presented in this report. The results obtained from the environmental monitoring programs verify that releases to the environment from operations at NRF were in accordance with Federal and State regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data confirms that the operation of NRF continues to have no adverse effect on the quality of the environment or the health and safety of the general public. Furthermore, a conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of NRF operations demonstrated that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits prescribed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  16. Chemistry of destroying chemical warfare agents in flame. Technical project report, April 1994-May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korobeinichev, O.P.; Chernov, A.A.; Shvartsberg, V.M.; Il`in, S.B.; Mokrushin, V.V.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of the research is to increase our understanding of flame chemistry of organophosphorus compounds (OPC). This class of chemicals includes chemical warfare agents. (CWAs) such as the nerve agents GB GD and VX, stockpiles of which in the United States and Former Soviet Union are scheduled for destruction by incineration or other technologies. Although high CWA destruction efficiency has been demonstrated in incinerator tests in the U.S. it is necessary to improve technology for achievement higher efficiency and lower level of pollutants. The knowledge of detailed destruction chemistry of the CWA and simulants can be obtained by studying the structure of flames, doped with simulants and CWA and by the development of the combustion model which will include the chemical mechanism of destroying CWA in flame. Alkyl phosphates and alkyl phosphonates are typical organophosphorus compounds, that are simulants of sarin.

  17. Development of remedial process options: Phase II, Feasibility study: Installation Restoration Program, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. ); Schlosser, R.M. )

    1991-11-01

    This technical memorandum develops process options which are appropriate for environmental restoration activities at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada. Introduction of contaminants to the environment has resulted from deliberate disposal activities (both through dumping and landfilling) and accidental spills and leaks associated with normal activities at NAS Fallon over its lifetime of operation. Environmental sampling results indicate that the vast majority of contaminants of concern are petroleum hydrocarbon related. These contaminants include JP-4, JP-5, leaded and unleaded gasoline, waste oils and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and numerous solvents and cleaners. The principal exposure pathways of concern associated with NAS Fallon contaminants appear to be the surface flows and shallow drainage systems to which the base contributes. Available data indicate NAS Fallon IR Program sites are not contributing excessive contamination to surface flows emanating from the base. Contaminants appear to be contained in a relatively immobile state in the shallow subsurface with little or no contaminant migration off site.

  18. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  19. EA-1236: Preparation for Transfer of Ownership of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, Natrona County, WY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Sitewide Environmental Assessment (EA) This Sitewide EA evaluates activities that DOE would conduct in anticipation of possible transfer of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) out of Federal operation.

  20. EA-1008: Continued Development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (Sitewide), Natrona County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to continue development of the U.S. Department of Energy's Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 located in Natrona County, Wyoming over the next...

  1. Audit Report - Naval Reactors Information Technology System Development Efforts, IG-0879

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Naval Reactors Information Technology System Development Efforts DOE/IG-0879 December 2012 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits & Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 December 21, 2012 MEMORANDUM FOR THE ADMINISTRATOR, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on the "Naval Reactors Information Technology System Development Efforts" INTRODUCTION AND

  2. EIS-0068: Development Policy Options for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves prepared this programmatic statement to examine the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of development projects on the Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1, and examine select alternatives, such as encouraging production from other liquid fuel resources (coal liquefaction, biomass, offshore oil and enhanced oil recovery) or conserving petroleum in lieu of shale oil production.

  3. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Ordnance Laboratory - MD 0-03

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Laboratory - MD 0-03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NAVAL ORDNANCE LABORATORY (MD.0-03 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DOD Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Naval Ordnance Laboratory - White Oak Location: White Oak Area , Silver Spring , Maryland MD.0-03-1 MD.0-03-2 Evaluation Year: 1987 MD.0-03-2 Site Operations: Research and development - may have involved radioactive materials because the site was identified on a 1955 Accountability Station

  4. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Petroleum Reserve No 3 - 046

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Petroleum Reserve No 3 - 046 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (046) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: The Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 is located in Natrona County, Wyoming. The site is a small oil field and covers approximately 9400 acres. Environmental remediation efforts are underway and a portion of

  5. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY AT THE U.S. NAVAL OBSERVATORY. XVI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Wycoff, Gary L. E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil

    2011-05-15

    The results of 1031 speckle-interferometric observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each speckle-interferometric observation of a system represents a combination of over two thousand short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 457 mean relative positions and range in separation from 0.''15 to 16.''94, with a median separation of 3.''03. The range in V-band magnitudes for the primary (secondary) of observed targets is 3.1-12.9 (3.2-13.3). This is the sixteenth in a series of papers presenting measurements obtained with this system and covers the period 2009 January 12 through 2009 December 17. Included in these data are 12 older measurements whose positions were previously deemed possibly aberrant, but are no longer classified this way following a confirming observation. Also, 10 pairs with a single observation are herein confirmed. This paper also includes the first data obtained using a new ICCD with fiber optic cables.

  6. Renewable Energy Optimization Report for Naval Station Newport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robichaud, R.; Mosey, G.; Olis, D.

    2012-02-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage the development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. As part of this effort, EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island. NREL's Renewable Energy Optimization (REO) tool was utilized to identify RE technologies that present the best opportunity for life-cycle cost-effective implementation while also serving to reduce energy-related carbon dioxide emissions and increase the percentage of RE used at NAVSTA Newport. The technologies included in REO are daylighting, wind, solar ventilation preheating (SVP), solar water heating, photovoltaics (PV), solar thermal (heating and electric), and biomass (gasification and cogeneration). The optimal mix of RE technologies depends on several factors including RE resources; technology cost and performance; state, utility, and federal incentives; and economic parameters (discount and inflation rates). Each of these factors was considered in this analysis. Technologies not included in REO that were investigated separately per NAVSTA Newport request include biofuels from algae, tidal power, and ground source heat pumps (GSHP).

  7. Naval Petroleum Reserves in California site environmental report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This summary for Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) is divided into NPR-1 and NPR-2. Monitoring efforts at NPR-1 include handling and disposal of oilfield wastes; environmental preactivity surveys for the protection of endangered species and archaeological resources; inspections of topsoil stockpiling; monitoring of revegetated sites; surveillance of production facilities for hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions; monitoring of oil spill prevention and cleanup; and monitoring of wastewater injection. No major compliance issues existed for NPR-1 during 1989. Oil spills are recorded, reviewed for corrective action, and reported. Environmental preactivity surveys for proposed projects which may disturb or contaminate the land are conducted to prevent damage to the federally protected San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Tipton kangaroo rat and the giant kangaroo rat. Projects are adjusted or relocated as necessary to avoid impact to dens, burrows, or flat-bottomed drainages. A major revegetation program was accomplished in 1989 for erosion control enhancement of endangered species habitat. The main compliance issue on NPR-2 was oil and produced water discharges into drainages by lessees. An additional compliance issue on NPR-2 is surface refuse from past oilfield operations. 17 refs.

  8. THE FOURTH US NAVAL OBSERVATORY CCD ASTROGRAPH CATALOG (UCAC4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharias, N.; Finch, C. T.; Bartlett, J. L.; Girard, T. M.; Henden, A.; Monet, D. G.; Zacharias, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The fourth United States Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog, UCAC4, was released in 2012 August (double-sided DVD and CDS data center Vizier catalog I/322). It is the final release in this series and contains over 113 million objects; over 105 million of them with proper motions (PMs). UCAC4 is an updated version of UCAC3 with about the same number of stars also covering all-sky. Bugs were fixed, Schmidt plate survey data were avoided, and precise five-band photometry was added for about half the stars. Astrograph observations have been supplemented for bright stars by FK6, Hipparcos, and Tycho-2 data to compile a UCAC4 star catalog complete from the brightest stars to about magnitude R = 16. Epoch 1998-2004 positions are obtained from observations with the 20 cm aperture USNO Astrograph's 'red lens', equipped with a 4k by 4k CCD. Mean positions and PMs are derived by combining these observations with over 140 ground- and space-based catalogs, including Hipparcos/Tycho and the AC2000.2, as well as unpublished measures of over 5000 plates from other astrographs. For most of the faint stars in the southern hemisphere, the first epoch plates from the Southern Proper Motion program form the basis for PMs, while the Northern Proper Motion first epoch plates serve the same purpose for the rest of the sky. These data are supplemented by 2MASS near-IR photometry for about 110 million stars and five-band (B, V, g, r, i) APASS data for over 51 million stars. Thus the published UCAC4, as were UCAC3 and UCAC2, is a compiled catalog with the UCAC observational program being a major component. The positional accuracy of stars in UCAC4 at mean epoch is about 15-100 mas per coordinate, depending on magnitude, while the formal errors in PMs range from about 1 to 10 mas yr{sup -1} depending on magnitude and observing history. Systematic errors in PMs are estimated to be about 1-4 mas yr{sup -1}.

  9. EA-0531: Proposed Natural Gas Protection Program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal for a Natural Gas Protection Program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 which would be implemented over a five-year period that...

  10. Investigation on the continued production of the Naval Petroleum Reserves beyond April 5, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The authority to produce the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPRs) is due to expire in April 1991, unless extended by Presidential finding. As provided in the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production act of 1976 (Public Law 94-258), the President may continue production of the NPRs for a period of up to three years following the submission to Congress, at least 180 days prior to the expiration of the current production period, of a report that determines that continued production of the NPRs is necessary and a finding by the President that continued production is in the national interest. This report assesses the need to continue production of the NPRs, including analyzing the benefits and costs of extending production or returning to the shut-in status that existed prior to 1976. This continued production study considers strategic, economic, and energy issues at the local, regional, and national levels. 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Investigation of waste rag generation at Naval Station Mayport. Project report, May 1990-July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The report presents the results of an investigation examining pollution prevention alternatives for reducing the volume of waste rags generated at Naval Station Mayport, located near Jacksonville Beach, Florida. The report recommends five specific pollution prevention alternatives: better operating practices, installation of equipment cleaning stations to remove contaminants normally removed with rags; replacement of SERVE MART rags with disposable wipers; use of recyclable rats for oil and great removal; and confirmation that used rags are fully contaminated prior to disposal.

  12. Major General Harold Holesinger The Adjutant General Illinois Kilitary and Naval Dept.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    General Harold Holesinger The Adjutant General Illinois Kilitary and Naval Dept. 1301 North MacArthur Boulevard Springfield, Illinois 62702-2399 Dear General Holesinger: I am enclosing a copy of the radiological survey report for the National Guard Armory, Chicago, Illinois. Although the data ncted in the report indicate levels of radioactivity in excess of current guidelines, the radioactive residues presently there do not pose a health hazard provided they were not disturbed in the past and

  13. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Oil Shale Reserves Site - 013

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Oil Shale Reserves Site - 013 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Naval Oil Shale Reserves Site (013 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: This site is located in Anvil Points, Colorado. From the early 1940's through the early 1980's, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted oil shale retort experiments in the Green River geologic

  14. EIS-0251: Department of the Navy Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Container System for the Management of Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (November 1996)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement addresses six general alternative systems for the loading, storage, transport, and possible disposal of naval spent nuclear fuel following examination.

  15. Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

    2013-04-02

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  16. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Megerle, Clifford A. (Manassas, VA); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  17. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

  18. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Gun Factory and Bureau of

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ordnance - DC 0-01 Gun Factory and Bureau of Ordnance - DC 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NAVAL GUN FACTORY AND BUREAU OF ORDNANCE (DC.0-01) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DOD Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Washington , D.C. DC.0-01-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 DC.0-01-1 Site Operations: Designed guns and nuclear projectiles. DC.0-01-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No Authority DC.0-01-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: None Indicated

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Office at the University of New

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mexico - NM 0-03 Office at the University of New Mexico - NM 0-03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NAVAL OFFICE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO (NM.0-03) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DOD Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Albuquerque , New Mexico NM.0-03-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 NM.0-03-1 Site Operations: Site was a transshipment station for equipment to the Los Alamos site. NM.0-03-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Referred to DOD

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Ordnance Plant - MI 0-03

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Plant - MI 0-03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NAVAL ORDNANCE PLANT (MI.0-03) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DoD for action Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Centerline , Michigan MI.0-03-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 MI.0-03-1 Site Operations: Assembled bomb components. MI.0-03-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No Authority - Referred to DoD MI.0-03-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: None Indicated Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: None

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Proving Ground - VA 0-01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Proving Ground - VA 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NAVAL PROVING GROUND (VA.0-01 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DOD Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Dahlgren , Virginia VA.0-01-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 VA.0-01-1 Site Operations: Site operations were not specified; this site was identified on the 1954 Accountable Station Lists. VA.0-01-1 VA.0-01-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Referred to DOD VA.0-01-1 Radioactive Materials

  2. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  3. naval reactors

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    6%2A en Powering the Nuclear Navy http:nnsa.energy.govourmissionpoweringnavy

    Page...

  4. naval reactors

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    6%2A en Powering the Nuclear Navy http:www.nnsa.energy.govourmissionpoweringnavy

    Page...

  5. THE APPLICATION OF SINGLE PARTICLE AEROSOL MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, A

    2006-10-23

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle ({approx}1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  6. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  7. EIS-0020: Crude Oil Transport Alternate From Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 Elk Hills/SOHIO Pipeline Connection Conveyance System, Terminal Tank Farm Relocation to Rialto, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves developed this supplement to a Department of Navy statement to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with a modified design of a proposed 250,000 barrels per day crude oil conveyance system from Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 to connect to the proposed SOHIO West Coast to Midcontinent Pipeline at Rialto, California.

  8. EIS-0158-S2: Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement, the supplement to DOE/EIS-0158, to analyze the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the sale of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in Kern County, California to Occidental Petroleum Corporation.

  9. EA-1889: Disposal of Decommissioned, Defueled Naval Reactor Plants from USS Enterprise (CVN 65) at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA, prepared by the Department of the Navy, evaluates the environmental impacts of the disposal of decommissioned, defueled, naval reactor plants from the USS Enterprise at DOE’s Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. DOE participated as a cooperating agency in the preparation of this EA. The Department of the Navy issued its FONSI on August 23, 2012.

  10. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicles mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  11. Industrial hygiene survey report of worker exposures to organotins at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eissler, A.W.; Ferrel, T.W.; Bloom, T.F.; Fajen, J.M.

    1985-06-24

    Breathing-zone samples were analyzed for organotin compounds, copper, and xylene during spray application of organotin containing marine antifouling paint at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, Virginia, March, 1984. The survey was part of a NIOSH study of occupational exposures to organotin compounds, conducted as a component of an assessment to determine the feasibility of conducting a study of reproductive effects. Company personnel records were reviewed. Work practices were observed. The authors conclude that a potential exists for exposures to organotins and copper. As all employees were wearing respiratory protective equipment, actual exposures may be less than that indicated by the analytical data. The facility could contribute 16 potentially exposed workers to the reproductive effects study.

  12. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC), Tupman, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary environmental findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Naval Petroleum Reserves 1 (NPR-1) and 2 (NPR-2) in California (NPRC), conducted May 9--20, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with NPRC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involved the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at NPRC, and interviews with site personnel. 120 refs., 28 figs., 40 tabs.

  13. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D, Part B: Naval spent nuclear fuel management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This volume contains the following attachments: transportation of Naval spent nuclear fuel; description of Naval spent nuclear receipt and handling at the Expended Core Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; comparison of storage in new water pools versus dry container storage; description of storage of Naval spent nuclear fuel at servicing locations; description of receipt, handling, and examination of Naval spent nuclear fuel at alternate DOE facilities; analysis of normal operations and accident conditions; and comparison of the Naval spent nuclear fuel storage environmental assessment and this environmental impact statement.

  14. Study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, NOSR-2, Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant and authorized a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. The US owns 100% of the mineral rights and about 60% of the surface rights in NOSR-2. The Ute Indian Tribe owns the other 40% of the surface. This 88,890-acre tract was set aside as an oil shale reserve for the US Navy by an Executive Order of President Wilson in 1916. Management of NOSR-2 is the responsibility of DOE. No drilling for oil and gas has occurred on the property and no production has been established. No reserves are present, although the area is hypothesized to overlay gas resources. Mapping by the US Geological Survey and others has resulted in speculative seismic leads for structures that may or may not hold conventional oil and gas. All of the mineral rights (including oil shale) must be considered exploratory and the mineral rights must be valued accordingly. The opinion recommended to maximize value to the US is Option 4, sale of the interest of the US of all or part of NOSR-2. Evaluation of this option results in an estimated value which is more than three times greater than the next highest estimated value, for Option 2, transfer to the Department of the Interior for leasing.

  15. EA-1956: Site-Wide Environmental Assessment for the Divestiture of Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, Natrona County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE prepared an EA that assesses the potential environmental impacts of the proposed discontinuation of DOE operations at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and the proposed divestiture of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR-3)

  16. Using Net-Zero Energy Projects to Enable Sustainable Economic Redevelopment at the Former Brunswick Air Naval Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, S.

    2011-10-01

    A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites. The Brunswick Naval Air Station is a naval air facility and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Super Fund site that is being cleaned up, and closed down. The objective of this report is not only to look at the economics of individual renewable energy technologies, but also to look at the systemic benefits that can be gained when cost-effective renewable energy technologies are integrated with other systems and businesses in a community; thus multiplying the total monetary, employment, and quality-of-life benefits they can provide to a community.

  17. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, Casper, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary environmental findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW) conducted June 6 through 17, 1988. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Wyoming, the Naval Oil Shale Reserves No. 1 and 3 (NOSR-1 and NOSR-3) in Colorado and the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Utah. NOSR-2 was not included in the Survey because it had not been actively exploited at the time of the on-site Survey. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, lead and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with NPOSR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at NPOSR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team has developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified at NOSR-3 during the on-site Survey. There were no findings associated with either NPR-3 or NOSR-1 that required Survey-related sampling and Analysis. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Summary report. The Summary Report will reflect the final determinations of the NPOSR-CUW Survey and the other DOE site-specific Surveys. 110 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Report to the President on agreements and programs relating to the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy monitors commercial natural gas production activities along the boundaries of Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1 and Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3, which are located in Garfield County, Colorado, and were created in the early part of this century to provide a future source of shale oil for the military. In response to the private sector`s drilling of natural gas wells along the south and southwest boundaries of the Reserves, which began in the early 1980`s, the Department developed a Natural Gas Protection Program to protect the Government`s resources from drainage due to the increasing number of commercial gas wells contiguous to Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3. This report provides an update of the Gas Protection Program being implemented and the agreements that have been placed in effect since December 19, 1991, and also includes the one communitized well containing Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 lands. The Protection Program employs two methods to protect the Government`s resources: (1) sharing with the private sector in the costs and production of wells by entering into ``communitization`` agreements; and (2) drilling wholly-owned Government wells to ``offset`` commercial wells that threaten to drain natural gas from the Reserves. The methods designed to protect the Government`s resources are achieving their objective of abating gas drainage and migration. As a result of the Protection Program, the Department of Energy is able to produce natural gas and either sell its share on the open market or transfer it for use at Government facilities. The Natural Gas Protection Program is a reactive, ongoing program that is continually revised as natural gas transportation constraints, market conditions, and nearby commercial production activities change.

  19. United States-Russian laboratory-to-laboratory cooperation on protection, control, and accounting for naval nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Yurasov, N.; Goncharenko, Y.; Mullen, M.; McConnell, D.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1995, the Russian Navy contacted safeguards experts at the Kurchatov Institute (KI) and proposed the initiation of work to enhance nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) at Russian Navy facilities. Because of KI`s successful experience in laboratory-to-laboratory MPC and A cooperation with US Department of Energy Laboratories, the possibility of US participation in the work with the Russian Navy was explored. Several months later, approval was received from the US Government and the Russian Navy to proceed with this work on a laboratory-to-laboratory basis through Kurchatov Institute. As a first step in the cooperation, a planning meeting occurred at KI in September, 1995. Representatives from the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DOD), the Russian Navy, and KI discussed several areas for near-term cooperative work, including a vulnerability assessment workshop and a planning study to identify and prioritize near-term MPC and A enhancements that might be implemented at Russian facilities which store or handle unirradiated highly enriched uranium fuel for naval propulsion applications. In subsequent meetings, these early proposals have been further refined and extended. This MPC and A cooperation will now include enhanced protection and control features for storage facilities and refueling service ships, computerized accounting systems for naval fuel, methods and equipment for rapid inventories, improved security of fresh fuel during truck transportation, and training. This paper describes the current status and future plans for MPC and A cooperation for naval nuclear materials.

  20. Evaluation of EHD enhancement and thermoacoustic refrigeration for naval applications. Technical report, Jul-Sep 91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Memory, S.B.

    1991-12-01

    An evaluation has been made of two different techniques which could prove valuable for Naval refrigeration needs in the future. The first is electrohydrodynamic (EHD) enhancement of pool boiling and condensation heat transfer; this has been shown to provide significant enhancements for both modes of heat transfer under certain conditions and could provide increases in efficiency of present vapor-compression systems. EHD techniques are quite advanced and prototype condenser and evaporator bundles are currently being tested. The second technique is an alternative refrigeration technology called thermoacoustic refrigeration; alternative technologies have become increasingly attractive over recent years due to environmental concerns over CFCs. Thermoacoustic refrigeration uses acoustic power to pump heat from a low temperature source to a high temperature sink. It is still in the early stages of development and can presently accommodate only small thermal loads. However, its general principles of operation have been proven and its resent capacity and efficiency limitations are not seen as a problem in the long term. Electrohydrodynamic Enhancement, Boiling and Condensation, Thermoacoustic Refrigeration.

  1. Phase II - final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NOSR 1 & 3, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSR 1 and 3) in Garfield County, Colorado (Figure 0.1). The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study. Additional details are provided in the Addendum (the Phase 1 Property Description and Fact Finding Report). The key property elements that positively affect the estimated value of NOSR 1 and 3 include the following: working interest income from producing oil and gas leases, income from grazing or leasing of grazing rights, potential income from oil and gas leasing on exploratory (or nonprospective) acreage, potential value of trading surface real estate as ranch land for livestock grazing (56,577 acres). Key elements that negatively impact the estimated value include: environmental assessment costs, gas prices, operating budgets, and lease sale expenses.

  2. Holly Quick | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Holly Quick About Us Holly Quick - Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Atlantic Public Affairs Most Recent Inspiring Girls to Explore STEM Careers in Charleston, SC July 29...

  3. Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-3 Natrona County, Wyoming. Addendum to 22 August 1996 study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Natrona County, Wyoming. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and surface rights in 9,321-acre NPR-3. This property comprises the Teapot Dome oil field and related production, processing and other facilities. Discovered in 1914, this field has 632 wells producing 1,807 barrels of oil per day. Production revenues are about $9.5 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 1.3 million barrels of oil. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present.

  4. Report of endangered species studies on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Warrick, G.D.; Mathews, N.E.; Kato, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    Between 1983 and 1986 the size of the population of San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2), Kern County, California, was estimated semiannually using capture-recapture techniques. Although summer population estimates varied between 222 in 1983 and 121 in 1986, and winter estimates varies between 258 in 1984 and 91 in 1983, the population appeared to remain relatively stable at an apparent norm of 165. Kit foxes were abundant even in the intensely developed areas, and numbers and densities (1.12 to 2.49/sq mile) were consistently higher on NPR-2 than on neighboring NPR-1. The percentage of adult vixens that successfully raised pups was 55%, average litter size was 4.0 +- 0.0, and the sex ratio (M:F) of 25 pups was 1:1.5. Most (45.2%) foxes were killed by coyotes (Canis latrans), vehicles killed 6.4%, and 6.5% died of other causes. A cause could not be determined for 41.9% of the deaths. There was a general increase in coyote visitation rates at scent stations, but kit fox visitation rates generally decreased. Kit fox indices were consistently higher on NPR-2 than on NPR-1. Approximately 15% of the kit foxes on NPR-2 dispersed an average of 2.2 +- 0.2 miles. Average dispersal distance did not differ between the sexes. The longest dispersal was 6.9 miles. Proportionately more male than female pups dispersed. Remains of lagomorphs (jackrabbits and cottontails) and kangaroo rats had the highest frequency of occurrence in scats. Frequency of occurrence of lagomorph remains was greater in developed than in undeveloped habitats. Proportions of lagomorph remains increased and kangaroo rat remains decreased between 1983 and 1984. 62 refs., 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover`s wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC.

  6. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs, Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D: Part A, Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Volume 1 to the Department of Energy`s Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement evaluates a range of alternatives for managing naval spent nuclear fuel expected to be removed from US Navy nuclear-powered vessels and prototype reactors through the year 2035. The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) considers a range of alternatives for examining and storing naval spent nuclear fuel, including alternatives that terminate examination and involve storage close to the refueling or defueling site. The EIS covers the potential environmental impacts of each alternative, as well as cost impacts and impacts to the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program mission. This Appendix covers aspects of the alternatives that involve managing naval spent nuclear fuel at four naval shipyards and the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Kesselring Site in West Milton, New York. This Appendix also covers the impacts of alternatives that involve examining naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility in Idaho and the potential impacts of constructing and operating an inspection facility at any of the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities considered in the EIS. This Appendix also considers the impacts of the alternative involving limited spent nuclear fuel examinations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. This Appendix does not address the impacts associated with storing naval spent nuclear fuel after it has been inspected and transferred to DOE facilities. These impacts are addressed in separate appendices for each DOE site.

  7. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center Robi Robichaud, Jason Fields, and Joseph Owen Roberts Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-52801 February 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency &

  8. Technical Feasibility Study for Deployment of Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems: Portsmouth Naval Shipyard -- Kittery, Maine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNSY) is a United States Navy facility located on a series of conjoined islands in the Piscataqua River between Kittery, ME and Portsmouth, NH. EPA engaged NREL to conduct a study to determine technical feasibility of deploying ground-source heat pump systems to help PNSY achieve energy reduction goals.

  9. A plan for implementation of innovative hazardous waste minimization techniques at an eastern US Naval Plating Shop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Villiers-Fisher, J.F.; Brown, C.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was contracted by the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) to analyze the wastewater problems at a Naval Ordnance Station (NOS) plating shop in the eastern United States to recommend innovative wastewater treatment technologies for handling those problems and to implement the recommended treatment technology. Hexavalent chromium was identified as the major problem area at NOS. Water conservation measures were recommended which would reduce the volume of chromium-contaminated wastewater from approximately 300 L/min to approximately 20 L/min. A treatment scheme consisting of RO followed by evaporation of the RO concentrate steam was recommended. Paint-stripping operations at NOS potentially contaminate the wastewater with phenol, trichloroethane, and possibly other organics. However, the need for a treatment unit for removal of organics could not be established due to a lack of organic analytical data. A characterization study was therefore recommended for the NOS plating shop. If treatment for organics is necessary, the treatment unit might include two-stage filtration for removal of paint flakes or other solids, air stripping for removal of volatile organics, and carbon adsorption for removal of residual organics. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Final sitewide environmental assessment for preparation for transfer of ownership of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), Natrona County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    The Secretary of Energy is authorized to produce the Naval Petroleum Reserves No. 3 (NPR-3) at its maximum efficient rate (MER) consistent with sound engineering practices, for a period extending to April 5, 2000 subject to extension. Production at NPR-3 peaked in 1981 and has declined since until it has become a mature stripper field, with the average well yielding less than 2 barrels per day. The Department of Energy (DOE) has decided to discontinue Federal operation of NPR-3 at the end of its life as an economically viable oilfield currently estimated to be 2003. Although changes in oil and gas markets or shifts in national policy could alter the economic limit of NPR-3, it productive life will be determined largely by a small and declining reserve base. DOE is proposing certain activities over the next six years in anticipation of the possible transfer of NPR-3 out of Federal operation. These activities would include the accelerated plugging and abandoning of uneconomic wells, complete reclamation and restoration of abandoned sites including dismantling surface facilities, batteries, roads, test satellites, electrical distribution systems and associated power poles, when they are no longer needed for production, and the continued development of the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). DOE has prepared this environmental assessment that analyzes the proposed plugging and abandonment of wells, field restoration and development of RMOTC. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). The preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  11. EIS-0158: Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement to the 1979 Petroleum Production at Maximum Efficient Rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1(Elk Hills), Kern County, California (1993)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to assess the potential environmental impacts of the continued operation of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 at the Maximum Efficient Rate authorized by Public Law 94-258. This EIS supplements DOE/EIS-0012.

  12. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  13. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  14. EA-0962: Construction and Routine Operation of a 12-kilovolt Overhead Powerline and Formal Authorization for a 10-inch and 8-inch Fresh Water Pipeline Right-of-Way at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to install an overhead powerline extension from the U.S. Department of Energy's Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) power source to the...

  15. Proposed natural gas protection program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    As a result of US Department of Energy (DOE) monitoring activities, it was determined in 1983 that the potential existed for natural gas resources underlying the Naval Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSrs-1 3) to be drained by privately-owned gas wells that were being drilled along the Reserves borders. In 1985, DOE initiated a limited number of projects to protect the Government's interest in the gas resources by drilling its own offset production'' wells just inside the boundaries, and by formally sharing in the production, revenues and costs of private wells that are drilled near the boundaries ( communitize'' the privately-drilled wells). The scope of these protection efforts must be expanded. DOE is therefore proposing a Natural Gas Protection Program for NOSRs-1 3 which would be implemented over a five-year period that would encompass a total of 200 wells (including the wells drilled and/or communitized since 1985). Of these, 111 would be offset wells drilled by DOE on Government land inside the NOSRs' boundaries and would be owned either entirely by the Government or communitized with adjacent private land owners or lessees. The remainder would be wells drilled by private operators in an area one half-mile wide extending around the NOSRs boundaries and communitized with the Government. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Empirical, probabilistic, and modelling approaches to assess cross-media impacts to marine sediments at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, W.L.; Vita, C.L.; Schrock, W.; Leicht, G.

    1996-12-31

    Dredge spoils, industrial fill, and liquid wastes from the 1940s to 1970s have resulted in inorganic and organic contamination of soils, groundwater, and marine sediments near the U.S.S. Missouri and Charleston Beach parking lots at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), in Bremerton, Washington. Extensive collection of environmental data from several studies including the recently completed Remedial Investigation conducted under CERCLA have confirmed contaminant levels above federal risk screening levels and state regulatory criteria for several heavy metals and organic compounds, including pesticides and PCBs. Although the correlation between contamination in marine sediments and those in on-shore fill appears to be strong, there is little evidence that a viable transport pathway currently exists from soils to groundwater and thence to sediments. Several methods used to estimate chemical mass flux from soil to groundwater to sediments and marine waters of Sinclair Inlet are corroborative in this regard. Nonetheless, this result is vexing because present groundwater concentrations exceed ARARs, yet are below levels of concern in terms of mass flux to marine waters. Despite the marginal risks posed by groundwater, various remedial alternatives, including perimeter containment using a subsurface waste-stabilized containment wall, were evaluated to determine whether chemical flux could be reduced to levels below those observed at the present time. Three-dimensional flow modelling and transport modelling also confirmed that chemical fluxes were limited in magnitude and could be addressed with more conventional remedial approaches.

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, MN. (First remedial action), September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The 82.6-acre Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant (NIROP) site is a weapons system manufacturing facility in Fridley, Minnesota, which began operations in 1940. The site is a government-owned, contractor-operated, plant located just north of the FMC Corp. During the 1970s, paint sludge and chlorinated solvents were disposed of onsite in pits and trenches. In 1981, State investigations identified TCE in onsite water supply wells drawing from the Prairie DuChien/Jordan aquifer, and the wells were shut down. In 1983, EPA found drummed waste in the trenches or pits at the northern portion of the site, and as a result, during 1983 and 1984, the Navy authorized an installation restoration program, during which approximately 1,200 cubic yards of contaminated soil and 42 drums were excavated and landfilled offsite. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the remediation of a shallow ground water operable unit. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs including PCE, TCE, toluene, and xylene.

  18. Radio-optical reference frame link using the U.S. Naval observatory astrograph and deep CCD imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharias, N.; Zacharias, M. I.

    2014-05-01

    Between 1997 and 2004 several observing runs were conducted, mainly with the CTIO 0.9 m, to image International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) counterparts (mostly QSOs) in order to determine accurate optical positions. Contemporary to these deep CCD images, the same fields were observed with the U.S. Naval Observatory astrograph in the same bandpass. They provide accurate positions on the Hipparcos/Tycho-2 system for stars in the 10-16 mag range used as reference stars for the deep CCD imaging data. Here we present final optical position results of 413 sources based on reference stars obtained by dedicated astrograph observations that were reduced following two different procedures. These optical positions are compared to radio very long baseline interferometry positions. The current optical system is not perfectly aligned to the ICRF radio system with rigid body rotation angles of 3-5 mas (= 3? level) found between them for all three axes. Furthermore, statistically, the optical-radio position differences are found to exceed the total, combined, known errors in the observations. Systematic errors in the optical reference star positions and physical offsets between the centers of optical and radio emissions are both identified as likely causes. A detrimental, astrophysical, random noise component is postulated to be on about the 10 mas level. If confirmed by future observations, this could severely limit the Gaia to ICRF reference frame alignment accuracy to an error of about 0.5 mas per coordinate axis with the current number of sources envisioned to provide the link. A list of 36 ICRF sources without the detection of an optical counterpart to a limiting magnitude of about R = 22 is provided as well.

  19. Joint environmental assessment for western NPR-1 3-dimensional seismic project at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1124) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposed geophysical seismic survey on and adjacent to the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.1 (NPR-1), located approximately 35 miles west of Bakersfield, California. NPR-1 is jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.S.A. Production Company. The federal government owns about 78 percent of NPR-1, while Chevron owns the remaining 22 percent. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of DOE, which has contracted with Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc. (BPOI) for the operation and management of the reserve. The 3-dimensional seismic survey would take place on NPR-1 lands and on public and private lands adjacent to NPR-1. This project would involve lands owned by BLM, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), California Energy Commission (CEC), The Nature Conservancy, the Center for Natural Lands Management, oil companies (Chevron, Texaco, and Mobil), and several private individuals. The proposed action is designed to provide seismic data for the analysis of the subsurface geology extant in western NPR-1 with the goal of better defining the commercial limits of a currently producing reservoir (Northwest Stevens) and three prospective hydrocarbon bearing zones: the {open_quotes}A Fan{close_quotes} in Section 7R, the 19R Structure in Section 19R, and the 13Z Structure in Section 13Z. Interpreting the data is expected to provide NPR-1 owners with more accurate locations of structural highs, faults, and pinchouts to maximize the recovery of the available hydrocarbon resources in western NPR-1. Completion of this project is expected to increase NPR-1 recoverable reserves, and reduce the risks and costs associated with further exploration and development in the area.

  20. Two-pulse rapid remote surface contamination measurement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Headrick, Jeffrey M.; Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2010-11-01

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of a 'pump-probe' optical detection method for standoff sensing of chemicals on surfaces. Such a measurement uses two optical pulses - one to remove the analyte (or a fragment of it) from the surface and the second to sense the removed material. As a particular example, this project targeted photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence (PF-LIF) to detect of surface deposits of low-volatility chemical warfare agents (LVAs). Feasibility was demonstrated for four agent surrogates on eight realistic surfaces. Its sensitivity was established for measurements on concrete and aluminum. Extrapolations were made to demonstrate relevance to the needs of outside users. Several aspects of the surface PF-LIF physical mechanism were investigated and compared to that of vapor-phase measurements. The use of PF-LIF as a rapid screening tool to 'cue' more specific sensors was recommended. Its sensitivity was compared to that of Raman spectroscopy, which is both a potential 'confirmer' of PF-LIF 'hits' and is also a competing screening technology.

  1. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  2. Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Howard L. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1991-10-01

    A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

  3. Petroleum production at Maximum Efficient Rate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This document provides an analysis of the potential impacts associated with the proposed action, which is continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. I (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER) as authorized by Public law 94-258, the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (Act). The document also provides a similar analysis of alternatives to the proposed action, which also involve continued operations, but under lower development scenarios and lower rates of production. NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field jointly owned and operated by the federal government and Chevron U.SA Inc. (CUSA) pursuant to a Unit Plan Contract that became effective in 1944; the government`s interest is approximately 78% and CUSA`s interest is approximately 22%. The government`s interest is under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The facility is approximately 17,409 acres (74 square miles), and it is located in Kern County, California, about 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield and 100 miles north of Los Angeles in the south central portion of the state. The environmental analysis presented herein is a supplement to the NPR-1 Final Environmental Impact Statement of that was issued by DOE in 1979 (1979 EIS). As such, this document is a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS).

  4. Annual Report: 2010-2011 Storm Season Sampling For NON-DRY DOCK STORMWATER MONITORING FOR PUGET SOUND NAVAL SHIPYARD, BREMERTON, WA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Metallo, David; Johnston, Robert K.; Gebhardt, Christine; Hsu, Larry

    2012-09-01

    This interim report summarizes the stormwater monitoring conducted for non-dry dock outfalls in both the confined industrial area and the residential areas of Naval Base Kitsap within the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (referred to as the Shipyard). This includes the collection, analyses, and descriptive statistics for stormwater sampling conducted from November 2010 through April 2011. Seven stormwater basins within the Shipyard were sampled during at least three storm events to characterize non-dry dock stormwater discharges at selected stormwater drains located within the facility. This serves as the Phase I component of the project and Phase II is planned for the 2011-2012 storm season. These data will assist the Navy, USEPA, Ecology and other stakeholders in understanding the nature and condition of stormwater discharges from the Shipyard and inform the permitting process for new outfall discharges. The data from Phase I was compiled with current stormwater data available from the Shipyard, Sinclair/Dyes Inlet watershed, and Puget Sound in order to support technical investigations for the Draft NPDES permit. The permit would require storm event sampling at selected stormwater drains located within the Shipyard. However, the data must be considered on multiple scales to truly understand potential impairments to beneficial uses within Sinclair and Dyes Inlets.

  5. Review of mineral estate of the United States at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Buena Vista Hills Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-09

    The purpose of this report is to present this Consultant`s findings regarding the nature and extent of the mineral estate of the United States at National Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2), Buena Vista Hills Field, Kern County, California. Determination of the mineral estate is a necessary prerequisite to this Consultant`s calculation of estimated future cash flows attributable to said estate, which calculations are presented in the accompanying report entitled ``Phase II Final Report, Study of Alternatives for Future Operations of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, NPR-2, California.`` This Report contains a discussion of the leases in effect at NPR-2 and subsequent contracts affecting such leases. This Report also summarizes discrepancies found between the current royalty calculation procedures utilized at NPR-2 and those procedures required under applicable agreements and regulations. Recommendations for maximizing the government`s income stream at NPR-2 are discussed in the concluding section of this Report.

  6. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  7. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  8. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and

  9. Surface mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This paper reports on a GAO study of attorney and expert witness fees awarded as a result of litigation brought under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. As of March 24, 1989, a total of about $1.4 million had been awarded in attorney fees and expenses - about $1.3 subject to the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, a comparison of its features with provisions of ERISA showed that the plan differed from ERISA provisions in areas such as eligibility, funding, and contribution limits.

  10. Sweet Surface Area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sweet Surface Area Sweet Surface Area Create a delicious root beer float and learn sophisticated science concepts at the same time. Sweet Surface Area Science is all around us, so...

  11. Chip-Scale Bioassays Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Fundamentals and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hye-Young Park

    2005-12-17

    This work explores the development and application of chip-scale bioassays based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for high throughput and high sensitivity analysis of biomolecules. The size effect of gold nanoparticles on the intensity of SERS is first presented. A sandwich immunoassay was performed using Raman-labeled immunogold nanoparticles with various sizes. The SERS responses were correlated to particle densities, which were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response of individual particles was also investigated using Raman-microscope and an array of gold islands on a silicon substrate. The location and the size of individual particles were mapped using AFM. The next study describes a low-level detection of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and simulants of biological warfare agents in a sandwich immunoassay format using SERS labels, which have been termed Extrinsic Raman labels (ERLs). A new ERL scheme based on a mixed monolayer is also introduced. The mixed monolayer ERLs were created by covering the gold nanoparticles with a mixture of two thiolates, one thiolate for covalently binding antibody to the particle and the other thiolate for producing a strong Raman signal. An assay platform based on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold is then presented. The mixed SAMs were prepared from dithiobis(succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU) to covalently bind antibodies on gold substrate and oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiol to prevent nonspecific adsorption of antibodies. After the mixed SAMs surfaces, formed from various mole fraction of DSU were incubated with antibodies, AFM was used to image individual antibodies on the surface. The final study presents a collaborative work on the single molecule adsorption of YOYO-I labeled {lambda}-DNA at compositionally patterned SAMs using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The role of solution pH, {lambda}-DNA concentration, and domain size was investigated. This work also revealed the potential importance of structural defects.

  12. Check Heat Transfer Surfaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses the importance of checking heat transfer surfaces in process heating systems.

  13. H.R. 817: A Bill to authorize the Secretary of Energy to lease lands within the naval oil shale reserves to private entities for the development and production of oil and natural gas. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This bill would give the Secretary of Energy authority to lease lands within the Naval oil shale reserves to private entities for the purpose of surveying for and developing oil and gas resources from the land (other than oil shale). It also allows the Bureau of Land Management to be used as a leasing agent, establishes rules on royalties, and the sharing of royalties with the state, and covers the transfer of existing equipment.

  14. Fluorinated silica microchannel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy Jon

    2005-03-15

    A method for surface modification of microchannels and capillaries. The method produces a chemically inert surface having a lowered surface free energy and improved frictional properties by attaching a fluorinated alkane group to the surface. The coating is produced by hydrolysis of a silane agent that is functionalized with either alkoxy or chloro ligands and an uncharged C.sub.3 -C.sub.10 fluorinated alkane chain. It has been found that the extent of surface coverage can be controlled by controlling the contact time from a minimum of about 2 minutes to a maximum of 120 minutes for complete surface coverage.

  15. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Waste Remediation Activities at Elk Hills (Former Naval petroleum Reserve No. 1), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-12-17

    DOE proposes to conduct a variety of post-sale site remediation activities, such as characterization, assessment, clean-up, and formal closure, at a number of inactive waste sites located at Elk Hills. The proposed post-sale site remediation activities, which would be conducted primarily in developed portions of the oil field, currently are expected to include clean-up of three basic categories of waste sites: (1) nonhazardous solid waste surface trash scatters, (2) produced wastewater sumps, and (3) small solid waste landfills. Additionally, a limited number of other inactive waste sites, which cannot be typified under any of these three categories, have been identified as requiring remediation. Table 2.1-1 presents a summary, organized by waste site category, of the inactive waste sites that require remediation per the PSA, the ASA, and/or the UPCTA. The majority of these sites are known to contain no hazardous waste. However, one of the surface scatter sites (2G) contains an area of burn ash with hazardous levels of lead and zinc, another surface scatter site (25S) contains an area with hazardous levels of lead, a produced wastewater sump site (23S) and a landfill (42-36S) are known to contain hazardous levels of arsenic, and some sites have not yet been characterized. Furthermore, additional types of sites could be discovered. For example, given the nature of oil field operations, sites resulting from either spills or leaks of hazardous materials could be discovered. Given the nature of the agreements entered into by DOE regarding the required post-sale clean-up of the inactive waste sites at Elk Hills, the Proposed Action is the primary course of action considered in this EA. The obligatory remediation activities included in the Proposed Action are standard procedures such that possible variations of the Proposed Action would not vary substantially enough to require designation as a separate, reasonable alternative. Thus, the No Action Alternative is the only other option considered in this EA.

  16. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  17. Extremely durable biofouling-resistant metallic surfaces based on electrodeposited nanoporous tungstite films on steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesler, Alexander B.; Kim, Philseok; Kolle, Stefan; Howell, Caitlin; Ahanotu, Onye; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-10-20

    Formation of unwanted deposits on steels during their interaction with liquids is an inherent problem that often leads to corrosion, biofouling and results in reduction in durability and function. Here we report a new route to form anti-fouling steel surfaces by electrodeposition of nanoporous tungsten oxide (TO) films. TO-modified steels are as mechanically durable as bare steel and highly tolerant to compressive and tensile stresses due to chemical bonding to the substrate and island-like morphology. When inherently superhydrophilic TO coatings are converted to superhydrophobic, they remain non-wetting even after impingement with yttria-stabilized-zirconia particles, or exposure to ultraviolet light and extreme temperatures. Upon lubrication, these surfaces display omniphobicity against highly contaminating media retaining hitherto unseen mechanical durability. Furthermore, to illustrate the applicability of such a durable coating in biofouling conditions, we modified naval construction steels and surgical instruments and demonstrated significantly reduced marine algal film adhesion, Escherichia coli attachment and blood staining.

  18. Sitewide environmental assessment EA-1236 for preparation for transfer of ownership of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), Natrona County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    The Proposed Action includes the following principal elements: (1) The accelerated plugging and abandoning of uneconomic wells over the next six years. Uneconomic wells are operating wells which can no longer cover their direct and indirect costs. DOE estimates that there are 900 wells to be plugged and abandoned over the next six years, leaving approximately 200 wells for transfer by 2003. (2) Complete reclamation and restoration of abandoned sites. Restoration would include dismantling surface facilities, batteries, roads, test satellites, electrical distribution systems and associated power poles, when they are no longer needed for production. Soil contaminated by hydrocarbons would be biologically treated. Roads, facilities, batteries, and well sites would be ripped up, recontoured, disked and seeded with native vegetation. (3) The continued development of the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) through the establishment of a consortium of university, state and private institutions. RMOTC would continue to provide facilities and support to government and private industry for testing and evaluating new oilfield and environmental technologies. Based on the findings of the EA, DOE has determined that the proposal does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.

  19. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  20. PHASE II CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY OF THE USNS BRIDGE (T AOE 10), MILITARY SEALIFT FLEET SUPPORT COMMAND, NAVAL STATION, NORFOLK, VIRGINIA DCN 5180-SR-01-0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NICK A. ALTIC

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 T?hoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ships air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  1. Surface modification to waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Ruzic, David N. (Kendall Park, NJ); Moore, Richard L. (Princeton, NJ); Cohen, Samuel A. (Pennington, NJ); Manos, Dennis M. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    A method of treating the interior surfaces of a waveguide to improve power transmission comprising the steps of mechanically polishing to remove surface protrusions; electropolishing to remove embedded particles; ultrasonically cleaning to remove any residue; coating the interior waveguide surfaces with an alkyd resin solution or electrophoretically depositing carbon lamp black suspended in an alkyd resin solution to form a 1.mu. to 5.mu. thick film; vacuum pyrolyzing the film to form a uniform adherent carbon coating.

  2. Surface modification to waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, J.R.; Ruzic, D.N.; Moore, R.L.; Cohen, S.A.; Manos, D.M.

    1982-06-16

    A method is described for treating the interior surfaces of a waveguide to improve power transmission comprising the steps of mechanically polishing to remove surface protrusions; electropolishing to remove embedded particles; ultrasonically cleaning to remove any residue; coating the interior waveguide surfaces with an alkyd resin solution or electrophoretically depositing carbon lamp black suspended in an alkyd resin solution to form a 1..mu.. to 5..mu.. thick film; vacuum pyrolyzing the film to form a uniform adherent carbon coating.

  3. Incompressible Flows Free Surfaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    NASA-VOF3D is a three-dimensional, transient, free surface, incompressible fluid dynamics program. It is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low gravity environment in which surface physics must be accurately treated. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion and includes a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. Variable mesh spacing is permitted in all three coordinate directions. Boundary conditions available are rigid free-slip wall, rigid no-slipmore » wall, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure outflow boundary.« less

  4. ARM - Measurement - Surface albedo

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    albedo ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface albedo The fraction of incoming solar radiation at a surface (i.e. land, cloud top) that is effectively reflected by that surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of

  5. Appendix PORSURF: Porosity Surface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BRAGFLO constrained to fall on this surface. Various techniques described in Freeze, Larson, and Davies (Freeze, Larson, and Davies 1995) were used to check the validity of this...

  6. ARM - Measurement - Surface condition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weather Forecasts Model Data LANDCOVER-SAT : Landcover Derived From Satellite Data RSP : Research Scanning Polarimeter MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation VEGWATER-SAT :...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sea surface temperature The temperature of sea water near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  8. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  9. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  10. Handsfree Surface Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-11-01

    The HANDSFREE SURFACE ANALYSIS software code enables unattended analysis of surfaces by desorption electrospray (DESI) and liquid-junction surface sampling probe (SSP) mass spectrometry. The software allows automated lane scanning, imaging (e.g. lane rastering), spot and array sampling, and array scanning methods by controlling the movement of the sample attached to a computer-controlled stage. The software is able to collect, visualize and analyze mass spectrometry data real-time for surface analysis purposes by interacting with mass spectrometrymore » instrumentation software. The software also enables data post processing for imaging and other analytical purposes. The software also contains image analysis approaches to control the sampling capillary-to-surface distance when used with DESI, and for automated formation and real-time reoptimization of the sampling probe-to-surface liquid microjunction when used with SSP. Control of these distances is essential to automated, hands-free operation of a DESI or SSP mass spectrometry system.« less

  11. Naval reactors in need of redesign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2015-05-15

    Nonproliferation concerns should propel US Navy to switch to safer nuclear fuel, says FAS task force.

  12. Naval Petroleum Reserves | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    federal property to Native Americans in the last century. NPR-2 - Enactment of the Energy Policy Act 2005 effected the transfer of administrative jurisdiction and land management...

  13. Dual surface interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-12

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  14. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, Kenneth L. (Dublin, CA); Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA); Thompson, Samuel L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  15. Surface controlled blade stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Larry R. (6025 Edgemor, Suite C, Houston, TX 77081)

    1983-01-01

    Drill string stabilizer apparatus, controllable to expand and retract entirely from the surface by control of drill string pressure, wherein increase of drill string pressure from the surface closes a valve to create a piston means which is moved down by drill string pressure to expand the stabilizer blades, said valve being opened and the piston moving upward upon reduction of drill string pressure to retract the stabilizer blades. Upward and downward movements of the piston and an actuator sleeve therebelow are controlled by a barrel cam acting between the housing and the actuator sleeve.

  16. Fluid Dynamics with Free Surfaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    RIPPLE is a two-dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles.

  17. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childs, E.L.

    1984-01-23

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

  18. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  19. Pocked surface neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas; Klann, Raymond

    2003-04-08

    The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

  20. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, L.M.

    1996-04-30

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

  1. Surface decontamination compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright; Karen E.; Cooper, David C.; Peterman, Dean R.; Demmer, Ricky L.; Tripp, Julia L.; Hull, Laurence C.

    2011-03-29

    Clay-based compositions capable of absorbing contaminants from surfaces or objects having surface faces may be applied to a surface and later removed, the removed clay-based compositions absorbing at least a portion of the contaminant from the surface or object to which it was applied.

  2. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  3. Surface profiling interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takacs, Peter Z. (P.O. Box 385, Upton, NY 11973); Qian, Shi-Nan (Hefei Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and, Hefei, Anhui, CN)

    1989-01-01

    The design of a long-trace surface profiler for the non-contact measurement of surface profile, slope error and curvature on cylindrical synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The optical system is based upon the concept of a pencil-beam interferometer with an inherent large depth-of-field. The key feature of the optical system is the zero-path-difference beam splitter, which separates the laser beam into two colinear, variable-separation probe beams. A linear array detector is used to record the interference fringe in the image, and analysis of the fringe location as a function of scan position allows one to reconstruct the surface profile. The optical head is mounted on an air bearing slide with the capability to measure long aspheric optics, typical of those encountered in SR applications. A novel feature of the optical system is the use of a transverse "outrigger" beam which provides information on the relative alignment of the scan axis to the cylinder optic symmetry axis.

  4. Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza

    2007-09-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.

  5. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1980-06-16

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a beam of coherent light of two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency constantly greater than the other by a fixed amount to produce a difference frequency with a constant phase to be used as a reference, and splitting the beam into its two components. The separate components are directed onto spaced apart points on the face of the object to be tested for smoothness while the face of the object is rotated on an axis normal to one point, thereby passing the other component over a circular track on the face of the object. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a reflected frequency difference of a phase proportional to the difference in path length of one component reflected from one point to the other component reflected from the other point. The phase of the reflected frequency difference is compared with the reference phase to produce a signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track with respect to the fixed point at the center, thereby to produce a signal that is plotted as a profile of the surface along the circular track. The phase detector includes a quarter-wave plate to convert the components of the reference beam into circularly polarized components, a half-wave plate to shift the phase of the circularly polarized components, and a polarizer to produce a signal of a shifted phase for comparison with the phase of the frequency difference of the reflected components detected through a second polarizer. Rotation of the half-wave plate can be used for phase adjustment over a full 360/sup 0/ range.

  6. Stability at the surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-12-05

    Metal oxides are ubiquitous as minerals in the terrestrial environment, as well as in a variety of technologically important structures such as electronic devices and heterogeneous catalysts. Within these various contexts, interfaces between oxides and gases, liquids and solids drive many critically important phenomena ranging from the uptake of contaminants in groundwater by redox-active minerals to the switching of the millions of transistors found in every cell phone and computer. Function is tied to structure. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the structure of oxide surfaces and interfaces is of crucial importance to the comprehension of a plethora of phenomena involving this broad class of materials.

  7. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a beam of coherent light of two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency constantly greater than the other by a fixed amount to produce a difference frequency with a constant phase to be used as a reference. The beam also is split into its two components with the separate components directed onto spaced apart points onthe face of the object to be tested for smoothness. The object is rotated on an axis coincident with one component which is directed to the face of the object at the center which constitutes a virtual fixed point. This component also is used as a reference. The other component follows a circular track on the face of the object as the object is rotated. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a reflected frequency difference of a phase proportional to the difference in path length which is compared with the reference phase to produce a signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track with respect to the fixed point at the center.

  8. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a laser beam having two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency greater than the other to produce a difference frequency with a phase to be used as a reference. The beam also is split into its two components which are directed onto spaced apart points on the face of the object. The object is rotated on an axis coincident with one component as a reference. The other component follows a circular track on the face of the object as the object is rotated. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a difference frequency having a phase that is shifted in an amount that is proportional to the difference in path length as compared to the reference phase to produce an electrical output signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track. The output signal is generated by means of a phase detector that includes a first photodetector in the path of the recombined components and a second photodetector in the path of the reference phase. The output signal is dependent on the phase difference of the two photodetector signals. A polarizer, a quarter-wave plate and a half-wave plate are in series in the path of the reference phase. Rotation of the half-wave plate can be used for phase adjustment over a full 360.degree. range for initial calibration of the apparatus.

  9. Surface tension of spherical drops from surface of tension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homman, A.-A.; Bourasseau, E.; Malfreyt, P.; Strafella, L.; Ghoufi, A.

    2014-01-21

    The determination of surface tension of curved interfaces is a topic that raised many controversies during the last century. Explicit liquid-vapor interface modelling (ELVI) was unable up to now to reproduce interfacial behaviors in drops due to ambiguities in the mechanical definition of the surface tension. In this work, we propose a thermodynamic approach based on the location of surface of tension and its use in the Laplace equation to extract the surface tension of spherical interfaces from ELVI modelling.

  10. Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy Authors: Mason, H E ; Harley, S J ; Maxwell, R S ; Carroll, S A Publication Date: 2011-12-07 OSTI Identifier: 1107317 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-520237

  11. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the HTML: Surface/Sub-surface

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    dislocation density analysis of forming samples using advanced characterization techniques | Department of Energy HTML: Surface/Sub-surface dislocation density analysis of forming samples using advanced characterization techniques Materials Characterization Capabilities at the HTML: Surface/Sub-surface dislocation density analysis of forming samples using advanced characterization techniques 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and

  12. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  13. Final joint environmental assessment for the construction and routine operation of a 12-kilovolt (KV) overhead powerline right-of-way, and formal authorization for a 10-inch and 8-inch fresh water pipeline right-of-way, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The purpose and need of the proposed action, which is the installation of an overhead powerline extension from an Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) power source to the WKWD Station A, is to significantly reduce NPR-1`s overall utility costs. While the proposed action is independently justified on its own merits and is not tied to the proposed NPR-1 Cogeneration Facility, the proposed action would enable DOE to tie the NPR-1 fresh water pumps at Station A into the existing NPR-1 electrical distribution system. With the completion of the cogeneration facility in late 1994 or early 1995, the proposed action would save additional utility costs. This report deals with the environmental impacts of the construction of the powerline and the water pipeline. In addition, information is given about property rights and attaining permission to cross the property of proposed affected owners.

  14. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

  15. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

  16. Method for lubricating contacting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugger, Michael T. (Tijeras, NM); Ohlhausen, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Asay, David B. (Boalsburg, PA); Kim, Seong H. (State College, PA)

    2011-12-06

    A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

  17. ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil surface temperature The temperature of the soil measured near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  18. ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    skin temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface skin temperature The radiative surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view. Categories Radiometric, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the

  19. Tunable surface plasmon devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaner, Eric A. (Rio Rancho, NM); Wasserman, Daniel (Lowell, MA)

    2011-08-30

    A tunable extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) device wherein the tunability derives from controlled variation of the dielectric constant of a semiconducting material (semiconductor) in evanescent-field contact with a metallic array of sub-wavelength apertures. The surface plasmon resonance wavelength can be changed by changing the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. In embodiments of this invention, the dielectric material is a semiconducting material. The dielectric constant of the semiconducting material in the metal/semiconductor interfacial region is controllably adjusted by adjusting one or more of the semiconductor plasma frequency, the concentration and effective mass of free carriers, and the background high-frequency dielectric constant in the interfacial region. Thermal heating and/or voltage-gated carrier-concentration changes may be used to variably adjust the value of the semiconductor dielectric constant.

  20. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1984-06-26

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a laser beam having two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency greater than the other to produce a difference frequency with a phase to be used as a reference. The beam also is split into its two components which are directed onto spaced apart points on the face of the object. The object is rotated on an axis coincident with one component as a reference. The other component follows a circular track on the face of the object as the object is rotated. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a difference frequency having a phase that is shifted in an amount that is proportional to the difference in path length as compared to the reference phase to produce an electrical output signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track. The output signal is generated by means of a phase detector that includes a first photodetector in the path of the recombined components and a second photodetector in the path of the reference phase. The output signal is dependent on the phase difference of the two photodetector signals. A polarizer, a quarter-wave plate and a half-wave plate are in series in the path of the reference phase. Rotation of the half-wave plate can be used for phase adjustment over a full 360[degree] range for initial calibration of the apparatus. 12 figs.

  1. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  2. Tools for measuring surface cleanliness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  3. Surface mount component jig

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Beech Island, SC)

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  4. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  5. Method of modifying a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renk, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sorensen, Neil R. (Albuquerque, NM); Senft, Donna Cowell (Albuquerque, NM); Buchheit, Jr., Rudolph G. (Columbus, OH); Thompson, Michael O. (Ithaca, NY); Grabowski, Kenneth S. (Alexandria, VA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a surface modification method that provides beneficial changes in surface properties, can modify a surface to a greater depth than previous methods, and that is suitable for industrial application. The present method comprises applying a thin-film coating to a surface of a substrate, then subjecting the coated surface to an ion beam. The ion beam power pulse heats the coated surface, leading to alloying between the material in the coating and the material of the substrate. Rapid cooling of the alloyed layer after an ion beam pulse can lead to formation of metastable alloys and microstructures not accessible by conventional alloying methods or intense ion beam treatment of the substrate alone.

  6. ARM - Lesson Plans: Surface Currents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Currents Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Surface Currents Objective The objective is to demonstrate the simple surface currents and to calculate the speed of current. Materials Each student or group of students will need the following: Books Pencil/pen

  7. ARM - Measurement - Surface energy balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy balance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface energy balance The energy balance at the earth's surface between the net radiation and the sensible and latent heat fluxes and ground heat flux. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  8. ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Surface Aerosol Observing System The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is...

  9. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the HTML: Surface...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HTML: SurfaceSub-surface dislocation density analysis of forming samples using advanced characterization techniques Materials Characterization Capabilities at the HTML: Surface...

  10. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  11. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  12. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features PDF icon...

  13. The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE Expertise | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE Expertise The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE Expertise May 7, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Thanks to a Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) energy savings performance contract (ESPC) partnership, the NUWC installed geothermal heat pumps, high-efficiency HVAC and building systems; improved energy management controls; and repaired two significant underground water leaks. Since the completion of this project in the fall of 2011,

  14. EERE Success Story-The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Expertise | Department of Energy The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE Expertise EERE Success Story-The Navy Saves Energy in its Buildings With EERE Expertise May 7, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Thanks to a Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) energy savings performance contract (ESPC) partnership, the NUWC installed geothermal heat pumps, high-efficiency HVAC and building systems; improved energy management controls; and repaired two significant underground water leaks. Since the

  15. Embedded fiducials in optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Embedded fiducials are provided in optical surfaces and a method for embedding the fiducials. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspheres. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data, and the equation describing the asphere, to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface of the optic and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.

  16. ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

    2008-07-29

    The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source repository and issued as part of its Version 8.1 beta release. This source was transmitted to NSWC-IHD and in collaboration with LLNL personnel the entire ParaDyn software suite successfully installed and demonstrated on its new SGI Altix machine. The ability of even minor numbers of processors for the structural dynamics to impact overall time-to-solution for DYSMAS has been demonstrated. Assessments of combined parallel efficiencies are beginning to highlight areas for further DYSMAS optimizations.

  17. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the...

  18. Surface treatment of ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.

    1998-12-22

    A process is disclosed for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article. 15 figs.

  19. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  20. Surface treatment of ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); Wei, Bo (Daly City, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Bhatia, C. Singh (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article.

  1. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of...

  2. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Surfaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated aging of roofing surfaces Hugo Destaillats, Ph.D. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory HDestaillats@LBL.gov (510) 486-5897 http://HeatIsland.LBL.gov April 4, 2013 Development of Advanced Building Envelope Surface Materials & Integration of Artificial Soiling and Weathering in a Commercial Weatherometer New York Times, 30 July 2009 2010 2012 Challenge: speed the development of high performance building envelope materials that resist soiling, maintain high solar reflectance, and

  3. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  4. Rulison Site Surface Closure Report

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Nevada Operations Office DOE/NV- -510 UC-700 Nevada Environmental Restoration Project Rulison Site Surface Closure Report July 1998 Environmental Restoration Division DOE/NV--510 UC-700 RULISON SITE SURFACE CLOSURE REPORT DOE Nevada Operations Office Las Vegas, Nevada July 1998 This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; prices available from

  5. Surface and groundwater management in surface mined-land reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evoy, B.; Holland, M.

    1990-06-01

    This report provides information on surface water and groundwater management for use in the mined-land reclamation planning process in California. Mined-land reclamation, as defined by the California Surface Mining and Reclamation Act, is the combination of land treatments which prevent or minimize water degradation, air pollution, damage to aquatic or wildlife habitat, and erosion resulting from a surface mining operation. Surface water and groundwater management play an integral role in nearly every reclamation plan. Groundwater and surface water runoff (both onto and off of the site) must often be evaluated (1) to design flooding and erosion protection measures such as drainage channels, levees, culverts, or riprap; (2) to prepare and carry out a successful revegetation program; (3) to design stable final slopes; (4) to maximize potential available water for the operation and reclamation stages; (5) to prevent the discharge of contaminants from mine processes or from mined areas; and (6) to limit long-term leachate formation and movement from tailings, pit, or waste rock disposal areas. This report is a guide for mine operators, local government, planners, and plan reviewers.

  6. Device for inspecting vessel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A portable, remotely-controlled inspection crawler for use along the walls of tanks, vessels, piping and the like. The crawler can be configured to use a vacuum chamber for supporting itself on the inspected surface by suction or a plurality of magnetic wheels for moving the crawler along the inspected surface. The crawler is adapted to be equipped with an ultrasonic probe for mapping the structural integrity or other characteristics of the surface being inspected. Navigation of the crawler is achieved by triangulation techniques between a signal transmitter on the crawler and a pair of microphones attached to a fixed, remote location, such as the crawler's deployment unit. The necessary communications are established between the crawler and computers external to the inspection environment for position control and storage and/or monitoring of data acquisition.

  7. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-10-21

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means. 2 figs.

  8. Surface Passivation of Germanium Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Hemant; Sun, Shiyu; Pianetta, Piero; Chidsey, Chirstopher E.D.; McIntyre, Paul C.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-13

    The surface of single crystal, cold-wall CVD-grown germanium nanowires was studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) and also by conventional XPS. The as-grown germanium nanowires seem to be hydrogen terminated. Exposure to laboratory atmosphere leads to germanium oxide growth with oxidation states of Ge{sup 1+}, Ge{sup 2+}, Ge{sup 3+}, while exposure to UV light leads to a predominance of the Ge{sup 4+} oxidation state. Most of the surface oxide could be removed readily by aqueous HF treatment which putatively leaves the nanowire surface hydrogen terminated with limited stability in air. Alternatively, chlorine termination could be achieved by aq. HCl treatment of the native oxide-coated nanowires. Chlorine termination was found to be relatively more stable than the HF-last hydrogen termination.

  9. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk fluid.

  10. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  11. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  12. Method for generating surface plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Aragon, Ben P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-05-27

    A method for generating a discharge plasma which covers a surface of a body in a gas at pressures from 0.01 Torr to atmospheric pressure, by applying a radio frequency power with frequencies between approximately 1 MHz and 10 GHz across a plurality of paired insulated conductors on the surface. At these frequencies, an arc-less, non-filamentary plasma can be generated to affect the drag characteristics of vehicles moving through the gas. The plasma can also be used as a source in plasma reactors for chemical reaction operations.

  13. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  14. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, Michael S. (New Ellenton, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  15. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the

  16. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  17. Method of surface preparation of niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY); Schill, John F. (Ridge, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

  18. Composite, ordered material having sharp surface features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2006-12-19

    A composite material having sharp surface features includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a sharp surface feature. The sharp surface features can be coated to make the surface super-hydrophobic.

  19. Surface property detection apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Sorensen, Neil R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting, determining, and imaging surface resistance corrosion, thin film growth, and oxide formation on the surface of conductors or other electrical surface modification. The invention comprises a modified confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor, conductor, dielectric, or semiconductor.

  20. Surface property detection apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, J.S.; Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1995-08-08

    Apparatus and method for detecting, determining, and imaging surface resistance corrosion, thin film growth, and oxide formation on the surface of conductors or other electrical surface modification. The invention comprises a modified confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor, conductor, dielectric, or semiconductor. 4 figs.

  1. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Koss, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  2. Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Mercury Geochemistry Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Abstract...

  3. Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2013-07-16

    A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

  4. proposed surface and subsurface marker designs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Images of proposed markers for the surface and subsurface Large Surface Marker - Proposed Design with Plaques of Text and Images Small Subsurface Marker - Proposed Design

  5. MHL Free Surface Channel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Free Surface Channel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name MHL Free Surface Channel Overseeing Organization University of Michigan Hydrodynamics...

  6. Correction of localized shape errors on optical surfaces by altering the localized density of surface or near-surface layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, John S.; Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude

    2005-01-18

    Figure errors are corrected on optical or other precision surfaces by changing the local density of material in a zone at or near the surface. Optical surface height is correlated with the localized density of the material within the same region. A change in the height of the optical surface can then be caused by a change in the localized density of the material at or near the surface.

  7. Method for protecting a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2006-06-27

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from 2–7 additional elements including at lease one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a power, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  8. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  9. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C. (Aiken, SC)

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning method for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  10. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKenzie, D.; Odell, C.

    1994-03-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figures.

  11. Tritium on Metal Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on Metal Surfaces Tritium on Metal Surfaces Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Idaho Falls, Idaho on September 23-25, 2014. PDF icon Tritium on Metal Surfaces More Documents & Publications Modeling Tritium on Metal Surfaces Tritium Plasma Experiment and Its Role in PHENIX Program Light Water Detritiation using the CECE Process

  12. Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL.

  13. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  14. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION - COMPENDIUM DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUCKER DF; MYERS DA

    2011-10-04

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  15. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yale

    2014-07-01

    JHU/APL conducted solid propellant fire characterization tests in warm, humid, ambient conditions near sea level. Yttria and ceria surrogate materials were placed in the fires. The substrates simulating ground surfaces were concrete from a Kennedy Space Center launch pad, and steel covered with a protective ablative material representing a launch platform. In-situ instrumentation consisted of witness materials, thermocouples, air handlers, filters, and cascade impactors; remote instrumentation consisted of optical cameras and spectrometers. Test and analysis team members included the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Alliant Techsystems, and the Johns Hopkins University. Test data were analyzed, reported, and delivered, including plume rise and transport captured on video. Derivation of the alumina particle size distributions formed the basis for condensing vapor and agglomeration estimates. Assessment of alumina mass in the plume, along with the surrogate fraction from filter forensics, provided an estimate of airborne surrogate mass. Technical interchange meetings were held with SNL and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Specifications for the fire environment were developed and delivered. A thermochemistry model that simultaneously provides the maximum temperature and heat flux was developed and delivered. An SPIE paper on 3D pyrometry of the fire was written and presented.

  16. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  17. Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2007-07-17

    A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.

  18. Surface coatings. Science and technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the coating field from the latest industry developments to current energy and pollution regulations. It explains the composition of coatings, how they are prepared and applied and the factors that control their ultimate performance. The author discusses the synthesis of polymeric binders, industrial resins, pigments, paints and paint properties, types of coatings, and new technologies. CONTENTS: Binders: Synthesis of Polymeric Binders; Industrial Resins; Pigments; Paints and Paint Properties: Pigment Dispersion; Surface Preparation and Paint Application; Paint Properties and Their Evaluation; Types of Coatings; New Technolgies.

  19. Surface-micromachined microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Montague, Stephen (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Redmond, WA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Krygowski, Thomas W. (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Nichols, Christopher A. (Hauppauge, NY); Jakubczak, II, Jerome F. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2003-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are disclosed which can be manufactured using surface-micromachining. These devices utilize an electroosmotic force or an electromagnetic field to generate a flow of a fluid in a microchannel that is lined, at least in part, with silicon nitride. Additional electrodes can be provided within or about the microchannel for separating particular constituents in the fluid during the flow based on charge state or magnetic moment. The fluid can also be pressurized in the channel. The present invention has many different applications including electrokinetic pumping, chemical and biochemical analysis (e.g. based on electrophoresis or chromatography), conducting chemical reactions on a microscopic scale, and forming hydraulic actuators.

  20. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  1. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  2. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  3. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  4. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  5. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  6. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  7. Surface mine regulations complicate reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seltz-Patrash, A.

    1980-09-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 is a landmark environmental law intended to protect U.S. lands from stripmining effects. However, coal mine operators claim that some SMCRA regulations are misguidedcosting time and money, but yielding no substantial environmental benefit. Unlike other environmental acts, SMCRA details specifically the goals of reclamation and the methods that must be implemented to meet these goals. Coal industry representatives believe that this discourages innovation, promotes inefficiency by ignoring regional differences among sites, and results in unnecessary expense to the industry. Reclamation practices and progress among western coal mining companies are evaluated. (1 map, 5 photos)

  8. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  9. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion.

  10. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, C.H. Jr.

    1984-02-14

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion. 4 figs.

  11. Surface-Micromachined Microfluidic Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James H.; Paul, Phillip H.; Krygowski, Thomas W.; Allen, James J.; Nichols, Christopher A.; Jakubczak, II, Jerome F.

    2004-09-28

    Microfluidic devices are disclosed which can be manufactured using surface-micromachining. These devices utilize an electroosmotic force or an electromagnetic field to generate a flow of a fluid in a microchannel that is lined, at least in part, with silicon nitride. Additional electrodes can be provided within or about the microchannel for separating particular constituents in the fluid during the flow based on charge state or magnetic moment. The fluid can also be pressurized in the channel. The present invention has many different applications including electrokinetic pumping, chemical and biochemical analysis (e.g. based on electrophoresis or chromatography), conducting chemical reactions on a microscopic scale, and forming hydraulic actuators. Microfluidic devices are disclosed which can be manufactured using surface-micromachining. These devices utilize an electroosmotic force or an electromagnetic field to generate a flow of a fluid in a microchannel that is lined, at least in part, with silicon nitride. Additional electrodes can be provided within or about the microchannel for separating particular constituents in the fluid during the flow based on charge state or magnetic moment. The fluid can also be pressurized in the channel. The present invention has many different applications including electrokinetic pumping, chemical and biochemical analysis (e.g. based on electrophoresis or chromatography), conducting chemical reactions on a microscopic scale, and forming hydraulic actuators.

  12. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2003-12-23

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  13. Contoured Surface Eddy Current Inspection System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzinger, Thomas James; Fulton, James Paul; Rose, Curtis Wayne; Perocchi, Lee Cranford

    2003-04-08

    Eddy current inspection of a contoured surface of a workpiece is performed by forming a backing piece of flexible, resiliently yieldable material with a contoured exterior surface conforming in shape to the workpiece contoured surface. The backing piece is preferably cast in place so as to conform to the workpiece contoured surface. A flexible eddy current array probe is attached to the contoured exterior surface of the backing piece such that the probe faces the contoured surface of the workpiece to be inspected when the backing piece is disposed adjacent to the workpiece. The backing piece is then expanded volumetrically by inserting at least one shim into a slot in the backing piece to provide sufficient contact pressure between the probe and the workpiece contoured surface to enable the inspection of the workpiece contoured surface to be performed.

  14. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  15. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Surface Albedo IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    02.09 - 2004.02.13 Lead Scientist : Alexander Trishchenko For data sets, see below. Abstract Purpose of this field campaign was to collect surface albedo spectra for representative surface types in the ARM SGP CART site area, to gather information useful for conducting surface type classification from aerial/satellite remote sensing data, to develop the detailed spectral model of surface reflectance over the ARM SGP CART site area for conditions in winter time (February) Campaign Data Sets IOP

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Surface Albedo IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10.20 - 2004.10.26 Lead Scientist : Alexander Trishchenko For data sets, see below. Abstract Purpose of this field campaign was to collect surface albedo spectra for representative surface types in the ARM SGP CART site area during the autumn conditions, to gather information useful for conducting surface type classification from aerial/satellite remote sensing data, to develop the detailed spectral model of surface reflectance over the ARM SGP CART site area for the autumn conditions.

  18. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components ... ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM ...

  19. Heterogeneous Catalysis and Surface Science - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heterogeneous Catalysis and Surface Science / Part I: Surface Science in JCAP Laboratories Heterogeneous Catalysis and Surface Science research in JCAP focuses on the basic understanding of the relationships among the structure, composition, and reactivity of electrocatalysts. Knowledge gained from surface science experimentation can be implemented toward the discovery of better heterogeneous catalysts for solar-fuel production from carbon dioxide and water. REFERENCE Soriaga, M. P. et al.

  20. Superhydrophobic surfaces (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Superhydrophobic surfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Superhydrophobic surfaces Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template. Authors: Wang, Evelyn N ; McCarthy, Matthew ; Enright, Ryan ;

  1. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  2. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  3. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, Regan W. (1033 Tramway La. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); VanDevender, J. Pace (7604 Lamplighter NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109)

    1999-01-01

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications.

  4. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  5. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, R.W.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-05-04

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams is disclosed. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications. 16 figs.

  6. Nanostructured surfaces for microfluidics and sensing applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picraux, Samuel Thomas (Arizona State University); Piech, Marcin (United Technologies Corp.); Schneider, John F.; Vail, Sean (Arizona State University); Hayes, Mark A. (Arizona State University); Garcia, Anthony A.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Gust, D (Arizona State University); Yang, Dongqing (Arizona State University)

    2007-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the use of light to move liquids on a photoresponsive monolayer, providing a new method for delivering analyses in lab-on-chip environments for microfluidic systems. The light-driven motion of liquids was achieved on photoresponsive azobenzene modified surfaces. The surface energy components of azobenzene modified surfaces were calculated by Van Oss theory. The motion of the liquid was achieved by generation of a surface tension gradient by isomerization of azobenzene monolayers using UV and Visible light, thereby establishing a surface energy heterogeneity on the edge of the droplet. Contact angle measurements of various solvents were used to demonstrate the requirement for fluid motion.

  7. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David

    2012-12-17

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  8. Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Parent, P.; Reinholdtsen, P.A.

    1991-02-26

    An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method are described in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respect to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations. 7 figures.

  9. Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. (Palo Alto, CA); Parent, Philippe (Chilly-Mazarin, FR); Reinholdtsen, Paul A. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respected to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations.

  10. 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner Naval Sea...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications CX-005670: Categorical Exclusion Determination U.S. Navy Marine Diesel Engines and the Environment - Part 1 EIS-0259: Record of Decision...

  11. STEM Educator Training by the U.S. Naval Academy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Want to improve your lessons in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)?  Sign up for the upcoming STEM Educator Training in Project Based Learning, hosted by the Unites States...

  12. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To ensure sufficient fuel for the fleet, the Government began withdrawing probable oil-bearing lands from the public domain. Between 1909 and 1924, tracts in California, Utah, and ...

  13. Naval Support Activity (NSA) in Bethesda Employment Education Fair

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Location: NSA Bethesda Fitness Center (Gymnasium, Bldg 17), 8901 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD 20889Attendees: Donna Friend (HC) and Rauland Sharp (HC)POC: Donna FriendWebsite: http://bit.ly/1yTjTNu

  14. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-06-14

    The CY1999 Site Environmental Report and Compliance Summary discusses environmental compliance activities for NPR-3 (Teapot Dome). All hazardous wastes that were stored in the hazardous waste accumulation at NPR-3 were removed in CY1999. NPR-3 maintains its status as a conditionally exempt small quantity generator. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) flares have not operated at NPR-3 since 1996; monitoring of H2S indicates readings well below limits. All underground storage tanks were removed in 1998. Wastewater samples were in compliance with applicable standards.

  15. Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA); Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

  16. Applying the LANL Statistical Pattern Recognition Paradigm for Structural Health Monitoring to Data from a Surface-Effect Fast Patrol Boat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoon Sohn; Charles Farrar; Norman Hunter; Keith Worden

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the analysis of fiber-optic strain gauge data obtained from a surface-effect fast patrol boat being studied by the staff at the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment (NDRE) in Norway and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington D.C. Data from two different structural conditions were provided to the staff at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The problem was then approached from a statistical pattern recognition paradigm. This paradigm can be described as a four-part process: (1) operational evaluation, (2) data acquisition & cleansing, (3) feature extraction and data reduction, and (4) statistical model development for feature discrimination. Given that the first two portions of this paradigm were mostly completed by the NDRE and NRL staff, this study focused on data normalization, feature extraction, and statistical modeling for feature discrimination. The feature extraction process began by looking at relatively simple statistics of the signals and progressed to using the residual errors from auto-regressive (AR) models fit to the measured data as the damage-sensitive features. Data normalization proved to be the most challenging portion of this investigation. A novel approach to data normalization, where the residual errors in the AR model are considered to be an unmeasured input and an auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX) is then fit to portions of the data exhibiting similar waveforms, was successfully applied to this problem. With this normalization procedure, a clear distinction between the two different structural conditions was obtained. A false-positive study was also run, and the procedure developed herein did not yield any false-positive indications of damage. Finally, the results must be qualified by the fact that this procedure has only been applied to very limited data samples. A more complete analysis of additional data taken under various operational and environmental conditions as well as other structural conditions is necessary before one can definitively state that the procedure is robust enough to be used in practice.

  17. 2005 Chemical Reactions at Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cynthia M. Friend

    2006-03-14

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2005 Chemical Reactions at Surfaces was held at Ventura Beach Marriott, Ventura California from February 13, 2005 through February 18, 2005. The Conference was well-attended with 124 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, 'free time' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  18. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project report, 20 June-30 September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.; Smith, J.; Snow, S.; Thomas, R.

    1995-08-01

    The approach for conducting a Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) at the Norfolk NAS is described along with background information about the site. Section 2 provides background information related to cooling tower operations and water treatment processes. Section 3 describes the current cooling tower activities and operations that were observed during the NAS site visit. Possible alternative practices for minimizing these wastes are discussed in Section 4. Recommendations on potential follow-up activities are also included in Section 4. Appendices include PPOA worksheets (Appendix A), National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) discharge limits (Appendix B), discharge data (Appendix C), material safety data sheets (MSDS) (Appendix D), the Hampton Roads Sanitation District Cooling Tower Waste Discharge Policy with Industrial Wastewater Pollutant Limitations and Discharge Requirements (Appendix E), and the MSDS for DIAS-Aid Tower Treatment XP-300 (Appendix F).

  19. Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2001-01-01

    A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

  20. Automated position control of a surface array relative to a liquid microjunction surface sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J. (Clinton, TN); Kertesz, Vilmos (Knoxville, TN); Ford, Michael James (Little Rock, AR)

    2007-11-13

    A system and method utilizes an image analysis approach for controlling the probe-to-surface distance of a liquid junction-based surface sampling system for use with mass spectrometric detection. Such an approach enables a hands-free formation of the liquid microjunction used to sample solution composition from the surface and for re-optimization, as necessary, of the microjunction thickness during a surface scan to achieve a fully automated surface sampling system.

  1. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  2. Explosives screening on a vehicle surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parmeter, John E.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Davis, Jerry D.; Linker, Kevin L.; Hannum, David W.

    2005-02-01

    A system for detecting particles on the outer surface of a vehicle has a housing capable of being placed in a test position adjacent to, but not in contact with, a portion of the outer surface of the vehicle. An elongate sealing member is fastened to the housing along a perimeter surrounding the wall, and the elongate sealing member has a contact surface facing away from the wall to contact the outer surface of the vehicle to define a test volume when the wall is in the test position. A gas flow system has at least one gas inlet extending through the wall for providing a gas stream against the surface of the vehicle within the test volume. This gas stream, which preferably is air, dislodges particles from the surface of the vehicle covered by the housing. The gas stream exits the test volume through a gas outlet and particles in the stream are detected.

  3. Overview of surface engineering and wear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budinski, K.G.

    1996-12-31

    Surface engineering is a multidiscipline activity aimed at tailoring the properties or surfaces of engineering materials to improve their function or service life. As applied to metals, surface engineering includes processes such as plating, diffusion treatment, physical and chemical vapor deposition, ion implantation, thermal spray coatings, selective hardening, hardfacing, and a variety of less-used and proprietary processes. These processes will be described briefly and it is shown that each process has a niche where it works better or is more cost effective than competing surface engineering treatments or bulk materials. This paper reviews the various forms of wear that occur in industrial environments. Techniques are described to match available surface engineering processes with wear situations. The goal is to present selection guidelines for machine designers and industrial operating personnel on the use of surface engineering to solve wear problems.

  4. Wetting of a Chemically Heterogeneous Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frink, L.J.D.; Salinger, A.G.

    1998-11-20

    Theories for inhomogeneous fluids have focused in recent years on wetting, capillary conden- sation, and solvation forces for model systems where the surface(s) is(are) smooth homogeneous parallel plates, cylinders, or spherical drops. Unfortunately natural systems are more likely to be hetaogeneous both in surt%ce shape and surface chemistry. In this paper we discuss the conse- quences of chemical heterogeneity on wetting. Specifically, a 2-dimensional implementation of a nonlocal density functional theory is solved for a striped surface model. Both the strength and range of the heterogeneity are varied. Contact angles are calculated, and phase transitions (both the wetting transition and a local layering transition) are located. The wetting properties of the surface ase shown to be strongly dependent on the nature of the surface heterogeneity. In addition highly ordered nanoscopic phases are found, and the operational limits for formation of ordered or crystalline phases of nanoscopic extent are discussed.

  5. Interfacial and Surface Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interfacial and Surface Science Image of irregular-outlined, light-colored shapes on a dark background. Represents a tapping-mode atomic force microscope image of gallium phosphide on silicon. NREL researchers have developed an integrated set of experimental capabilities to address a broad range of fundamental and applied issues in surface and interfacial science that are critical for advancing sustainable-energy technologies. Surface and interface phenomena often control the opto-electronic,

  6. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  7. Method of generating a surface mesh

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Jason F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benzley, Steven (Provo, UT); Grover, Benjamin T. (Tracy, CA)

    2008-03-04

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to generate and modify a quadrilateral finite element surface mesh using dual creation and modification. After generating a dual of a surface (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to generate and modify a surface mesh of quadrilateral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of generating two-dimensional cell regions in dual space, determining existing nodes in primal space, generating new nodes in the dual space, and connecting nodes to form the quadrilateral elements (faces) for the generated and modifiable surface mesh.

  8. Surface Power Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Surface Power Technologies Place: Ireland Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: An Irish company supplying solar and micro-wind energy systems and...

  9. Ball assisted device for analytical surface sampling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    ElNaggar, Mariam S; Van Berkel, Gary J; Covey, Thomas R

    2015-11-03

    A system for sampling a surface includes a sampling probe having a housing and a socket, and a rolling sampling sphere within the socket. The housing has a sampling fluid supply conduit and a sampling fluid exhaust conduit. The sampling fluid supply conduit supplies sampling fluid to the sampling sphere. The sampling fluid exhaust conduit has an inlet opening for receiving sampling fluid carried from the surface by the sampling sphere. A surface sampling probe and a method for sampling a surface are also disclosed.

  10. Surface Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Water Sampling Details Activities (3) Areas (2) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field...

  11. International Conference on Surface Transportation System Resilience...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    practices and state of the art research results on how to adapt surface transportation networks to the potential impacts of climate change and extreme weather events. Learn More......

  12. Surface Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In The Past 20 Years- Geochemistry In Geothermal Exploration Resource Evaluation And Reservoir Management Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff &...

  13. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  14. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  15. Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V.

    2014-02-18

    The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

  16. An Improved MUSIC Model for Gibbsite Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Scott C.; Bickmore, Barry R.; Tadanier, Christopher J.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2004-06-01

    Here we use gibbsite as a model system with which to test a recently published, bond-valence method for predicting intrinsic pKa values for surface functional groups on oxides. At issue is whether the method is adequate when valence parameters for the functional groups are derived from ab initio structure optimization of surfaces terminated by vacuum. If not, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of solvated surfaces (which are much more computationally expensive) will have to be used. To do this, we had to evaluate extant gibbsite potentiometric titration data that where some estimate of edge and basal surface area was available. Applying BET and recently developed atomic force microscopy methods, we found that most of these data sets were flawed, in that their surface area estimates were probably wrong. Similarly, there may have been problems with many of the titration procedures. However, one data set was adequate on both counts, and we applied our method of surface pKa int prediction to fitting a MUSIC model to this data with considerable successseveral features of the titration data were predicted well. However, the model fit was certainly not perfect, and we experienced some difficulties optimizing highly charged, vacuum-terminated surfaces. Therefore, we conclude that we probably need to do AIMD simulations of solvated surfaces to adequately predict intrinsic pKa values for surface functional groups.

  17. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Surface Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distributions Analyze a wide range of materials, including photovoltaics, microelectronics, polymers, and biological specimens. Our Surface Analysis group wants to work...

  18. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films withmore(100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.less

  19. Category:Surface Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Gas Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Surface Gas Sampling page? For detailed information on Surface...

  20. Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the surface...

  1. Surface modification of polyethylene by functionalized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, S.; Marchant, R.E.

    1993-12-31

    The surface of low density polyethylene(PE) has been modified by functionalized plasma-polymerized N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PPNVP) and allyl alcohol(PPAA) thin films, PPNVP and PPAA(approx. 100 nm). The surface structure and functional groups of modified surfaces were characterized by water contact angle, ATR/FTIR and ESCA techniques. Plasma polymer modified PE surfaces exhibited significant water contact angle hysteresis and a much lower value of advancing water contact angle than that of unmodified polyethylene. Reduction of PPNVP and PPAA modified surfaces by sodium borohydride coverted into hydroxyl groups. The determined concentrations of hydroxyl groups on the reduced PPNVP and PPAA modified surfaces by ESCA after gas-phase derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) were about 25% and 30% of total oxygen content, respectively. Finally, the amine containing molecules such as amine-terminated polyethylene oxide (PEO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) were coupled to the hydroxylated surfaces. These novel modified PE surfaces are suitable for immobilization of biomolecules.

  2. Surfaces of Intermetallics: Quasicrystals and Beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuen, Chad

    2012-10-26

    The goal of this work is to characterize surfaces of intermetallics, including quasicrystals. In this work, surface characterization is primarily focused on composition and structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) performed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions.

  3. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.

    1998-11-17

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances. 22 figs.

  4. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); Wei, Bo (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Bhatia, C. Singh (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances.

  5. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); Wei, Bo (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Bhatia, Singh C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances.

  6. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1995-12-19

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances. 15 figs.

  7. Conformal coating of highly structured surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S.; Perkins, John; Berry, Joseph; Gennett, Thomas

    2012-12-11

    Method of applying a conformal coating to a highly structured substrate and devices made by the disclosed methods are disclosed. An example method includes the deposition of a substantially contiguous layer of a material upon a highly structured surface within a deposition process chamber. The highly structured surface may be associated with a substrate or another layer deposited on a substrate. The method includes depositing a material having an amorphous structure on the highly structured surface at a deposition pressure of equal to or less than about 3 mTorr. The method may also include removing a portion of the amorphous material deposited on selected surfaces and depositing additional amorphous material on the highly structured surface.

  8. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodmansee, Donald E. (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  9. Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions Surface-immobilized heterogeneous organometallic compounds have varying activity compared to homogeneous analogues -...

  10. Improved polymeric surface for adhesion through electron stimulated chemical modification of polymeric surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelber, J.A.

    1987-04-08

    Treating polymer surfaces, e.g., Teflon, particularly very thin surfaces, e.g., 50-10,000 A, with low energy electron radiation, e.g., 100-1000 eV, in a high vacuum environment, e.g., less than 10 /sup /minus/6/ Torr, to enhance the ability of the surface to be adhered to a variety of substrates.

  11. Stability of Surface and Subsurface Hydrogen on and in Au/Ni Near-Surface Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celik, Fuat E.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2015-10-01

    Periodic, self-consistent DFT-GGA (PW91) calculations were used to study the interaction of hydrogen atoms with the (111) surfaces of substitutional near-surface alloys (NSAs) of Au and Ni with different surface layer compositions and different arrangements of Au atoms in the surface layer. The effect of hydrogen adsorption on the surface and in the first and second subsurface layers of the NSAs was studied. Increasing the Au content in the surface layer weakens hydrogen binding on the surface, but strengthens subsurface binding, suggesting that the distribution of surface and subsurface hydrogen will be different than that on pure Ni(111). While the metal composition of the surface layer has an effect on the binding energy of hydrogen on NSA surfaces, the local composition of the binding site has a stronger effect. For example, fcc hollow sites consisting of three Ni atoms bind H nearly as strongly as on Ni(111), and fcc sites consisting of three Au atoms bind H nearly as weakly as on Au(111). Sites with one or two Au atoms show intermediate binding energies. The preference of hydrogen for three-fold Ni hollow sites alters the relative stabilities of different surface metal atom arrangements, and may provide a driving force for adsorbate-induced surface rearrangement.

  12. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  13. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  14. DROPWISE CONDENSATION ON MICRO- AND NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enright, R; Miljkovic, N; Alvarado, JL; Kim, K; Rose, JW

    2014-07-23

    In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface-enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro-and nanoscale using both bottom-up and top-down approaches has led to increased study of complex interfacial phenomena. In the heat transfer community, researchers have been extensively exploring the use of advanced surface structuring techniques to enhance phase-change heat transfer processes. In particular, the field of vapor-to-liquid condensation and especially that of water condensation has experienced a renaissance due to the promise of further optimizing this process at the micro-and nanoscale by exploiting advances in surface engineering developed over the last several decades.

  15. Clean Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Surface Orbital 'Roughness' in Colossal Magnetoresistive Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    containing a mixed-valence of Mn3+ and Mn4+, known as manganites, represent an ideal system to address the role of the surface, because all the relevant degrees of freedom -...

  17. Method for determining surface properties of microparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B. (Ridgewood, NJ)

    2000-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG) can be used for surface analysis or characterization of microparticles having a non-metallic surface feature. The microparticles can be centrosymmetric or such that non-metallic molecules of interest are centrosymmetrically distributed inside and outside the microparticles but not at the surface of the microparticles where the asymmetry aligns the molecules. The signal is quadratic in incident laser intensity or proportional to the product of two incident laser intensities for SFG, it is sharply peaked at the second harmonic wavelength, quadratic in the density of molecules adsorbed onto the microparticle surface, and linear in microparticles density. In medical or pharmacological applications, molecules of interest may be of drugs or toxins, for example.

  18. ARM - Sea Surface and Sea Level

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... On the other hand, under the changes in the level of the ocean surface, melting glaciers and ice sheets, ocean currents, daily tides, expansion or contraction of water based upon ...

  19. PID Control Effectiveness for Surface Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, David D.; Marsh, Christopher L.; Poston, David I.

    2007-01-30

    Control of space and surface fission reactors should be kept as simple as possible, because of the need for high reliability and the difficulty to diagnose and adapt to control system failures. Fortunately, compact, fast-spectrum, externally controlled reactors are very simple in operation. In fact, for some applications it may be possible to design low-power surface reactors without the need for any reactor control after startup; however, a simple proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller can allow a higher performance concept and add more flexibility to system operation. This paper investigates the effectiveness of a PID control scheme for several anticipated transients that a surface reactor might experience. To perform these analyses, the surface reactor transient code FRINK was modified to simulate control drum movements based on bulk coolant temperature.

  20. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elsholz, W.E.

    1982-09-30

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  1. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate modelmore » projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m⁻² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m⁻², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.« less

  2. Superconducting surface impedance under radiofrequency field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Binping P.; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2013-04-26

    Based on BCS theory with moving Cooper pairs, the electron states distribution at 0K and the probability of electron occupation with finite temperature have been derived and applied to anomalous skin effect theory to obtain the surface impedance of a superconductor under radiofrequency (RF) field. We present the numerical results for Nb and compare these with representative RF field-dependent effective surface resistance measurements from a 1.5 GHz resonant structure.

  3. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 ?m, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate model projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.82.0 W m? difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2K, 10 W m?, and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.

  4. Surface and Volume Contamination | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Surface and Volume Contamination Surface and Volume Contamination (Questions Posted to ERAD in May 2012) Will there be volume contamination/activation guides as well as updated contamination guides? The only guidance being developed for volumetric contamination is a Technical Standard for accelerator facilities. However, a revised version of ANSI N13.12-1999 is expected in the future and it will be assessed to determine its acceptability for use as a pre-approved authorized limit. It is noted

  5. Coal surface structure and thermodynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.W.; Wernett, P.C.; Glass, A.S.; Quay, D.; Roberts, J.

    1994-05-01

    Coals surfaces were studied using static surface adsorption measurements, low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS), inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and a new {sup 13}C NMR relaxation technique. A comparison of surface areas determined by hydrocarbon gas adsorption and LAXS led to the twin conclusions that the hydrocarbons had to diffuse through the solid to reach isolated pores and that the coal pores do not form interconnected networks, but are largely isolated. This conclusion was confirmed when IGC data for small hydrocarbons showed no discontinuities in their size dependence as usually observed with porous solids. IGC is capable of providing adsorption thermodynamics of gases on coal surfaces. The interactions of non-polar molecules and coal surfaces are directly proportioned to the gas molecular polarizability. For bases, the adsorption enthalpy is equal to the polarizability interaction plus the heat of hydrogen bond formation with phenol. Amphoteric molecules have more complex interactions. Mineral matter can have highly specific effects on surface interactions, but with most of the molecules studied is not an important factor.

  6. LANL organic analysis detection capabilities for chemical and biological warfare agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansell, G.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Hollis, K.W.; Monagle, M.

    1996-12-31

    Organic analysis is the analytical arm for several Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) research programs and nuclear materials processes, including characterization and certification of nuclear and nonnuclear materials used in weapons, radioactive waste treatment and waste certification programs. Organic Analysis has an extensive repertoire of analytical technique within the group including headspace gas, PCBs/pesticides, volatile organics and semivolatile organic analysis. In addition organic analysis has mobile labs with analytic capabilities that include volatile organics, total petroleum hydrocarbon, PCBs, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and high explosive screening. A natural extension of these capabilities can be applied to the detection of chemical and biological agents,

  7. Surface-electronic-state effects in electron emission from the Be(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archubi, C. D.; Gravielle, M. S.; Silkin, V. M.

    2011-07-15

    We study the electron emission produced by swift protons impinging grazingly on a Be(0001) surface. The process is described within a collisional formalism using the band-structure-based (BSB) approximation to represent the electron-surface interaction. The BSB model provides an accurate description of the electronic band structure of the solid and the surface-induced potential. Within this approach we derive both bulk and surface electronic states, with these latter characterized by a strong localization at the crystal surface. We found that such surface electronic states play an important role in double-differential energy- and angle-resolved electron emission probabilities, producing noticeable structures in the electron emission spectra.

  8. Chemically directing d-block heterometallics to nanocrystal surfaces as molecular beacons of surface structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosen, Evelyn L.; Gilmore, Keith; Sawvel, April M.; Hammack, Aaron T.; Doris, Sean E.; Aloni, Shaul; Altoe, Virginia; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Cohen, Bruce E.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Milliron, Delia J.; Prendergast, David; Helms, Brett A.

    2015-07-28

    Our understanding of structure and bonding in nanoscale materials is incomplete without knowledge of their surface structure. Needed are better surveying capabilities responsive not only to different atoms at the surface, but also their respective coordination environments. We report here that d-block organometallics, when placed at nanocrystal surfaces through heterometallic bonds, serve as molecular beacons broadcasting local surface structure in atomic detail. This unique ability stems from their elemental specificity and the sensitivity of their d-orbital level alignment to local coordination environment, which can be assessed spectroscopically. Re-surfacing cadmium and lead chalcogenide nanocrystals with iron- or ruthenium-based molecular beacons is readily accomplished with trimethylsilylated cyclopentadienyl metal carbonyls. For PbSe nanocrystals with iron-based beacons, we show how core-level X-ray spectroscopies and DFT calculations enrich our understanding of both charge and atomic reorganization at the surface when beacons are bound.

  9. Chemically directing d-block heterometallics to nanocrystal surfaces as molecular beacons of surface structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosen, Evelyn L.; Gilmore, Keith; Sawvel, April M.; Hammack, Aaron T.; Doris, Sean E.; Aloni, Shaul; Altoe, Virginia; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; et al

    2015-07-28

    Our understanding of structure and bonding in nanoscale materials is incomplete without knowledge of their surface structure. Needed are better surveying capabilities responsive not only to different atoms at the surface, but also their respective coordination environments. We report here that d-block organometallics, when placed at nanocrystal surfaces through heterometallic bonds, serve as molecular beacons broadcasting local surface structure in atomic detail. This unique ability stems from their elemental specificity and the sensitivity of their d-orbital level alignment to local coordination environment, which can be assessed spectroscopically. Re-surfacing cadmium and lead chalcogenide nanocrystals with iron- or ruthenium-based molecular beacons ismore » readily accomplished with trimethylsilylated cyclopentadienyl metal carbonyls. For PbSe nanocrystals with iron-based beacons, we show how core-level X-ray spectroscopies and DFT calculations enrich our understanding of both charge and atomic reorganization at the surface when beacons are bound.« less

  10. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Shea Rose, Leanna

    2007-06-14

    Data on materials and surface types that comprise a city, i.e. urban fabric, are needed in order to estimate the effects of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and urban-fabric makeup using aerial color orthophotography, for four metropolitan areas of Chicago, IL, Houston, TX, Sacramento, CA, and Salt Lake City, UT. The digital high resolution (0.3 to 0.5-m) aerial photographs for each of these metropolitan areas covers representative urban areas ranging from 30 km{sup 2} to 52 km{sup 2}. Major land-use types examined included: commercial, residential, industrial, educational, and transportation. On average, for the metropolitan areas studied, vegetation covers about 29-41% of the area, roofs 19-25%, and paved surfaces 29-39%. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the tree canopies, vegetation covers about 20-37% of the area, roofs 20-25%, and paved surfaces 29-36%.

  11. Thermodynamics and surface structure of coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, A.S.; Larsen, J.W.; Quay, D.M.; Roberts, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    NMR relaxation and shift reagents are being deposited on the surface of coals. The dipolar coupling of the unpaired electron spin of the relaxation agent and the carbon atom should significantly shorten the carbon T, which should broaden it away. We propose to record the NMR spectrum of a coal before and after deposition and subtract the spectra. The difference spectra will arise from the functionalities within approximately one nanometer of the surface and reveal the surface composition of the coal. In order to determine the surface concentration of the dysprosium in the coal, we are using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). XPS is a surface technique that can be used for the elucidation of chemical structure. The binding energy for each electron in each element is unique. The measurement of the binding energy in XPS allows the identification of the element and its oxidation state. The relative atomic concentrations of each element can also be determined using XPS spectra.

  12. Surface-controlled deuterium-palladium interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wampler, W.R.; Richards, P.M. )

    1990-04-15

    Measurements were made of the uptake of deuterium (D) into traps within the bulk of palladium, and the release of D back to the gas phase. The study was done with bare metal surfaces under UHV conditions using a novel method based on ion-beam analysis. The D uptake rate was proportional to gas pressure and about a factor of 3 less than the rate of impingement onto the surface from the gas. The release of D was limited by molecular recombination at the surface. A model for surface-limited release of D is presented which shows how the difference in energy between D in traps and recombination sites is a critical parameter in determining the time dependence of the D release. The observed kinetics of the D release from Pd lead to the conclusion that D in recombination sites is less strongly bound than D in traps which in turn is less strongly bound than D in the low-coverage surface chemisorption sites. Molecular recombination must therefore occur from sites with weaker binding, while the low-coverage chemisorption sites with stronger binding are nearly fully occupied, but do not contribute significantly to the release because of the strong binding.

  13. Method of boronizing transition metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koyama, Koichiro (Hyogo, JP); Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for preparing a boride layer on a transition metal substrate for use in corrosive environments or as a harden surface in machine applications. This method is particularly useful in treating current collectors for use within a high temperature and corrosive electrochemical cell environment. A melt of a alkali metal boride tetrafluoride salt including such as KF to lower its melting point is prepared including a dissolved boron containing material, for instance NiB, MnB.sub.2, or CrB.sub.2. A transition metal to be coated is immersed in the melt at a temperature of no more than 700.degree. C. and a surface boride layer of that transition metal is formed within a period of about 24 hours on the substrate surface.

  14. High temperature low friction surface coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

  15. Zero dead volume tube to surface seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Folta, James A.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for connecting a tube to a surface that creates a dead volume seal. The apparatus is composed of three components, a body, a ferrule, and a threaded fitting. The ferrule is compressed onto a tube and a seal is formed between the tube and a device retained in the body by threading the fitting into the body which provides pressure that seals the face of the ferrule to a mating surface on the device. This seal can be used at elevated temperatures depending on the materials used. While the invention has been developed for use with micro-machined silicon wafers used in Capillary Gas Chromatograph (GC), it can be utilized anywhere for making a gas or fluid face seal to the surface of a device that has near zero dead volume.

  16. Method of boronizing transition metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koyama, Koichiro; Shimotake, Hiroshi.

    1983-08-16

    A method is presented for preparing a boride layer on a transition metal substrate for use in corrosive environments or as a harden surface in machine applications. This method is particularly useful in treating current collectors for use within a high temperature and corrosive electrochemical cell environment. A melt of a alkali metal boride tetrafluoride salt including such as KF to lower its melting point is prepared including a dissolved boron containing material, for instance NiB, MnB[sub 2], or CrB[sub 2]. A transition metal to be coated is immersed in the melt at a temperature of no more than 700 C and a surface boride layer of that transition metal is formed within a period of about 24 hours on the substrate surface. 4 figs.

  17. Renewable Surface Biosensors With Optical Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Holman, David A.; Grate, Jay W.

    2001-12-01

    One major challenge in the development of biosensors is the limited lifetime of a chemically selective surface that includes biomolecules. Renewable surface biosensors address this issue by using fresh aliquots of derivatized microbeads for each analysis. The analyte detection can then occur on the microbeads, or downstream from the microbeads. In this paper, we will describe two types of renewable surface biosensors. The first renewable biosensor system includes on-column optical detection for monitoring the binding of biomolecules onto protein or DNA-derivatized Sepharose beads. The second renewable biosensor system includes detection downstream from the microparticles and is based on the use of derivatized magnetic particles for selective binding. The magnetic particles are fluidically captured and released in a sequential injection system to allow the automation of an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.

  18. Renewable Surface Biosensors with Optical Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Holman, David A.; Grate, Jay W.

    2001-04-30

    One major challenge in the development of biosensors is the limited lifetime of a chemically selective surface that includes biomolecules. Renewable surface biosensors address this issue by using fresh aliquots of derivatized microbeads for each analysis. The analyte detection can then occur on the microbeads, or downstream from the microbeads. In this paper, we will describe two types of renewable surface biosensors. The first renewable biosensor system includes on-column optical detection for monitoring the binding of biomolecules onto protein or DNA-derivatized Sepharose beads. The second renewable biosensor system includes detection downstream from the microparticles and is based on the use of derivatized magnetic particles for selective binding. The magnetic particles are fluidically captured and released in a sequential injection system to allow the automation of an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.

  19. Surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopic waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lascola, Robert J; McWhorter, Christopher S; Murph, Simona H

    2015-04-14

    A waveguide for use with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is provided that includes a base structure with an inner surface that defines a cavity and that has an axis. Multiple molecules of an analyte are capable of being located within the cavity at the same time. A base layer is located on the inner surface of the base structure. The base layer extends in an axial direction along an axial length of an excitation section. Nanoparticles are carried by the base layer and may be uniformly distributed along the entire axial length of the excitation section. A flow cell for introducing analyte and excitation light into the waveguide and a method of applying nanoparticles may also be provided.

  20. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  1. Bidirectional reflection functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Max, N.; Springmeyer, R.

    1987-04-29

    The Torrance-Sparrow model for calculating bidirectional reflection functions contains a geometrical attenuation factor to account for shadowing and occlusions in a hypothetical distribution of grooves on a rough surface. Using an efficient table-based method for determining the shadows and occlusions, we calculate the geometric attenuation factor for surfaces defined by a specific table of bump heights. Diffuse and glossy specular reflection of the environment can be handled in a unified manner by using an integral of the bidirectional reflection function times the environmental illumination, over the hemisphere of solid angle above a surface. We present a method of estimating the integral, by expanding the bidirectional reflection coefficient in spherical harmonics, and show how the coefficients in this expansion can be determined efficiently by reorganizing our geometric attenuation calculation.

  2. Surface segregation effects in electrocatalysis: Kinetics ofoxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Schmidt, T.J.; Ross, P.N.; Markovic, N.M.

    2002-11-01

    Effects of surface segregation on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been studied on a polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy in acid electrolyte using ultra high vacuum (UHV) surface sensitive probes and the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) method. Preparation, modification and characterization of alloy surfaces were done in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Depending on the preparation method, two different surface compositions of the Pt3Ni alloy are produced: a sputtered surface with 75 % Pt and an annealed surface (950 K ) with 100 % Pt. The latter surface is designated as the 'Pt-skin' structure, and is a consequence of surface segregation, i.e., replacement of Ni with Pt atoms in the first few atomic layers. Definitive surface compositions were established by low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS). The cyclic voltammetry of the 'Pt-skin' surface as well as the pseudocapacitance in the hydrogen adsorption/desorption potential region is similar to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. Activities of ORR on Pt3Ni alloy surfaces were compared to polycrystalline Pt in 0.1M HClO4 electrolyte for the observed temperature range of 293 < T < 333 K. The order of activities at 333 K was: 'Pt-skin' > Pt3Ni (75% Pt) > Pt with the maximum catalytic enhancement obtained for the 'Pt-skin' being 4 times that for pure Pt. Catalytic improvement of the ORR on Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces was assigned to the inhibition of Pt-OHad formation (on Pt sites) versus polycrystalline Pt. Production of H2O2 on both surfaces were similar compared to the pure Pt. Kinetic analyses of RRDE data confirmed that kinetic parameters for the ORR on the Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces are the same as on pure Pt: reaction order, m=1, two identical Tafel slopes, activation energy, {approx} 21-25 kJ/mol. Therefore the reaction mechanism on both Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces is the same as one proposed for pure Pt i.e. 4e{sup -} reduction pathway.

  3. Surface selective membranes for carbon dioxide separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

    2005-09-01

    In this study, hybrid membranes have been developed for the selective separation of CO2 from mixtures containing H2. Beginning with commercially available Pall alumina membrane tubes with nominal pore diameter of 5 nm, hybrids were produced by silation with a variety of functionalities designed to facilitate the selective adsorption of CO2 onto the pore surface. The goal is to produce a membrane which can harness the power of surface diffusion to give the selectivity of polymer membranes with the permeance of inorganic membranes.

  4. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Surface spectral albedo

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSurface spectral albedo ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Surface spectral albedo 2002.08.14 - 2002.08.20 Lead Scientist : Alexander Trishchenko Data Availability Analysis of the data collected during IOP is not completed yet. Preliminary results will be presented during the IRF workshop on 8-10 October, 2002. Data will be available at the following URL (

  6. Mimicking the Moon's surface in the basement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mimicking the Moon's surface Mimicking the Moon's surface in the basement The table-top simulation helped confirm that the Moon is inherently dry. August 4, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in

  7. Are surface coal mine sediment ponds working

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poe, M.L.; Betson, R.P.

    1985-12-09

    Flowrates and storm generated water quality data were collected at sedimentation ponds on four surface mines in the states of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia. The water quality data were analyzed for suspended solids and settleable solids content, and particle size distribution. The results were compared to the effluent limitations guidelines for total suspended solids as promulgated under the Clean Water Act for Coal Mining Point Source Category and adopted under the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 and the resulting state regulatory programs. 3 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  8. Investigation of the texture surface silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rongqiang, C.; Huilan, Q.

    1983-10-01

    The optical and electrical properties of the texture surface silicon solar cell are analyzed and discussed. A new method of etching a texture surface by LiOH is presented and the mechanism of etching a texture surface is investigated.

  9. Shale Gas Development Challenges: Surface Impacts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Surface Impacts Shale Gas Development Challenges: Surface Impacts PDF icon Shale Gas Development Challenges: Surface Impacts More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Challenges associated with shale gas production Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids

  10. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features Enhanced Boiling, Condensation, and Water Repellency through the Fabrication of Structured Surfaces In nature, extremely hydrophobic surfaces such as the lotus plant leaf are called superhydrophobic (SHP). These surfaces appear to be macroscopically smooth, but are actually composed of nano- and micro-structured surfaces, the key to their SHP prop- erties. The industrial production of SHP surfaces, which are not yet available commercially, would

  11. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Ralph; Burger, Arnold; Chen, Kuo-Tong; Chang, Henry

    1999-01-01

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface.

  12. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, R.; Burger, A.; Chen, K.T.; Chang, H.

    1999-08-03

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal is disclosed that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface. 3 figs.

  13. Surface figure control for coated optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Spence, Paul A.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  14. Geotechnical considerations in surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Most attention in surface mine reclamation is given to agronomic soils and revegetation, but reclamation success depends on the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying earth. If the soil and rock that underline the surface are not stable, surface treatments lack the dependable foundation needed for them to succeed. Reclamation practioners need to understand those geotechnical considerations--material properties, structure, and processes--that affect stability. properties of rock and soil are altered by mining, and those altered materials together with water and processing waste form often-complex mixtures of materials that must be stabilized in reclamation. Surface mining alters existing landforms and creates new ones such as pit walls, spoil and waste rock piles, tailings impoundments, and earthfills. those structures need to be constructed or stabilized so that they can endure and support successful reclamation. processes that affect material properties and landforms include mechanical breakage, accelerated weathering, erosion, and mass movements. Mechanical breakage and the resulting accelerated weathering combine to change material properties, usually expressed as degraded strength, that can lead to instability of landforms. Erosion, especially that related to extreme storm events, and mass movements in the form of slop failures are the most problematic processes that must be taken into account in reclaiming mined lands. These geotechnical considerations are essential in successful reclamation, and practioners who overlook them may find their work literally sliding down a slippery slope.

  15. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined core set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg).

  16. Vacuum magnetic fields with dense flux surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cary, J R

    1982-05-01

    A procedure is given for eliminating resonances and stochasticity in nonaxisymmetric vacuum toroidal magnetic field. The results of this procedure are tested by the surface of section method. It is found that one can obtain magnetic fields with increased rotational transform and decreased island structure while retaining basically the same winding law.

  17. Surface modification: advantages, techniques, and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    2000-03-01

    Adequate performance of materials at elevated temperatures is a potential problem in many systems within the chemical, petroleum, process, and power-generating industries. Degradation of materials occurs because of interaction between the structural material and the exposure environment. These interactions are generally undesired chemical reactions that can lead to accelerated wastage and alter the functional requirements and/or structural integrity of the materials. Therefore, material selection for high-temperature applications must be based not only on a material strength properties but also on resistance to the complex environments prevalent in the anticipated exposure environment. As plants become larger, the satisfactory performance and reliability of components play a greater role in plant availability and economics. However, system designers are becoming increasingly concerned with finding the least expensive material that will satisfactorily perform the design function for the desired service life. This present paper addresses the benefits of surface modification and identified several criteria for selection and application of modified surfaces in the power sector. A brief review is presented on potential methods for modification of surfaces, with the emphasis on coatings. In the final section of the paper, several examples address the requirements of different energy systems and surface modification avenues that have been applied to resolve the issues.

  18. Surface coating for prevention of crust formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A flexible surface coating which promotes the removal of deposits as they reach the surface by preventing adhesion and crust formation. Flexible layers are attached to each side of a flexible mesh substrate comprising of a plurality of zones composed of one or more neighboring cells, each zone having a different compressibility than its adjacent zones. The substrate is composed of a mesh made of strands and open cells. The cells may be filled with foam. Studs or bearings may also be positioned in the cells to increase the variation in compressibility and thus the degree of flexing of the coating. Surface loading produces varying amounts of compression from point to point causing the coating to flex as deposits reach it, breaking up any hardening deposits before a continuous crust forms. Preferably one or more additional layers are also used, such as an outer layer of a non-stick material such as TEFLON, which may be pigmented, and an inner, adhesive layer to facilitate applying the coating to a surface.

  19. SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER ...

  20. Enhanced Pool-Boiling Heat Transfer Using Nanostructured Surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    creates optimal surface wettability characteristics that allow better capillary flow of water on the liquid boiling surfaces often used to cool electronics. the dense...

  1. Probing surface & transport phenomena in energy materials under...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Probing surface & transport phenomena in energy materials under operating conditions. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing surface & transport phenomena in energy...

  2. Multifunctional thin film surface (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multifunctional thin film surface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multifunctional thin film surface You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  3. Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave microsensor for Class...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave microsensor for Class A viral and bacterial detection. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave...

  4. Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman, Et Al.,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At...

  5. Surface Morphology and Magnetic Anisotropy (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Surface Morphology and Magnetic Anisotropy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface Morphology and Magnetic Anisotropy Authors: Lukaszew, R.A. ; Zhang, Z. ;...

  6. Impact of small changes in particle surface chemistry for unentangled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    particle surface chemistry for unentangled polymer nanocomposites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of small changes in particle surface chemistry for unentangled ...

  7. Category:Surface Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Water Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Surface Water Sampling page? For detailed information on...

  8. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil Friday, G. P. 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SOILS; SURFACE WATERS; SEDIMENTS; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ENVIRONMENTAL...

  9. Surface plasmon sensing of gas phase contaminants using optical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface plasmon sensing of gas phase contaminants using optical fiber. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface plasmon sensing of gas phase contaminants using optical...

  10. Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structure of divalent transition metals using surface specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the surface structure of...

  11. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - STM for Oxide Surfaces,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Assemblies and Electrical Transport STM for Oxide Surfaces, Molecular Assemblies and Electrical Transport STM for Oxide Surfaces, Molecular Assemblies and Electrical Transport

  12. Advanced Multivariate Analysis Tools Applied to Surface Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advanced Multivariate Analysis Tools Applied to Surface Analysis. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced Multivariate Analysis Tools Applied to Surface Analysis. No...

  13. Correlation Of Surface Heat Loss And Total Energy Production...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal systems lose their heat by a site-specific combination of conduction (heat flow) and advection (surface discharge). The conductive loss at or near the surface (shallow...

  14. Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and Diffusion-Limited Regimes Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and...

  15. Dispersion control of NIR surface plasmon polariton using hyperbolic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Dispersion control of NIR surface plasmon polariton using hyperbolic metamaterials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dispersion control of NIR surface plasmon ...

  16. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density Prev Next Title: Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high...

  17. RRC - Surface Waste Management Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Waste Management Manual Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: RRC - Surface Waste Management...

  18. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  19. Method for large-scale fabrication of atomic-scale structures on material surfaces using surface vacancies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lim, Chong Wee (Urbana, IL); Ohmori, Kenji (Urbana, IL); Petrov, Ivan Georgiev (Champaign, IL); Greene, Joseph E. (Champaign, IL)

    2004-07-13

    A method for forming atomic-scale structures on a surface of a substrate on a large-scale includes creating a predetermined amount of surface vacancies on the surface of the substrate by removing an amount of atoms on the surface of the material corresponding to the predetermined amount of the surface vacancies. Once the surface vacancies have been created, atoms of a desired structure material are deposited on the surface of the substrate to enable the surface vacancies and the atoms of the structure material to interact. The interaction causes the atoms of the structure material to form the atomic-scale structures.

  20. A comparison of several surface finish measurement methods as applied to ground ceramic and metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Riester, L.

    1996-01-01

    Surface finish is one of the most common measures of surface quality of ground ceramics and metal parts and a wide variety of methods and parameters have been developed to measure it. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the surface roughness parameters obtained on the same two specimens from three different types of measuring instruments: a traditional mechanical stylus system, a non-contact laser scanning system, and the atomic force microscope (two different AFM systems were compared). The same surface-ground silicon nitride and Inconel 625 alloy specimens were used for all measurements in this investigation. Significant differences in arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square roughness, and peak-to-valley roughness were obtained when comparing data from the various topography measuring instruments. Non-contact methods agreed better with the others on the metal specimen than on the ceramic specimen. Reasons for these differences include the effective dimensions and geometry of the probe with respect to the surface topography; the reflectivity of the surface, and the type of filtering scheme Results of this investigation emphasize the importance of rigorously specifying the manner of surface roughness measurement when either reporting roughness data or when requesting that roughness data be provided.

  1. Cleaning and passivation of copper surfaces to remove surface radioactivity and prevent oxide formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Seifert, Allen; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bachelor, Paula P.; Day, Anthony R.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Litke, Kevin E.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schulte, Shannon M.; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2007-08-21

    High-purity copper is an attractive material for constructing ultra-low-background radiation measurement devices. Many low-background experiments using high-purity copper have indicated surface contamination emerges as the dominant background. Radon daughters plate out on exposed surfaces, leaving a residual 210Pb background that is difficult to avoid. Dust is also a problem; even under cleanroom conditions, the amount of U and Th deposited on surfaces can represent the largest remaining background. To control these backgrounds, a copper cleaning chemistry has been developed. Designed to replace an effective, but overly aggressive concentrated nitric acid etch, this peroxide-based solution allows for a more controlled cleaning of surfaces. The acidified hydrogen peroxide solution will generally target the Cu+/Cu2+ species which are the predominant surface participants, leaving the bulk of copper metal intact. This preserves the critical tolerances of parts and eliminates significant waste disposal issues. Accompanying passivation chemistry has also been developed that protects copper surfaces from oxidation. Using a high-activity polonium surface spike, the most difficult-to-remove daughter isotope of radon, the performance of these methods are quantified. 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  2. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA] [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements. Acknowledgements This work was funded by Sandia National Laboratory's Laboratory Directed Research & Development program (LDRD). Some coating processes were conducted in the cleanroom facility located at the University of New Mexico's Center for High Technology Materials (CHTM). SEM images were performed at UNM's Center for Micro-Engineering on equipment funded by a NSF New Mexico EPSCoR grant. 4

  3. Unidirectional propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves at a magnetic film surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Kin L.; Bao, Mingqiang E-mail: caross@mit.edu; Lin, Yen-Ting; Wang, Kang L.; Bi, Lei; Wen, Qiye; Zhang, Huaiwu; Chatelon, Jean Pierre; Ross, C. A. E-mail: caross@mit.edu

    2014-12-08

    An analytical expression for the amplitudes of magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) propagating in opposite directions at a magnetic film surface is presented. This shows that for a given magnetic field H, it is forbidden for an independent MSSW to propagate along the direction of ?H{sup ?}n{sup ?}, where n{sup ?} is the surface normal. This unidirectional propagation property is confirmed by experiments with both permalloy and yttrium iron garnet films of different film thicknesses, and has implications in the design of spin-wave devices such as isolators and spin-wave diodes.

  4. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  5. Unconventional Fermi surface in an insulating state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Neil; Tan, B. S.; Hsu, Y. -T.; Zeng, B.; Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Zhu, Z.; Hartstein, M.; Kiourlappou, M.; Srivastava, A.; Johannes, M. D.; Murphy, T. P.; Park, J. -H.; Balicas, L.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Balakrishnan, G.; Sebastian, Suchitra E.

    2015-07-17

    Insulators occur in more than one guise; a recent finding was a class of topological insulators, which host a conducting surface juxtaposed with an insulating bulk. Here, we report the observation of an unusual insulating state with an electrically insulating bulk that simultaneously yields bulk quantum oscillations with characteristics of an unconventional Fermi liquid. We present quantum oscillation measurements of magnetic torque in high-purity single crystals of the Kondo insulator SmB6, which reveal quantum oscillation frequencies characteristic of a large three-dimensional conduction electron Fermi surface similar to the metallic rare earth hexaborides such as PrB6 and LaB6. As a result, the quantum oscillation amplitude strongly increases at low temperatures, appearing strikingly at variance with conventional metallic behavior.

  6. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1988-02-12

    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  7. Umbral moonshine and K3 surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Harrison, Sarah

    2015-06-25

    Recently, 23 cases of umbral moonshine, relating mock modular forms and finite groups, have been discovered in the context of the 23 even unimodular Niemeier lattices. One of the 23 cases in fact coincides with the so-called Mathieu moonshine, discovered in the context of K3 non-linear sigma models. In this paper we establish a uniform relation between all 23 cases of umbral moonshine and K3 sigma models, and thereby take a first step in placing umbral moonshine into a geometric and physical context. In addition, this is achieved by relating the ADE root systems of the Niemeier lattices to themore » ADE du Val singularities that a K3 surface can develop, and the configuration of smooth rational curves in their resolutions. A geometric interpretation of our results is given in terms of the marking of K3 surfaces by Niemeier lattices.« less

  8. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), is part of that agency's study of residential LP-gas systems. Another study is currently underway by an NLPGA task force headed by Bob Reid of Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.). It may not be finished until the end of next year. Recently, the Propane Gas Association of Canada completed a study of odorant fade with the conclusion that much more study is needed on the subject. In addition to the cylinder surface problem, the CPSC study indicated that ambient temperatures might also affect the presence of odorant in product. This article reviews some of the results.

  9. Method for making mirrored surfaces comprising superconducting material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, J.T.; Hargrove, R.S.

    1989-12-12

    Superconducting mirror surfaces are provided by forming a mirror surface from a material which is superconductive at a temperature above about 40 K and adjusting the temperature of the surface to that temperature at which the material is superconducting. The mirror surfaces are essentially perfect reflectors for electromagnetic radiation with photon energy less than the superconducting band gap.

  10. Modeling Tritium on Metal Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tritium on Metal Surfaces Modeling Tritium on Metal Surfaces Presentation from the 36th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, November 3-5, 2015. PDF icon Modeling Tritium on Metal Surfaces More Documents & Publications Tritium on Metal Surfaces DOE-HDBK-1079-94 Overview of tritium activity in Japan

  11. Apparatus and method for measuring and imaging surface resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Hohenwarter, Gert K. G. (Madison, WI)

    1993-08-24

    Apparatus and method for determining and imaging superconductor surface resistance. The apparatus comprises modified Gaussian confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor.

  12. Photoelectrochemical Semiconductor Surface Fortification via Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implantation - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Photoelectrochemical Semiconductor Surface Fortification via Ion Implantation National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Producing hydrogen from clean sources of energy has been one of the major

  13. New Surface Meteorological Measurements at SGP,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NM, March 22 - 26, 2004 1 New Surface Meteorological Measurements at SGP, and Their Use for Assessing Radiosonde Measurement Accuracy L.M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado B.M. Lesht and M. Ritche Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Several recent ARM investigations have been directed toward characterizing and improving the accuracy of ARM radiosonde water vapor measurements. Tobin et al. (2002) showed that calculating the downwelling

  14. Failure modes in surface micromachined microelectromechanical actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.L.; Rodgers, M.S.; LaVigne, G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Clews, P.; Tanner, D.M.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-03-01

    In order for the rapidly emerging field of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) to meet its extraordinary expectations regarding commercial impact, issues pertaining to how they fail must be understood. The authors identify failure modes common to a broad range of MEMS actuators, including adhesion (stiction) and friction induced failures caused by improper operational methods, mechanical instabilities, and electrical instabilities. Demonstrated methods to mitigate these failure modes include implementing optimized designs, model based operational methods, and chemical surface treatments.

  15. Method for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Purohit, Ankur (Darien, IL); Kaminski, Michael D. (Lockport, IL); Nunez, Luis (Elmhurst, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A method of decontaminating a radioactively contaminated oxide on a surface. The radioactively contaminated oxide is contacted with a diphosphonic acid solution for a time sufficient to dissolve the oxide and subsequently produce a precipitate containing most of the radioactive values. Thereafter, the diphosphonic solution is separated from the precipitate. HEDPA is the preferred diphosphonic acid and oxidizing and reducing agents are used to initiate precipitation. SFS is the preferred reducing agent.

  16. Recommended tritium surface contamination release guides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.R.; Draper, D.G.; Foulke, J.D.; Hafner, R.S.; Jalbert, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E.; Myers, D.S.; Strain, C.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This document was prepared to provide scientific basis for recommended changes in specific limits for tritium surface contamination in DOE Order 5480.11. A summary of the physical and biological characteristics of tritium has been provided that illustrate the unique nature of this radionuclide when compared to other pure beta emitters or to beta-gamma emitting radionuclides. This document is divided into nine sections. The introduction and the purpose and scope are addressed in Section 1.0 and Section 2.0, respectively. Section 3.0 contains recommended interpretation of terms used in this document. Section 4.0 addresses recommended methods for evaluating surface contamination. Biological and physical characteristics of tritium compounds are discussed in Section 5.0, as they relate to tritium radiotoxicity. Scenarios and dose calculations for selected, conservatively limiting cases of tritium intake are given and discussed in Section 6.0 and Section 7.0. Section 8.0 provides conclusions on the information given and recommendations for changes in the surface contamination limits for total tritium to 1 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm per 100 cm{sup 2}. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Molecular beam surface analysis. 1993 Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Groenewold, G.S.; Dahl, D.A.; Delmore, J.E.

    1993-09-01

    The Molecular Beam Surface Analysis (MBSA) program is developing both laboratory-based and potentially field-portable chemical analyses systems taking advantage of new surface analysis technology developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The objective is to develop the means to rapidly detect and identify, with high specificity and high sensitivity, nonvolatile and low volatile organics found in Chemical Weapons (CW) and High Explosives (HE) feedstocks, agents, and decomposition products on surfaces of plants, rocks, paint chips, filters, smears of buildings, vehicles, equipment, etc.. Ideally, the method would involve no sample preparation and no waste generation, and would have the potential for being implemented as a field-portable instrument. In contrast to existing analytical methods that rely on sample volatility, MBSA is optimized for nonvolatile and low volatile compounds. This makes it amenable for rapidly screening field samples for CW agent decomposition products and feedstock chemicals and perhaps actual agents. In its final configuration (benchtop size) it could be operated in a non-laboratory environment (such as an office building) requiring no sample preparation chemistry or chemical supplies. It could also be included in a mobile laboratory used in on-site, ore remote site cooperative surveys, or in a standard laboratory, where it would provide fast screening of samples at minimal cost.

  18. Nanoparticle-based etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, Howard (Boulder, CO); Duda, Anna (Denver, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Yost, Vernon (Littleton, CO); Meier, Daniel (Atlanta, GA); Ward, James S. (Golden, CO)

    2011-12-13

    A method (300) of texturing silicon surfaces (116) such to reduce reflectivity of a silicon wafer (110) for use in solar cells. The method (300) includes filling (330, 340) a vessel (122) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface 116) of a wafer or substrate (112). The etching solution (124) is made up of a catalytic nanomaterial (140) and an oxidant-etchant solution (146). The catalytic nanomaterial (140) may include gold or silver nanoparticles or noble metal nanoparticles, each of which may be a colloidal solution. The oxidant-etchant solution (146) includes an etching agent (142), such as hydrofluoric acid, and an oxidizing agent (144), such as hydrogen peroxide. Etching (350) is performed for a period of time including agitating or stirring the etching solution (124). The etch time may be selected such that the etched silicon surface (116) has a reflectivity of less than about 15 percent such as 1 to 10 percent in a 350 to 1000 nanometer wavelength range.

  19. Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ardary, Z.L.; Benton, S.T.

    1987-07-08

    The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

  20. Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ardary, Z.L.; Benton, S.T.

    1988-11-22

    The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

  1. Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ardary, Zane L. (Lenoir City, TN); Benton, Samuel T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

  2. Surface cleaning for enhanced adhesion to packaging surfaces: Effect of oxygen and ammonia plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaddam, Sneha; Dong, Bin; Driver, Marcus; Kelber, Jeffry; Kazi, Haseeb

    2015-03-15

    The effects of direct plasma chemistries on carbon removal from silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) and oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) surfaces have been studied by in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ contact angle measurements. The data indicate that O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} capacitively coupled plasmas are effective at removing adventitious carbon from silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) and Si oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment results in the formation of a silica overlayer. In contrast, the exposure to NH{sub 3} plasma results in negligible additional oxidation of the SiN{sub x} or SiO{sub x}N{sub y} surface. Ex-situ contact angle measurements show that SiN{sub x} and SiO{sub x}N{sub y} surfaces exposed to oxygen plasma are initially more hydrophilic than surfaces exposed to NH{sub 3} plasma, indicating that the O{sub 2} plasma-induced SiO{sub 2} overlayer is highly reactive toward ambient. At longer ambient exposures (?10 h), however, surfaces treated by either O{sub 2} or NH{sub 3} plasma exhibit similar steady state contact angles, correlated with rapid uptake of adventitious carbon, as determined by XPS. Surface passivation by exposure to molecular hydrogen prior to ambient exposure significantly retards the increase in contact angle upon exposure to ambient. The results suggest a practical route to enhancing the time available for effective bonding to surfaces in microelectronics packaging applications.

  3. Surface Modification Agents Increase Safety, Security of Lithium-Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal Surface Modification Agents Increase Safety, Security of Lithium-Ion Batteries New Process to Modify the Surface of the Active Material Used in Lithium-Ion Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <em>Surface Modification Schematic </em> Surface Modification Schematic Technology Marketing Summary Argonne National Laboratory has developed a process to modify the surface of the active material used in lithium-ion

  4. Physisorption and Chemisorption Methods for Evaluating the Total Surface

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Area and Active Surface Area of Two Types of Carbon Materials | Department of Energy Physisorption and Chemisorption Methods for Evaluating the Total Surface Area and Active Surface Area of Two Types of Carbon Materials Physisorption and Chemisorption Methods for Evaluating the Total Surface Area and Active Surface Area of Two Types of Carbon Materials TSA is a gross indicator of soot reactivity and does not always correlate well with the real reactivity. This research shows that a more

  5. An Integrated Surface Technology for Optimum Performance | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Integrated Surface Technology for Optimum Performance An Integrated Surface Technology for Optimum Performance 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: National Institute of Standards and Technology PDF icon 2004_deer_hsu.pdf More Documents & Publications An integrated surface technology for friction reduction in vehicles Low-Friction Engineered Surfaces Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Friction Reduction through Surface Modification

  6. Process for leveling film surfaces and products thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birkmire, R.W.; McCandless, B.E.

    1990-03-20

    Semiconductor films and photovoltaic devices prepared therefrom are provided wherein the semiconductor films have a specular surface with a texture less than about 0.25 micron greater than the average planar film surface and wherein the semiconductor films are surface modified by exposing the surface to an aqueous solution of bromine containing an acid or salt and continuing such exposure for a time sufficient to etch the surface. 8 figs.

  7. Major sources to waivers - lessons learned and $ saved at two U.S. Navy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klitsch, M.

    1997-12-31

    Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division (NSWCCD) manages 17 US Navy research and development (R and D) facilities across the country. These include two facilities in Maryland -- one in Annapolis and the other in West Bethesda which is better known as Carderock. NO{sub x} is the only air emission which exceeds a threshold limit at both properties. The potential to emit NO{sub x} is 72 tpy for Annapolis and 51 tpy for Carderock. The facilities are in different counties but each county has a trigger limit for NO{sub x} of 25 tpy making both facilities major sources. In preparation for the Title V permit applications to the state of Maryland, Carderock budgeted $150,000 in fiscal year 1996 to have a contractor conduct air emission inventories and prepare the Title V permits for both Carderock and Annapolis. However, the Carderock Air Program Manager did not pursue a contractor to perform the work but personally conducted the air emission inventory for both Annapolis and Carderock. Noticing a large difference between the potential-to-emit and the actual emissions of NO{sub x}, the Air Program Manager began negotiations with the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) to waive the requirement for the Title V permit application. MDE responded in December 1996 that if the facility`s actual emissions would not exceed 50% of any of the threshold limits during any 12 month period, then a letter of understanding stating such should be submitted to MDE. This letter of understanding would be recognized by the US EPA and MDE and would act as a waiver to the Title V permit applicability up to July 31, 1998. Carderock and Annapolis meet this requirement and letters of understanding were drafted and sent to MDE in January 1997.

  8. Surface chemistry and bonding configuration of ultrananocrystalline diamond surfaces and their effects on nanotribological properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Grierson, D. S.; Carpick, R. W.; Gerbi, J. E.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.

    2007-12-15

    We present a comprehensive study of surface composition and nanotribology for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces, including the influence of film nucleation on these properties. We describe a methodology to characterize the underside of the films as revealed by sacrificial etching of the underlying substrate. This enables the study of the morphology and composition resulting from the nucleation and initial growth of the films, as well as the characterization of nanotribological properties which are relevant for applications including micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems. We study the surface chemistry, bonding configuration, and nanotribological properties of both the topside and the underside of the film with synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to identify the bonding state of the carbon atoms, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the surface chemical composition, Auger electron spectroscopy to further verify the composition and bonding configuration, and quantitative atomic force microscopy to study the nanoscale topography and nanotribological properties. The films were grown on SiO{sub 2} after mechanically polishing the surface with detonation synthesized nanodiamond powder, followed by ultrasonication in a methanol solution containing additional nanodiamond powder. The sp{sup 2} fraction, morphology, and chemistry of the as-etched underside are distinct from the topside, exhibiting a higher sp{sup 2} fraction, some oxidized carbon, and a smoother morphology. The nanoscale single-asperity work of adhesion between a diamond nanotip and the as-etched UNCD underside is far lower than for a silicon-silicon interface (59.2{+-}2 vs 826{+-}186 mJ/m{sup 2}, respectively). Exposure to atomic hydrogen dramatically reduces nanoscale adhesion to 10.2{+-}0.4 mJ/m{sup 2}, at the level of van der Waals' interactions and consistent with recent ab initio calculations. Friction is substantially reduced as well, demonstrating a direct link between the surface chemistry and nanoscale friction. The proposed mechanism, supported by the detailed surface spectroscopic analysis, is the elimination of reactive (e.g., C*-), polar (e.g., C=O), and {pi}-bonded (C=C) surface groups, which are replaced by fully saturated, hydrogen-terminated surface bonds to produce an inert surface that interacts minimally with the contacting counterface.

  9. Surface chemistry and bonding configuration of ultrananocrystalline diamond surfaces and their effects on nanotribological properties.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Grierson, D. S.; Gerbi, J. E.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Carpick, R. W.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison

    2007-12-01

    We present a comprehensive study of surface composition and nanotribology for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces, including the influence of film nucleation on these properties. We describe a methodology to characterize the underside of the films as revealed by sacrificial etching of the underlying substrate. This enables the study of the morphology and composition resulting from the nucleation and initial growth of the films, as well as the characterization of nanotribological properties which are relevant for applications including micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems. We study the surface chemistry, bonding configuration, and nanotribological properties of both the topside and the underside of the film with synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to identify the bonding state of the carbon atoms, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the surface chemical composition, Auger electron spectroscopy to further verify the composition and bonding configuration, and quantitative atomic force microscopy to study the nanoscale topography and nanotribological properties. The films were grown on SiO{sub 2} after mechanically polishing the surface with detonation synthesized nanodiamond powder, followed by ultrasonication in a methanol solution containing additional nanodiamond powder. The sp{sup 2} fraction, morphology, and chemistry of the as-etched underside are distinct from the topside, exhibiting a higher sp{sup 2} fraction, some oxidized carbon, and a smoother morphology. The nanoscale single-asperity work of adhesion between a diamond nanotip and the as-etched UNCD underside is far lower than for a silicon-silicon interface (59.2 {+-} 2 vs 826 {+-} 186 mJ/m{sup 2}, respectively). Exposure to atomic hydrogen dramatically reduces nanoscale adhesion to 10.2 {+-} 0.4 mJ/m{sup 2}, at the level of van der Waals interactions and consistent with recent ab initio calculations. Friction is substantially reduced as well, demonstrating a direct link between the surface chemistry and nanoscale friction. The proposed mechanism, supported by the detailed surface spectroscopic analysis, is the elimination of reactive (e.g., C*-), polar (e.g., C-O), and {pi}-bonded (C-C) surface groups, which are replaced by fully saturated, hydrogen-terminated surface bonds to produce an inert surface that interacts minimally with the contacting counterface.

  10. Method for producing functionally graded nanocrystalline layer on metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O. (Oswego, IL); Hershberger, Jeffrey G. (Berwyn, IL)

    2010-03-23

    An improved process for the creation or formation of nanocrystalline layers on substrates' surfaces is provided. The process involves "prescuffing" the surface of a substrate such as a metal by allowing friction to occur on the surface by a load-bearing entity making rubbing contact and moving along and on the substrate's surface. The "prescuffing" action is terminated when the coefficient of friction between the surface and the noise is rising significantly. Often, the significant rise in the coefficient of friction is signaled by a change in pitch of the scuffing action sound emanating from the buffeted surface. The "prescuffing" gives rise to a harder and smoother surface which withstands better any inadequate lubrication that may take place when the "prescuffed" surface is contacted by other surfaces.

  11. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welp, Ulrich (Lisle, IL); Koshelev, Alexei E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Evanston, IL); Kwok, Wai-Kwong (Evanston, IL); Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii (Downers Grove, IL)

    2009-10-27

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  12. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welp, Ulrich; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Gray, Kenneth E.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii

    2010-05-11

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  13. Probes for anionic cell surface detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    2013-03-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally directed to compositions comprising a class of molecular probes for detecting the presence of anionic cell surfaces. Embodiments include compositions that are enriched for these compositions and preparations, particularly preparations suitable for use as laboratory/clinical reagents and diagnostic indicators, either alone or as part of a kit. An embodiment of the invention provides for a highly selective agent useful in the discernment and identification of dead or dying cells, such as apoptotic cells, in a relatively calcium-free environment. An embodiment of the invention provides a selective agent for the identification of bacteria in a mixed population of bacterial cells and nonbacterial cells.

  14. Portable spotter for fluorescent contaminants on surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuresko, Daniel D.

    1980-01-01

    A portable fluorescence-based spotter for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on personnel and work area surfaces under ambient lighting conditions is provided. This instrument employs beam modulation and phase sensitive detection for discriminating between fluorescence from organic materials from reflected background light and inorganic fluorescent material. The device uses excitation and emission filters to provide differentiation between classes of aromatic organic compounds. Certain inorganic fluorescent materials, including heavy metal compounds, may also be distinguished from the organic compounds, despite both having similar optical properties.

  15. Surface plasmon-enhanced photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostecki, Robert; Mao, Samuel

    2014-10-07

    Photovoltaic devices are driven by intense photoemission of "hot" electrons from a suitable nanostructured metal. The metal should be an electron source with surface plasmon resonance within the visible and near-visible spectrum range (near IR to near UV (about 300 to 1000 nm)). Suitable metals include silver, gold, copper and alloys of silver, gold and copper with each other. Silver is particularly preferred for its advantageous opto-electronic properties in the near UV and visible spectrum range, relatively low cost, and simplicity of processing.

  16. WEATHER PREDICTIONS AND SURFACE RADIATION ESTIMATES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ARLV - 3 51 - 4 / WEATHER PREDICTIONS AND SURFACE RADIATION ESTIMATES for the RULISON EVENT Final Report Albert H . S t o u t , Ray E . White, and V i r g i l E. Quinn Environmental Science Services Administration A i r Resources Laboratory - Las Vegas PROPERW OF U. S. GOVERNMENT Prepared Under Contract SF-54-351 f o r the Nevada Operations O f f i c e U . ' S . Atomic Energy Commission January 1970 LEGAL NOTSCCE ; L *U . . . . . - . T h i s r e p o r t w a s prepared a s an account o f

  17. Surface Structure Dependence of SO2 Interaction with Ceria Nanocrystals with Well-defined Surface Facets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluri, Uma; Li, Meijun; Cook, Brandon G.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Dai, Sheng; Wu, Zili

    2015-12-02

    The effects of the surface structure of ceria (CeO2) on the nature, strength, and amount of species resulting from SO2 adsorption were studied using in situ IR and Raman spectroscopies coupled with mass spectrometry, along with first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). CeO2 nanocrystals with different morphologies, namely, rods (representing a defective structure), cubes (100 facet), and octahedra (111 facet), were used to represent different CeO2 surface structures. IR and Raman spectroscopic studies showed that the structure and binding strength of adsorbed species from SO2 depend on the shape of the CeO2 nanocrystals. SO2 adsorbs mainly as surfacemore » sulfites and sulfates at room temperature on CeO2 rods, cubes, and octahedra that were either oxidatively or reductively pretreated. The formation of sulfites is more evident on CeO2 octahedra, whereas surface sulfates are more prominent on CeO2 rods and cubes. This is explained by the increasing reducibility of the surface oxygen in the order octahedra < cubes < rods. Bulk sulfites are also formed during SO2 adsorption on reduced CeO2 rods. The formation of surface sulfites and sulfates on CeO2 cubes is in good agreement with our DFT results of SO2 interactions with the CeO2(100) surface. CeO2 rods desorb SO2 at higher temperatures than cubes and octahedra nanocrystals, but bulk sulfates are formed on CeO2 rods and cubes after high-temperature desorption whereas only some surface sulfates/sulfites are left on octahedra. This difference is rationalized by the fact that CeO2 rods have the highest surface basicity and largest amount of defects among the three nanocrystals, so they bind and react with SO2 strongly and are the most degraded after SO2 adsorption cycles. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work on the effects of the surface structure and defects on the interaction of SO2 with CeO2 provides insights for the design of more sulfur-resistant CeO2-based catalysts.« less

  18. Molecular Modeling of Diffusion on a Crystalline PETN Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, P; Khare, R; Gee, R H; Weeks, B L

    2007-07-13

    Surface diffusion on a PETN crystal was investigated by treating the surface diffusion as an activated process in the formalism of transition state theory. In particular, surface diffusion on the (110) and (101) facets, as well as diffusion between these facets, were considered. We successfully obtained the potential energy barriers required for PETN surface diffusion. Our results show that the (110) surface is more thermally active than the (101) surface and PETN molecules mainly diffuses from the (110) to (101) facet. These results are in good agreement with experimental observations and previous simulations.

  19. Method for providing adhesion to a metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrah, L.A.; Allred, R.E.; Wilson, K.V. Jr.

    1992-02-18

    A process for treating metal surfaces to obtain improved susceptibility to bonding with adhesive compositions is disclosed. A metal surface is oxidized with a halogen to form a monolayer of halide ions on the surface. The halide ions are then exchanged with azide ions to form an azide monolayer on the metal surface. Upon contact of the treated surface with an adhesive composition, the azide layer may be thermally or photochemically decomposed to form active nitrene species, which react to bond the adhesive composition to the metal surface.

  20. Method for providing adhesion to a metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrah, Larry A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allred, Ronald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Wilson, Jr., Kennard V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process for treating metal surfaces to obtain improved susceptibility to bonding with adhesive compositions is disclosed. A metal surface is oxidized with a halogen to form a monolayer of halide ions on the surface. The halide ions are then exchanged with azide ions to form an azide monolayer on the metal surface. Upon contact of the treated surface with an adhesive composition, the azide layer may be thermally or photochemically decomposed to form active nitrene species, which react to bond the adhesive composition to the metal surface.

  1. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel

    2015-04-07

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  2. Design of Surface Micromachined Compliant MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-12-31

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMs, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focused on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  3. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-08-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  4. High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

  5. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.more » For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.« less

  6. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.moreFor ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.less

  7. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences. For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.

  8. Reactive decontamination formulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giletto, Anthony (College Station, TX); White, William (College Station, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Bryan, TX); Fyffe, James (Bryan, TX)

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  9. Influence of surface contamination on the wettability of heat transfer surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Forrest, Eric Christopher; Schulze, Roland; Liu, Cheng; Dombrowski, David

    2015-08-08

    In this study, the wettability of heat transfer surfaces plays an important role in liquid–vapor phase change phenomena, including boiling incipience, the critical heat flux, the Leidenfrost transition, and condensation. The influence of adsorbed surface contamination at the nanoscale, though seldom considered, can have a profound impact on wetting behavior. This study quantitatively investigates the impact of contaminant layer thickness on wettability. Various cleaning treatments are explored on zirconium and 6061 aluminum to determine the effect on contaminant and oxide layer thickness. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to measure the thickness of oxide and contaminant layers, which ismore » then correlated to wettability by measuring the equilibrium contact angle. Results indicate that even after solvent cleaning, the contact angle of water on practical heat transfer surfaces is dominated by a hydrocarbon contaminant overlayer around five nanometers thick.« less

  10. Comparison of glass surfaces as a countertop material to existing surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turo, Laura A.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-09-01

    Gleen Glass, a small production glass company that creates countertops, was selected for the Technology Assistance Program through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Gleen Glass was seeking material property analysis comparing glass as a countertop material to current surfaces (i.e. marble, granite and engineered stone). With samples provided from Gleen Glass, testing was done on granite, marble, and 3 different glass surfaces ('Journey,' 'Pebble,' and 'Gleen'). Results showed the glass surfaces have a lower density, lower water absorption, and are stronger in compressive and flexural tests as compared to granite and marble. Thermal shock tests showed the glass failed when objects with a high thermal mass are placed directly on them, whereas marble and granite did not fracture under these conditions.

  11. Influence of surface contamination on the wettability of heat transfer surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrest, Eric Christopher; Schulze, Roland; Liu, Cheng; Dombrowski, David

    2015-08-08

    In this study, the wettability of heat transfer surfaces plays an important role in liquid–vapor phase change phenomena, including boiling incipience, the critical heat flux, the Leidenfrost transition, and condensation. The influence of adsorbed surface contamination at the nanoscale, though seldom considered, can have a profound impact on wetting behavior. This study quantitatively investigates the impact of contaminant layer thickness on wettability. Various cleaning treatments are explored on zirconium and 6061 aluminum to determine the effect on contaminant and oxide layer thickness. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to measure the thickness of oxide and contaminant layers, which is then correlated to wettability by measuring the equilibrium contact angle. Results indicate that even after solvent cleaning, the contact angle of water on practical heat transfer surfaces is dominated by a hydrocarbon contaminant overlayer around five nanometers thick.

  12. Scratching the surface: State implementation of the Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheberle, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The implementation of the Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act of 1977 has been criticized as sporadic, lackluster, and dependent upon the political proclivities of primacy states. This dissertation explores the effect of national-level and state-level variables on implementation patterns in Colorado, Wyoming, and Virginia. Surveys and personal interviews, combined with longitudinal analyses of implementation performances of the Office of Surface Mining and individual state agencies, provide the heart of the research data. The research findings suggest the importance of considering state variables when explaining implementation performance. Moreover, support for both national and state variables as important determinants of the implementation process are provided by the research results.

  13. Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

    2002-01-01

    An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

  14. Diamond Shaving of Contaminated Concrete Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, Lisa K.

    2008-01-15

    Decommissioning and decontamination of existing facilities presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of surface contamination from concrete floors and walls while eliminating the spread of contamination and volumetric reduction of the waste stream. Numerous methods have been tried with a varying degree of success. Recent technology has made this goal achievable and has been used successfully. This new technology is the Diamond Floor Shaver and Diamond Wall shaver. The Diamond Floor Shaver is a self-propelled, walk behind machine that literally shaves the contaminated concrete surface to specified depths. This is accomplished by using a patented system of 100 dry cutting diamond blades with offset diamond segments that interlock to provide complete shaving of the concrete surface. Grooves are eliminated which allows for a direct frisk reading to analyze results. When attached to an appropriate size vacuum, the dust produced is 100% contained. Dust is collected in drums ready for disposition and disposal. The waste produced in shaving 7,500 square feet at 1/8 inch thickness would fill a single 55 gallon drum. Production is dependent on depth of shaving but averages 100 square feet per hour. The wall shaver uses the same patented diamond drum and blades but is hydraulically driven and is deployed using a robotic arm allowing its operation to be to totally remote. It can reach ceilings as high as 20 feet. Numerous small projects were successfully completed using this technology. Large scale deployment came in 2003. Bluegrass, in conjunction with Bartlett Services, deployed this technology to support decontamination activities for closing of the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons site. Up to six floor shavers and one wall shaver were deployed in buildings B371 and B374. These buildings had up to one half-inch, fixed plutonium and beryllium contamination. Hundred-thousands of square feet of floors and walls were shaved successfully to depths of up to one half inch. Decontamination efforts were so successful the balance of the buildings could be demolished using conventional methods. The shavers helped keep the project on schedule while the vacuum system eliminated the potential for contaminants becoming airborne.

  15. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and reclamation practice. In addition, experiments were integrated within the reforestation effort to address specific questions pertaining to sequestration of carbon (C) on these sites.

  16. TNRC 51 - Land, Timber and Surface Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    51 - Land, Timber and Surface Resources Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: TNRC 51 - Land, Timber and Surface...

  17. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface...

  18. Controlling Surface Properties of Transparent Conducting Oxides | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Controlling Surface Properties of Transparent Conducting Oxides Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Controlling Surface Properties of Transparent Conducting Oxides

  19. Surface control alloy substrates and methods of manufacture therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Mendon, MA); Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA); Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA); Annavarapu, Suresh (Brookline, MA); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-05-04

    Methods and articles for controlling the surface of an alloy substrate for deposition of an epitaxial layer. The invention includes the use of an intermediate layer to stabilize the substrate surface against oxidation for subsequent deposition of an epitaxial layer.

  20. Role of carbon surface diffusion and strain on the epitaxial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Role of carbon surface diffusion and strain on the epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC(0001). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Role of carbon surface diffusion and strain...

  1. PNNL Enhanced Pool-Boiling Heat Transfer Using Nanostructured Surfaces

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-31

    Close-up video of boiling taking place on a nanostructured surface in a controlled laboratory experiment.

  2. Surface Modification Agents for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Surface Modification Agents for Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: A process to modify the surface of the active material used in an electrochemical device that increases safety and security of batteries Substantially reduces power fade and potential for explosions. Increases safety and life of batteries, as the surface modification prevents a catalytic reaction in lithium-ion cells that generates hydrogen gas. PDF icon surface_modification_agents

  3. Characterization of monolayer surface treatments for MEMS exposed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; SURFACE TREATMENTS; MICROELECTRONIC CIRCUITS; MEMBRANES

  4. Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth modelled over...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 ... MAGNETRONS; MATERIALS; MOLECULAR DYNAMICS ... FAULTS; SURFACES; THIN FILMS; VACANCIES Word Cloud More ...

  5. An integrated surface technology for friction reduction in vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy integrated surface technology for friction reduction in vehicles An integrated surface technology for friction reduction in vehicles 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pmp_08_hsu.pdf More Documents & Publications An Integrated Surface Technology for Optimum Performance Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Friction Reduction through Surface

  6. Layered devices having surface curvature and method of constructing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodbury, Richard C. (Provo, UT); Perkins, Raymond T. (Provo, UT); Thorne, James M. (Provo, UT)

    1989-01-01

    A method of treating a substrate having first and second sides with corresponding oppositely facing first and second surfaces, to produce curvature in the first surface. The method includes the steps of removing material, according to a predetermined pattern, from the second side of the substrate, and applying a stress-producing film of material to at least one surface of the substrate to thereby cause the substrate to bend to produce the desired curvature in the first surface.

  7. Changing Surface Shapes with Temperature | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Changing Surface Shapes with Temperature For the first time, a temperature-driven contour change in an electron behavioral map-known as the Fermi surface-has been reported. The key properties of conducting materials are determined by the behavior of the electrons that reside on so called "Fermi surface." Changes in the shape of this surface, known as Lifshitz transitions, previously were seen only when substantial pressure was applied or the chemical composition of the material was

  8. New Structure found at Ionic Liquid Surface | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Structure found at Ionic Liquid Surface

  9. A direct evidence of vibrationally delocalized response at ice surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Morita, Akihiro

    2014-11-14

    Surface-specific vibrational spectroscopic responses at isotope diluted ice and amorphous ice are investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. The intense response specific to the ordinary crystal ice surface is predicted to be significantly suppressed in the isotopically diluted and amorphous ices, demonstrating the vibrational delocalization at the ordinary ice surface. The collective vibration at the ice surface is also analyzed with varying temperature by the MD simulation.

  10. SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STRUCTURING (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING The increasing use of Carbon Fiber Polymer Composite (CFPC) as a lightweight material in automotive and aerospace industries requires the control of surface morphology. In this study, the composites surface was prepared by ablating the resin

  11. Self-Replenishing Vascularized Fouling-Release Surfaces (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES Self-Replenishing Vascularized Fouling-Release Surfaces « Prev Next » Title: Self-Replenishing Vascularized Fouling-Release Surfaces Inspired by the long-term effectiveness of living antifouling materials, we have developed a method for the selfreplenishment of synthetic biofouling-release surfaces. These surfaces are created by either molding or directly embedding 3D vascular systems into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and filling them with a silicone oil to generate a nontoxic

  12. Surface sampling concentration and reaction probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Elnaggar, Mariam S

    2013-07-16

    A method of analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen is described. The method can include providing a probe comprising an outer capillary tube and an inner capillary tube disposed co-axially within the outer capillary tube, where the inner and outer capillary tubes define a solvent capillary and a sampling capillary in fluid communication with one another at a distal end of the probe; contacting a target site on a surface of a specimen with a solvent in fluid communication with the probe; maintaining a plug volume proximate a solvent-specimen interface, wherein the plug volume is in fluid communication with the probe; draining plug sampling fluid from the plug volume through the sampling capillary; and analyzing a chemical composition of the plug sampling fluid with an analytical instrument. A system for performing the method is also described.

  13. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophicmore » microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.« less

  14. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined core set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: Winds: 10 meters Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

  15. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-23

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  16. Photonic surfaces for designable nonlinear power shaping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Roshni Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-02-09

    We propose a method for designing nonlinear input-output power response based on absorptive resonances of nanostructured surfaces. We show that various power transmission trends can be obtained by placing a photonic resonance mode at the appropriate detuning from the laser wavelength. We demonstrate our results in a silicon photonic crystal slab at a laser wavelength of 808 nm. We quantify the overall spectral red shift as a function of laser power. The shift results from absorptive heating and the thermo-optic effect. We then demonstrate devices with increasing, decreasing, and non-monotonic transmission as a function of laser power. The transmission changes are up to 7.5 times larger than in unpatterned silicon. The strong nonlinear transmission is due to a combination of resonantly enhanced absorption, reduced thermal conductivity, and the resonant transmission lineshape. Our results illustrate the possibility of designing different nonlinear power trends within a single materials platform at a given wavelength of interest.

  17. Visible light surface emitting semiconductor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olbright, Gregory R. (Boulder, CO); Jewell, Jack L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1993-01-01

    A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is disclosed comprising a laser cavity sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser cavity comprises a pair of spacer layers surrounding one or more active, optically emitting quantum-well layers having a bandgap in the visible which serve as the active optically emitting material of the device. The thickness of the laser cavity is m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer, .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the laser radiation and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the cavity. Electrical pumping of the laser is achieved by heavily doping the bottom mirror and substrate to one conductivity-type and heavily doping regions of the upper mirror with the opposite conductivity type to form a diode structure and applying a suitable voltage to the diode structure. Specific embodiments of the invention for generating red, green, and blue radiation are described.

  18. Fracture of surface cracks loaded in bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Y.J.; Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical background of the constraint effect in brittle fracture of solids is reviewed. Fracture test data from D6-aC, a high strength steel, using three-point-bend (SE(B)) specimens and surface cracked plate (SC(B)) specimens under bending are presented. It is shown that the SE(B) data has an elevated fracture toughness for increasing a/W, i.e., a crack geometry with a larger T/K corresponds to a higher K{sub c} which is consistent with the theoretical prediction. The fundamental fracture properties, i.e., the critical strain and the critical distance, determined from the SE(B) test data are then applied to the interpretation and prediction of the SC(B) test data. Reasonable agreement is achieved for the crack growth initiation site and the load.

  19. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  20. Surface Induced Magnetism in Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meulenberg, R W; Lee, J I

    2009-08-20

    The study of nanometer sized semiconductor crystallites, also known as quantum dots (QDs), has seen rapid advancements in recent years in scientific disciplines ranging from chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and engineering. QD materials of CdSe, ZnSe, InP, as well as many others, can be prepared in the size range of 1-10 nm producing uniform, nearly monodisperse materials that are typically coated with organic molecules [1-3]. The strength of charge carrier confinement, which dictates the size-dependent properties, in these QDs depends on the nature of the material and can be correlated to the Bohr radius for the system of interest. For instance, the Bohr radius for CdSe is {approx} 5 nm, while in the more covalent structure of InP, the Bohr radius approaches {approx} 10 nm. The study of CdSe QDs has been particularly extensive during the last decade because they exhibit unique and tunable optical properties and are readily synthesized with high-crystallinity and narrow size dispersions. Although the core electronic properties of CdSe are explained in terms of the quantum confinement model, experimental efforts to elucidate the surface structure of these materials have been limited. Typically, colloidal CdSe QDs are coated with an organic surfactant, which typically consists of an organo-phosphine, -thiol, or -amine, that has the function of energetically relaxing defect states via coordination to partially coordinated surface atoms. The organic surfactant also acts to enhance carrier confinement and prevent agglomeration of the particles. Chemically, it has been shown that the bonding of the surfactant to the CdSe QD occurs through Cd atoms resulting cleavage of the Se atoms and formation of a Cd-rich (i.e. non-stoichiometric) particle [5].

  1. Surface Binding and Organization of Sensitizing Dyes on Metal Oxide Single Crystal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, Bruce

    2010-06-04

    Even though investigations of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors in solar cells has dominated research on dye-sensitized semiconductors over the past two decades. Single crystal electrodes represent far simpler model systems for studying the sensitization process with a continuing train of studies dating back more than forty years. Even today single crystal surfaces prove to be more controlled experimental models for the study of dye-sensitized semiconductors than the nanocrystalline substrates. We analyzed the scientific advances in the model sensitized single crystal systems that preceded the introduction of nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes. It then follows the single crystal research to the present, illustrating both their striking simplicity of use and clarity of interpretation relative to nanocrystalline electrodes. Researchers have employed many electrochemical, photochemical and scanning probe techniques for studying monolayer quantities of sensitizing dyes at specific crystallographic faces of different semiconductors. These methods include photochronocoulometry, electronic spectroscopy and flash photolysis of dyes at potential-controlled semiconductor electrodes and the use of total internal reflection methods. In addition, we describe the preparation of surfaces of single crystal SnS2 and TiO2 electrodes to serve as reproducible model systems for charge separation at dye sensitized solar cells. This process involves cleaving the SnS2 electrodes and a photoelectrochemical surface treatment for TiO2 that produces clean surfaces for sensitization (as verified by AFM) resulting in near unity yields for electron transfer from the molecular excited dyes into the conduction band.

  2. Modeled heating and surface erosion comparing motile (gas borne) and stationary (surface coating) inert particle additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1982-09-27

    The unsteady, non-similar, chemically reactive, turbulent boundary layer equations are modified for gas plus dispersed solid particle mixtures, for gas phase turbulent combustion reactions and for heterogeneous gas-solid surface erosive reactions. The exterior (ballistic core) edge boundary conditions for the solutions are modified to include dispersed particle influences on core propellant combustion-generated turbulence levels, combustion reactants and products, and reaction-induced, non-isentropic mixture states. The wall surface (in this study it is always steel) is considered either bare or coated with a fixed particle coating which is conceptually non-reactive, insulative, and non-ablative. Two families of solutions are compared. These correspond to: (1) consideration of gas-borne, free-slip, almost spontaneously mobile (motile) solid particle additives which influence the turbulent heat transfer at the uncoated steel surface and, in contrast, (2) consideration of particle-free, gas phase turbulent heat transfer to the insulated surface coated by stationary particles. Significant differences in erosive heat transfer are found in comparing the two families of solutions over a substantial range of interior ballistic flow conditions. The most effective influences on reducing erosive heat transfer appear to favor mobile, gas-borne particle additives.

  3. Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

    2014-04-29

    A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

  4. The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xie,Shaocheng; Qi, Tang

    The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set merges together key surface measurements at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate data application. Data from the original site locations can be found in the ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set.

  5. Surface characterization based on optical phase shifting interferometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mello, Michael (Pasadena, CA), Rosakis; Ares J. (Altadena, CA)

    2011-08-02

    Apparatus, techniques and systems for implementing an optical interferometer to measure surfaces, including mapping of instantaneous curvature or in-plane and out-of-plane displacement field gradients of a sample surface based on obtaining and processing four optical interferograms from a common optical reflected beam from the sample surface that are relatively separated in phase by .pi./2.

  6. Method For Passivating Crystal Silicon Surfaces - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Method For Passivating Crystal Silicon Surfaces National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Silicon Surface and Heterojunction Interface Passivation Studies by Lifetime Measurements (395 KB) PDF Document Publication High-Throughput Approaches to Optimization of Crystal Silicon Surface Passivation and Heterojunction Solar Cells (837 KB) Technology Marketing

  7. The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie,Shaocheng; Qi, Tang

    2015-06-15

    The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set merges together key surface measurements at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate data application. Data from the original site locations can be found in the ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set.

  8. Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-08

    The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

  9. Surface functionalized mesoporous material and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Xiangdong [West Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [West Richland, WA; Fryxell, Glen E. [Kennewick, WA

    2001-12-04

    According to the present invention, an organized assembly of functional molecules with specific interfacial functionality (functional group(s)) is attached to available surfaces including within mesopores of a mesoporous material. The method of the present invention avoids the standard base soak that would digest the walls between the mesopores by boiling the mesoporous material in water for surface preparation then removing all but one or two layers of water molecules on the internal surface of a pore. Suitable functional molecule precursor is then applied to permeate the hydrated pores and the precursor then undergoes condensation to form the functional molecules on the interior surface(s) of the pore(s).

  10. System and method for extracting a sample from a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary; Covey, Thomas

    2015-06-23

    A system and method is disclosed for extracting a sample from a sample surface. A sample is provided and a sample surface receives the sample which is deposited on the sample surface. A hydrophobic material is applied to the sample surface, and one or more devices are configured to dispense a liquid on the sample, the liquid dissolving the sample to form a dissolved sample material, and the one or more devices are configured to extract the dissolved sample material from the sample surface.

  11. Resolution-independent surface rendering using programmable graphics hardware

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loop, Charles T.; Blinn, James Frederick

    2008-12-16

    Surfaces defined by a Bezier tetrahedron, and in particular quadric surfaces, are rendered on programmable graphics hardware. Pixels are rendered through triangular sides of the tetrahedra and locations on the shapes, as well as surface normals for lighting evaluations, are computed using pixel shader computations. Additionally, vertex shaders are used to aid interpolation over a small number of values as input to the pixel shaders. Through this, rendering of the surfaces is performed independently of viewing resolution, allowing for advanced level-of-detail management. By individually rendering tetrahedrally-defined surfaces which together form complex shapes, the complex shapes can be rendered in their entirety.

  12. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jian; Sabau, Adrian S; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Hackett, Alexandra C.; Daniel, Claus; Warren, Charles David

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of lightweight materials, such as aluminum alloys, in auto body structures requires more effective surface cleaning and texturing techniques to improve the quality of the structural components. The present work introduces a novel surface treatment method using laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface structures. The influences of beam size, laser fluence, wavelength, and pulse number per spot are investigated. High resolution optical profiler images reveal the change of the peak-to-valley height on the laser-treated surface.

  13. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-05-18

    A method for preparing reactive metal surfaces, particularly uranium surfaces is disclosed, whereby the metal is immediately reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The metal surfaces are first pretreated by exposure to an acid which forms an adherent hydride-bearing composition on the metal surface. Subsequent heating of the pretreated metal at a temperature sufficient to decompose the hydride coating in vacuum or inert gas renders the metal surface instantaneously reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure.

  14. Evaluation of flyash surface phenomena and the application of surface analysis technology. Summary report: Phase I. [44 elements; 86 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    The factors governing the formation of flyash surfaces during and following coal combustion are reviewed. The competing chemical and physical processes during the evolution of inorganic material in coal during combustion into flyash are described with respect to various surface segregation processes. Two mechanisms leading to surface enrichment are volatilization-condensation processes and diffusion processes within individual flyash particles. The experimental evidence for each of these processes is reviewed. It is shown that the volatilization-condensation process is the major factor leading to trace element enrichment in smaller flyash particles. Evidence also exists from surface analyses of flyash and representative mineral matter that diffusion processes may lead to surface enrichment of elements not volatilized or cause transport of surface-condensed elements into the flyash matrix. The semiquantitative determination of the relative importance of these two processes can be determined by comparison of concentration versus particle size profiles with surface-depth profiles obtained using surface analysis techniques. A brief description of organic transformations on flyash surfaces is also presented. The various surface analytical techniques are reviewed and the relatively new technique of Static-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy is suggested as having significant advantages in studies of surfaces and diffusion processes in model systems. Several recommendations are made for research relevant to flyash formation and processes occurring on flyash surfaces.

  15. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  16. Surface modification of active material structures in battery electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Michael; Tikhonov, Konstantin

    2016-02-02

    Provided herein are methods of processing electrode active material structures for use in electrochemical cells or, more specifically, methods of forming surface layers on these structures. The structures are combined with a liquid to form a mixture. The mixture includes a surface reagent that chemically reacts and forms a surface layer covalently bound to the structures. The surface reagent may be a part of the initial liquid or added to the mixture after the liquid is combined with the structures. In some embodiments, the mixture may be processed to form a powder containing the structures with the surface layer thereon. Alternatively, the mixture may be deposited onto a current collecting substrate and dried to form an electrode layer. Furthermore, the liquid may be an electrolyte containing the surface reagent and a salt. The liquid soaks the previously arranged electrodes in order to contact the structures with the surface reagent.

  17. ANALYZING SURFACE ROUGHNESS DEPENDENCE OF LINEAR RF LOSSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.; Xu, Chen

    2012-09-01

    Topographic structure on Superconductivity Radio Frequency (SRF) surfaces can contribute additional cavity RF losses describable in terms of surface RF reflectivity and absorption indices of wave scattering theory. At isotropic homogeneous extent, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of roughness is introduced and quantifies the random surface topographic structure. PSD obtained from different surface treatments of niobium, such Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP), Electropolishing (EP), Nano-Mechanical Polishing (NMP) and Barrel Centrifugal Polishing (CBP) are compared. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate the additional rough surface RF losses based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor becomes normal conducting at fields higher than transition field. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range from linear loss mechanisms.

  18. Chemical method for producing smooth surfaces on silicon wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

    2003-01-01

    An improved method for producing optically smooth surfaces in silicon wafers during wet chemical etching involves a pre-treatment rinse of the wafers before etching and a post-etching rinse. The pre-treatment with an organic solvent provides a well-wetted surface that ensures uniform mass transfer during etching, which results in optically smooth surfaces. The post-etching treatment with an acetic acid solution stops the etching instantly, preventing any uneven etching that leads to surface roughness. This method can be used to etch silicon surfaces to a depth of 200 .mu.m or more, while the finished surfaces have a surface roughness of only 15-50 .ANG. (RMS).

  19. Process for laser machining and surface treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2004-10-26

    An improved method and apparatus increasing the accuracy and reducing the time required to machine materials, surface treat materials, and allow better control of defects such as particulates in pulsed laser deposition. The speed and quality of machining is improved by combining an ultrashort pulsed laser at high average power with a continuous wave laser. The ultrashort pulsed laser provides an initial ultrashort pulse, on the order of several hundred femtoseconds, to stimulate an electron avalanche in the target material. Coincident with the ultrashort pulse or shortly after it, a pulse from a continuous wave laser is applied to the target. The micromachining method and apparatus creates an initial ultrashort laser pulse to ignite the ablation followed by a longer laser pulse to sustain and enlarge on the ablation effect launched in the initial pulse. The pulse pairs are repeated at a high pulse repetition frequency and as often as desired to produce the desired micromachining effect. The micromachining method enables a lower threshold for ablation, provides more deterministic damage, minimizes the heat affected zone, minimizes cracking or melting, and reduces the time involved to create the desired machining effect.

  20. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)