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1

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Oil Shale Reserves...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil Shale Reserves Site - 013 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Naval Oil Shale Reserves Site (013 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site...

2

The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves To ensure sufficient fuel for the fleet, the Government began withdrawing probable oil-bearing...

3

Oil shale resources of the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The resource of potential oil represented by Green River Formation oil shale on Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1 (NOSR No. 1) in the southeast corner of Colorado's Piceance Creek Basin is evaluated in detail. NOSR No. 1 is the site of intensive long-term oil-shale development studies and is the source of innumerable oil-shale samples for all manner of testing. A brief history of these studies is presented. This oil-shale resource is defined from oil-yield assay data on 33 cores plotted as histograms and correlated into cross sections. Contour maps of thickness, richness and oil resource in place are presented for the Mahogany Zone, the rich zone in the Mahogany zone, and for 2 units beneath and 5 units above the Mahogany zone. Total oil shale resource on NOSR No. 1 is 20.4 billion barrels of which 17.4 billion barrels are particularly suitable for development by vertical modified in-place processes. A previously unknown Mahogany zone outcrop providing much additional development access is described. Now under sole control of the US Department of Energy (DOE), NOSR No. 1 offers DOE a unique site for oil shale testing and development.

Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Trudell, L.G.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Naval petroleum and oil shale reserves: Annual report of operations, FY 1987  

SciTech Connect

Production and reserves, development and exploration, revenues and expenditures, sales, environment and safety, and litigation are discussed for naval petroleum reserves numbers one through three and for naval oil shale reserves. 28 figs., 21 tabs. (ACT)

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

EA-0531: Proposed Natural Gas Protection Program for Naval Oil Shale  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31: Proposed Natural Gas Protection Program for Naval Oil 31: Proposed Natural Gas Protection Program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado EA-0531: Proposed Natural Gas Protection Program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal for a Natural Gas Protection Program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 which would be implemented over a five-year period that would encompass a total of 200 wells in Garfield County, Colorado. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD August 9, 1991 EA-0531: Final Environmental Assessment Proposed Natural Gas Protection Program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 August 9, 1991 EA-0531: Finding of No Significant Impact

6

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

7

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves annual report of operations for fiscal year 1996  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1996, the Department of Energy continued to operate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California and Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 in Wyoming through its contractors. In addition, natural gas operations were conducted at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3. All productive acreage owned by the Government at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 in California was produced under lease to private companies. The locations of all six Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves are shown in a figure. Under the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976, production was originally authorized for six years, and based on findings of national interest, the President was authorized to extend production in three-year increments. President Reagan exercised this authority three times (in 1981, 1984, and 1987) and President Bush authorized extended production once (in 1990). President Clinton exercised this authority in 1993 and again in October 1996; production is presently authorized through April 5, 2000. 4 figs. 30 tabs.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During FY 1991 the Reserves generating $654 million in revenues, a $52 million increase from the Fy 1990 revenues, reflecting the increase in FY 1991 oil prices during the Gulf War. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $454 million, compared with $423 million in FY 1990. Revenues for FY 1992 are expected to decrease, reflecting a decrease in production and prices. In FY 1991, production at the NPRs at maximum efficient rates yielded 28 million barrels of crude oil, 125 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 183 million gallons of natural gas liquids. Additional highlights on the following topics are included: legislative change, Naval Petroleum Reserve-1 (NPR-1) exploration, NPR-1 horizontal drilling, NPR-1 shallow oil zone gas injection project, NPR-1 FY 1991-1997 long range plan, NPR-1 environment and safety, NPR-2 exploration drilling, NPR-3 steamflood, Naval Oil Shale Reserves gas migration prevention.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During FY 1991 the Reserves generating $654 million in revenues, a $52 million increase from the Fy 1990 revenues, reflecting the increase in FY 1991 oil prices during the Gulf War. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $454 million, compared with $423 million in FY 1990. Revenues for FY 1992 are expected to decrease, reflecting a decrease in production and prices. In FY 1991, production at the NPRs at maximum efficient rates yielded 28 million barrels of crude oil, 125 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 183 million gallons of natural gas liquids. Additional highlights on the following topics are included: legislative change, Naval Petroleum Reserve-1 (NPR-1) exploration, NPR-1 horizontal drilling, NPR-1 shallow oil zone gas injection project, NPR-1 FY 1991-1997 long range plan, NPR-1 environment and safety, NPR-2 exploration drilling, NPR-3 steamflood, Naval Oil Shale Reserves gas migration prevention.

Not Available

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

11

U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the US taxpayer. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC or Elk Hills), which is responsible for operations of NPR-1 and NPR-2; the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserve in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW), which is responsible for operations of NPR-3, NOSR-1, 2, and 3 and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC); and NPOSR Headquarters in Washington, DC, which is responsible for overall program direction. Each participant shares in the unit costs and production of hydrocarbons in proportion to the weighted acre-feet of commercially productive oil and gas formations (zones) underlying the respective surface lands as of 1942. The participating shares of NPR-1 as of September 30, 1996 for the US Government and Chevron USA, Inc., are listed. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Naval petroleum and oil shale reserves: Annual report of operations, Fiscal Year 1986  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Market prices for curde oil experienced their greatest decline in history during 1986, with substantial effect on the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Sales procedures which had served the Department well in prior years during periods when oil prices were stable or rising were found inadequate to cope with these declines, and new sales procedures were developed and implemented. Congressional concern that the Government receive fair prices from Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) petroleum sales also led to Public Law No. 99-413, enacted on August 29, 1986, which amended title 10, United States Code, Chapter 641. This law sets a minimum price, using two criteria, under which petroleum from the NPR cannot be sold. Notwithstanding the decline in oil and gas prices, revenues from the sale of NPR petroleum totaled $763 million in 1986. Although this represented a 41% decline from 1985 receipts, the 1986 revenues well exceeded net program expenditures of $157 million. Because of the decline in prevailing oil prices during the second quarter of 1986, major cost reductions of $3.4 million were implemented at NPR-3, and even greater reductions are planned for 1987 to ensure the profitability of that field. The decline in energy prices also affected plans to protect natural gas underlying Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3 (NOSR-3). Two of 14 planned wells were drilled and are available for production. Unfortunately, efforts to sell gas from these wells have been unsuccessful, and further drilling has been delayed until the gas market is stronger. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Naval Reserves Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities The Fossil Energy program in oil shale focuses on...

14

Department of Energy, Office of Naval Petroleum & Oil Shale Reserves  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Request for Records Disposition Authority Leave Blank (NARA Use Only) (See Instructions on reverse) Job Number I / {£. 0- _~ To. National Archives and Records Administration (NIR) NI-'-r 3 7- 6 6 J Washington, DC 20408 Date Received 1 From (Agencyor establishment) Department of Energy Notification to Agency 2 MajorSubdivrsion In accordance with the provisions of 44 Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy USC 3303a. the disposition request. In- cluding amendments. ISapproved except for 3 Minorsubcrvrsron Items that may be marked "disposrtron not Office of Naval Petroleum & Oil Shale Reserves approved" or "withdrawn" In column 10 4 Nameof Personwith whom to confer 5 Telephone (Includearea code) [ Pamela Gentel 301-903-1856 6 Agency Certification

15

Report to the President on agreements and programs relating to the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy monitors commercial natural gas production activities along the boundaries of Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1 and Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3, which are located in Garfield County, Colorado, and were created in the early part of this century to provide a future source of shale oil for the military. In response to the private sector`s drilling of natural gas wells along the south and southwest boundaries of the Reserves, which began in the early 1980`s, the Department developed a Natural Gas Protection Program to protect the Government`s resources from drainage due to the increasing number of commercial gas wells contiguous to Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 3. This report provides an update of the Gas Protection Program being implemented and the agreements that have been placed in effect since December 19, 1991, and also includes the one communitized well containing Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 lands. The Protection Program employs two methods to protect the Government`s resources: (1) sharing with the private sector in the costs and production of wells by entering into ``communitization`` agreements; and (2) drilling wholly-owned Government wells to ``offset`` commercial wells that threaten to drain natural gas from the Reserves. The methods designed to protect the Government`s resources are achieving their objective of abating gas drainage and migration. As a result of the Protection Program, the Department of Energy is able to produce natural gas and either sell its share on the open market or transfer it for use at Government facilities. The Natural Gas Protection Program is a reactive, ongoing program that is continually revised as natural gas transportation constraints, market conditions, and nearby commercial production activities change.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

EA-0531: Proposed Natural Gas Protection Program for Naval Oil...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: Proposed Natural Gas Protection Program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado EA-0531: Proposed Natural Gas Protection Program for Naval Oil Shale...

17

Environmental Survey preliminary report, Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, Casper, Wyoming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the preliminary environmental findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW) conducted June 6 through 17, 1988. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Wyoming, the Naval Oil Shale Reserves No. 1 and 3 (NOSR-1 and NOSR-3) in Colorado and the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Utah. NOSR-2 was not included in the Survey because it had not been actively exploited at the time of the on-site Survey. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, lead and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with NPOSR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at NPOSR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team has developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified at NOSR-3 during the on-site Survey. There were no findings associated with either NPR-3 or NOSR-1 that required Survey-related sampling and Analysis. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Summary report. The Summary Report will reflect the final determinations of the NPOSR-CUW Survey and the other DOE site-specific Surveys. 110 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

Not Available

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Holes from the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1 R. D. Giauque,cores from the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1 were sectioned15/16, from the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. L The resulting

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

US Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements and management overview and supplemental financial and management information, September 30, 1995 and 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1995 statements. Their reports on the NPOSR internal control structure and compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

NONE

1996-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Oil shale data book  

SciTech Connect

The Oil Shale Data Book has been prepared as a part of its work under DOE Management Support and Systems Engineering for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves Predevelopment Plan. The contract calls for the preparation of a Master Development Plan for the Reserves which comprise some 145,000 acres of oil shale lands in Colorado and Utah. The task of defining the development potential of the Reserves required that the resources of the Reserves be well defined, and the shale oil recovery technologies that are potentially compatible with this resource be cataloged. Additionally, processes associated with shale oil recovery like mining, materials handling, beneficiation, upgrading and spent shale disposal have also been cataloged. This book, therefore, provides a ready reference for evaluation of appropriate recovery technologies and associated processes, and should prove to be valuable for many oil shale activities. Technologies that are still in the process of development, like retorting, have been treated in greater detail than those that are commercially mature. Examples of the latter are ore crushing, certain gas clean-up systems, and pipeline transportation. Emphasis has been on documenting available design information such as, maximum module size, operation conditions, yields, utility requirements, outlet gas compositions, shale oil characteristics, etc. Cost information has also been included where available.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Proposed natural gas protection program for Naval Oil Shale Reserves Nos. 1 and 3, Garfield County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As a result of US Department of Energy (DOE) monitoring activities, it was determined in 1983 that the potential existed for natural gas resources underlying the Naval Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSrs-1 3) to be drained by privately-owned gas wells that were being drilled along the Reserves borders. In 1985, DOE initiated a limited number of projects to protect the Government's interest in the gas resources by drilling its own offset production'' wells just inside the boundaries, and by formally sharing in the production, revenues and costs of private wells that are drilled near the boundaries ( communitize'' the privately-drilled wells). The scope of these protection efforts must be expanded. DOE is therefore proposing a Natural Gas Protection Program for NOSRs-1 3 which would be implemented over a five-year period that would encompass a total of 200 wells (including the wells drilled and/or communitized since 1985). Of these, 111 would be offset wells drilled by DOE on Government land inside the NOSRs' boundaries and would be owned either entirely by the Government or communitized with adjacent private land owners or lessees. The remainder would be wells drilled by private operators in an area one half-mile wide extending around the NOSRs boundaries and communitized with the Government. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Holes from the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1 R. D. Giauque,all of the known oil and gas reserves in the United States.cores from the Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 1 were sectioned

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, NOSR-2, Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant and authorized a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. The US owns 100% of the mineral rights and about 60% of the surface rights in NOSR-2. The Ute Indian Tribe owns the other 40% of the surface. This 88,890-acre tract was set aside as an oil shale reserve for the US Navy by an Executive Order of President Wilson in 1916. Management of NOSR-2 is the responsibility of DOE. No drilling for oil and gas has occurred on the property and no production has been established. No reserves are present, although the area is hypothesized to overlay gas resources. Mapping by the US Geological Survey and others has resulted in speculative seismic leads for structures that may or may not hold conventional oil and gas. All of the mineral rights (including oil shale) must be considered exploratory and the mineral rights must be valued accordingly. The opinion recommended to maximize value to the US is Option 4, sale of the interest of the US of all or part of NOSR-2. Evaluation of this option results in an estimated value which is more than three times greater than the next highest estimated value, for Option 2, transfer to the Department of the Interior for leasing.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Subject is oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The article reviews the current financial, legislative and regulatory problems of oil shale development. 2 refs.

Due, M.J.C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Combined Financial Statements September 30, 1994 and 1993 and Management Overview and Supplemental Financial and Management Information  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1994 statements. Their reports on the NPOSR internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations, and management letter on addressing needed improvements are also provided. NPOSR consists of petroleum reserves in California and Wyoming, and oil shale reserves in Colorado and Utah. The Government`s interests in NPOSR are managed by the Department through its headquarters office in Washington, D.C. In addition, the Department has site offices in both California and Wyoming that are responsible for contractor oversight functions. Daily operations are conducted under contract by two management and operating contractors. By law, NPOSR was authorized to produce crude oil at the maximum efficient rate for six years. The law allowed production to be extended for three year periods, provided that the President of the United States certified that continued maximum production was in the best interest of the nation. The current three year period ends on April 5, 1997. Additional information about NPOSR is provided in the overview and notes to the financial statements.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

27

H.R. 817: A Bill to authorize the Secretary of Energy to lease lands within the naval oil shale reserves to private entities for the development and production of oil and natural gas. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This bill would give the Secretary of Energy authority to lease lands within the Naval oil shale reserves to private entities for the purpose of surveying for and developing oil and gas resources from the land (other than oil shale). It also allows the Bureau of Land Management to be used as a leasing agent, establishes rules on royalties, and the sharing of royalties with the state, and covers the transfer of existing equipment.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Oil shale commercialization study  

SciTech Connect

Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

Warner, M.M.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature, type of shale and oil content of shale iscontent of the shale, and shale oil content of the rock cantemperatures. Lean and Rich Shale Oil shales vary in their

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Process of treating oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A process of destructively distilling oil shale is described consisting in subjecting the oil shale containing aluminum to the action of heat and pressure to destructively distill it and separate the light oil constituents. Chlorine gas is simultaneously passed through the hot oil shale countercurrent to the direction of movement of the oil shale.

Egloff, G.

1927-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

31

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

gas and billion barrels (Bbbl) of shale oil for each major shale formation. Risked Recoverable Gas and Oil, reported in trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of shale gas and

32

Refining of shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The refining of shale oil is reviewed to assess the current state-of-the-art, especially as to the avaiability of technology suitable for operation on a commercial scale. Oil shale retorting processes as they affect the quality of the crude shale oil for refining, exploratory research on the character and refining of shale oil, and other published refining background leading to the present status are discussed. The initial refining of shale oil requires the removal of a large concentration of nitrogen, an added step not required for typical petroleum crude oils, and recently published estimates show that the total cost of refining will be high. Specific technoloy is reported by industry to be technically proven and available for commercial-scale refining. Although the refining will be more costly than that of petroleum, the viability of a shale oil industry will also be affected greatly by the technology and costs of producing the crude shale oil, environmental costs, and future price and tax treatment, and these are outside the scope of this study of refining.

Lanning, W.C.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Shale oil: process choices  

SciTech Connect

The four broad categories of shale-oil processing are discussed. All of these processes share the basic function of retorting oil-shale rock at high temperature so that the kerogen material in the rocks is thermally decomposed to shale oil and gaseous products. The technologies and the organizations working on their development are: solids-to-solids heating, The Oil Shale Co. (TOSCO) and Lurgi-Rhur; gas-to-solids heating with internal gas combustion, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Development Engineering Inc. and Union Oil of California; gas-to-solid heating with external heat generation, Development Engineering, Union Oil, Petrobas, and Institute of Gas Technology; and in-situ retorting, Occidental Petroleum Corp. The TOSCO II process is considered proven and on the verge of commercialization. (BLM)

1974-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

34

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during oil shale retorting: retort water and gas condensate.commercial oil shale plant, retort water and gas condensateunique to an oil shale retort water, gas condensate, and

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Market assessment for shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study identified several key issues on the cost, timeliness, and ease with which shale oil can be introduced into the United States' refining system. The capacity of the existing refining industry to process raw shale oil is limited by the availability of surplus hydrogen for severe hydrotreating. The existing crude oil pipeline system will encounter difficulties in handling raw shale oil's high viscosity, pour point, and contaminant levels. The cost of processing raw shale oil as an alternate to petroleum crude oil is extremely variable and primarily dependent upon the percentage of shale oil run in the refinery, as well as the availability of excess hydrogen. A large fraction of any shale oil which is produced will be refined by the major oil companies who participate in the shale oil projects and who do not anticipate problems in processing the shale oil in their refineries. Shale oil produced for sale to independent refiners will initially be sold as boiler fuel. A federal shale oil storage program might be feasible to supplement the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Based on refinery configurations, hydrogen supply, transportation systems, and crude availability, eleven refineries in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 2A and 2B have been identified as potential processors of shale oil. Based on refining technology and projected product demands to the year 2000, shale oil will be best suited to the production of diesel fuel and jet fuel. Tests of raw shale oil in boilers are needed to demonstrate nitrogen oxide emissions control.

Not Available

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Published on Aspen Daily News Online (http://www.aspendailynews.com) Report finds oil shale could impact Colorado's water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Development (116.4) (30.6) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserve (2.1) (2.1) Clean Coal Technology (18.0) (18

Neff, Jason

37

Oil shale: Technology status report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Process for oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

40

Market assessment for shale oil  

SciTech Connect

This study identified several key issues on the cost, timeliness, and ease with which shale oil can be introduced into the United States' refining system. The capacity of the existing refining industry to process raw shale oil is limited by the availability of surplus hydrogen for severe hydrotreating. The existing crude oil pipeline system will encounter difficulties in handling raw shale oil's high viscosity, pour point, and contaminant levels. The cost of processing raw shale oil as an alternate to petroleum crude oil is extremely variable and primarily dependent upon the percentage of shale oil run in the refinery, as well as the availability of excess hydrogen. A large fraction of any shale oil which is produced will be refined by the major oil companies who participate in the shale oil projects and who do not anticipate problems in processing the shale oil in their refineries. Shale oil produced for sale to independent refiners will initially be sold as boiler fuel. A federal shale oil storage program might be feasible to supplement the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Based on refinery configurations, hydrogen supply, transportation systems, and crude availability, eleven refineries in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 2A and 2B have been identified as potential processors of shale oil. Based on refining technology and projected product demands to the year 2000, shale oil will be best suited to the production of diesel fuel and jet fuel. Tests of raw shale oil in boilers are needed to demonstrate nitrogen oxide emissions control.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are described for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber. In the second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

Gregg, D.W.

1981-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

43

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

products, percent: Oil Gas Spent Shale TOTAL Average tracecontent of the gases for the lean shale exceeded that for

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Method of operating an oil shale kiln  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

Reeves, Adam A. (Rifle, CO)

1978-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

45

The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

Gary, J.H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

47

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Shale oil recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Syncrude from eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to make resource assessment, mining and process economic evaluations of oil shale in Lewis and Fleming Counties, Kentucky. Two surface retorting processes, Paraho and HYTORT, were selected and the process and economic analyses were made for a 30,000 tons/day oil shale retorting facility. This work presents the results of this eastern oil shale feasibility study. 3 refs.

Vyas, K.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Germany 51 254 700 ... June 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources 18

51

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.and Biological Treatment of Shale Oil Retort Water, DraftPA (1979). H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedingsin the Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Waters," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component Materials," LBL-

Bellman Jr., R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedings

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Oil shale technical data handbook  

SciTech Connect

This is a reference book to provide information for the evaluation of appropriate technology for shale oil development. The oil resource is defined, and the properties of shale and the oil and gas derived from it are listed. Recovery technologies compatible with the particular resource are also described. Discussion of various aspects of shale oil development, such as mining, materials handling, beneficiation, upgrading, waste-water treatment, and spent shale disposal, are also presented. Available design information dealing with maximum module size, operating conditions, yields, utility requirements, etc. is documented. (BLM)

Nowacki, P. (ed.)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Shale oil cracking. 1. Kinetics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to determine kinetics for thermal cracking of shale oil vapor over shale. Cracking temperatures of 504 to 610/sup 0/C and residence times of 2 to 11 seconds were used. A first-order Arrhenius rate expression and stoichiometry were obtained. Also observed were changes in the oil quality. Cracking decreased the H/C ratio, increased the nitrogen content, and decreased the pour point of the oil. Gas-phase oil cracking is contrasted to liquid-phase oil coking as a loss mechanism in oil-shale retorting.

Burnham, A.K.; Taylor, J.R.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil Shale Process Wastewater," in Analysis of Waters Associated with Alternate Fuel Production,oil and shale during In in-situ processes, retort water its production

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Production of Shale Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intensive pre-project feasibility and engineering studies begun in 1979 have produced an outline plan for development of a major project for production of shale oil from private lands in the Piceance Basin in western Colorado. This outline plan provides a blueprint for the development of a 28,000 acre holding on Clear Creek in Garfield County, Colorado on property acquired by Standard Oil of California in the late 1940's and early 1950's. The paper describes these planning activities and the principal features of a proposed $5 billion project to develop facilities for production of 100,000 barrels per day of synthetic crude from oil shale. Subjects included are resource evaluation, environmental baseline studies, plans for acquisition of permits, plans for development of required retorting and mining technology and a preliminary description of the commercial project which will ultimately emerge from these activities. General financial impact of the project and the case for additional tax incentives to encourage it will be described.

Loper, R. D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Fifth symposium on oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented at symposium May 2-3, 1968 at Denver, discusses legal and economic problems facing federal policy toward oil shale deposits exploitation, processing of oil shale above surface and in situ and underground mining methods and equipment to be used.

1968-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Oil shale: The environmental challenges III  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

Petersen, K.K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed analysis of technical and economic factors solar retorting of oil shale shows that such a process should be technically feasible and, depending on the grade of the shale, should improve the fuel yield from the oil shale by 10 to 40%, compared to one of the best competing surface ay for the incremental processes. The improved oil yield should more than pay for the incremental cost associated with adding the solar collection system. An experiment is described in which solar energy is used to retort oil shale, and the experimental results show that yields of better than 110% Fischer Assay are achievable. An advanced design for a solar oil-shale retort is also discussed.

Gregg, D.W.; Grens, J.Z.; Taylor, R.W.; Aiman, W.R.

1980-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

63

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

Not Available

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development Unconventional Fuels Conference University of Utah May 17, 2011 #12;#12;Domestic Oil Shale Resources Primary oil shale resources in the U.S. are in the Green River Formation in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. 72 % of this oil shale resource is on Federal

Utah, University of

66

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. of Decomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II. LivermoreEffects Lawrence of Steam on Oil Shale Retorting: Livermore

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermoreof Colorado Oil Shale: II. Livermore Laboratory Report No.Effects Lawrence of Steam on Oil Shale Retorting: Livermore

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Oil shale combustion/retorting  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

Not Available

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Process and apparatus for oil shale retorting  

SciTech Connect

A process and apparatus are disclosed for the continuoua steady state retorting of ground oil shale in the absence of air. Retorting is accomplished by countercurrently contacting heated spent oil shale with fresh ground oil shale in a vessel from which air is excluded. The spent oil shale is heated by combustion of its carbonaceous residue to form a hot heat transfer medium which, when contacted with fresh oil shale in the retorting process, provides the energy for the recovery of hydrocarbons. (auth)

Frick, G.W.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Oil shale retorting method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

York, E.D.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

72

Oil Shale Research in the United States | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil Shale Research in the United States Oil Shale Research in the United States Profiles of Oil Shale Research and Development Activities In Universities, National Laboratories,...

73

Solar retorting of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

First, in an overview, we outline and discuss the potential applications of solar energy to the production of fuels. We show that, starting from a fossil feedstock, there are four areas in which solar energy can have a major impact in the production of fuels: in solar retorting of oil shale, in solar coal gasification, in solar steam flooding of oil fields, and in solar steam-reforming of methane. We performed a detailed technical and economic analysis of solar retorting of oil shale. The analysis shows that this solar process not only should be technically feasible but also should improve the fuel yield from the oil-shale feedstock by 10 to 40%, depending on the grade of the shale, compared to the most efficient competing (nonsolar) process. The improved oil yield should more than pay for the incremental cost associated with adding the solar collection system (field of focusing heliostats). The results from an experiment in which solar energy was used to retort oil shale show that yields of better than 110% Fischer Assay are achievable. An advanced design for a solar oil-shale retort is also presented.

Gregg, D.W.; Taylor, R.W.; Grens, J.Z.; Aiman, W.R.; Marsh, L.E.

1980-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Oil shale deposits of Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Oil-shale deposits occur in several areas of Thailand. Perhaps the most important deposit occurs at Mae Sod in Tak Province, West Thailand. Other well-known deposits are Li in Lamphum Province, Ko Kha District, Lampang Province, and Krabi in the southern peninsular region. The geological age of all these deposits is late Tertiary, as demonstrated by the presence of the fossils from the oil shale of the Mae Sod series, e.g., fish of the Ostariophysian family Cyprinidae.

Chakrabarti, A.K.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermore Laboratoryb) using columns of spent shale. REFERENCES Burnham, Alankinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1. co Effect

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Microsoft Word - Oil Shale Research in the United States 2011_Draft2.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil Shale Research in the United States Oil Shale Research in the United States ______________________________________________________________________________ Profiles of Oil Shale Research and Development Activities In Universities, National Laboratories, and Public Agencies Prepared by INTEK, Inc. For the U.S. Department of Energy * Office of Petroleum Reserves Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Third Edition: September 2011 3 rd Edition Acknowledgements This report was prepared by INTEK, Inc. for the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (DOE/NPOSR) as a part of the AOC Petroleum Support Services, LLC (AOC-PSS) Contract Number DE-FE0000175 (Task 30). Mr. James C. Killen of DOE served as Technical Monitor and Mr. Khosrow Biglarbigi of INTEK, Inc. served as the Project Manager.

77

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas compressorThis process produces shale oil, a low BTU gas, and char,Oil Shale Process" in Oil Shale and Tar Sands, J. W. Smith

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

79

Multiphase flow analysis of oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several multiphase phenomena occur during oil shale retorting. An analysis is presented of two of these processes including condensation of oil shale vapor and oscillations of pressure in oil shale blocks through cracked bedding planes. Energy conservation equations for oil shale retorting, which include the effects associated with condensation of oil, are derived on the basis of two phase flow theory. It is suggested that an effective heat capacity associated with the latent heat of condensation should be included in the modeling of simulated modified in-situ oil shale retorting. A pressure propagation equation for fast transients in oil shale cracks has been derived and examined in view of existing experimental data. For slow processes, a limiting solution for maximum pressure in oil shale rocks has been obtained. Generation of high pressures in rocks by thermal or other means may lead to rock fracture which may be taken advantage of in modified in-situ oil shale processing.

Gidaspow, D.; Lyczkowski, R.W.

1978-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

80

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the grout. SPENT SHALE Oil shale, which is a low-gradeMineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. of Decomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II. Livermore

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are unique to in-situ oil shale production, Literature fromother industries to oil shale production because these datapotential for spent shale grout production and to design a

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Oil shale technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

LLNL oil shale project review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Livermore's oil shale project is funded by two budget authorities, two thirds from base technology development and one third from environmental science. Our base technology development combines fundamental chemistry research with operation of pilot retorts and mathematical modeling. We've studied mechanisms for oil coking and cracking and have developed a detailed model of this chemistry. We combine the detailed chemistry and physics into oil shale process models (OSP) to study scale-up of generic second generation Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) retorting systems and compare with results from our 4 tonne-per-day continuous-loop HRS pilot retorting facility. Our environmental science program focuses on identification of gas, solid and liquid effluents from oil shale processes and development of abatement strategies where necessary. We've developed on-line instruments to quantitatively measure trace sulfur and nitrogen compounds released during shale pyrolysis and combustion. We've studied shale mineralogy, inorganic and organic reactions which generate and consume environmentally sensitive species. Figures, references, and tables are included with each discussion.

Cena, R.J. (ed.)

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Australian developments in oil shale processing  

SciTech Connect

This study gives some background on Australian oil shale deposits, briefly records some history of oil shale processing in the country and looks at the current status of the various proposals being considered to produce syncrudes from Australian oil shales. 5 refs.

Baker, G.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Oil shale technology and evironmental aspects  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are a combination of mining, retorting, and upgrading facilities. This work outlines the processing steps and some design considerations required in an oil shale facility. A brief overview of above ground and in situ retorts is presented; 6 retorts are described. The development aspects which the oil shale industry is addressing to protect the environment are presented.

Scinta, J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the carbon, oil, and gas from the shale are combusted; andceases •t II Burner gas and shale heat shale ll>" ~Air AirFigure 2. Oil recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Oil-shale utilization at Morgantown, WV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fully aware of the nation's need to develop high-risk and long-term research in eastern oil-shale and low-grade oil-shale utilization in general, the US DOE/METC initiated an eastern oil-shale characterization program. In less than 3 months, METC produced shale oil from a selected eastern-US oil shale with a Fischer assay of 8.0 gallons/ton. In view of the relatively low oil yield from this particular oil shale, efforts were directed to determine the process conditions which give the highest oil yield. A 2-inch-diameter electrically heated fluidized-bed retort was constructed, and Celina oil shale from Tennessee was selected to be used as a representative eastern oil shale. After more than 50 runs, the retorting data were analyzed and reviewed and the best oil-yield operating condition was determined. In addition, while conducting the oil-shale retorting experiments, a number of technical problems were identified, addressed, and overcome. Owing to the inherent high rates of heat and mass transfers inside the fluidized bed, the fluidized-bed combustor and retorting appear to be a desirable process technology for an effective and efficient means for oil-shale utilization. The fluidized-bed operation is a time-tested, process-proven, high-throughput, solid-processing operation which may contribute to the efficient utilization of oil-shale energy.

Shang, J.Y.; Notestein, J.E.; Mei, J.S.; Romanosky, R.R.; King, J.A.; Zeng, L.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Oil-shale material properties  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical properties of oil shale have been under examination at Sandia since 1975 in a program which has involved laboratory and field experimentation along with complementary analytical activities. The dependence of the fragmentation phenomenon on strain rate is important in explosive applications because strain rates realized in typical blasting events extend over a wide range. The model has been used to calculate a variety of explosive geometries in oil shale, with results compared to small- and large-scale experiments, including a small block test with 80 g of explosive and a field test with 5 kg explosive.

Kipp, M.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Naval Petroleum Reserves | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Naval Petroleum Reserves For much of the 20th century, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves served as a contingency source of fuel for the Nation's military. All that...

91

Bakken Shale Oil Production Trends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the conventional reservoirs decrease in discovering, producing and reserving, unconventional reservoirs are more remarkable in terms of discovering, development and having more reserve. More fields have been discovered where Barnett Shale and Bakken Shale are the most recently unconventional reservoir examples. Shale reservoirs are typically considered self-sourcing and have very low permeability ranging from 10-100 nanodarcies. Over the past few decades, numerous research projects and developments have been studied, but it seems there is still some contention and misunderstanding surrounding shale reservoirs. One of the largest shale in the United State is the Bakken Shale play. This study will describe the primary geologic characteristics, field development history, reservoir properties,and especially production trends, over the Bakken Shale play. Data are available for over hundred wells from different companies. Most production data come from the Production Data Application (HDPI) database and in the format of monthly production for oil, water and gas. Additional 95 well data including daily production rate, completion, Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT), pressure data are given from companies who sponsor for this research study. This study finds that there are three Types of well production trends in the Bakken formation. Each decline curve characteristic has an important meaning to the production trend of the Bakken Shale play. In the Type I production trend, the reservoir pressure drops below bubble point pressure and gas releasingout of the solution. With the Type II production trend, oil flows linearly from the matrix into the fracture system, either natural fracture or hydraulic fracture. Reservoir pressure is higher than the bubble point pressure during the producing time and oil flows as a single phase throughout the production period of the well. A Type III production trend typically has scattering production data from wells with a different Type of trend. It is difficult to study this Type of behavior because of scattering data, which leads to erroneous interpretation for the analysis. These production Types, especially Types I and II will give a new type curve matches for shale oil wells above or below the bubble point.

Tran, Tan

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Combuston method of oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

Jones, Jr., John B. (300 Enterprise Building, Grand Junction, CO 81501); Reeves, Adam A. (P.O. Box 781, Anvil Points, Rifle, CO 81650)

1977-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

93

Enriching off gas from oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

Liquid and gaseous products are recovered from oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort in which a combustion zone is advanced therethrough by a method which includes the steps of establishing a combustion zone in the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort and introducing a gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone in the direction the combustion zone is to be advanced through the in situ oil shale retort. The gaseous feed mixture comprises an oxygen supplying gas and water vapor and is introduced into the combustion zone at a rate sufficient to maintain the temperature in the combustion zone within a predetermined range of temperatures above the retorting temperature of the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort and sufficient to advance the combustion zone through the in situ oil shale retort. The introduction of the gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone generates combustion products gases which together with the portion of the gaseous feed mixture which does not take part in the combustion process, is called flue gas. The flue gas passes through the oil shale on the advancing side of the combustion zone, thereby retorting the oil shale to produce liquid and gaseous products. The liquid product and the retort off gas, which comprises gaseous product and flue gas, are withdrawn from the in situ oil shale retort at a point on the advancing side of the retorting zone. 47 claims, 1 figure.

Cha, C.Y.; Ridley, R.D.

1977-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

94

SHALE OIL--THE ELUSIVE ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An early settler in the valley of Parachute Creek in western Colorado built a log cabin, and made the fireplace and chimney out of the easily cut, locally abundant black rock. The pioneer invited a few neighbors to a house warming. As the celebration began, he lit a fire. The fireplace, chimney, and ultimately the whole cabin caught fire, and burned to the ground. The rock was oil shale. It was a sensational house warming! Oil shales are reported to have been set afire by lightning strikes. The Ute Indians of northwestern Colorado told stories of "mountains that burned. " Cowboys and ranchers of the region burned the dark rock in their fires, like coal. The flammable nature of the richer oil shales is basis for the title of a fascinating book by H. K. Savage (1967), The Rock That Burns. During oil shale enthusiasms in the early part of this century, stock promoters brought pieces of oil shale to Chicago street corners and set them afire. Clouds of smoke attracted crowds, and the promoters sold stock in oil shale companies. Nature of oil shale. Shale oil comes from oil shale, but oil shale is a misnomer. It is neither a true shale nor does it generally have any oil in it. It is better identified as organic marlstone, marl being a mixture of clay and calcium carbonate. The organic material is kerogen, derived from myriad organisms, chiefly plants. Savage (1967) notes the term "oil shale " is a promotional term: "The magic word 'oil ' would raise large sums of promotion money while organic marlstone wouldn't raise a dime." The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines oil shale as "organic-rich shale that yields substantial quantities of oil by conventional methods of destructive distillation of the contained organic matter, which employ low confining pressures in a closed retort system. " (Duncan and HC#98/4-1-1

M. King; Hubbert Center; Walter Youngquist

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor elements in oil shale and oil~shale products, LERCmercury to the oil shale, shale oil, and retort water. Thesemercury to spent shale, shale oil, retort water and offgas

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

situ oil shale combustion experiment con- A gas chro- Thisspent shales were waters were studied, retort water and gasof retort waters and gas condensate. Spent shale reduces the

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States June 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 June 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources 1 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or

99

Why solar oil shale retorting produces more oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar oil shale retorting process may produce higher oil yield than conventional processing. High oil yield is obtained for three reasons: oil carbonization inside of the shale is reduced, oil cracking outside of the shale is reduced, and oil oxidation is essentially eliminated. Unique capabilities of focused solar energy produce these advantages. An increase in yield will reduce the cost of mining and shale transportation per barrel of oil produced. These cost reductions may justify the increased processing costs that will probably be associated with solar oil shale retorting.

Aiman, W.R.

1981-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

100

Hugoniots of Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Standard experimental shock wave techniques were used to obtain Hugoniots of Anvil Points oil shale as functions of richness and orientation in the pressure regime encountered in the near-field region of an explosion. The shock response was found to be sensitive to kerogen content but independent of bedding orientation relative to the direction of shock propagation. A two-component model combining the inferred dynamic parameters for the end members (kerogen and mineral matrix) is adequate to predict the Hugoniots of oil shale of any arbitrary composition. Hence, the Hugoniots, as for other material properties, can be ultimately uniquely related to the oil yield. Preliminary dynamic results from samples obtained from other sites in Colorado and Wyoming indicate that this is generally true within the accuracy required for predictive explosive rock breakage calculations. 7 figures.

Carter, W.J.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

James W. Bunger

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

Oil shale up-date  

SciTech Connect

The development of large domestic oil shale resources in an environmentally acceptable manner is technically feasible. Such development is approaching economic attractiveness. It is an essential step in attacking the major national problem: increasing oil imports. Several things have been impeding oil shale development. First, until recently there has been a lack of viable technology. Second, environmental regulations are becoming increasingly restrictive. These have become so unrealistic that the bare undeveloped ground in oil shale country fails to comply. Most of this area is now classified as a nonattainment area. The third reason is economic uncertainty. This relates to price and other governmental controls which make it impossible to predict future conditions with enough confidence to justify private investments. In an effort to overcome this uncertainty, while retaining the impeding controls, all types of governmental incentives and supports are being proposed by the Administration, the Congress, and the industry. This study highlights the current status of the more prominent technologies. It suggest that the next logical step in their advancement is the construction and operation of single full-size retorts or modules.

Pforzheimer, H.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence LivermoreReaction kinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1.Reaction kinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 2.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermorekinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1. co Effectkinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 2. co 2

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

International developments in oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An overview of oil shale research and development outside the US provides a status report on technology approaches under active consideration in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, West Germany, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Soviet Union, Thailand, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. The status report covers the development plans and project costs of industrial projects. The technologies under consideration include the Fushun, Galoter, Kiviter, Lurgi, and Petrosix processes. 10 references.

Uthus, D.B.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the Division of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology and theGas Environments on Mineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale,"

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Oil shale mining and the environment. [Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Experimental mining of oil shale, to date, has been conducted only in the shallow Mahogany Zone and has utilized only the room and pillar mining method. The U.S. Bureau of Mines is planning a demonstration mine in the deep, thick oil-shale deposits in Colorado. This study describes the 4 mining concepts that are planned for demonstration and the interrelationship of these concepts and the environment. The environmental aspects of oil-shale development also are discussed.

Rajaram, V.; Kauppila, T.A.; Bolmer, R.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Oil shale: acceleration of its development. Technical report. [Evaluation of proposal  

SciTech Connect

Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Paraho Development Corporation, has submitted a proposal to the Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves of the Department of the Navy for the acceleration of oil shale development. The proposal was prepared after a series of meetings and discussions with various representatives of the Department of Interior and the Department of the Navy who are associated with oil shale development and/or the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR). The general thrust of the proposal is the expansion and extension of an existing oil shale research project utilizing the Paraho oil shale retort process. The project is being conducted under a lease arrangement with the Department of the Interior which includes the use of oil shale from the NOSR. This evaluation will discuss the DEI proposal in terms of the justification, the feasibility, required implementation action, and several special considerations for the Department of the Navy.' The discussion is based on the substance of DEI's proposal and independent investigations in several areas associated with the proposed effort. (GRA)

Trabandt, C.A.

1974-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

109

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are unique to in-situ oil shale production, Literature fromother industries to oil shale production because these dataThe processes used in production of oil shale have not been

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

20 to 40% of the oil shale, and explosively rubblizing andCEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P, K, Mehta Civil Engineering

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controls for a Commercial Oil Shale In~try, Vol. I, An En~in Second Briefing on In-Situ Oil Shale Technology, LawrenceReactions in Colorado Oil Shale, Lawrence Report UCRL-

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Control Strategies for Abandoned in situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented elt the TUJelfth Oil Shale Synlposittnz, Golden,for Abandoned In Situ Oil Shale Retorts P. Persoll and ]. P.Water Pollution of Spent Oil Shale Residues, EDB Lea,

Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Control Strategies for Abandoned in situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented elt the TUJelfth Oil Shale Synlposittnz, Golden,for Abandoned In Situ Oil Shale Retorts P. Persoll and ]. P.Pollution of Spent Oil Shale Residues, EDB Lea, Salinity

Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

steam, and groundwater intrusion during oil shale retorting: retort water and gas condensate.Steam Stripping of Occi- dental petroleum Retort No. 6 Gas Condensate,

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Water application related to oil shale listed  

SciTech Connect

A water right application filed by the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. is reported for surface waters and ground water in Rio Blanco County, Colorado.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Enriching off gas from oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

A method whereby liquid and gaseous products are recovered from oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort is discussed. A combustion zone is advanced by establishing a combustion zone in the oil shale and introducing a gaseous feed mixture into the zone in the direction the zone is to be advanced through the oil shale retort. The gaseous feed mixture consists of an oxygen supplying gas and water vapor and is introduced into the combustion zone at a rate sufficient to maintain the temperature in the combustion zone within a predetermined range of temperatures above the retorting temperature of the oil shale in the in situ oil shale retort. The introduction of the gaseous feed mixture into the combustion zone generates combustion product gases which together with the portion of the gaseous feed mixture which does not take part in the combustion process, is called flue gas. The flue gas passes through the oil shale on the advancing side of the combustion zone, thereby retorting the oil shale to produce liquid and gaseous products. The liquid product and the retort off gas, which consists of gaseous product and flue gas, are withdrawn from the in situ oil shale retort at a point on the advancing side of the retorting zone. (47 claims) (Continuation-in-part of U.S. Appl. 492,289, f. 7/26/74)

Cha, C.Y.; Ridley, R.D.

1977-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

118

Developments in oil shale in 1983  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale development activities continued at a somewhat restricted pace during 1983. The activities reflect the continued soft economic environment in the petroleum industry. A limited number of projects are active, and research is continuing on processes, materials handling, mining techniques, and resource evaluation. Past oil shale development papers have highlighted resources and activities in several states in the eastern and western portions of the United States. This paper highlights Australian oil shale geology and developments and Canadian oil shale geology and developments. 5 figures, 1 table.

Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.; Hutton, A.C.; Macauley, G.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects: Shale Oil Upgrading Utilizing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Companies providing oil samples of at least five (5) gallons include Chevron, Oil Shale Exploration Company (OSEC), and Red Leaf Resources, Inc. Background Work performed...

120

Method for retorting oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

1985-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Economic variables in production of oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The oil-shale production cost estimates reported by the National Petroleum Council in Dec. 1972, as part of an overall study of the U.S. energy situation are the most recent publicly available data on oil-shale economics. Using the basic NPC costs, this study examines several important parameters affecting shale oil's economic viability. Other factors pertinent to consideration of oil shale as a domestic fuel source, such as the leasing of federal oil shale lands, water availability, and environmental restraints are reviewed.

Cameron, R.J.

1973-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identified in Oil Shale and Shale Oil. list." 1. Preliminaryrisks of large scale shale oil production are sufficient tofound in oil shale and shale oil by EMIC and ETIC, has

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor Elements in Oil Shale and Oil Shale Products. LERCfor Use 1n Oil Shale and Shale Oil. OSRD-32, 1945. Jeris, J.Water coproduced with shale oil and decanted from it is

Farrier, D.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemicals Identified in Oil Shale and Shale Oil. list." 1.of Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Wa- ters", Am.Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Waters", in Oil Shale

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

Ricketts, T.E.

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

126

Oil Shale Research in the United States | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Research in the United States Oil Shale Research in the United States Profiles of Oil Shale Research and Development Activities In Universities, National Laboratories, and Public...

127

Method and apparatus for distilling oil shale  

SciTech Connect

In an oil shale retrort there is the combination of a plurality of interconnected hollow sections, each having a flat bottom, the bottom surfaces of the sections lying in different planes and being inclined at an angle greater than the angle of repose for powdered oil shale whereby oil shale will flow by the action of gravity alone. Means are located at the juncture of each of the sections for abruptly changing the direction of flow of the shale whereby the velocity is reduced.

White, C.O.

1929-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

128

Oil shale oxidation at subretorting temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Green River oil shale was air oxidized at subretorting temperatures. Off gases consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water were monitored and quantitatively determined. A mathematical model of the oxidation reactions based on a shrinking core model has been developed. This model incorporates the chemical reaction of oxygen and the organic material in the oil shale as well as the diffusivity of the oxygen into the shale particle. Diffusivity appears to be rate limiting for the oxidation. Arrhenius type equations, which include a term for oil shale grade, have been derived for both the chemical reaction and the diffusivity.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Oil degradation during oil shale retorting. [Effects on oil yields from powdered shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent experimental data demonstrating the effects of varied thermal histories on oil yield from powdered Colorado shale are reviewed. Losses in overall yield resulting from interruption of a rapid heating schedule with an isothermal holding period are directly related to the amounts of oil that are produced during the holding period. These amounts are also correlated with the inert gas flow rates required to raise the yields to the assay value. The results show that degradation of oil outside the shale particles is the major determinant of oil yield from powdered shale. Maximum thermal degradation rates are calculated from these data and compared with pyrolysis rates for petroleum fractions.

Raley, J.H.; Braun, R.L.

1976-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

130

Active oil shale operations: Eastern Uinta Basin  

SciTech Connect

A Utah Geological and Mineral survey Map of the Eastern Uinta Basin is presented. Isopach lines for the Mahogany oil shale are given, along with the locations of active oil shale operations and the land ownership (i.e. federal, state, or private).

Ritzma, H.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Indirect heating pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hot, non-oxygenous gas at carefully controlled quantities and at predetermined depths in a bed of lump oil shale provides pyrolysis of the contained kerogen of the oil shale, and cool non-oxygenous gas is passed up through the bed to conserve the heat

Jones, Jr., John B. (Grand Junction, CO); Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO)

1978-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

133

Method for extracting an oil content from oil shale. [ultrasonic waves  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for extracting an oil content from oil shale by compressing powdery grains of oil shale while applying ultrasonic waves to these powdery grains to separate the oil content from the powdery grains of oil shale.

Lee, J.

1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

134

Oil shale: a new set of uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

The discovery and delivery of North Sea oil has created an uncertain future for the British oil shale industry in spite of its lower price per barrel. While oil companies have long been interested in a secure shale oil source for chemical feedstocks, environmental concerns, mining difficulties, and inflated operating costs have counteracted the opportunity provided by the 1973 oil embargo. With the financial risks of oil shale mining and retorting too great for a single company, research efforts have shifted to a search for technologies that will be multistaged and less costly, such as in-situ mining, in-situ processing, and hydraulic fracturing. Successful testing and demonstration of these processes will determine the future commercial role of oil shales. 17 references and footnotes.

Schanz, J.J. Jr.; Perry, H.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controls for a Commercial Oil Shale In~try, Vol. I, An En~Mathematical Hodel for In-Situ Shale Retorting," in SecondBriefing on In-Situ Oil Shale Technology, Lawrence Livermore

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Oil shale and tar sands technology: recent developments  

SciTech Connect

The detailed, descriptive information in this book is based on US patents, issued since March 1975, that deal with the technology of oil shale and tar sands. The book contains an introductory overview of the subject. Topics included are oil shale retorting, in situ processing of oil shale, shale oil refining and purification processes, in situ processing of tar sands, tar sands separation processes.

Ranney, M.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource and Technology Development

138

Utilization of Oil Shale Retorting Technology and Underground Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper analyzes the world's oil shale development and status of underground dry distillation technology and, through case studies proved the advantages of underground dry distillation technology. Global oil shale resource-rich, many countries in the ... Keywords: oil shale, ground retorting, underground dry distillation, shale oil, long slope mining

Chen Shuzhao; Guo Liwen; Xiao Cangyan; Wang Haijun

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Reverse combustion oil-shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oil shale was retorted in a laboratory retort with the flame front and gas flow moving concurrently and countercurrently. Results indicate countercurrent flow produced a lower oil yield and a higher heating value of the retort gas than concurrent flow. Energy recovery from the oil shale was essentially the same when the retorting was done with either concurrent or countercurrent flame and gas movement. Laboratory results are compared with large scale retorts operated under similar conditions.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.; Dockter, L.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Assay products from Green River oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Data from 66 material-balanced assays conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laramie Energy Technology Center, and The Oil Shale Corporation were compiled and analyzed to determine the pyrolysis stoichiometry for Green River formation oil shales originating in and near the Mahogany zone. Shale samples came from four sites in Colorado and one in Utah, and ranged in oil content from 12 to 258 L/Mg (3 to 62 gal/ton). Average values and pairwise correlation coefficients are reported for all data (except sulfur analyses) available on the shales, e.g., elemental analyses of shales and oils, distribution of organic carbon in products, gas composition, and some ratios of elemental composition. The wide range of organic carbon contents made it possible to demonstrate the sensitivity of assay product distribution to oil shale grade. A linear correlation for shale grade as a function of weight percent organic carbon in raw shale is presented. An average stoichiometry for pyrolysis of the organic material is also calculated and compared with others available in the literature.

Singleton, M.F.; Koskinas, G.J.; Burnham, A.K.; Raley, J.H.

1982-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

142

Oil shale retorting and retort water purification process  

SciTech Connect

An oil shale process is provided to retort oil shale and purify oil shale retort water. In the process, raw oil shale is retorted in an in situ underground retort or in an above ground retort to liberate shale oil, light hydrocarbon gases and oil shale retort water. The retort water is separated from the shale oil and gases in a sump or in a fractionator or quench tower followed by an API oil/water separator. After the retort water is separated from the shale oil, the retort water is steam stripped, carbon adsorbed and biologically treated, preferably by granular carbon adsorbers followed by activated sludge treatment or by activated sludge containing powdered activated carbon. The retort water can be granularly filtered before being steam stripped. The purified retort water can be used in various other oil shale processes, such as dedusting, scrubbing, spent shale moisturing, backfilling, in situ feed gas injection and pulsed combustion.

Venardos, D.G.; Grieves, C.G.

1985-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

143

Unconventional oil market assessment: ex situ oil shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis focused on exploring the economic limitations for the development of western oil shale. The analysis was developed by scaling a known process and… (more)

Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Differential thermal analysis of the reaction properties of raw and retorted oil shale with air  

SciTech Connect

The results of a study to determine the kinetics of combustion of oil shale and its char by using differential thermal analysis are reported. The study indicates that Colorado oil shale and its char combustion rate is the fastest while Fushun oil shale and its char combustion rate is the slowest among the six oil shales used in this work. Oil shale samples used were Fushun oil shale, Maoming oil shale, Huang county oil shale, and Colorado oil shale.

Wang, T.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pore-volume study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. York, E. D. , Amoco Oil Co. , letter to J. P. Fox,Reaction kinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Gasification characteristics of eastern oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is evaluating the gasification characteristics of Eastern oil shales as a part of a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and HYCRUDE Corporation to expand the data base on moving-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Gasification of shale fines will improve the overall resource utilization by producing synthesis gas or hydrogen needed for the hydroretorting of oil shale and the upgrading of shale oil. Gasification characteristics of an Indiana New Albany oil shale have been determined over temperature and pressure ranges of 1600 to 1900/sup 0/F and 15 to 500 psig, respectively. Carbon conversion of over 95% was achieved within 30 minutes at gasification conditions of 1800/sup 0/F and 15 psig in a hydrogen/steam gas mixture for the Indiana New Albany oil shale. This paper presents the results of the tests conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor to obtain reaction rate data and in a continuous mini-bench-scale unit to obtain product yield data. 2 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and INTRODUCTION Oil shale production by vertical modified1 aspects of oil shale production air, solid waste, andimpacts of oil shale production, and to develop information

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen properties. SCMs can be by-products from various industries or of natural origin, such as shale. Oil shale correctly, give a material with some cementitious properties known as burned oil shale (BOS). This study

Dalang, Robert C.

149

Gas collection system for oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

An in-situ oil shale retorting process is described in which a cavity filled with broken particles of oil shale is formed within the subsurface oil shale formation and air is forced down through the cavity to sustain combustion of the top layer of oil shale particles, the products of combustion being withdrawn at the bottom of the cavity. A plurality of exhaust pipes traverse the bottom of the cavity and extend out through the sealed entrance to the retort cavity. The pipes are supported above the floor of the cavity and have holes opening on the bottom side of the pipes through which the product gases are withdrawn from the cavity. Valves in each pipe control the flow so as to balance the flow distribution of air and exhaust gases through the retorting cavity.

Ridley, R.D.; Burton, R.S. III

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Insulated dipole antennas for heating oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Insulated dipole antennas in the HF band are potentially useful in heating shale i n s i t u to extract oil. To help evaluate the efficiency of such antennas

John P. Casey; Rajeev Bansal

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controls for a Commercial Oil Shale In~try, Vol. I, An En~in Second Briefing on In-Situ Oil Shale Technology, LawrenceHeley, Water Management ln Oil Golder Associates, Kirkland,

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P.Cement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,203 (1974), E. D. York, Amoco Oil Co. , letter to J, P. Fox,

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Environmental control costs for oil shale processes  

SciTech Connect

The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Overview of LASL oil shale program  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is involved in a broad spectrum of oil shale-related activities for the US Department of Energy (DOE), including the bed preparation design of a modified in situ retort. This aspect of oil shale research has been identified by DOE as one of the limiting technologies impeding commerical, in situ development of oil shale. The retort bed must have uniform particle size, permeability, and void distributions to allow proper retorting and optimum resource recovery. Controlled fracturing using chemical explosives and carefully designed blasting schemes are the only feasible methods to attain this distribution. This approach to the bed preparation problem is a coordinated research program of explosives characterization, dynamic rock mechanics, predictive computer modeling, and field verification tests. The program is designed to develop the predictive fracturing capability required for the optimum rubbing of the shale.

Morris, W.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Oil shale. environmental and health issues  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and health issues include the solid-waste disposal problem; the possibility of the release of toxic and carcinogenic constituents into the environment; water requirements in a water-poor area; the potential air pollution problems; the low resource utilization of some of the processes; and the relative energy production compared with energy input. Such issues arise from the fact that it takes 1.5 tons of oil shale to make 1 bbl of oil, which, for a 1 million bbl/day industry, would require the processing of 480 million tons/yr of shale and would produce 390 million tons/yr of spent shale. The various oil shale processing technologies are briefly described.

Chappell, W.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Two-stage oil shale retorting process and disposal of spent oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Formation is excavated from an in situ oil shale retort site for forming at least one void within the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent such a void. The remaining zone is explosively expanded toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. Oil shale in the in situ retort is retorted to produce liquid and gaseous products, leaving a mass of spent oil shale particles in the in situ retort. Oil shale particles excavated from the in situ retort site are separately retorted, such as in a surface retorting operation, producing liquid and gaseous products and spent surface retorted oil shale particles. The spent surface retorted particles are disposed of by forming an aqueous slurry of the particles, and pumping the slurry into a spent in situ retort. In one embodiment, the aqueous slurry is introduced into a hot lower portion of the spent retort where contact with hot spent oil shale particles generates steam which, in turn, is withdrawn from the spent retort in usable form. In another embodiment, water from the aqueous slurry introduced into a spent in situ retort collects at a level within the retort. The water can be recovered by drilling a drainage hole upwardly from a lower level drift into the level within the spent retort where the water collects and draining the water through the drainage hole to the lower level drift for recovery.

Tassoney, J.P.

1983-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

157

Gulf Shale Oil Upgrading Process technology  

SciTech Connect

A description of the Gulf Shale Oil Hydrotreating Process, which is designed for upgrading full range shale oil to premium quality synthetic crude, is presented. The process consists of two sections: a low severity pretreating section which stabilizes the raw oil, removes iron, arsenic, trace metals and particulates, and sulfur; and a twostage, high severity hydrotreating section which completes the upgrading. The second section hydrotreats the bulk oil to a specified nitrogen content, allowing for a quality FCC feedstock in the 650F+ (343C+) residue. The main reactor effluent is flashed with subsequent hydrotreating of the flash vapor oil to achieve a low nitrogen level in the naphtha and middle distillate. The benefit of this flash configuration is hydrogen addition selectivity which maximizes syncrude quality while minimizing overall hydrogen consumption; this selectivity relationship is detailed. Finally, the product quality of the syncrudes produced with the Gulf Shale Oil Hydrotreating Process using shale oils derived from three different retort technologies and for Western and Eastern shales are discussed.

Jones, W.; Antezana, F.J.; Cugini, A.V.; Lyzinski, D.; Miller, J.B.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Apparatus for oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

In-situ laser retorting of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale formations were retorted in-situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation. After fracturing a region of oil shale formation by directing a high energy laser beam into one of the wells and focussing the laser beam into a region of oil shale formation from a laser optical system, compressed gas was forced into the well which supports combustion in the flame front ignited by laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale and recovering gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured oil shale from one of the auxiliary wells.

Bloomfield, H.S.

1977-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

160

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor Elements in Oil Shale and Oil-Shale Products. LERC RIChemistry of Tar Sands and Oil Shale, ACS, New Orleans.Constituent Analysis of Oil Shale and Solvent-Refined Coal

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

INTERCOMPARISON STUDY OF ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN RAW AND SPENT OIL SHALES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minor Elements ~n Oil Shale and Oil-Shale Products. LERC RI-Analytical Chemistry of Oil Shale and Tar Sands. Advan. inFischer Assay of Standard Oil-Shale Sample. Preprints, Div.

Fox, J.P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production of portland cement from a 1.8:1 mixture of limestone and raw oil shale.oil production and result in a new, high-risk tech- nology while modification of as-received spent shale

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

The Union Oil Company of California Parachute Creek Oil Shale Program  

SciTech Connect

The country's first commercial oil shale project will begin operation this year. This writeup describes Union's program for commercial oil shale production.

Jackson, R.M.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

In situ recovery of shale oil  

SciTech Connect

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean oil shale deposit by excavating a columnar void having a vertically extending free face, drilling blasting holes adjacent to the columnar void and parallel to the free face, loading the blasting holes with explosive, and detonating the explosive in a single round to expand the shale adjacent to the columnar void toward the free face in layers severed in a sequence progressing away from the free face and to fill with fragmented oil shale the columnar void and the space in the in situ retort originally occupied by the expanded shale prior to the expansion. A room having a horizontal floor plan that coincides approximately with the horizontal cross section of the retort to be formed is excavated so as to intersect the columnar void. The blasting holes are drilled and loaded with explosive from the room. The room can lie above the columnar void, below the columnar void, or intermediate the ends of the columnar void. In one embodiment, the columnar void is cylindrical and the blasting holes are arranged in concentric rings around the columnar void. In another embodiment, the columnar void is a slot having one or more large parallel, planar vertical free faces, toward which the oil shale in the retort under construction can be explosively expanded. The blasting holes are arranged in planes parallel to these faces. The resulting retort generally has a cross section coinciding with the placement of the blasting holes and a height determined for the greater part by the vertical height of the columnar void. To form a retort having a large cross-sectional area, a plurality of columnar voids can be excavated and the shale in the retort expanded toward the respective columnar voids to form a continuous fragmented permeable mass of oil shale.

French, G.B.

1977-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

165

Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

Looney, Mark Dean (Houston, TX); Lestz, Robert Steven (Missouri City, TX); Hollis, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Wigand, Marcus (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

166

Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

Looney, Mark Dean (Houston, TX); Lestz, Robert Steven (Missouri City, TX); Hollis, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Wigand, Marcus (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

167

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Shale oil cracking. 2. Effect on oil composition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results from spectroscopic investigations are presented that demonstrate the effect of oil cracking on shale oil composition. Techniques used include infrared spectroscopy, capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance. We show that cracking causes an increase in aromatic and alkene content of the oil. We compare our results for oils prepared in the laboratory with oils prepared in the TOSCO-II semi-works and in modified and true-in-situ combustion retorts. We demonstrate that the napthalene/2-methyl-naphthalene ratio is a good indicator of cracking conditions in an oil shale retort.

Burnham, A.K.; Sanborn, R.H.; Crawford, R.W.; Newton, J.C.; Happe, J.A.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Recent trends in oil shale. I. History, nature, and reserves  

SciTech Connect

To understand the current level of oil shale development and to anticipate some of the problems that will govern the growth rate of the domestic shale oil industry, this bulletin will discuss these issues in three parts. In this MIB, the nature of oil shale is discussed and a brief history of oil shale development is presented. The worldwide and domestic oil shale resources are described, with emphasis on recent geologic exploration of the Green River formation. Part II will cover oil shale mining and fuel extraction while Part III will discuss technical problems of shale oil refining and some economic and social problems of oil shale development. An extensive bibliography is provided. (MCW)

Sladek, T.A.

1974-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

A study on the Jordanian oil shale resources and utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jordan has significant oil shale deposits occurring in 26 known localities. Geological surveys indicate that the existing deposits underlie more than 60% of Jordan's territory. The resource consists of 40 to 70 billion tones of oil shale

Ahmad Sakhrieh; Mohammed Hamdan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Gas withdrawal from an in situ oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

Liquid and gaseous products are recovered from oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale by retorting oil shale in the fragmented mass to produce gaseous and liquid products. The liquid products are withdrawn from the retort to a first level in unfragmented formation below the elevation of the bottom boundary of the retort. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the retort to a second level below the elevation of the first level.

Mills, E.A.

1979-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

172

Colorado oil shale: the current status, October 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A general background to oil shale and the potential impacts of its development is given. A map containing the names and locations of current oil shale holdings is included. The history, geography, archaeology, ecology, water resources, air quality, energy resources, land use, sociology, transportation, and electric power for the state of Colorado are discussed. The Colorado Joint Review Process Stages I, II, and III-oil shale are explained. Projected shale oil production capacity to 1990 is presented. (DC)

Not Available

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Economic enhancement of Western shale oil upgrading  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A proof-of-concept study for a novel shale oil refining process was undertaken. This project promises reduced upgrading costs, thereby making shale oil development more feasible for commercialization. The process consists of distillation of raw shale oil into a distillate and residue portion, cracking of the residue by hydropyrolysis, and selective hydrotreating of narrow boiling cuts from the total distillate. Based on models and experimental data, the end product slate is projected to be 34% naphtha, 57% middle distillate, and 10.3% atm residue + coke. Hydrogen addition is 1.3% or 800 scf/bbl. These results are considerably improved over conventional processing, which gives 14% naphtha, 41% middle distillate, and 48.2% residue + coke and hydrogen addition of 3.2% or 2000 scf/bbl. More quantitative data and preliminary economics will be obtained in the next phase of study. 13 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Bunger, J. W.; Ryu, H.; Jeong, S. Y.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Characterization of hydrotreated TOSCO shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A shale oil that had been produced by the TOSCO-II process and hydrotreated was characterized according to its hydrocarbon and other functional compound composition. The oil was separated by distillation, adsorption chromatography, acid and base extraction, and gel permeation chromatography into fractions suitable for mass spectral characterization. The oil was composed largely of saturate hydrocarbons with the remainder being mostly monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. Very small amounts of heterocompounds were present.

Vogh, J.W.; Holmes, S.A.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Woodward, P.W.; Dooley, J.E.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Oil shale programs. Tenth quarterly report, April 1978--June 1978  

SciTech Connect

Work is being performed under three programs: diagnostic and rock mechanics support for the Laramie In Situ-Oil Shale program, advanced instrumentation and field projects for in-situ oil shale processing, and in-situ oil shale bed preparation study.

Stevens, A.L. (ed.)

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Pyrolysis kinetics for western and eastern oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oil yield and kinetic results are reviewed for Western (Colorado Mahogany zone) and Eastern (Sunbury and Ohio (Cleveland member)) oil shales for conditions ranging from those encountered in in-situ processing to those in fluidized-bed retorting. The authors briefly summarize kinetic models for the pyrolysis reactions. Oil yields from Eastern shale are much more sensitive to pyrolysis conditions than Western shale.

Burnham, A.K.; Coburn, T.T.; Richardson, J.H.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale #12;About Red Leaf Resources 2006 Company commercial development field activities #12;Highlights Proven, Revolutionary Oil Shale Extraction Process Technology Significant Owned Oil Shale Resource #12;· The executive management team of Red Leaf Resources

Utah, University of

178

Prototype oil-shale leasing program. Volume I. Regional impacts of oil shale development. [Colorado, Wyoming, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This action would make available for private development up to 6 leases of public oil shale lands of not more than 5,120 acres each. Two tracts are located in each of the states of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Oil shale development would produce both direct and indirect changes in the environment of the oil shale region in each of the 3 states where commercial quantities of oil shale resources exist.

1973-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

179

Experimental work on oil shale at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and predictions of retorting characteristics of oil shale. [RISE  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program is being carried out to advance oil-shale retorting technology. This paper summarizes some results of laboratory and pilot retorting and gives the reactions of oil-shale char with gases. A computer model of the retorting process has been compared with retort experiments and has been used to predict in situ retorts under various operating conditions. Finally, the results of a retort using Negev (Israel) oil shale are compared with those using Colorado oil shale.

Rothman, A.J.; Lewis, A.E.

1977-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

180

Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin The purpose of this paper is...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or by refin- ing and using shale Oil Mass balances and oil.shale retorting produces shale oil, mobility factors wereand retort operating shale, shale oil, retorting (LETC) con-

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

General model of oil shale pyrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A mathematical model for pyrolysis of Green River oil shale is developed from previous experiments on oil, water, and gas evolution and oil cracking over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. Reactions included are evolution of 5 gas species, oil, and water from kerogen, clay dehydration, oil coking and cracking, and evolution of H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ from char. Oil is treated in eleven boiling-point fractions in order to treat the competition between oil coking and evaporation, and to evaluate the effect of oil cracking on the boiling point distribution of the oil. The kinetics and product yields calculated by the model are compared to experimental results for pyrolysis conditions ranging from isothermal fluid-bed to high-pressure slow-heating-rate retorting.

Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Oil shale retorting and combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

Pitrolo, Augustine A. (Fairmont, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Shang, Jerry Y. (Fairfax, VA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Thermal conversion of oil shale into recoverable hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrocarbons is accomplished by pyrolysis of oil shale with controlled removal of the resulting layer of spent oil-shale residue. A procedure is described for the in situ thermal conversion of oil shale wherein fluidized abrasive particles are employed to foster improved hydrocarbon production, in amount and kind, by a controlled partial removal of the layer of spent oil shale which results from application of flowing fluids to heat exposed surfaces of the oil shale to release hydrocarbons. (5 claims)

Slusser, M.L.; Bramhall, W.E.

1969-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

185

Process concept of retorting of Julia Creek oil shale  

SciTech Connect

A process is proposed for the above ground retorting of the Julia Creek oil shale in Queensland. The oil shale characteristics, process description, chemical reactions of the oil shale components, and the effects of variable and operating conditions on process performance are discussed. The process contains a fluidized bed combustor which performs both as a combustor of the spent shales and as a heat carrier generator for the pyrolysis step. 12 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Sitnai, O.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

viable is the recovery of shale oil from our substantialdeposits of oil shale (1). Shale oil is recovered from oilproduce~ along with the shale oil, considerable amounts of

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Constraints on the commercialization of oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The problems and prospects for the commercialization of oil shale from surface retorting are examined. Commercialization refers to the process of private sector adoption of a technology for general use after most of the technological uncertainties have been resolved. Three categories of constraints and uncertainties can be identified: technical constraints relating to the performance characteristics of the technology; economic constraints on the ability of the technology to yield an acceptable rate of return to investors; and institutional constraints that arise from the organizational and political context in which commercialization takes place. Because surface retorting involves relatively well understood technologies, this study deals almost exclusively with economic and institutional constraints. At the present time, a government commercialization effort for oil shale surface retorting would not be likely to result in a viable industry in this century. Alternative oil shale technologies such as modified in situ processes offer prospects of lower shale oil costs, but are less well developed. Data on modified in situ processes are not abundant enough as yet to permit serious estimates of commercial-scale costs. Consequently, government decisions regarding the commercialization of modified in situ technologies should await the completion of further technical tests and an independent definitive plant design.

Merrow, E.W.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

189

Western oil shale conversion using the ROPE copyright process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing to develop the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process to recover liquid hydrocarbon products from oil shale, tar sand, and other solid hydrocarbonaceous materials. The process consists of three major steps: (1) pyrolyzing the hydrocarbonaceous material at a low temperature (T {le} 400{degrees}C) with recycled product oil, (2) completing the pyrolysis of the residue at a higher temperature (T > 400{degrees}C) in the absence of product oil, and (3) combusting the solid residue and pyrolysis gas in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor to produce process heat. Many conventional processes, such as the Paraho and Union processes, do not use oil shale fines (particles smaller than 1.27 cm in diameter). The amount of shale discarded as fines from these processes can be as high as 20% of the total oil shale mined. Research conducted to date suggests that the ROPE process can significantly improve the overall oil recovery from western oil shale by processing the oil shale fines typically discarded by conventional processes. Also, if the oil shale fines are co-processed with shale oil used as the heavy recycle oil, a better quality oil will be produced that can be blended with the original shale oil to make an overall produce that is more acceptable to the refineries and easier to pipeline. Results from tests conducted in a 2-inch process development unit (PDU) and a 6-inch bench-scale unit (BSU) with western oil shale demonstrated a maximum oil yield at temperatures between 700 and 750{degrees}F (371 and 399{degrees}C). Test results also suggest that the ROPE process has a strong potential for recovering oil from oil shale fines, upgrading shale oil, and separating high-nitrogen-content oil for use as an asphalt additive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

Cha, C.Y.; Fahy, L.J.; Grimes, R.W.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

depleted underground oil shale for the permanent storage of carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depleted underground oil shale for the permanent storage of carbon depleted underground oil shale for the permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) generated during the oil shale extraction process. AMSO, which holds a research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) lease from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management for a 160-acre parcel of Federal land in northwest Colorado's oil-shale rich Piceance Basin, will provide technical assistance and oil shale core samples. If AMSO can demonstrate an economically viable and environmentally acceptable extraction process, it retains the right to acquire a 5,120-acre commercial lease. When subject to high temperatures and high pressures, oil shale (a sedimentary rock that is rich in hydrocarbons) can be converted into oil. Through mineralization, the CO 2 could be stored in the shale

191

Morphological investigations of fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust  

SciTech Connect

A review of morphological investigations carried out to clarify the pathogenicity of industrial dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of lungs of workers in the oil shale industry taken at necropsies showed that the inhalation of oil shale dust over a long period (more than 20 years) may cause the development of occupational pneumoconiotic changes in oil shale miners. The pneumoconiotic process develops slowly and is characterized by changes typical of the interstitial form of pneumoconiotic fibrosis in the lungs. Emphysematous changes and chronic bronchitis also occur. The average chemical content of oil shale as well as of samples of oil shale dust generated during mining and sorting procedures is given. The results of experiments in white rats are presented; these studies also indicate a mild fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

Kung, V.A.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Microbial desulfurization of Eastern oil shale: Bioreactor studies  

SciTech Connect

The removal of sulfur from Eastern oil shale (40 microns particle size) slurries in bioreactors by mixed microbial cultures was examined. A mixed culture that is able to remove the organic sulfur from model sulfur compounds presenting coal as well as a mixed culture isolated from oil shale enrichments were evaluated. The cultures were grown in aerobic fed-batch bioreactors where the oil shale served as the source of all nutrients except organic carbon. Glucose was added as an auxiliary carbon source. Microbial growth was monitored by plate counts, the pH was checked periodically, and oil shale samples were analyzed for sulfur content. Results show a 24% reduction in the sulfur content of the oil shale after 14 days. The settling characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined in the presence of the microbes. Also, the mixing characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Maka, A.; Akin, C.; Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Srivastava, V.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

System for utilizing oil shale fines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Oil shale health and environment research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While there have been sporadic efforts to demonstrate certain shale oil extraction technologies in recent years, none of the techniques have been thoroughly analyzed to determine the extent of potential occupational health impacts and even those technologies that have been demonstrated cannot be regarded as typical of a scaled-up, fully mature industry. Industrial hygiene studies have served to identify operations within certain technologies where mitigating methods can and should be applied to protect the industrial populations. Judging from data developed by on-site sampling it is probable that, with the possible exception of MIS techniques, oil shale mining presents no unique problems that cannot be handled with state-of-the-art control procedures. The conditions that may exist in a mine where in situ retorts are being simultaneously prepared, burned and abandoned have not as yet been defined. The probability of combined exposures to spent shale dusts and fugitive emissions in the form of vapors and gases added to the potential for skin exposure to product oils and other liquid effluents raises more complex questions. It has been shown by both epidemiological evidence and experimental data gathered both in the US and in foreign industries that crude shale oil and some of its products carry a higher carcinogenic potential than most of the natural petroleums. Preliminary data suggest that this particular hazard may be almost self-eliminating if hydrotreating, in preparation for refining, is universally practiced. The determination of specific hazards should be done on a technology-specific basis since it is highly probable that the biological activity of most of the products and by-products of shale oil production is process-specific.

Holland, L.M.; Tillery, M.I.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

HTGR application for shale-oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) utilizes a graphite-moderated core and helium as primary coolant. Developed for electric power production, the 842-MW(t) (330-MW(e)) Fort St. Vrain plant is currently operating at Platteville, Colorado. Studies have been performed that couple steam produced at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F) and 17 MPa (2500 psia) to two oil shale processes: the Paraho indirect retorting and the Marathon direct steam retorting. The plant, consisting of two 1170-MW(t) HTGR's, would also produce electric power for other shale operations. Results show economic and environmental advantages for the coupling.

Quade, R.N.; Rao, R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

HTGR application for shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) utilizes a graphite-moderated core and helium as primary coolant. Developed for electric power production, the 842-MW(t) (330-MW(e)) Fort St. Vrain plant is currently operating at Platteville, Colorado. Studies have been performed that couple steam produced at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F) and 17 MPa (2500 psia) to two oil shale processes: the Paraho indirect retorting and the Marathon direct steam retorting. The plant, consisting of two 1170-MW(t) HTGR's, would also produce electric power for other shale operations. Results show economic and environmental advantages for the coupling.

Quade, R.N.; Rao, R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jr. and M. D. Shelby, "Chemicals Identified in Oil Shaleand Shale Oil. list." 1. Preliminary Environmental Mutagenof Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Wa- ters", Am.

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Evaluation of EOR Potential by Gas and Water Flooding in Shale Oil Reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The demand for oil and natural gas will continue to increase for the foreseeable future; unconventional resources such as tight oil, shale gas, shale oil… (more)

Chen, Ke

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

TREATMENT OF MULTIVARIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jr. and M. D. Shelby, "Chemicals Identified in Oil Shaleand Shale Oil. list." 1. Preliminary Environmental MutagenTrace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Wa- ters", Am. Chern.

Kland, M.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The use of oil shale ash in the production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil shale ash obtained from combustion of local oil shale deposits was used in this study as a heterogeneous catalyst to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oil (WVO). Two alcohols with high and low boiling points

A. Al-Otoom; M. Allawzi; A. Ajlouni; F. Abu-Alrub; M. Kandah

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Oil shale: a framework for development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The price escalation of petroleum in recent times has removed the economic barrier to shale oil production, or soon will. A technological base for production is available which can be rapidly developed to the size and quality needed. The resource base in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado can support production of 1 to 5 million barrels of oil per day for hundreds of years. Institutional problems are the major remaining impediment to the development of oil shale. The small part of the resource in private hands is economically marginal and cannot support large production rates or the most efficient methods. The best land is owned by the Federal Government and is unavailable under present laws and policies. The lack of an integrated federal policy and an implementation plan prevents the development that is now technically and economically practical. One possible solution is a Piceance Basin Authority chartered by Congress to efficiently manage this resource and coordinate the federal governmental responsibility for oil shale resource development and conservation, water development, environmental control, and land use policy. It should be located in Colorado for an effective interaction with State and local authorities where both have responsibility. Government lands must be made accessible on a scale suitable to the technology and in a way that is acceptable to the public and to industry. Government and industry can then cooperate in a unitized, coordinated development of the resource and the area. With access to the resource and a clear government responsibility for area-wide, non-commercial planning and development, industry can provide the technology and capital for production and marketing of shale oil on an economically competitive basis.

Lewis, A.E.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Soil stabilization using oil-shale solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil-shale solid wastes are evaluated for use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in durability and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern oil shale appears to be feasible for soil stabilization only if limestone is added during combustion. Testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented and the mechanisms of spent-shale cementation are discussed.

Turner, J.P. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Archeological Engineering)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Two-level, horizontal free face mining system for in situ oil shale retorts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for forming an in-situ oil shale retort within a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, such an in-situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed within upper, lower and side boundaries of an in-situ oil shale retort site.

Cha, C.Y.; Ricketts, T.E.

1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

204

Development and Utilization of Changpo Oil Shale Mining Area in Hainan Province China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper according to the Hainan provincial governor slope occurrence of oil shale mining, analyzing the direction of oil shale mining, development mode and reasonable development of the scale. Analysis showed that the long slope of oil shale mining ... Keywords: oil shale, a long slope mining, retorting, oil shale, in situ retorting

Wang Haijun; Li Kemin; Chen Shuzhao; Wang Bowen

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The chemistry of minerals obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale Awni Y. Al was performed on the spent oil shale (oil shale ash) obtained from the combustion of Jordanian oil shale process, minimal fragmentation was encountered since Jordanian oil shale contains large proportions of ash

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

206

Oil shale retorting: Part 3, a correlation of shale oil 1-alkene/n-alkane ratios with yield  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Shale oil obtained by pyrolyzing oil shale in an autogeneous or inert gas environment was analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography. It was found that ratios of l-alkenes to n-alkanes in the liquid oil correlate linearly with the percent of oil yield.

Coburn, T.T.; Bozak, R.E.; Clarkson, J.E.; Campbell, J.H.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting  

SciTech Connect

The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Analysis of low stress oil shale Hugoniots  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of low stress Hugoniot data on Anvil Points oil shale was accomplished through careful categorization of data depending upon density. Density is directly related to kerogen content and kerogen content is a strong variable in determining the Hugoniot. For a given density (kerogen content), the shock velocity-particle velocity data show a minimum in shock velocity believed related to yielding in the rock constituent of the oil shale. Low stress Hugoniot data blend smoothly with high pressure data. Further data selection permitted evaluation of the orientation dependence (approximately 15 percent in wave speed) of the shock velocity. Wave propagation speed in a direction normal to the bedding planes is less than that parallel to the bedding planes. A weak minimum in wave speed occurs between 0 and 45/sup 0/.

Munson, D.E.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

STUDY COMMISSIONED BY WEST LOTHIAN COUNCIL OIL-SHALE BINGS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;STUDY COMMISSIONED BY WEST LOTHIAN COUNCIL OIL-SHALE BINGS Dr Barbra Harvie School of Geo.....................................................................................................3 The birth of the oil industry ...........................................................................................................................3 The impact of oil on society

210

Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting  

SciTech Connect

The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

Noridin, J.S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L.W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Calculation of explosive rock breakage: oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Improved efficiency in explosive rock breakage becomes increasingly important as mining costs and the need to tap underground resources continue to grow. Industry has recognized this need for many years and has done a great deal in developing new products and new blasting techniques, generally by purely empirical means. One particular application that has received added attention within the past several years, and one that lends itself to a more objective theoretical study, is explosive fracture of oil shale for conventional and in situ fossil energy recovery. Numerical calculation of oil shale fracturization with commercial explosives has the potential to add to an objective understanding of the breakage process. Often, in such numerical studies, only one or two parts of the total problem are addressed with any degree of sophistication or completeness. Here an attempt is made to treat the entire problem, i.e., explosive characterization, constitutive behavior of intact rock, and a mathematical description of rock fracture. The final results are two-dimensional calculations of explosively induced fracture damage in oil shale.

Johnson, J.N.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Oil-shale mining, Rifle, Colorado, 1944-1956  

SciTech Connect

The Rifle, Colorado, oil-shale project of the Bureau of Mines included three major divisions: (1) mining, (2) retorting, and (3) refining. The major functions of the mining program were to supply oil shale to the retorts, to devise mining procedures, and to develop an underground-mining method by which oil shale could be produced safely at an unusually low cost per ton. The selected mining procedures and direct mining costs were demonstrated by sustained test runs.

East, J.H. Jr.; Gardner, E.D.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Research and information needs for management of oil shale development  

SciTech Connect

This report presents information and analysis to assist BLM in clarifying oil shale research needs. It provides technical guidance on research needs in support of their regulatory responsibilities for onshore mineral activities involving oil shale. It provides an assessment of research needed to support the regulatory and managerial role of the BLM as well as others involved in the development of oil shale resources on public and Indian lands in the western United States.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Oil shale retorting and off-gas purification  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a process for removing acidic impurities from off-gases generated in the retorting of oil shale comprising contacting a rubblized mass of oil shale which has been substantially depleted in hydrocarbonaceous materials with water, so as to extract basic components from the mass; and contacting off-gases, which were generated during the retorting of oil shale and which contain acidic impurities, with the water containing basic components so as to substantially remove said acidic impurities from the off-gases. Also disclosed is a process for the in situ retorting of oil shale and removal of acidic impurities from off-gases generated in the in situ or surface retorting of oil shale comprising forming a plurality of subterranean in situ oil shale retorts containing rubblized oil shale having a void space of about 5 to about 40 per cent; retorting a first subterranean in situ retort until the rubblized oil shale is spent and substantially depleted in hydrocarbonaceous material; injecting water into the spent retort so as to deplete the heat content of the retorted rubblized oil shale and to form steam; recovering and using the steam in the retorting of a second subterranean in situ oil shale retort; continuing to inject water into the spent first retort so as to extract basic components from the retorted rubblized oil shale; recovering the water containing basic components; and contacting off-gases generated during the in situ or surface retorting of oil shale, the off-gases containing acidic impurities, with the water containing basic components so as to substantially remove acidic impurities from the off-gases.

Honaker, D.E.

1978-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

215

Oil shale in Colorado, the '80s  

SciTech Connect

An overview of near-future oil shale development in Colorado, including an assessment of Colorado's oil shale deposits is presented. A description of the state-of-the-art oil shale technology is also included, and an in-depth look at current projects is given. Also noted are governmental and legal aspects involved, with six areas of specific concern to Colorado pointed out. (JMT)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedingsof the 11th Oil Shale Symposium, 1978. J. W.MB_terial in Green River Oil Shale, U.S. Bur. lvlines Rept.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil, water, spent shale, and gas. These data were enteredtoxic trace elements in oil shale gases and is using thisin the raw oil shale and input gases that is accounted for

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Division of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology to appropriateseven oil shale process waters including retort water, gas1d1i lc the gas condensate is condensed develop oil shale

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentStudies Trace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J.Organic Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H.

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lll67C Presented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden,~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.expanded by the Division of Oil, Gas, and Shale Technology

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

each of retort water and shale oil, about 10 1 000 standardfrom In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and Environmentanic species present in shale oils process waters, gases,

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION OF SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water co produced with shale oil and decanted from it isWater from Green River Oil Shale, Chemistry and Industry,for an In-Situ Produced Oil-Shale Processin g Water, LERC

Ossio, E.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

A Strategy for the Abandonment of Modified In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of steam on oil shale ing: a preliminary laboratoryInstitute to Rio Blanco Oil Shale Project, May 1977. 1~Cement, pozzolan and oil shale chemistry The chemistry of

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Moody, M.M.; Sisemore, C.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4, 19'70, p. 89. 24. C-b Shale Oil Venture: Hydrology, MinePiles Solid wastes from the shale-oil recovery process alsoStabilization of Spent Oil Shales, EPA-600/'7-'78- 021, Feb.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

situ oil-shale process waters produced laboratory- scale andAn In Situ Produced Oil Shale Process Water D. S. Farrier,].OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER D. S. Farrier

Farrier, D.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentTrace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J. Kland, A.Organic Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H.

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stabilization of Spent Oil Shales, EPA-600/'7-'78- 021, Feb.Impact Analysis for an Oil Shale Complex at Parachute Creek,from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedings of

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION OF SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water from Green River Oil Shale, Chemistry and Industry,for an In-Situ Produced Oil-Shale Processin g Water, LERCOf Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Water B.A. Ossio, J.P.

Ossio, E.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

A Strategy for the Abandonment of Modified In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of steam on oil shale ing: a preliminary laboratoryInstitute to Rio Blanco Oil Shale Project, May 1977. 1~OF MODIFIED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS J. P. Fox and P.

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Moody, M.M.; Sisemore, C.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, April~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.compounds in the seven oil shale process waters. These

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,V. E . • 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements in Oil Shale andOil-Shale Products. LERC RI 77-1, 1977. Bertine, K. K. andFrom A Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort. In: Procedings of

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedings ofthe 11th Oil Shale Symposium, 1978. J. W.MB_terial in Green River Oil Shale, U.S. Bur. lvlines Rept.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from In-Situ Retorting of Oil Shale," Energy and EnvironmentTrace Contaminants in Oil Shale Retort Water M. J. Kland, A.Arsenic Compounds 1n Oil Shale Process Waters R. H. Fish,

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

INTERCOMPARISON STUDY OF ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN RAW AND SPENT OIL SHALES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements ~n Oil Shale andOil-Shale Products. LERC RI-77/1, 1977. Wildeman, T. R.H. Meglen. The Analysis of Oil-Shale Materials for Element

Fox, J.P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements in Oil Shale andOil Shale Products. LERC Rept. of Invest. 77-1, 1977.Significant to In Situ Oil Shale Processing. Quart. Colo.

Farrier, D.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION OF SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water from Green River Oil Shale, Chemistry and Industry,an In-Situ Produced Oil-Shale Processin g Water, LERC ReportOf Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Water B.A. Ossio, J.P.

Ossio, E.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,E . • 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone the

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

SPECIATION OF TRACE ORGANIC LIGANDS AND INORGANIC AND ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

organoarsenic compounds in oi.l shale process waters using aPresented at the 13th Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, April~1ETALLIC COMPOUNDS IN OIL SHALE PROCESS WATERS Richard H.

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Experimental study of mechanisms of improving oil recovery in Shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ABSTRACT Extensive laboratory work was done to investigate some of the important mechanisms of improving oil recovery in Shale formations. The objective of this research… (more)

Onyenwere, Emmanuel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Methods of Managing Water in Oil Shale Development - Energy ...  

This invention is a system and method of providing water management and utilization during the process of dewatering and retorting of oil shale. More ...

242

Oil shale pyrolysis: benchscale experimental studies and modeling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oil shale is a complex material that is composed of organic matter, mineral matrix and trace amount of bound and/or unbound water. The endothermic decomposition… (more)

Tiwari, Pankaj

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Special issue - the emerging reality of oil shale: government plays a prominent role in leasing and developing oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The federal government announced in mid-1979 its intention to develop 400 dam3/day (2.5 million bpd) of oil substitutes by 1990, including 64 dam3/day (400,000 bpd) for oil shale. The federal government owns much of the oil shale reserves in Colorado's Piceance Creek Basin and Utah's Uinta Basin. State and private interests control the remaining 20% of the most marketable reserves. In most of Utah and Colorado, the US controls the richest and largest consolidated oil shale reserves. As a result, the federal government is in a unique position to spur rapid oil shale development through an expedited and expanded federal shale development program. In May 1980, the Department of Interior announced a broad new program for developing federal oil shale reserves. Also in May and June, 1980, the Supreme Court announced 2 decisions, Andrus vs. Utah and Shell Oil vs. Andrus, that opened up for federal development vast oil shale reserves in Utah and clarified in part, the status of private oil shale claims. These developments, coupled with substantial financial inducements soon to emerge from the Synthetic Fuels Corp., suggest the long-awaited promise of oil shale development may finally arrive.

Israel, D.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Oil shale as an energy source in Israel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reserves, characteristics, energetics, chemistry, and technology of Israeli oil shales are described. Oil shale is the only source of energy and the only organic natural resource in Israel. Its reserves of about 12 billion tons will be enough to meet Israel`s requirements for about 80 years. The heating value of the oil shale is 1,150 kcal/kg, oil yield is 6%, and sulfur content of the oil is 5--7%. A method of oil shale processing, providing exhaustive utilization of its energy and chemical potential, developed in the Technion, is described. The principal feature of the method is a two-stage pyrolysis of the oil shale. As a result, gas and aromatic liquids are obtained. The gas may be used for energy production in a high-efficiency power unit, or as a source for chemical synthesis. The liquid products can be an excellent source for production of chemicals.

Fainberg, V.; Hetsroni, G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Results of oil-shale investigations in northeastern Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The major focus of this oil-shale investigation has been on specific localities of oil-shale resource potential. Three main areas of oil-shale occurrence have been studied in detail: the Elko area, Pinon Range area, and Coal Mine Canyon. Geologic mapping, stratigraphic studies, and sampling to delimit the lateral extent of the oil shale deposits were in progress prior to the cooperative agreement with Nevada DOE. These surface geologic studies have been summarized in this report. The results of surface geologic studies conducted near Elko suggested that the Elko area represented the best and most accessible oil-shale deposits; therefore, the Elko area was selected as the site of a shallow exploratory drilling program. Essential to this study was the obtaining of fresh, unweathered oil-shale samples from the Elko area. The samples were obtained from the core-drilling program and tested for oil yield by Fischer assays. The oil yields determined from these samples, together with the geology have provided an improved basis for resource estimates for the oil-shale deposit at Elko. In addition to the more detailed field studies, a literature survey was conducted to develop a bibliography related to oil shale in Nevada and to use as a basis for identifying other oil-shale occurrences. The literature search was also extended to include information on petroleum source rocks that contain organic-rich shales with possible potential as additional oil-shale resources. The annotated bibliography is included in the appendix. 88 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Moore, S.W.; Madrid, H.B.; Server, G.T. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Physical and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures containing oil shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rutting of bituminous surfaces on the Jordanian highways is a recurring problem. Highway authorities are exploring the use of extracted shale oil and oil shale fillers, which are abundant in Jordan. The main objectives of this research are to investigate the rheological properties of shale oil binders (conventional binder with various percentages of shale oil), in comparison with a conventional binder, and to investigate the ability of mixes to resist deformation. The latter is done by considering three wearing course mixes containing three different samples of oil shale fillers--which contained three different oil percentages--together with a standard mixture containing limestone filler. The Marshall design method and the immersion wheel tracking machine were adopted. It was concluded that the shale oil binders displayed inconsistent physical properties and therefore should be treated before being used. The oil shale fillers have provided mixes with higher ability to resist deformation than the standard mix, as measured by the Marshall quotients and the wheel tracking machine. The higher the percentages of oil in the oil shale fillers, the lower the ability of the mixes to resist deformation.

Katamine, N.M.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Studies of oil-shale reaction chemistry at LLL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review is presented of recent studies on the chemistry of oil shale retorting. Kinetics are summarized for oil production and destruction mechanisms including kerogen-bitumen pyrolysis, oil coking and oil cracking. The effect of retorting conditions on shale oil quality is discussed along with the reverse process of inferring retorting conditions and yield loss mechanisms in modified in-situ retorts. Kinetic studies of carbonate mineral decomposition and related mineral reactions as well as residual carbon gasification are outlined.

Burnham, A.K.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Retorting of oil shale followed by solvent extraction of spent shale: Experiment and kinetic analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of El-Lajjun oil shale were thermally decomposed in a laboratory retort system under a slow heating rate (0.07 K/s) up to a maximum temperature of 698--773 K. After decomposition, 0.02 kg of spent shale was extracted by chloroform in a Soxhlet extraction unit for 2 h to investigate the ultimate amount of shale oil that could be produced. The retorting results indicate an increase in the oil yields from 3.24% to 9.77% of oil shale feed with retorting temperature, while the extraction results show a decrease in oil yields from 8.10% to 3.32% of spent shale. The analysis of the data according to the global first-order model for isothermal and nonisothermal conditions shows kinetic parameters close to those reported in literature.

Khraisha, Y.H.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combustion) and the oil shale reserves near Rock Springs,homogeneous reserve of an in situ oil-shale process water

Farrier, D.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Effects of low temperature preheating on the pyrolysis products from blocks of oil shale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oil shale is a sedimentary rock composed of inorganic and organic fractions. The inorganic minerals contained in oil shale include: dolomite, calcite, quartz, i1 lite,… (more)

Alston, David W.

1905-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays Review of Emerging Resources:  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays Review of Emerging Resources: July 2011 www.eia.gov U.S. Depa rtment of Energy W ashington, DC 20585 This page inTenTionally lefT blank The information presented in this overview is based on the report Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays, which was prepared by INTEK, Inc. for the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The full report is attached. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies.

252

An Application of Sequence Stratigraphy in Modelling Oil Yield Distribution: The Stuart Oil Shale Deposit, Queensland, Australia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Stuart Oil Shale Deposit is a major oil shale resource located near Gladstone on the central Queensland coast. It contains an estimated 3.0 billion… (more)

Pope, Graham John

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Confined core pillar design for Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The design of oil shale pillars, using the confined core concept, depends on the engineering properties of intact rock specimens, as modified by observed pillar failures. Over-stressed oil shale pillars and test specimens typically begin to fail through intact rock. However, ultimate disintegration probably occurs as shale-on-shale sliding along initial failure surfaces. The general absence of adversely oriented, natural fractures makes oil shale a favorable pillar material. Probably the weakest structures in the oil shale (not considering the leached zone) are the interfaces between the rich and lean beds; however, these weaknesses would not present an avenue for potential failure. Therefore, pillar design, based on failures through adversely oriented joints, is not generally applicable for oil shale. Empirical pillar design, based only on data obtained from a large number of observed pillar failures, is not possible for oil shale at this time. Also, pillar design, based on data obtained from coal mining experience, is not considered to be accurate due to the geologically dissimilar properties of oil shale. The confined core pillar design is presented as adapted from Wilson (1972). Also included are example pillar design problems.

Abel, J.F. Jr. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden); Hoskins, W.N.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Attrition and abrasion models for oil shale process modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As oil shale is processed, fine particles, much smaller than the original shale are created. This process is called attrition or more accurately abrasion. In this paper, models of abrasion are presented for oil shale being processed in several unit operations. Two of these unit operations, a fluidized bed and a lift pipe are used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycle-Solid (HRS) process being developed for the above ground processing of oil shale. In two reports, studies were conducted on the attrition of oil shale in unit operations which are used in the HRS process. Carley reported results for attrition in a lift pipe for oil shale which had been pre-processed either by retorting or by retorting then burning. The second paper, by Taylor and Beavers, reported results for a fluidized bed processing of oil shale. Taylor and Beavers studied raw, retorted, and shale which had been retorted and then burned. In this paper, empirical models are derived, from the experimental studies conducted on oil shale for the process occurring in the HRS process. The derived models are presented along with comparisons with experimental results.

Aldis, D.F.

1991-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

255

Diesel fuels from shale oil. [Review of selected research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-boiling shale oil produced from Rocky Mountain oil shale can be reduced in molecular weight by recycle thermal cracking and by coking. Selected research on the production of diesel fuels from shale oil is reviewed. Diesel fuels of good quality have been made from cracked shale oil by acid and caustic treating. Diesel oil made by this process performed acceptably in an in-service test for powering a railroad engine in a 750-hour test. Better quality diesel fuels were made by hydrogenation of a coker distillate. Even better quality diesel fuels, suitable also for use as high-quality distillate burner fuels, have been made by hydrocracking of a crude shale oil from underground in-situ retorting experiments.

Cottingham, P.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Beginning of an oil shale industry in Australia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses how preparations are being made for the construction and operation of a semi commercial plant to process Australian oil shale. This plant is primarily designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of processing these shales at low cost. Nevertheless it is expected to generate modest profits even at this demonstration level. This will be the first step in a three staged development of one of the major Australian oil shale deposits which may ultimately provide nearly 10% of Australia's anticipated oil requirements by the end of the century. In turn this development should provide the basis for a full scale oil shale industry in Australia based upon the advantageously disposed oil shale deposits there. New sources of oil are becoming critical since Australian production is declining rapidly while consumption is accelerating.

Wright, B. (Southern Pacific Petroleum NL, 143 Macquarie Street, Sydney (AU))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Reaction kinetics for remodeling oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results from recent laboratory kinetic studies at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) on gasification, pyrolysis, and mineral reactions in oil shale are presented. The specific pyrolysis reactions investigated include the decomposition of kerogen, the evolution of oil, hydrogen and C/sub 2/ plus C/sub 3/ hydrocarbons and the formation of a carbonaceous residue. Data describing the evolution of H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ during secondary pyrolysis of the carbonaceous residue are also presented. The mineral reaction kinetics discussed include the decomposition and/or reaction (with silica or silicates) of calcite, dolomite, dawsonite and nahcolite. Rate equations describing the effects of CO/sub 2/ and steam on the reactions of calcite and dolomite are presented. Finally, kinetics describing gasification of the carbonaceous residue by CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O are examined. The above kinetic data are summarized in a set of rate expressions that can be used in numerical modeling of oil shale retorting. The rate equations are general enough for modeling both in-situ and surface retorting processes.

Campbell, J.H.; Burnham, A.K.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

proved natural gas reserves (3) 2013 EIA/ARI unproved wet shale gas technically recoverable resources (TRR) 2012 USGS conventional unproved wet natural gas TRR,

259

Short-term microbial testing of shale oil materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Paraho/Sohio Shale Oil was found to be mutagenic in the Ames assay when assayed with the frameshift strain TA98 and incorporating metabolic activation with rat liver homogenates (Aroclor induced S-9). The mutagenic activity was contributed by the organic constituents of the basic and the neutral fractions. Hydrotreatment of the shale oil abolished the mutagenic activity. Results obtained in the yeast assay supported these observations. Refined oil samples from Paraho/Sohio refinery were not mutagenic. The samples rank for their mutagenic activity as coal oils > shale oil > natural petroleum crudes.

Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Control Costs for Oil Shale Processes, DOE/EV-dicted Costs of Environmental Controls for a Commercial Oilsitu retorts. Cost per Barrel of Oil, $ Tract C-b Technology

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project was to investigate the feasibility of the chemically assisted in situ retort method for recovering shale oil from Colorado oil shale. The chemically assisted in situ procedure uses hydrogen chloride (HCl), steam (H{sub 2}O), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at moderate pressure to recovery shale oil from Colorado oil shale at temperatures substantially lower than those required for the thermal decomposition of kerogen. The process had been previously examined under static, reaction-equilibrium conditions, and had been shown to achieve significant shale oil recoveries from powdered oil shale. The purpose of this research project was to determine if these results were applicable to a dynamic experiment, and achieve penetration into and recovery of shale oil from solid oil shale. Much was learned about how to perform these experiments. Corrosion, chemical stability, and temperature stability problems were discovered and overcome. Engineering and design problems were discovered and overcome. High recovery (90% of estimated Fischer Assay) was observed in one experiment. Significant recovery (30% of estimated Fischer Assay) was also observed in another experiment. Minor amounts of freed organics were observed in two more experiments. Penetration and breakthrough of solid cores was observed in six experiments.

Ramierz, W.F.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Distribution and origin of sulfur in Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The sulfur content of 1,225 samples of Green River oil shale from two core holes in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, ranges from nearly 0 to 4.9 weight percent. In one core hole, the average sulfur content of a sequence of oil shale 555 m thick, which represents nearly the maximum thickness of oil shale in the basin, is 0.76 weight percent. The vertical distribution of sulfur through the oil shale is cyclic. As many as 25 sulfur cycles have lateral continuity and can be traced between the core holes. Most of the sulfur resides in iron sulfides (pyrite, marcasite, and minor. pyrrhotite), and small amounts are organically bound in kerogen. In general, the concentration of sulfur correlates moderately with oil shale yield, but the degree of association ranges from quite high in the upper 90 m of the oil shale sequence to low or none in the leached zone and in illitic oil shale in the lower part of the sequence. Sulfur also correlates moderately with iron in the carbonate oil shale sequence, but no correlation was found in the illitic samples. Sulfide mineralization is believed to have occurred during early and late stages of diagenesis, and after lithification, during development of the leached zone. Significant amounts of iron found in ankeritic dolomite and in illite probably account for the lack of a strong correlation between sulfur and iron.

Dyni, J.R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Project targets advances in oil shale processing  

SciTech Connect

A $6.5 million project to apply recent advances in fluidized-bed processing to the hydroretorting of eastern oil shale is getting under way. The project, which is to be directed by the Institute for Gas Technology (IGT) under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, will involve subcontracts with a number of universities and companies and will continue for three years. Although proceeding with little fanfare, the project is but one example of recent attempts to develop needed alternative energy technologies for the future.

Haggin, J.

1988-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

264

Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Five thousand one hundred forty-two citations of reports, journal articles, patents, conference papers, and monographs resulting from research on oil shales and tar sands are presented. These citations and approximately 5100 additional citations are a part of the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. The citations, with abstracts, are arranged by subject category. Within the categories references to reports are listed in alphanumeric order by report number. Other citations follow in inverse chronological order. Five indexes are provided: Corporate, Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number.

Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Synthetic fuels. Independent has practical oil-shale operation  

SciTech Connect

Geokinetics Inc., Salt Lake City, has been developing a relatively inexpensive process to develop lean shale resources in Utah since 1975. The firm has produced almost 50,000 bbl of shale oil during the past 6 years at its test site south of Vernal, Utah. Geokinetics is projected to produce eventually 109 million bbl of shale oil from its Utah properties at a cost of ca. $30/bbl. The Low Front End Cost (Lofreco) Process, with its small scale, modular construction, and low front end capital load, can develop oil shale under conditions inhibiting firms with big, capital intensive technologies. Lofreco entails blasting a thin shale bed to create a highly permeable in situ retort. The oil shale is ignited via air injection wells, and low pressure blowers provide air to create a fire front that covers the pay section. The front moves horizontally through the fracture shale bed, with hot combustion gases heating the shale to yield shale oil which drains to the bottom of the sloped retort. The oil is recovered via small, conventional pumping units.

Williams, B.

1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

266

Paper #194973 GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RESERVOIR HOSTING SHALE-GAS AND OIL in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paper #194973 GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RESERVOIR HOSTING SHALE-GAS AND OIL a reservoir for shale-gas and oil. We examined organic-rich black shale, known as Macasty shale, of Upper SHALE-GAS AND OIL in THE SUBSURFACE OF ANTICOSTI ISLAND, CANADA Key Words: Provenance, Anticosti Island

267

Oil shale retorting: Part 2, variation in product oil chemistry during retorting of an oil shale block  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses the variation in composition of oil as it is evolved during the pyrolysis of oil shale. Thirteen shale oil fractions collected during pyrolysis of an 18- x 18-cm cylindrical shale block have been analyzed by measurements of density, viscosity, elemental composition, simulated distillation, GLC, /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR, and infrared spectroscopy. The results show a striking change in the composition of oil collected early during retorting, as compared with that collected during the middle or latter part of retorting. In particular, the early oil fractions contain a predominance of naturally occurring isoprenoid compounds, whereas later fractions contain larger amounts of paraffin compounds. Less dramatic changes include variations in the amounts of olefins, aromatics, and degree of aromatic substitution, changes in amount of nitrogen-containing compounds, and variations in density and viscosity. The results of these analyses are used to form a picture of the changes in shale oil composition during retorting in the hope that a clearer understanding of the system's chemistry may eventually provide a way to optimize the shale oil retorting process.

Coburn, T.T.; Campbell, J.H.

1977-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

268

Market enhancement of shale oil: The native products extraction technology  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of enhancing shale oil commercialization through SO/NPX technology. Specific objectives were: (1) To determine the properties and characteristics of fractions isolable from shale oil utilizing separation sequences which are based on thermodynamic considerations; (2) To identify product streams of market value for promising technology development; (3)To conduct technology development studies leading to a shale oil extraction and processing sequence which promises economic enhancement of shale oil commercialization; (4) To develop an analytical methodology and model for obtaining engineering design data required for process development; (5) To estimate the economics of SO/NPX including the potential for enhancing the profitability of a commercial-scale shale oil MIS retort.

Bunger, J.W. (Bunger (James W.) and Associates, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); DuBow, J.B. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Underground oil shale retorting. [Basic principles are outlined  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The basic principles involved in combustion processing of oil shale are outlined. The manual is designed to serve as an introduction to the subject for the support personnel of the LLL Oil Shale Project. The material is presented in a simple two page format with one page devoted to a figure or table and the facing page contains a brief description of that material. Thus, it can serve as a self-study guide. Following a brief description of oil shale, how it was formed, and the extent of the resource, an overview of the concepts and major technical problems of Modified In-Situ (MIS) Oil Shale Retorting is presented. Finally, the liquid product, shale oil, is compared with typical petroleum crudes.

Campbell, J.H.; Raley, J.H.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Expectations for Oil Shale Production (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain relatively large amounts of kerogen, which can be converted into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (petroleum liquids, natural gas liquids, and methane) by heating the rock, usually in the absence of oxygen, to 650 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (in situ retorting) or 900 to 950 degrees Fahrenheit (surface retorting) [60]. (Oil shale is, strictly speaking, a misnomer in that the rock is not necessarily a shale and contains no crude oil.) The richest U.S. oil shale deposits are located in Northwest Colorado, Northeast Utah, and Southwest Wyoming. Currently, those deposits are the focus of petroleum industry research and potential future production. Among the three States, the richest oil shale deposits are on Federal lands in Northwest Colorado.

Information Center

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale Process Wastewater," in Analysis of Waters Associated with Alternate Fuel Production,shale during In in-situ processes, retort water its production

Fox, J.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Control Technology for Shale Oil Wastewaters,~~ inpyrolysized to produce shale oil, gas, a solid referred towaters are co-produced with shale oil and separated from it

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water from Green River Oil Shale, 11 Chem. Ind. 1, 485 (Effluents from In-Situ Oil Shale Processing," in ProceedingsControl Technology for Oil Shale Retort Water," August 1978.

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Review and analysis of oil shale technologies. Volume I. Oil shale deposits, mining methods, and environmental concerns  

SciTech Connect

This volume describes and discusses oil shale deposits of the U.S., applicable methods for mining the shale, and the environmental concerns associated with oil shale technologies. Mining is required to supply shale to the retorts of aboveground processes. The majority of oil shale mining is expected to be by the underground room-and-pillar method. Surface mining (i.e., open pit mining) may also be used to supply material for surface retorts and may be appropriate for up to 15 to 20% of the oil shale resources. Principal environmental issues unique to true and modified in situ oil shale processing include disposal of retort water and drill cuttings, migration of fluids during and after in situ processing, surface thermal changes, and hazardous materials that may be leached from spent shale. Other site-specific problems of in situ processing include off-gas emissions, fugitive dust generation, land disturbance, and water usage. The environmental issues are similar for oil shale surface processes, except for surface thermal changes. The degree of impact, however, is expected greater than that for either the true or the modified in situ process.

Jee, C.K.; White, J.D.; Bhatia, S.K.; Nicholson, D.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Empirical characterization of oil shale fragmentation experiments  

SciTech Connect

Shale oil recovery rates that can be achieved in underground in situ retorts can be strongly influenced by the shale breakage and fragment-size distribution achieved during rubblization. Since the fragmentation pattern in the retort is a direct result of the blast design used for rubblization, the characterizing blast parameters should be carefully selected. Explosives should be matched to the host material and blast geometries properly chosen so that the required fragmentation results are achieved at optimum costs. Special attention must be directed to selecting blast parameters that produce uniform bed permeability, suppression of fines, proper fragment size distribution, and minimal damage to the retort walls and ceiling. The influence of joints and natural fractures should also be known. In instances where the requisite blasting parameters are unknown, they should be determined from test blasts. Small and intermediate size cratering and bench blast experiments are being made to determine critical depths, volume crater constants, and fragment-size distribution scaling constants for Piceance Creek Basin oil shale. The small tests are made using PETN explosive in meter-sized blocks. The intermediate-sized tests are on the ten-to-twenty foot scale using an ANFO explosive. The experiments are designed to investigate the adequacy of using empirical scaling laws to describe the influence of bedding plane orientation, burden distance, explosive energy release, and borehole diameter on blast results. Crater volumes, sieved fragment-size distributions, free surface velocities, and explosive detonation velocities are measured. Data are treated using a Livingston type performance evaluation based on explosive volume to determine critical and optimum depths. Measured fragment-size distributions are interpreted using empirical scaling techniques.

Schmidt, S.C.; Edwards, C.L.; Oliver, R.; Johnson, J.N.; Wapner, P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

A Strategy for the Abandonment of Modified In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of steam on oil shale ing: a preliminary laboratoryJr. , "Disposal J. spent shale ash in "in situ" retortedInstitute to Rio Blanco Oil Shale Project, May 1977. 1~

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Moody, M.M.; Sisemore, C.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Potential small-scale development of western oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

SciTech Connect

A process for making hydraulic cements from spent oil shale is described in this paper. Inexpensive cement is needed to grout abandoned in-situ retorts of spent shale for subsidence control, mitigation of leaching, and strengthening the retorted mass in order to recover oil from adjacent pillars of raw shale. A hydraulic cement was produced by heating a 1:1 mixture of Lurgi spent shale and CaCO{sub 3} at 1000 C for one hour. This cement would be less expensive than ordinary portland cement and is expected to fulfill the above requirements.

Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Shale Oil Production Performance from a Stimulated Reservoir Volume  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The horizontal well with multiple transverse fractures has proven to be an effective strategy for shale gas reservoir exploitation. Some operators are successfully producing shale oil using the same strategy. Due to its higher viscosity and eventual 2-phase flow conditions when the formation pressure drops below the oil bubble point pressure, shale oil is likely to be limited to lower recovery efficiency than shale gas. However, the recently discovered Eagle Ford shale formations is significantly over pressured, and initial formation pressure is well above the bubble point pressure in the oil window. This, coupled with successful hydraulic fracturing methodologies, is leading to commercial wells. This study evaluates the recovery potential for oil produced both above and below the bubble point pressure from very low permeability unconventional shale oil formations. We explain how the Eagle Ford shale is different from other shales such as the Barnett and others. Although, Eagle Ford shale produces oil, condensate and dry gas in different areas, our study focuses in the oil window of the Eagle Ford shale. We used the logarithmically gridded locally refined gridding scheme to properly model the flow in the hydraulic fracture, the flow from the fracture to the matrix and the flow in the matrix. The steep pressure and saturation changes near the hydraulic fractures are captured using this gridding scheme. We compare the modeled production of shale oil from the very low permeability reservoir to conventional reservoir flow behavior. We show how production behavior and recovery of oil from the low permeability shale formation is a function of the rock properties, formation fluid properties and the fracturing operations. The sensitivity studies illustrate the important parameters affecting shale oil production performance from the stimulated reservoir volume. The parameters studied in our work includes fracture spacing, fracture half-length, rock compressibility, critical gas saturation (for 2 phase flow below the bubble point of oil), flowing bottom-hole pressure, hydraulic fracture conductivity, and matrix permeability. The sensitivity studies show that placing fractures closely, increasing the fracture half-length, making higher conductive fractures leads to higher recovery of oil. Also, the thesis stresses the need to carry out the core analysis and other reservoir studies to capture the important rock and fluid parameters like the rock permeability and the critical gas saturation.

Chaudhary, Anish Singh

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Oil shale of the Uinta Basin, northeastern Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Tertiary rocks, which occupy the interior of the Uinta basin, have been subdivided into four formations: Wasatch, Green River, Bridger, and Uinta. The division is based on stratigraphic and paleontologic evidence. Hydrocarbon materials have been found in all four formations, although bedded deposits (asphaltic sandstone and oil shale) are known only in the Wasatch and Green River. Veins of gilsonite, elaterite, ozocerite, and other related hydrocarbons cut all the Tertiary formation of the Uinta basin. Good oil shale (Uinta basin of Utah) is black or brownish black except on weathered surfaces, where it is blue-white or white. It is fine grained, slightly calcareous, and usually free from grit. It is tough and in thin-bedded deposits remarkably flexible. Although oil shale consists of thin laminae, this is not apparent in some specimens until after the rock has been heated and the oil driven off. Freshly broken oil shale gives off a peculiar odor similar to that of crude petroleum. Oil shale contains a large amount of carbonaceous matter (largely remains of lower plants, including algae), which is the source of the distillation products. Thin splinters of oil shale will burn with a very sooty flame and give off an asphaltic odor. Lean specimens of oil shale have a higher specific gravity than rich specimens and are generally heavier than coal.

Winchester, D.E.

1918-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

Hackworth, J.H.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

In situ noncombustive microwave processing of oil shale. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A unified analytical examination of the products of microwave oil shale has been completed. A sample of subituminous Colorado coal was also included. Analysis systems have been planned, constructed and placed into operation so as to provide a definitive profile of the composition of gases, oil, and water released by the microwave heated oil shale and coal samples. In a previous NSF study, it was reported that microwave retorted oil shale produced large quantities of high BTU content gas. In the data presented in this report, using a modular microcoulometric analysis system, a definitive profile of the composition of the gases, oil, and water, released by the microwave retorted oil shale and coal show that the previous results are confirmed.

Wall, E.T.

1979-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

Shale oil technology: status of the industry. Working paper no. 7  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the status of the shale oil industry, with emphasis upon the engineering options for producing synthetic oil from shale. The first section describes alternate technologies to extract the process oil from shale. The second section evaluates resource, environmental, and economic factors which influence the shale oil industry.

Eaton, D.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

Paul Fallgren

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining  

SciTech Connect

Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Shale oil: potential for electric power fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the status of the oil shale industry and the impact it will have on the electric power industry in the years 1990 to 2000. The nontechnical problems are not addressed in detail as they have been suitably dealt with elsewhere. The available technologies for producing shale oil are reviewed. The major problem most processes face today is scale-up to commercial size. An industry of nearly 400,000 BPD is anticipated for 1990. The industry could grow to 1,000,000 BPD by the year 2000 with the introduction of second generation processes in the 1990s. The availability of shale oil may have a direct impact on the electric power industry initially. As the refineries improve their ability to handle shale oil, the availability of this fuel to the electric power industry for direct firing will decrease. The offgas from the oil shale industry could be of major importance to the electric power industry. One-quarter to one-third of the energy produced by the oil shale industry will be in the form of offgas (the gas produced in the retorting process). This will usually be a low Btu gas and therefore likely to be utilized on site to make electricity. The high yield of distillate fuels from shale oil could be important to the utility industry's demand for distillate fuels in peak shaving power generation. In addition to the potential supply implications, a shale oil industry and the people to support it will represent a substantial increase in power generation required in the shale oil region.

Gragg, M.; Lumpkin, R.E.; Guthrie, H.D.; Woinsky, S.G.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation - Seventh Quarterly Report...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Laboratory-WV National Renewable Energy Laboratory Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves CO, UT, WY Nevada Site Office Nevada Test Site Oak Ridge Institute for...

288

Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Seventh Quarterly Report...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Laboratory-WV National Renewable Energy Laboratory Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves CO, UT, WY Nevada Site Office Nevada Test Site Oak Ridge Institute for...

289

Shale oil and shale gas resources are globally abundant  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. ...

290

Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales: Volume 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report has been divided into three volumes. Volume I describes the MRI beneficiation work. In addition, Volume I presents the results of joint beneficiation-hydroretorting studies and provides an economic analysis of the combined beneficiation-hydroretorting approach for processing Eastern oil shales. Volume II presents detailed results of hydroretorting tests made by HYCRUDE/IGT on raw and beneficiated oil shales prepared by MRI. Volume III comprises detailed engineering design drawings and supporting data developed by the Roberts and Schaefer Company, Engineers and Contractors, Salt Lake City, Utah, in support of the capital and operating costs for a conceptual beneficiation plant processing an Alabama oil shale.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Outlook for U.S. shale oil and gas  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

shale oil and gas shale oil and gas IAEE/AEA Meeting January 4, 2014 | Philadelphia, PA By Adam Sieminski, EIA Administrator Key insights on drilling productivity and production trends Adam Sieminski, IAEE/AEA January 4, 2014 2 * The U.S. has experienced a rapid increase in natural gas and oil production from shale and other tight resources * Six tight oil and shale gas plays taken together account for nearly 90% of domestic oil production growth and virtually all domestic natural gas production growth over the last 2 years * Higher drilling efficiency and new well productivity, rather than an increase in the rig count, have been the main drivers of recent production growth * Steep legacy production decline rates are being offset by growing

293

Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

Shale oil production system reference case study. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Material balances, utility balances, and overall processing schemes were developed for two reference shale oil production systems. For both cases, crushed and sized oil shale is fed into a mix of surface retorts specified for this study, which handle both coarse and fine ore. Case 1A produces an upgraded crude product suitable for refinery feedstock, and Case 1B produces a crude shale oil. The reference system uses room-and-pillar mining, three different types of retorts not unlike those proposed for the White River Shale Project on Federal Lease Tracts U-a and U-b, a straightforward upgrading of the raw shale oil to a refinery feedstock syncrude, and pipeline transportation of that product. In addition to the production of an upgraded product, there is also a modified system for producing raw shale oil that is minimally upgraded for pipeline transportation purposes. The capital cost estimate for the two reference cases has 26 cost elements, excluding, for example, any land or finance costs. A more complete list of excluded cost elements is provided in Section VII. The two distinct cases, production of raw and upgraded shale oil, were included to avoid foreclosing the issue of on- or off-site upgrading. The difference in estimated capital cost ($795M vs. $875M) amounts to about 10 percent.

Not Available

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Blasting arrangement for oil shale mining  

SciTech Connect

A blasting technique for use in excavation of an oil-shale deposit during the subterranean mining of it is described. Primary blasting holes are provided in a working zone, such as a heading or bench within the mine. In addition, a row of explosive-loaded secondary blasting holes is provided along a line between the working zone and a support zone adjacent to the working zone. Thus, in a benching round, secondary holes extend downward through the bench from the top thereof and in a heating round the secondary holes extend into the heading from the heading face. The secondary and primary blasting holes are detonated in a desired sequence. Preferably, the secondary blasting holes are detonated first although this sequence of operation may be reversed. The secondary blasting holes carry a lower explosive charge than the primary holes, and also are spaced closer together than the primary holes. (14 claims)

Haworth, G.R.; Zambas, P.G.

1969-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

296

Motor gasoline from shale oil. [Review of selected research on upgrading shale gasoline  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Shale oil produced from oil shale of the Rocky Mountain region by many of the usual retorting processes consists mainly of high boiling compounds of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen; less than half of the oil consists of hydrocarbons. Selected research on the upgrading of shale oil is reviewed. Thermal cracking of the oil followed by acid and caustic treating of the gasoline fraction has produced stable gasolines with low to moderate octane numbers. Hydrogenating the raw crude oil has produced higher yields of stable gasolines, also with low to moderate octane numbers. The yields and octane numbers of the gasolines are dependent on the hydrogenation temperatures used. Low-octane hydrogenated gasoline has been catalytically reformed over platinum-containing catalyst to produce high-octane motor fuel.

Cottingham, P.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Viewpoint on occupational health in the oil-shale industry  

SciTech Connect

In assessing the potential health and safety hazards which may be expected in a large-scale oil shale industry, the types of operations that will be utilized to extract oil from oil shale are examined. These are broadly characterized as mining, raw shale processing and handling, retorting and refining, and spent shale disposal. With few exceptions, these operations in shale oil production are similar to operations in existing industries. Health and safety risks and occupational health controls are also expected to be similar. To date medical studies on workers in the oil shale industry who have been exposed to shale dusts and oil products have indicated that the chief problem areas are pneumoconiosis and skin cancers. A broad viewpoint of the prospective occupational health problems in the oil shale industry can be obtained by reviewing similar activities and exposures in other industrial operations. This viewpoint would suggest that the prospective problems can be controlled adequately by conventional methods of worker protection. Several unique situations do exist in this industry. The mining and material handling of tonnages of oil shale exceeds any experience in other mining activities. This is a problem of scale. It seems unlikely that it will produce new safety problems. The in situ mining offers the unique situation of burning and abandoned underground retorts in near proximity to work forces preparing future in situ retorts. The potential of exposures to dusts, gases and vapors will simply have to be measured as such operations come on stream. Measurements made to date have not shown unique hazards to exist, although existing data are limited to demonstration-scale retorts burning one-at-a-time under normal conditions.

Voelz, G.L.; Grier, R.S.; Hargis, K.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions  

SciTech Connect

The freezing point of JP-5, the Navy jet fuel, has been related to the n-alkane content, specifically n-hexadecane. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest n-alkanes. The formation of n-alkanes in the jet fuel distillation range can be explained if large n-alkanes are present in the crude oil source. Quantities of large n-alkanes are insufficient, however, to explain the amounts found - up to 37% n-alkanes in the jet fuel range. Other possible precursors to small straight chain molecules are substituted cyclic compounds. Attack in the side chain obviously afford a path to an n-alkane. Aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, acids, amines, and ethers also have the potential to form n-alkanes if an unbranched alkyl chain is present in the molecule. Investigations showed that the best yield of the JP-5 cut comes at different times for the various fractions, but a time in the 60 to 120 min range would appear to be the optimum time for good yield at 450/sup 0/C. The longer time would be preferred with respect to lower potential n-alkane yield. None of the fractions gave n-alkane yields approaching the 37% amount found in the Shale-I JP-5. A temperature different than the 450/sup 0/C used here might affect the conversion percentage. Further the combined saturate, aromatic, and polar fractions may interact under pyrolysis conditions to give higher potential n-alkane yields than the fractions stressed independently.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.; Vetter, T.; Sonntag, R.; Moniz, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Los Alamos environmental activities/oil shale effluents  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research are to determine the nature, magnitude, and time dependence of the major and trace element releases as functions of the raw shale mineralogy, retorting conditions, and spent shale mineral assemblages. These experimental studies will focus on retorting variable regimes characteristic of most retorting processes. As an adjunct objective, the relation of laboratory results to those obtained from both bench-scale and pilot-scale retorts, when both have been operated under similar retorting conditions, will be defined. The goal is to develop a predictive capability for spent shale chemistry as a function of the raw material feedstock and process parameters. Key accomplishments follow: completed an overview of health, environmental effects, and potential ''show stoppers'' in oil shale development; elucidated the importance of both raw material and process in the identity and behavior of spent shale wastes (Occidental raw and spent shales from the Logan Wash site); completed a balanced factorial design experiment to investigate the influence of shale type, temperature, and atmosphere on spent shale behavior; compared the behavior of spent shales from laboratory experiments with shales generated from MIS retorting by OOSI at Logan Wash, Colorado; completed a study of the partitioning of minerals, inorganics, and organics as a function of particle size in a raw shale from Anvil Points, Colorado; evaluated the application of the Los Alamos nuclear microprobe to the characterization of trace element residences in shale materials; established the use of chemometrics as a major tool for evaluating large data bases in oil shale research and for relating field and laboratory results; conceptualized and evaluated experimentally a multistaged leaching control for abandonment of underground retorts; and coordinated activities with other DOE laboratories, industry laboratories, and universities. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Peterson, E.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Separation of polar shale oil compounds using high-speed liquid chromatography. [Compounds known to exist in shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methods for separation of potentially toxic compounds from shale oil and its waste products by high-speed liquid chromatography (HSLC) are discussed. The following classes of compounds were selected for study: aromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, thiophenes, and indoles. No attempt was made to identify or quantitate compounds in shale oil, but it was demonstrated that HSLC can be a rapid and sensitive method for the separation of polar compounds from classes recognized to be present in shale oil and its waste products. Specific compounds studied were: phenanthrene, naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, triphenylene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, 1,2,3,4-dibenzanthracene, and 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene. (JGB)

Riley, R.G.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin The purpose of this paper is to provide the public and policy makers accurate estimates of energy efficiencies, water requirements, water availability, and CO2 emissions associated with the development of the 60 percent portion of the Piceance Basin where economic potential is the greatest, and where environmental conditions and societal concerns and controversy are the most challenging: i.e., the portion of the Piceance where very high quality oil shale resources and useful ground water co-exist. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency, Water Requirements and Availability, and CO2 Emissions Associated With the Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in

302

Shale oil is braced for a big role  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in the development of the oil shale industry is examined. A review of experimental work by Occidental Shale Oil, Inc. shows that the company is preparing retorts no. 7 and no. 8 to be fired simultaneously - then the next step is a full-scale 55,000-bpd plant the company plans to start up in the mid-1980s. Estimates of the costs of shale oil production vary, but it will probably cost $10 to $15 per barrel less than synthetic fuel made from coal. The large number of plants that will be required to produce a significant amount of oil may inhibit the development of the industry. There are an estimated 28 trillion barrels of oil locked up in US shale deposits in at least 13 states. Most of this is too lean for economic recovery, but in a 17,000-square-mile area at the intersection of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming lie the world's largest known deposits of shale containing more than 25 gallons of oil per ton. The modified in-situ processing of oil shale developed by Occidental, its financial aspects, and the commerical viability of the process are discussed. Competing technologies are noted. Environmental impact - perhaps the greatest unknown - is discussed briefly, as is the marky problem of water rights and the necessary political trade-offs. (MCW)

Nulty, P.

1979-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

303

Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properties of Spent Shales. Surface Area Measurements.Carbon. Effects. ~~ co 2,and Oil~Shale Partial-pressure andWater from Green River Oil Shale, 11 Chem. Ind. 1, 485 (

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater Reyad; available online 29 October 2003 Abstract A by-product fly ash from oil shale processing was converted shale; Ash; Zeolite; Cadmium and lead removal 1. Introduction Oil shale exists in Jordan with large

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

306

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following tasks: Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Beneficiation Research; Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; and Project Management and Reporting. Accomplishments for this period for these tasks are presented.

Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Technological overview reports for eight shale oil recovery processes  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the document is to supply background information for evaluation of environmental impacts and pollution control technologies in connection with oil shale development. Six surface retorting processes selected for characterization were: (1) Union Oil Retort B, (2) Paraho, (3) TOSCO II, (4) Lurgi Ruhrgas, (5) Superior Oil, and (6) USBM Gas Combustion. In addition, two in-situ retorting activities were selected: (1) the Occidental modified in-situ retort, and (2) the true in-situ development programs of Laramie Energy Technology Center (DOE). Each overview report contains information on oil shale processing. General process descriptions, shale preparation requirements, equipment types, operating conditions, process products and by-products, physical and chemical characteristics, energy and water requirements, process stream characteristics, processed shale disposal requirements, and site-specific environmental aspects are included.

Shih, C.C.; Cotter, J.E.; Prien, C.H.; Nevens, T.D.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Outlook for U.S. shale oil and gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Title: Outlook for U.S. shale oil and gas Author: Kondis, Paul Last modified by: ch4 Created Date: 5/9/2013 1:27:26 PM Document presentation format

309

Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

Richardson, J.H.; Monaco, S.B.; Sanborn, R.H.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Taylor, J.R.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Catalytic hydroprocessing of shale oil to produce distillate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are presented of a Chevron Research Company study sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to demonstrate the feasibility of converting whole shale oil to a synthetic crude resembling a typical petroleum distillate. The synthetic crude thus produced can then be processed, in conventional petroleum-refining facilities, to transportation fuels such as high octane gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The raw shale oil feed used is a typical Colorado shale oil produced in a surface retort in the so-called indirectly heated mode. It is shown that whole shale oil can be catalytically hydrodenitrified to reduce the nitrogen to levels as low as one part per million in a single catalytic stage. However, for economic reasons, it appears preferable to denitrify to about 0.05 wt % nitrogen. The resulting synthetic crude resembles a petroleum distillate that can be fractionated and further processed as necessary in conventional petroleum refining facilities. Shale oil contains about 0.6% sulfur. Sulfur is more easily removed by hydrofining than is nitrogen; therefore, only a few parts per million of sulfur remain at a product nitrogen of 0.05 wt %. Oxygen contained in the shale oil is also reduced to low levels during hydrodenitrification. The shale oil contains appreciable quantities of iron and arsenic which are also potential catalyst poisons. These metals are removed by a guard bed placed upstream from the hydrofining catalyst. Based on correlations, the naphthas from the shale oil hydrofiner can readily be upgraded to high octane gasolines by catalytic reforming. The middle distillate fractions may require some additional hydrofining to produce salable diesel or jet fuel. The technology is available, and pilot plant studies are scheduled to verify diesel hydrofiner performance.

Sullivan, R.F.; Stangeland, B.E.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development  

SciTech Connect

The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

INTERCOMPARISON STUDY OF ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN RAW AND SPENT OIL SHALES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W. A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements ~n Oil Shaleand Oil-Shale Products. LERC RI-77/1, 1977. Wildeman, T. R.H. Meglen. The Analysis of Oil-Shale Materials for Element

Fox, J.P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Shale oil recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation : final report, October 1982  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is, concentration of the kerogen) before the oil-recovery step. The objective was to ...

Weiss, M. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

INTERLABORATORY, MULTIMETHOD STUDY OF AN IN SITU PRODUCED OIL SHALE PROCESS WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W. A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements in Oil Shaleand Oil Shale Products. LERC Rept. of Invest. 77-1, 1977.Significant to In Situ Oil Shale Processing. Quart. Colo.

Farrier, D.S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W. A. Robb, and T. J. Spedding. Minor Elements in Oil Shaleand Oil-Shale Products. LERC RI 77-1, 1977. Bertine, K. K.From A Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort. In: Procedings of

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Recultivation work in the oil shale basin of Estonia, USSR  

SciTech Connect

Soviet Estonia is situated in the northwestern part of the Soviet Union. The most important mineral resources are oil shale, phosphorite, peat and construction materials. Oil shale production is about 30 x 10/sup 6/ tonnes a year. The oil shale is partly surface mined but the majority is deep mined. Recultivation of exhausted oil shale pits started in 1959 and has proceeded at an average of 150 ha per annum. In the course of recultivation a process of selective mining is adopted, this is followed quickly by physical recontouring and cultivation work. Particular attention is given to the maintenance and improvement of soil fertility. Afforestation is the main form of biological recultivation with more than 2450 ha of exhausted oil shale workings having been planted. The most successful trees have been Pinus sylvestris, Betula verrucosa, Larix europea and Larix japonica. The development of mining and land use in the oil shale basin is closely regulated. To ensure efficient mining development and to maximise nature conservation and recreation potential a scheme of functional zoning has been drawn up and a policy of progressive recultivation has been adopted.

Luik, H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Present trends in Estonian-Russian work on oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The Estonian oil-shale basin lies near Leningrad. The Baltic region of Russia has always been deficient in fuel and hydroelectric power, and in the post-war years Russia has used oil shale of occupied Estonia to meet these 2 demands. Kukersite oil shale is found in thick calcareous Late Ordovician beds of marine origin which lie throughout the basin at depths varying form 0 to 300 m. Shale layers with thicknesses from 0.6 to 0.7 m and up are considered commercial. Shale beds with an aggregate thickness of 3 m are also common throughout the basin. The Russians have developed more than 10 large underground mines and several open-pit mines whose total annual output in 1966 reached 25 million metric tons. Russia's new energy-chemical and complex-utilization of oil shale processing may offer some economic advantage. These 2 fields--the chemical processing and the waste product utilization--are the areas where the Russians are doing much research, developing new methods, and adapting many petrochemical technologies to shale-chemical processes. This information and the Russian experience with the successful new solid-heat exchanger large-capacity retort should be quite useful to the U.S.A. (49 refs.)

Cieslewicz, W.J.

1967-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 8. Health effects of oil shale development  

SciTech Connect

Information on the potential health effects of a developing oil shale industry can be derived from two major sources: (1) the historical experience in foreign countries that have had major industries; and (2) the health effects research that has been conducted in the US in recent years. The information presented here is divided into two major sections: one dealing with the experience in foreign countries and the second dealing with the more recent work associated with current oil shale development in the US. As a result of the study, several observations can be made: (1) most of the current and historical data from foreign countries relate to occupational hazards rather than to impacts on regional populations; (2) neither the historical evidence from other countries nor the results of current research have shown pulmonary neoplasia to be a major concern, however, certain types of exposure, particularly such mixed source exposures as dust/diesel or dust/organic-vapor have not been adequately studied and the lung cancer question is not closed; (3) the industry should be alert to the incidence of skin disease in the industrial setting, however, automated techniques, modern industrial hygiene practices and realistic personal hygiene should greatly reduce the hazards associated with skin contact; and (4) the entire question of regional water contamination and any resultant health hazard has not been adequately addressed. The industrial practice of hydrotreating the crude shale oil will diminish the carcinogenic hazard of the product, however, the quantitative reduction of biological activity is dependent on the degree of hydrotreatment. Both Soviet and American experimentalists have demonstrated a correlation betweed carcinogenicity/toxicity and retorting temperature; the higher temperatures producing the more carcinogenic or toxic products.

Rotariu, G.J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Western states enhanced oil shale recovery program: Shale oil production facilities conceptual design studies report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report analyzes the economics of producing syncrude from oil shale combining underground and surface processing using Occidental's Modified-In-Situ (MIS) technology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hot Recycled Solids (HRS) retort. These retorts form the basic technology employed for oil extraction from oil shale in this study. Results are presented for both Commercial and Pre-commercial programs. Also analyzed are Pre-commercialization cost of Demonstration and Pilot programs which will confirm the HRS and MIS concepts and their mechanical designs. These programs will provide experience with the circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), the MIS retort, the HRS retort and establish environmental control parameters. Four cases are considered: commercial size plant, demonstration size plant, demonstration size plant minimum CFBC, and a pilot size plant. Budget cost estimates and schedules are determined. Process flow schemes and basic heat and material balances are determined for the HRS system. Results consist of summaries of major equipment sizes, capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates and economic analyses. 35 figs., 35 tabs.

Not Available

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) oil-shale research activities  

SciTech Connect

The paper is an overview of EPA's oil shale research activities. In spite of substantial cutbacks in the program, several new projects should not only be of interest to developers and researchers but also support future regulatory and permitting decisions by the Agency. New activities include: evaluation of the potential for using combusted Green River shale to adsorb SO2 as a primary sulfur control technology, preparation of a new Pollution Control Technical Manual on the Unishale B and C processes, and preparation of two state-of-the-art reports addressing planning and designs for retorted oil shale disposal and control of gaseous emissions from retorting. Activities that have been ongoing for some time include: investigation of leaching and hydraulic properties of retorted shales (including co-disposal of wastewater and shale), field tests of Stretford and caustic scrubbing for control of H2S in shale offgas, a compilation of available information on solid-waste characteristics for various retorting technologies, and assessment of retorted-shale as a liner for retorted shale disposal sites.

Bates, E.R.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Experimental studies in a bottom-burning oil shale combustion retort.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As the domestic demand for oil continues to increase, it is expected that the enormous worldwide oil shale reserves will eventually be tapped. Oil from… (more)

Udell, Kent S.

1905-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

The Kiviter process for retorting large particle oil shale  

SciTech Connect

In recent years considerable interest has been shown to the experience of commercial-scale processing of oil shale as an alternative feedstock for the production of liquid fuels. The evaluation of different retort systems, however, should be made with due consideration of the specific properties of different oil shales, influencing the efficiency of the retorting process. The author's studies of oil shale samples extracted from the world's largest oil shale formations in the USA and Brazil as well as those of kukersite (Baltic oil shale) processed in the USSR on a commercial scale, show that the latter is characterized by several technological properties which complicate it's thermal processing. Relatively high levels of specific heat consumption for the retorting process and a high organic matter content make it necessary to process kukersite in special retorting systems. Due to the specific properties of kukersite the concept employing cross current flow of heat carrier gas through the shale bed proved to be most acceptable for the retorting of this particular shale. Compared with the traditionally employed counter current flow of heat carrier gas this concept is more preferable providing for more uniform distribution of the heat carrier through the fuel bed. It enables to modify the height of the retorting chamber and thus to practically eliminate the dependence of the unit throughput rate on the velocity of the heat carrier gas in the retorting chamber, and to perform the process in a thin oil shale bed. The authors discuss how generators employing cross current heat carrier flow (the Kiviter process) are widely applied in the U.S.S.R. for retorting of kukersite, characterized by a high organic content and bituminization upon heating.

Yefimov, V.M. (Oil Shale Research Institute, Kohtla-Jarve, Estonian (UA)); Rooks, I.H. (V.I. Lenin PO Slantsekhim, Kohtla-Jarve, Estonian (UA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Nondestructive analysis of oil shales with PGNAA technique  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of nondestructive analysis of oil shales using the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique was studied. The PGNAA technique, developed originally for continuous analysis of coal on the belt, was applied to the analysis of eight oil-shale samples, containing between 9 and 60 gallons of oil per ton and 0.8% to 3.4% hydrogen. The PGNAA technique was modified using four neutron moderation conditions: non-moderated neutrons; non-moderated and partially moderated neutrons reflected from a water box behind the source; neutrons moderated in a water box behind and in front of the source; and neutrons strongly moderated in a polyethylene block placed in front of the source and with reflected neutrons from a water box behind the source. The studied oil shales were measured in their aluminum or wooden (masonite) boxes. The obtained Ge-Li spectra were processed by LSI-11/23 computer, using the modified programs previously developed by SAI for continuous coal analysis. The results of such processing (the peak areas for several gamma lines) were corrected and plotted against the weight percent of each analyzed element (from the chemical analysis). Response curves developed for H, C, N, S, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe and K show generally good linear proportions of peak area to the weight percent of the element. For hydrogen determination, NMD conditions had to be used where the response curve was not linear, but followed a curve whose slope rose with hydrogen concentration. This effect is caused by improving neutron self-moderation in sample boxes of rich oil shales, as compared to poor self-moderation of neutrons in very lean oil shales. The moisture in oil shales was measured by microwave absorption technique in small masonite boxes. This method was calibrated four times using oil-shale samples mixed gradually with larger and larger amounts of water.

Maly, J.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Hydrogen production by fluid-bed retorting of oil shale. [Shale oil/partial oxidation; steam-oxygen gasifier; CO/sub 2/ acceptor gasifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oil produced from retorting of oil shales requires hydrogen treatment to improve its characteristics and make it suitable for refining into marketable products. Hydrogen requirements can be met by partial oxidation of a fraction of the shale oil produced or by direct processing of oil shale in a fluid bed. This report examines the economics and engineering feasibility of using fluid bed systems to produce hydrogen. Fluid bed processing of oil shale to produce hydrogen might be technically and economically competitive with a more conventional shale retorting/partial oxidation method. A major development program would be required to demonstrate the feasibility of the fluid bed approach.

Barnes, J.W.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

elements. Over 25% of the raw shale gas five groups productsthe oil, in the raw oil shale gas, consequence of retorting„good product raw oil shale and input gases that is accounted

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. , 1979, Analysis of oil shale of products and effluents:In- Situ Retorting of Oil Shale in a Controlled- Stateactivation: Archaeometry, oil-shale analysis v. 11, p.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Dynamic rock fragmentation: oil shale applications  

SciTech Connect

Explosive rock fragmentation techniques used in many resource recovery operations have in the past relied heavily upon traditions of field experience for their design. As these resources, notably energy resources, become less accessible, it becomes increasingly important that fragmentation techniques be optimized and that methods be developed to effectively evaluate new or modified explosive deployment schemes. Computational procedures have significant potential in these areas, but practical applications must be preceded by a thorough understanding of the rock fracture phenomenon and the development of physically sound computational models. This paper presents some of the important features of a rock fragmentation model that was developed as part of a program directed at the preparation of subterranean beds for in situ processing of oil shale. The model, which has been implemented in a two-dimensional Lagrangian wavecode, employs a continuum damage concept to quantify the degree of fracturing and takes into account experimental observations that fracture strength and fragment dimensions depend on tensile strain rates. The basic premises of the model are considered in the paper as well as some comparisons between calculated results and observations from blasting experiments.

Boade, R. R.; Grady, D. E.; Kipp, M. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Particulate oil shale inhalation and pulmonary inflammatory response in rats  

SciTech Connect

This experiment detrimetal that long-term inhalation of shale dusts by rats elicits a limited inflammatory response in the lung less profound than that observed in animals exposed to equivalent levels of quartz alone. This observation suggests that organic and inorganic constituents of shale may provide a protective effect. The implications for fibrogenic disease are two-fold: (1) inhalation of oil shale dusts appeared to be less detriemtal than the inhalation of quartz along, and (2) there was no apparent synergistic action of quartz and the complex of organic materials present in shale. Animals exposed to shale dusts failed to develop any significant lung lesions, while all of the animals exposed to quartz developed granulomas and some frank fibrosis.

Wilson, J.S.; Holland, L.M.; Halleck, M.S.; Martinez, E.; Saunders, G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Draft environmental statement: proposed superior oil company land exchange and oil shale resource development  

SciTech Connect

The Superior Oil Company requested an exchange of public land for private land. With the exchange, an economical mining unit would be formed and oil shale resources developed. Major federal actions would be the revoking of the oil shale withdrawal by the Secretary of the Interior and the exchange of land by the Bureau of Land Management. Following the exchange, Superior would construct an underground mine and a processing plant. The mine would produce an average of about 26,000 tons of oil shale daily. From the oil shale, the plant would produce about 4800 tons of nahcolite, 11,500 barrels of shale oil, 580 tons of alumina, and 1000 tons of soda ash daily. Production would continue for about 20 years. Above-ground facilities would occupy about 380 acres. Approximately 920 people would be employed during operation of the project. Products would be hauled from the plant by truck.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Sulfur distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the thermal cracking process of the El-Lujjan oil shale showed that the yield of oil was around 12 wt of the boiling point for different distillate fractions. Sulfur in Jordanian oil shale was found to be mainly the dominant phases in these fractions. q 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Oil shale

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

332

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Office of Oil Shale,Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Office of Oil Shale,

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is pyrolysized to produce shale oil, gas, a solid referredshale, and aqueous effluents known as retort water and gasoil shale process waters were studied: retort water and gas

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale Gas Production Theory and Case Analysis (Siemens) We researched the process of oil recovery and shale gas recovery and compare the difference between conventional and unconventional gas reservoir and recovery technologies. Then we did theoretical analysis on the shale gas production. According

Ge, Zigang

335

Oil shale project run summary: small retort run S-14  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Retort run S-14 was a combustion run in the small retort conducted on Nov. 15-16, 1977. The charge of Anvil Points shale operated under a 50% steam - 50% air mixture. Results indicate that the broad particle size range in the packed bed increases nonuniformities in gas flow and bed retorting characteristics. Oil yield was 87%, hydrogen production amounted to 0.25 wt % of the raw shale. (DLC)

Ackerman, F.J.; Sandholtz, W.A.; Raley, J.H.; Tripp, L.J.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

Burnham, A K

2003-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

337

Gasification characteristics and kinetics for an Eastern oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gasification reactivity of an Eastern oil shale was studied in a three-year research project under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, and HYCRUDE Corp. to expand the data base on the hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Gasification tests were conducted with the Indiana New Albany oil shale during the first year of the program. A total of six Eastern oil shales are planned to be tested during the program. A laboratory thermobalance and a 2-inch diameter fluidized bed were used to conduct gasification tests with Indiana New Albany oil shale. Temperature and pressure ranges used were 1600 to 1900/sup 0/F and 15 to 500 psig, respectively. Fifteen thermobalance tests were made in hydrogen/steam and synthesis gas/steam mixtures. Six fluidized-bed tests were made in the same synthesis gas/steam mixture. Carbon conversions as high as 95% were achieved. Thermobalance test results and a kinetic description of weight loss during hydrogen/steam gasification are presented. 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and R. E. Poulson. Mercury Emissions From A Simulated In-for the Measurement of Mercury in Oil Shale Gases D. GirvinJFOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES D. C.

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 3: air-quality impacts  

SciTech Connect

The effects of a mature oil shale industry on the air quality over the Green River Oil Shale Formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming is described. Climate information is supplied for the Piceance Creek Basin. (ACR)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Examination of eastern oil shale disposal problems - the Hope Creek field study  

SciTech Connect

A field-based study of problems associated with the disposal of processed Eastern oil shale was initiated in mid-1983 at a private research site in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The study (known as the Hope Creek Spent Oil Shale Disposal Project) is designed to provide information on the geotechnical, revegetation/reclamation, and leachate generation and composition characteristics of processed Kentucky oil shales. The study utilizes processed oil shale materials (retorted oil shale and reject raw oil shale fines) obtained from a pilot plant run of Kentucky oil shale using the travelling grate retort technology. Approximately 1000 tons of processed oil shale were returned to Kentucky for the purpose of the study. The study, composed of three components, is described. The effort to date has concentrated on site preparation and the construction and implementation of the field study research facilities. These endeavors are described and the project direction in the future years is defined.

Koppenaal, D.W.; Kruspe, R.R.; Robl, T.L.; Cisler, K.; Allen, D.L.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

OIL SHALE RESEARCH. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil and grease is determined by passing a knoVln quantity ofOil shales contain organic material in a matrix which includes significant quantitiesoil shale retorting processes indicate that signifi·~· cant quantities

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)); Bonner, W.P. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Economic comparison of five process concepts for using eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This study compared costs of retorting eastern oil shales using western shale retorting technologies that need no more development with the cost of processing the same shales using technologies designed specifically for eastern shales. The eastern shale technologies need more development. The study was designed to answer the question: Does process development work need to be done for eastern oil shale or will the existing western techniques suffice. A calculation for a power plant that burned eastern oil shale to produce electricity was included in the study. The authors studied the following processes: the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) HYTORT (eastern shale process), the Paraho C-H (combination heated) (eastern shale process), the Paraho D-H (direct heated) (western shale process), the TOSCO II (western shale process), and power plant.

Parkinson, W.J.; Phillips, T.T.; Barnes, J.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Review and analysis of oil shale technologies. Volume 5. Appendixes and bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Seven appendices are included on: oil shale technology activities, ERDA oil shale program, method of assaying oil shale by a modified Fischer retort, environmental standards and regulations, supplemental information on various true in-situ processing steps, evaluation of in-situ oil shale experments by hot-film flow logging, and discounted cash flow rate of return method. The bibliography contains 133 references. (DLC)

Jee, C.K.; White, J.D.; Bhatia, S.K.; Nicholson, D.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Oil shale programs. Sixteenth quarterly report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

This document is the sixteenth in a continuing series of quarterly reports, and describes the Sandia National Laboratories oil shale activities during the period between October 1, 1979 and December 31, 1979. Sandia's major responsibility to the DOE in situ oil shale program is to provide a quantitative evaluation to DOE of the various field projects being supported by DOE in the development of commercial in situ oil shale processes. This requires the deployment of instrumentation systems and analysis techniques to evaluate key procedures and operations. In order to fulfill this responsibility, it is necessary to develop new and advanced instrumentation systems and associated deployment, recording and analysis techniques that are unique to the field projects. In addition, a rock mechanics program provides material properties, material response models, and computational methods to support the design and evaluation functions. This report describes detailed activities in these project areas over the last quarter.

Stevens, A. L. [ed.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Wastewater treatment in the oil-shale industry  

SciTech Connect

Because of the stringent state and federal standards governing the discharge of wastes into local waters and the limited water supplies in this area, an oil shale industry will probably reuse process effluents to the maximum extent possible and evaporate the residuals. Therefore, discharge of effluents into surface and ground waters may not be necessary. This paper reviews the subject of wastewater treatment for an oil shale industry and identifies key issues and research priorities that must be resolved before a large-scale commercial industry can be developed. It focuses on treatment of the waters unique to an oil shale industry: retort water, gas condensate, and mine water. Each presents a unique set of challenges.

Fox, J.P.; Phillips, T.E.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report has been divided into three volumes. Volume I describes the MRI beneficiation work. In addition, Volume I presents the results of joint beneficiation-hydroretorting studies and provides an economic analysis of the combined beneficiation-hydroretorting approach for processing Eastern oil shales. Volume II presents detailed results of hydroretorting tests made by MYCRUDE/IGT on raw and beneficiated oil shales prepared by MRI. Volume III comprises detailed engineered design drawings and supporting data developed by the Roberts and Schafer Company, Engineers and Contractors, Salt Lake City, Utah, in support of the capital and operating costs for a conceptual beneficiation plant processing in Alabama oil shale. 26 refs., 10 figs., 23 tabs.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Control strategies for abandoned in situ oil shale retorts  

SciTech Connect

In situ oil shale retorting may result in a number of environmental impacts including degradation of local surface and groundwaters, low resource recovery, and subsidence. The target of present oil shale commercialization activities is the Mahogany zone in Colorado's Piceance Creek Basin. The principal oil shale resource in this area is surrounded by two confined aquifers. During mining and retorting, these aquifers are dewatered. When the site is abandoned, groundwater will reinvade the area and flow through the abandoned retorts, leaching potentially toxic or carcinogenic materials from the spent oil shale. This material may then be transported in local aquifers, withdrawn in wells or discharged into the Colorado River system as base flow. Certain control technologies appear potentially able to protect groundwater quality at reasonable cost. These include designing retort blocks to include a hydraulic bypass around abandoned retorts (about $0.50/bbl), placing absorbent clays in abandoned retorts to catch and hold leachable matter (about $0.50/bbl), collecting leachate and treating it on the surface (about $1.20/bbl), protecting abandoned retorts from leaching by placing a grout curtain around a block of abandoned retorts (about $2.00 to $3.00/bbl), or grouting abandoned retorts with spent shale (about $3 to $4/bbl).

Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

A POSSIBILITY OF UTILIZING RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES FOR THE AUTOMATION OF THE CONCENTRATION OF OIL SHALE  

SciTech Connect

Possibilities of utilizing isotopes for the concentration of oil shale are analyzed. Computations are given of some characteristics of oil shale and limestone (the chemical composition according to elements, the linear and massabsorption coefficients, etc.) as well as some approximate computations of the size of the pieces of oil shale in which concentration can be effected with the aid of isotopes. (auth)

Braun, I.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Lake Level Controlled Sedimentological I Heterogenity of Oil Shale, Upper Green River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 3 Lake Level Controlled Sedimentological 1:'_i 'I I Heterogenity of Oil Shale, Upper Green email: mgani@uno.edu t",. The Green River Formation comprises the world's largest deposit of oil-shale characterization of these lacustrine oil-shale deposits in the subsurface is lacking. This study analyzed ~300 m

Gani, M. Royhan

353

Synthesis and characterization of activated carbo-aluminosilicate material from oil shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis and characterization of activated carbo-aluminosilicate material from oil shale Reyad activated carbo-aluminosilicate materials were prepared from oil shale by chemical activation. The chemical Published by Elsevier Inc. Keywords: Synthesis; Activated carbo-aluminosilicate; Adsorption; Oil shale

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

354

Evaluation of feasibility of mutagenic testing of shale oil products and effluents  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of short-term genetic assays to predict and identify chemical mutagens in shale oil products and effluents is described. A Salmonella histidine-reversion system was employed to assay the mutagenic potential of crude shale oil, natural crude oil, and effluent from a shale oil process. Data describing the mutagenic activity in fractions of natural crude and shale oils are presented. The mutagenicity of chemicals found in shale oil is calculated. Short-term tests for mutagenicity coupled with chemical fractionation and analyses of test materials are a valid research approach. (3 graphs, 17 references, 3 tables)

Epler, J.J.; Rao, T.K.; Guerin, M.R.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

SciTech Connect: "oil shale"  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

oil shale" Find oil shale" Find How should I search Scitech Connect ... Basic or Advanced? Basic Search Advanced × Advanced Search Options Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator / Author: Name Name ORCID Title: Subject: Identifier Numbers: Research Org.: Sponsoring Org.: Site: All Alaska Power Administration, Juneau, Alaska (United States) Albany Research Center (ARC), Albany, OR (United States) Albuquerque Complex - NNSA Albuquerque Operations Office, Albuquerque, NM (United States) Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, Amarillo, TX (United States) Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States) Argonne National Laboratory-Advanced Photon Source (United States) Atlanta Regional Office, Atlanta, GA (United States) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

356

Farber Merlin expands Thai oil shale and tin interests  

SciTech Connect

The Hong Kong-based Farber Merlin group is negotiating with Australian mining interests to form a joint venture to develop Thailand's extensive oil shale deposits as an energy source. Thailand's Department of Mineral Resources estimates oil shale reserves in the northern provinces of Lanphun and Tak at 2515 million metric tons, of which 15 million metric tons in Lanphun is termed high-grade or capable of producing 15 gal/metric ton. The 2500 million metric tons in Tak is low-grade, capable of producing about 1.5 gal/metric ton.

1974-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Executive summary. Western oil shale developmet: a technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

The objectives are to review shale oil technologies as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Converting Green River shale oil to transportation fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Shale oils contain significant quantities of nitrogen, oxygen, and heavy metals. Removing these contaminants is a major consideration in the catalytic conversion of shale oil to transportation fuels. Hydrotreating can remove substantially all of these elements, while coking only removes most of the heavy metals. Pilot plant data for three processing schemes were generated during the course of this study: hydrotreating followed by hydrocracking, hydrotreating followed by fluid catalytic cracking, and delayed coking followed by hydrotreating. Yields and product inspections are presented for these three cases.

Sullivan, R.F.; Stangeland, B.E.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

1989-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

360

PARTITIONING OF MAJOR, MINOR, AND TRACE ELEMENTS DURING SIMULATED IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING IN A CONTROLLED-STATE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. , 1979, Analysis of oil shale of products and effluents:In- Situ Retorting of Oil Shale in a Controlled- Stateelement matrices by x-ray for shale retort: Quarterly of the

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

Chappell, W.R.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation and upgrading, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following active tasks: Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 8. project management and reporting; and Task 9. information required for the National Environmental Policy Act. In order to accomplish all of the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, is working with four other institutions: The University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Alabama College of Engineering (UA), University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program quarter from June 1, 1992 through August 31, 1992.

Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Comparison of the Acceptability of Various Oil Shale Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While oil shale has the potential to provide a substantial fraction of our nation's liquid fuels for many decades, cost and environmental acceptability are significant issues to be addressed. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined a variety of oil shale processes between the mid 1960s and the mid 1990s, starting with retorting of rubble chimneys created from nuclear explosions [1] and ending with in-situ retorting of deep, large volumes of oil shale [2]. In between, it examined modified-in-situ combustion retorting of rubble blocks created by conventional mining and blasting [3,4], in-situ retorting by radio-frequency energy [5], aboveground combustion retorting [6], and aboveground processing by hot-solids recycle (HRS) [7,8]. This paper reviews various types of processes in both generic and specific forms and outlines some of the tradeoffs for large-scale development activities. Particular attention is given to hot-recycled-solids processes that maximize yield and minimize oil shale residence time during processing and true in-situ processes that generate oil over several years that is more similar to natural petroleum.

Burnham, A K; McConaghy, J R

2006-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

364

Evaluation of the EOR Potential in Shale Oil Reservoirs by Cyclic Gas Injection.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract The current available technique to produce shale oil is through primary depletion using horizontal wells with multiple transverse fractures. The oil recovery factor is… (more)

Wan, Tao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Evaluation of the EOR potential in shale oil reservoirs by cyclic gas injection.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract The current available technique to produce shale oil is through primary depletion using horizontal wells with multiple transverse fractures. The oil recovery factor is… (more)

Wan, Tao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Chromosome aberrations and loss of some cell functions following in vitro exposure to retorted oil shale. [Cultured cells were exposed to processes oil shale particles (spent shales)  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of cellular level effects of processed oil shale from a simulation of modified in situ retorting was undertaken as part of an assessment of the toxicity and mutagenicity of oil shale. Complete assessment of the health hazards associated with physical contact, inhalation, or ingestion of oil shale has not been examined in humans and until it becomes practical to assess these hazards in man, we must rely upon well established in vitro detection procedures in addition to whole animal testing. CHO cells and L-2 rat lung epithelial cell lines were exposed in vitro to processed oil shale particles at different intervals following exposure. Cells were analyzed for chromosome alterations, cell colony forming ability, DNA synthesis, and cell transformation. The results of these studies demonstrate that retorted oil shale, under these experimental conditions, does modify cells in vitro. Chromosome aberrations increased with dose, cell colony forming ability decreased exponentially with dose, and the rate of DNA synthesis was affected, however cell transformation was not demonstrated after 3 months.

Stroud, A.N.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

General model of oil shale pyrolysis. Revision 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A mathematical model for pyrolysis of Green River oil shale is developed from previous experiments on oil, water, and gas evolution and oil cracking over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. Reactions included are evolution of 5 gas species, oil, and water from kerogen, clay dehydration, oil coking and cracking, and evolution of H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ from char. Oil is treated in eleven boiling point fractions in order to treat the competition between oil coking and evaporation, and to evalute the effect of oil cracking on the boiling point distribution of the oil. The kinetics and product yields calculated by the model are compared to experimental results for pyrolysis conditions ranging from isothermal fluid-bed to high-pressure slow-heating-rate retorting.

Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Role of computer simulation in oil shale blasting  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated computer codes were developed to simulate the processes that occur in blasting in oil shale. Three ways these codes are used in conjunction with field results are described. First, there is a code verification stage, where the code is improved through detailed comparisons. Next, there is a stage where critical phenomena in the blasting process are identified by studying areas where there are significant differences between calculations and field results. Finally, as the code is verified and the critical phenomena are explored, the code is used as a design tool. These stages are illustrated with experience from use of the new Los Alamos SHALE code and other codes. Current understanding of blasting in oil shale is reviewed, with an emphasis on areas where simulations and experimental approaches are pushed to their limits. A recommendation is made that computer simulation be done in close coordination with an active experimental program.

Adams, T.F.; Keller, C.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

The role of computer simulation in oil shale blasting  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated computer codes have been developed to simulate the processes that occur in blasting in oil shale. The authors describe the three ways these codes are used in conjunction with field results. First, there is a code verification stage, where the code is improved through detailed comparisons. Next, there is a stage where critical phenomena in the blasting process are identified by studying areas where there are significant differences between calculations and field results. Finally, as the code is verified and the critical phenomena are explored, the code is used as a design tool. These stages are illustrated with experience from use of the new Los Alamos SHALE code and other codes. Current understanding of blasting in oil shale is reviewed, with an emphasis on areas where simulations and experimental approaches are pushed to their limits. It is concluded that computer simulation be done in close coordination with an active experimental program.

Adams, T.F.; Keller, C.F.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Enhancing permeability in oil shale and applications to tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Explosive fracturing and rubblization are used to enhance oil shale permeability. Blasting strategy and results are discussed, in particular the Geokinetics blasting. The field data desired are listed. Comments are offered on the extension of the blasting techniques to tar sands. (DLC)

Schamaun, J.T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Dust explosion hazards due to blasting of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The conditions favoring secondary explosions of dust or gas accompanying the blasting of oil shale are the subject of continuing investigation by the Bureau of Mines. In the present study, oil shale dust was dispersed in a gallery and ignited by various blasting agents blown out of a cannon according to a standard testing procedure. Parallel tests were conducted in the Bureau's Experimental Mine to test propagation as well as ignition of oil shale dust. In both gallery and mine, the minimum explosion limits were determined as a function of dust loading, weight and type of blasting agent, and amount of added methane. The results of these experiments are compared with previous measurements using methane-air explosions as an initiation source. In view of recent mine dust sampling data, the main explosion hazard in nongassy oil shale mines is likely to be limited to the region of the face. But in gassy mines, dust-gas explosions could be expected to propagate considerable distances.

Richmond, J.K.; Beitel, F.P.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.  

SciTech Connect

This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Shale beneficiation and oil recovery from the concentrate  

SciTech Connect

A flow sheet and economic feasibility study of oil shale beneficiation and recovery shows that conceivable improvements in grinding, separation, and recovery could make a beneficiationbased system more attractive than conventional ore retorting, although current technology (based on ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting) is less attractive.

Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Accelerated oil shale in-situ research: a national program  

SciTech Connect

Development of a viable in-situ technology offers the potential of both significant environmental advantages and an increase in the amount of recoverable resources. The program described in this report is directed specifically toward research needed to overcome the technical obstacles that have retarded the development of in-situ processes. The program goal is to develop, by 1980, several commercially viable technologies for the in-situ production of shale oil. National in scope, the program is expected to be undertaken with private funds in part with joint Federal/private financing and, where neither is feasible, wholly with Federal funds. The Federal Government would provide overall program management to ensure that all parts of this highly interrelated program move forward harmoniously. Although emphasis is directed toward the oil shales of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, research would also be initiated on the oil shale deposits that underlie much of the Eastern United States. A number of feasible in-situ technologies would be tested in various oil shale resource types.

1975-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Flash pyrolysis of oil shale with various gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The flash pyrolysis of Colorado Oil Shale with methane at a temperature of 800/sup 0/C and pressure of 500 psi appears to give the highest yield of hydrocarbon gas and liquid followed by hydrogen and lowest with helium. In the methane pyrolysis over 54.5% of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to ethylene and benzene. The flash pyrolysis with hydrogen (flash hydropyrolysis) of the oil shale at increasing temperatures showed a rapidly increasing amount of methane formed and a decrease in ethane formation, while the BTX (benzene mainly) yield remained at approximately 10%. At 950/sup 0/C and 500 psi almost all (97.0%) of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Experiments with a mixture of a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal and oil shale under flash hydropyrolysis and methane pyrolysis conditions indicated higher yields of methane and ethylene and slightly lower yields of benzene than predicted by partial additive calculations. These exploratory experiments appear to be of sufficient interest to warrant a fuller investigation of the interaction of the natural resources, oil shale, coal and natural gas under flash pyrolysis conditions.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

H/sub 2/S evolution from Colorado oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most of the sulfur in oil shale occurs in pyrite and a smaller amount is contained in the kerogen. It is demonstrated that the major source of H/sub 2/S during oil shale pyrolysis is from the reaction of pyrite with organic matter. Results are presented for the evolution of H/sub 2/S from Colorado oil shale heated at 5/sup 0/C/min under autogenous (self-generated), argon, steam, and hydrogen atmospheres at atmospheric pressure. In an autogenous atmosphere, most of the H/sub 2/S is evolved between 400 and 500/sup 0/C. Addition of finely ground pyrite increases the amount but does not change the evolution profile of H/sub 2/S. In an argon atmosphere, however, added pyrite causes a substantial increase in H/sub 2/S evolution only between 475 and 525/sup 0/C. Similar reaction characteristics were observed with large-grained natural pyrite in a Tract C-a oil shale. These results also demonstrate the importance of intimate contact between the pyrite and organic material. In a steam atmosphere, pyrite is oxidized to iron oxides and the H/sub 2/S evolution increases substantially. In some samples, essentially all the initial sulfur is evolved as H/sub 2/S at temperatures below 800/sup 0/C. Finally, we discuss the thermodynamic limitations on the observed reactions under retort conditions.

Burnham, A.K.; Bey, N.K.; Koskinas, G.J.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Ground disposal of oil shale wastes: a review with an indexed annotated bibliography through 1976  

SciTech Connect

This review covers the available literature concerning ground-disposed wastes and effluents of a potential oil shale industry. Ground disposal has been proposed for essentially all of the solid and liquid wastes produced (Pfeffer, 1974). Since an oil shale industry is not actually in operation, the review is anticipatory in nature. The section, Oil Shale Technology, provides essential background for interpreting the literature on potential shale oil wastes and the topics are treated more completely in the section entitled Environmental Aspects of the Potential Disposal of Oil Shale Wastes to Ground. The first section of the annotated bibliography cites literature concerning potential oil shale wastes and the second section cites literature concerning oil shale technology. Each section contains references arranged historically by year. An index is provided.

Routson, R.C.; Bean, R.M.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Perform research in process development for hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales: Volume 2, Expansion of the Moving-Bed Hydroretorting Data Base for Eastern oil shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive data base was developed for six Eastern oil shales: Alabama Chattanooga, Indiana New Albany, Kentucky Sunbury, Michigan Antrim, Ohio Cleveland, and Tennessee Chattanooga shales. The data base included the hydroretorting characteristics of the six shales, as well as the retorting characteristics in the presence of synthesis gas and ionized gas. Shale gasification was also successfully demonstrated. Shale fines (20%) can produce enough hydrogen for the hydroretorting of the remaining 80% of the shale. The amount of fines tolerable in a moving bed was also determined. 16 refs., 59 figs., 43 tabs.

Not Available

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Economic comparison of five process concepts for using eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect

This study compared costs of retorting eastern oil shales using western shale retorting technologies that need no more development with the cost of processing the same shales using technologies designed specifically for eastern shales. The eastern shale technologies need more development. The study was designed to answer the question: does process development work need to be done for eastern oil shale or will the existing western techniques suffice. A calculation for a power plant that burned eastern oil shale to produce electricity was included in the study. We studied the following processes: the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) HYTORT (eastern shale process), the Paraho C-H (combination heated) (eastern shale process), the Paraho D-H (direct heated) (western shale process), the TOSCO II (western shale process), and power plant. It was concluded that, without further development, western shale retorting processes are not adequate for use with eastern shale. The HYTORT process produces oil at a cost nearly competitive with oil from western shale however.

Parkinson, W.J.; Phillips, T.T.; Barnes, J.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit for in situ retorting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit that has been formed in alternate horizontal layers of rich and lean shale, including the steps of driving a horizontal tunnel along the lower edge of a rich shale layer of the deposit, sublevel caving by fan drilling and blasting of both rich and lean overlying shale layers at the distal end of the tunnel to rubblize the layers, removing a substantial amount of the accessible rubblized rich shale to permit the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form a column of lean shale, performing additional sublevel caving of rich and lean shale towards the proximate end of the tunnel, removal of a substantial amount of the additionally rubblized rich shale to allow the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form another column of rubblized lean shale, similarly performing additional steps of sublevel caving and removal of rich rubble to form additional columns of lean shale rubble in the rich shale rubble in the tunnel, and driving additional horizontal tunnels in the deposit and similarly rubblizing the overlying layers of rich and lean shale and forming columns of rubblized lean shale in the rich, thereby forming an in situ oil shale retort having zones of lean shale that remain permeable to hot retorting fluids in the presence of high rubble pile pressures and high retorting temperatures.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Millimeter wave analysis of the dielectric properties of oil shales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural sedimentation processes give rise to fine layers in shales. If these layers alternate between organic-rich and organic-poor sediments, then the contrast in dielectric properties gives rise to an effective birefringence as the presence of hydrocarbons suppresses the dielectric constant of the host rock. We have measured these effects with a quasioptical millimeter wave setup that is rapid and noncontacting. We find that the strength of this birefringence and the overall dielectric permittivity provide two useful diagnostic of the organic content of oil shales.

John A. Scales; Michael Batzle

2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

383

Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (?m) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Economics of shale oil production by radio frequency heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual facility for the production of shale oil by radio frequency(rf) heating has been designed to evaluate the economic feasibility of this technique. In the proposed procedure, the shale is processed in situ without being rubbed or explosively fractured. Metal electrodes inserted in a set of vertical drill holes are energized by a group of rf oscillators. The holes bound a block of shale that is to be retorted. The electric field is developed in such a way that heating within the block is almost uniform, and heating outside the block is very low. Retorting of the shale results in a pressure buildup of the hydrocarbon fluids. The oil and gas move horizontally (parallel to bedding planes), then down the electrode holes to a collection manifold. The facility schedule is planned so that off-peak electric power from existing generating stations can be used to operate the oscillators. Thus, the cost of power and the capital requirements for the facility are held to a minimum. Oil production costs and capital requirements indicate that the proposed procedure is economically attractive. The two principal costs are purchase of electric power and mining operations. The largest capital requirement is oscillators and associated electrical equipment.

Mallon, R.G.

1980-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

385

Laboratory weathering and solubility relationships of fluorine and molybdenum in combusted oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Proper management of large volumes of spent oil shale requires an understanding of the mineralogy and the disposal environment chemistry. Simulated laboratory weathering is one method to rapidly and inexpensively assess the long-term potential for spent oil shales to degrade the environment. The objectives of this study were to assess the solubility relationships of fluorine (F) and molybdenum (Mo) in Green River Formation spent oil shale, to examine the mineralogy and leachate chemistry of three combusted oil shales in a laboratory weathering environment using the humidity cell technique, and to examine the data from spent oil shale literature. Combusted oil shales from the Green River Formation and New Albany Shale were used in the examination of the leachate chemistry and mineralogy.

Essington, M.E.; Wills, R.A.; Brown, M.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surface spent shale, and grout production from treateda grout from spent shale--grout production fromraw shale, grout production from as-

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Status of commercial oil shale development in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The status of the 19 existing oil shale projects that were established to produce shale oil for commercial sale divides the projects into four status categories: (1) site-initiated projects with construction schedules, (2) site-initiated projects without schedules, and (4) proposed projects without construction schedules. Among the findings are that retort technologies most likely to be developed and tested at commercial scale over the next 10 years are those that will receive Synthetic Fuels Corporation backing, that production capacity projections represent the most optimistic rather than the most likely scenario, that the industry will exploit about 12 billion of the estimated 3.8 trillion barrels of reserves, and that the three factor most affecting production are the market price of crude oil, successful demonstration of retort technologies, and production costs. 2 figures, 6 tables.

Barnes, H.H.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Numerical modeling of a true in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A numerical model has been developed to simulate the true in situ retorting process. The retort is assumed to be a low-porosity fractured bed composed of large seams of competent shale separated at intervals by open fractures. Kerogen and carbonate decomposition and char, oil, and gas combustion, as well as other reactions, are considered. In contrast to the results of rubbled-bed models, the retorting of seams thicker than one meter is characterized by incomplete retorting and significant oil combustion (10 to 40% of that retorted). The amount of shale retorted can, however, be maximized by proper control of air and steam injection rates, with the injected gas being optimally 40 to 50% steam. The oil available for recovery from a two meter seam can then be, for example, as high as 50% of Fischer Assay.

Tyner, C.E.; Hommert, P.J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility  

SciTech Connect

The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement  

SciTech Connect

The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Daniel, J. [Lafarge Corp., Alpena, MI (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement  

SciTech Connect

The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Daniel, J. (Lafarge Corp., Alpena, MI (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Expansion of the commercial output of Estonian oil shale mining and processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to polyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with small reserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations of the mines that are still working. Complex usage of natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is made possible owing to the unique features of its geology and technology. Oil shale seam development is carried out at shallow depths (40--70 m) in stable limestones and does not require expensive maintenance. Such natural resources as underground water, carbonate rocks, heat of rock mass, and underground chambers are opened by mining and are ready for utilization. Room-and-pillar mining does not disturb the surface, and worked oil shale and greenery waste heaps do not breach its ecology. Technical decisions and economic evaluation are presented for the complex utilization of natural resources in the boundaries of mine take of the ``Tammiku`` underground mine and the adjacent closed mine N2. Ten countries have already experienced industrial utilization of oil shale in small volumes for many years. Usually oil shale deposits are not notable for complex geology of the strata and are not deeply bedded. Thus complex utilization of quite extensive natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is of both scientific and practical interest.

Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Oil Shale Development from the Perspective of NETL's Unconventional Oil Resource Repository  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The history of oil shale development was examined by gathering relevant research literature for an Unconventional Oil Resource Repository. This repository contains over 17,000 entries from over 1,000 different sources. The development of oil shale has been hindered by a number of factors. These technical, political, and economic factors have brought about R&D boom-bust cycles. It is not surprising that these cycles are strongly correlated to market crude oil prices. However, it may be possible to influence some of the other factors through a sustained, yet measured, approach to R&D in both the public and private sectors.

Smith, M.W. (REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV); Shadle, L.J.; Hill, D. (REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation  

SciTech Connect

The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

Turner, J.P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Reproducibility of chemical analyses of raw Colorado oil shales  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was undertaken to establish the real magnitudes of the errors of the determinations of total carbon, acid-evolved carbon dioxide, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total hydrogen, and total sulfur in oil shales ranging the natural gamut of kerogen richness. Four shales, one low in kerogen, two of medium kerogen content, and one very rich shale, were divided into twelve samples each. These were submitted for analysis, randomly and under blind labels, over a 15-month period. The results show that the true errors of the carbon and sulfur analyses are much larger than replicate differences would indicate, while intersample variance was comparable to between-replicate variance for nitrogen and hydrogen. Still, the errors for total carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen, as determined with the Perkin-Elmer elemental analyzer, are comparable to or smaller than those expected for fully combustible compounds by Perkin-Elmer experts. Historical plots of within-group variations show definite biases which may be correctable but whose causes have not been found. Samples about ten times larger than the 2-mg samples recommended for pure combustible compounds are probably appropriate for oil shale. A regular quality-control program should be instituted for these analyses.

Carley, J.F.

1983-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

398

Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of oil shale: oil yield, composition, and kinetics  

SciTech Connect

A quartz isothermal fluidized-bed reactor has been used to measure kinetics and oil properties relevant to surface processing of oil shale. The rate of oil formation has been described with two sequential first-order rate equations characterized by two rate constants, k/sub 1/ = 2.18 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-41.6 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/ and k/sub 2/ = 4.4 x 10/sup 6/ exp(-29.7 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/. These rate constants together with an expression for the appropriate weighting coefficients describe approximately 97/sup +/% of the total oil produced. A description is given of the results of different attempts to mathematically describe the data in a manner suitable for modeling applications. Preliminary results are also presented for species-selective kinetics of methane, ethene, ethane and hydrogen, where the latter is clearly distinguished as the product of a distinct intermediate. Oil yields from Western oil shale are approximately 100% Fischer assay. Oil composition is as expected based on previous work and the higher heating rates (temperatures) inherent in fluidized-bed pyrolysis. Neither the oil yield, composition nor the kinetics varied with particle size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm within experimental error. The qualitatively expected change in oil composition due to cracking was observed over the temperature range studied (460 to 540/sup 0/C). Eastern shale exhibited significantly faster kinetics and higher oil yields than did Western shale.

Richardson, J H; Huss, E B; Ott, L L; Clarkson, J E; Bishop, M O; Taylor, J R; Gregory, L J; Morris, C J

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Multiphase flow modeling of oil mist and liquid film formation in oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A first level model is developed to account for the appearance and disappearance of liquid oil produced during oil shale retorting. Although nearly all the kerogen initially present in the oil shale exits the retort in the form of a liquid either in the form of a mist or a falling film, the flow of this valuable, clean liquid fuel is not presently accounted for in oil shale retorting computer models. A rigorous treatment of the problem is very difficult. A simplified but sophisticated treatment is developed which is designed to be easily incorporated into the LLL computer model now without major modifications to the numerical solution algorithms. A complete set of equations and simple models are developed to explicitly account for the movement of condensed oil mist and liquid film flowing at unequal velocities. The equations clearly illustrate where more detailed treatments may be inserted, as they are developed.

Lyczkowski, R.W.; Gidaspow, D.

1979-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

400

1 Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Ground water control for an in situ oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of particles containing oil shale. An open base of operation is excavated in the formation above the retort site, and an access drift is excavated to the bottom of the retort site. Formation is explosively expanded to form the fragmented mass between the access drift and an elevation spaced below the bottom of the base of operation, leaving a horizontal sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the top of the fragmented mass and the bottom of the base of operation. The sill pillar provides a safe base of operation above the fragmented mass from which to control retorting operations. A plurality of blasting holes used in explosively expanding the formation extend from the base of operation, through the sill pillar, and open into the top of the fragmented mass. Trenches are formed in the base of operation for collecting ground water which enters the base of operation prior to and during retorting operations, and collected ground water is withdrawn from the base of operation. Casings can be placed in the blasting holes and adapted for controlling gas flow through the fragmented mass during retorting operations. The casings extend above the floor of the base of operation to inhibit flow of ground water through the blasting holes into the fragmented mass, and other blasting holes not having such casings are sealed. After retorting is completed, the floor of the base of operation can be covered with a layer of concrete and/or the blasting holes can be sealed with concrete to inhibit leakage of ground water into treated oil shale particles in the fragmented mass.

Ridley, R.D.

1979-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

402

Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

In the OSTI Collections: Oil Shales | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Oil Shales Oil Shales Extraction Water Use History References Additional References Research Organizations Reports Available through OSTI's SciTech Connect Petroleum is commonly extracted from pores in rock formations below the earth's surface. Different kinds of rock have petroleum in their pores, but the petroleum is not part of the rock itself. Kerogen, another hydrocarbon material, is a constituent material of a type of rock called oil shale. While oil shales can be burned directly as a fuel, it's possible to extract a liquid substitute for petroleum from kerogen by heating the oil shale to a high temperature, thus producing a vapor, which is then cooled. Some of the cooled vapor remains gaseous (and is called "combustible oil-shale gas"), while the rest condenses

406

DOE Science Showcase - Oil Shale Research | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Oil Shale Research Oil Shale Research Oil shale has been recognized as a potentially valuable U.S. energy resource for a century. Obstacles to its use have included the expense of current shale-oil production technologies and their effects on our environment. The energy landscape is evolving. Technology has advanced, global economic, political, and market conditions have changed and the regulatory landscape has matured. Recent efforts to realize the potential of this vast resource is a major focus of DOE's Fossil Energy program research. Read more about recent developments in fuel extraction, water management and efforts to advance the use of oil shales for energy In the OSTI Collections: Oil Shales, by Dr. William Watson, Physicist, OSTI staff. Image Credit: Argonne National Laboratory

407

Industrial hygiene concerns associated with oil shale development  

SciTech Connect

Health protection concerns (including industrial hygiene, safety, and occupational medicine) must be evaluated to insure that development of the oil shale industry proceeds without significant risk to the health of the workers involved. These concerns need to be identified in the early stages of developing this industry. To provide a basis for discussing potential health protection concerns related to oil shale, it is necessary to briefly discuss the magnitude and characteristics of this resource; the alternate proposed technologies; and the unit operations which make up the operating system. This subject has been detailed in many publications, among them reports prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency. This discussion will be limited to providing sufficient background to put industrial hygiene and other health protection concerns in perspective, and will include a brief description of typical technologies under consideration. It will not provide a detailed description of these technologies, or attempt to cover all the alternate technologies which may be applied to the development of oil shale. However, a basis for considering potential health protection problems associated with development of this industry will be established.

Ettinger, H.J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI`s archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Ecological effects of oil shale development: problems, perspectives, and approaches  

SciTech Connect

Although current oil shale developments in the Piceance Basin appear to have had little impact on ecosystems, it is important to recognize that planned expansion of the industry in the Basin will greatly magnify the potential for serious perturbations of the Piceance environs. The relatively small scale of the present oil shale activities in the Basin provides the biologist with a unique opportunity to establish and conduct quantitative studies designed to measure impacts as they occur. This paper is intended to focus attention on some of the problems, perspectives and recommended approaches to conducting ecosystem effects studies that will provide criteria for evaluation and mitigation of impacts should they occur. The purpose of this paper is not to criticize past and current environmental studies on oil shale, but in light of anticipated growth of the industry, to focus attention on the need to carefully define, design and execute ecological effects studies to quantify and provide mitigation criteria for impacts that will undoubtedly result from accelerated industry activities.

Hakonson, T.E.; White. G.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Central Pacific Minerals and Southern Pacific Petroleum detail oil shale activities  

SciTech Connect

These two affiliated companies have their major assets in Queensland. Brief summaries are given of the activities of the Rundle, Condor, and Yaamba oil shale projects and brief descriptions are given of the resources found in the Stuart, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Lowmead, and Duaringa oil shale deposits of Queensland. The companies also have, or are planning, oil shale projects in the US, Luxembourg, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany, and these are briefly described.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Oil shale mining claims: alternatives for resolution of an ancient problem  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale reserves have the potential of making a great contribution to the energy needs of the nation. A primary obstacle to developing oil shale properties, however, is the uncertainty of the legal principles governing the validity of oil shale mining claims. In this article, the author considers the issues as they historically evolved, evaluates the present status of the law and explores alternatives which could hopefully resolve the problems.

Duncan, T.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Separation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oil shale; Ash; Adsorption; Copper and zinc removal 1. IntroductionSeparation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251­257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

415

61. Nelson, D. C. Oil Shale: New Technologies Defining New Opportunities. Presented at the Platts Rockies Gas & Oil Conference, Denver, CO, April  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

61. Nelson, D. C. Oil Shale: New Technologies Defining New Opportunities. Presented at the Platts I, II Modeling of the In-Situ Production of Oil from .',1 l ',".1" Oil Shale ilil 'I' 'I~ :' l of conventional oil reserves amidst increasing liquid fuel demand in the world have renewed interest in oil shale

Kulp, Mark

416

Energy supply strategy: getting technology commercialized, shale oil and enhanced oil recovery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Purpose is to identify factors inhibiting the near-term investment of industrial funds for producing oil from shale and through enhanced oil recovery, and to estimate the investment and production which would result if these deterrents were removed and suitable incentives provided. The barriers are discussed under the following categories: economic, environmental, institutional/regulatory, and technical. (DLC)

Steger, J.E.; Sullo, P.; Michaelis, M.; Nason, H.K.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Process for Recovery of Oil Shale, Nov. 1976-0ct. 1977,1. Lekas, M. A. , Proc. 12th Oil Shale Sympos. , ColoradoCOMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT ~~D PROCESS WATERS

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

A CONTINUOUS FLOW BIOASSAY TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF OIL-SHALE-RELATED EFFLUENTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS WITH TWO SPECIES OF CADDISFLY LARVAE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large~scale commercial shale oil production has yet to takeDerived from In Situ Oil Shale Processing. In: ProceedingsConsiderations for an In-Situ Oil Shale Process Water. LETC/

Russell, Peter P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Process for Recovery of Oil Shale, Nov. 1976-0ct. 1977,M. A. , Proc. 12th Oil Shale Sympos. , Colorado School ofCOMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT ~~D PROCESS WATERS

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

A CONTINUOUS FLOW BIOASSAY TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF OIL-SHALE-RELATED EFFLUENTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS WITH TWO SPECIES OF CADDISFLY LARVAE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Derived from In Situ Oil Shale Processing. In: ProceedingsConsiderations for an In-Situ Oil Shale Process Water. LETC/Presented at the Oil Shale Sampling, Analysis and Quality

Russell, Peter P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Evaluation of the pollution abatement technologies available for treatment of wastewater from oil shale processing  

SciTech Connect

A review covers the conventional and in-situ oil shale processing technologies and their status of development; the sources and characteristics of the wastewaters from oil shale retorting operation, from leaching of spent shale, from cooling tower and boiler blowdowns, from oil refining operations, from saline aquifer, and from minor sources, such as from air pollution control equipment, runoff from dust control, and sanitary wastewaters; and wastewater treatment methods applicable for treating wastewater from oil shale processes including physical, chemical, biological, and tertiary treatment methods and specific processes for removing specific pollutants (e.g., phenols, cyanides, heavy metals) from wastewaters. 31 references.

Sung, R.D.; Prien, C.H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Progress report, December 1991--February 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Easter oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Beneficiation Research; Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; and Project Management and Reporting. 24 figs., 19 tabs. (AT)

Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Electrical installations in oil shale mines. Open file report 21 Sep 81-13 Aug 83  

SciTech Connect

This report presents recommended guidelines and regulatory changes applicable to electrical installations in underground oil shale mines. These recommendations are based on information gathered from oil shale operators, government agencies, and other knowledgeable sources familiar with existing plans for mining systems and electrical installations, and on present understanding of the problems and hazards associated with oil shale mining. Additional discussions of specific electrical problems related to oil shale mining include ground fault current levels, permissible electric wheel motors, permissible batteries and electric starting systems, intrinsically safe instrumentation, and applicability of existing test standards.

Gillenwater, B.B.; Kline, R.J.; Paas, N.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Oil shale in the Piceance Basin: an analysis of land use issues  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to contribute to a framework for establishing policies to promote efficient use of the nation's oil shale resources. A methodology was developed to explain the effects of federal leasing policies on resource recovery, extraction costs, and development times associated with oil shale surface mines. This report investigates the effects of lease size, industrial development patterns, waste disposal policies, and lease boundaries on the potential of Piceance Basin oil shale resource. This approach should aid in understanding the relationship between federal leasing policies and requirements for developing Piceance Basin oil shale. 16 refs., 46 figs. (DMC)

Rubenson, D.; Pei, R.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Oil Shale Environmental Advisory Panel, the environment, and the federal program: past, present, and future  

SciTech Connect

The Oil Shale Environmental Advisory Panel, which was established by the Secretary of the Interior, advises responsible officials of the Department of the Interior on the enforcement of environmental provisions of the prototype oil shale leases. It has also been requested to review and advise on alternative sources of water for oil shale development and on the proposal to accelerate development of in situ oil shale technology. Provisions for membership on the panel as provided by its charter are discussed; operating procedures and accomplishments of its first year are reviewed. (JGB)

Rogers, W.L.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Method for establishing a combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort  

SciTech Connect

A method for retorting oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort includes the steps of excavating a void in a subterranean formation containing oil shale and placing combustible material in the void adjacent an ignition situs. Formation is then explosively expanded toward the void to form a retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale, the top layer of the fragmented mass adjacent an ignition situs containing such combustible material. The combustible material is then ignited for establishing a combustion zone in the retort.

Bartel, W.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Burton, R.S. III

1979-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

427

Pyrolysis Kinetics and Chemical Structure Considerations of a Green River Oil Shale and Its Derivatives.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work had the objective of determining both the kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of oil shale and kerogen as well as using analytical techniques… (more)

Hillier, James L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

A CONTINUOUS FLOW BIOASSAY TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF OIL-SHALE-RELATED EFFLUENTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS WITH TWO SPECIES OF CADDISFLY LARVAE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scale commercial shale oil production has yet to take place.production may give an indication of the responses that would result from oil shale

Russell, Peter P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2), forms the ubiquitous oil source matrix in shales. Thus~Oil Shale Retort and Process Water s Inorganic Arsenic and Organoarsenic compounds were purchased from commercial sources

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

DOE-Funded Project Shows Promise for Tapping Vast U.S. Oil Shale Resources  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Funded Project Shows Promise for Tapping Vast U.S. Oil Shale Funded Project Shows Promise for Tapping Vast U.S. Oil Shale Resources DOE-Funded Project Shows Promise for Tapping Vast U.S. Oil Shale Resources March 31, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A technology as simple as an advanced heater cable may hold the secret for tapping into the nation's largest source of oil, which is contained in vast amounts of shale in the American West. In a recently completed project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Office of Fossil Energy's Oil and Natural Gas Program, Composite Technology Development (CTD) Inc. successfully demonstrated the application of a ceramic-composite insulated heater cable for oil shale recovery deep underground. The Small Business Innovation Research project provided employment for 25 professionals and resulted in two patent

431

Primary oil-shale resources of the Green River Formation in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Resources of potential oil in place in the Green River Formation are measured and estimated for the primary oil-shale resource area east of the Green River in Utah's Uinta Basin. The area evaluated (Ts 7-14 S, Rs 19-25 E) includes most of, and certainly the best of Utah's oil-shale resource. For resource evaluation the principal oil-shale section is divided into ten stratigraphic units which are equivalent to units previously evaluated in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. Detailed evaluation of individual oil-shale units sampled by cores, plus estimates by extrapolation into uncored areas indicate a total resource of 214 billion barrels of shale oil in place in the eastern Uinta Basin.

Trudell, L.G.; Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Mason, G.M.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: shale oil recovery application  

SciTech Connect

The US has large shale oil energy resources, and many companies have undertaken considerable effort to develop economical means to extract this oil within environmental constraints. The recoverable shale oil reserves in the US amount to 160 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 3/ (1000 x 10/sup 9/ bbl) and are second in quantity only to coal. This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to a shale oil recovery process. Since the highest potential shale oil reserves lie in th Piceance Basin of Western Colorado, the study centers on exploiting shale oil in this region.

Rao, R.; McMain, A.T. Jr.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Biological effects of raw and processed oil shale particles in the lungs of laboratory animals  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and occupational health concerns will have an effect on the developing oil shale technologies. The mining and crushing of large volumes of rock will be a characteristic of at least some of these technologies, and above ground disposal of processed shale will require adequate control measures. Exposure by inhalation to the dusts that may arise from shale oil technologies may present a hazard both in the work force and in the local population. Animal studies dealing with the effects of oil shale-related materials in the lung are in progress. Experiments involving Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation and by intratracheal instillation are described.

Holland, L.M.; Smith, D.M.; Thomas, R.G.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Assessment and control of water contamination associated with shale oil extraction and processing. Work plan  

SciTech Connect

The work plan for Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's research on assessment and control of water contamination associated with shale oil extraction and processing is outlined. There are two tandem tasks in the program, a literature and information review and evaluation and an experimental effort. The experimental work will address environmental control technologies for retort and product water, contamination of ground water by abandoned in situ retorts, raw and spent shale leachates, fugitive emissions from background oil shale retorting, and aquifer bridging during or after shale oil extraction.

Wewerka, E.M.; Wagner, P.; Wanek, P.L.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Effects of temperature and pressure on the hydroretorting yields of three eastern oil shales  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydroretorting has been demonstrated as a high yield approach for processing Eastern US oil shales. HYCRUDE and IGT are conducting research under a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine the hydroretorting characteristics of Eastern oil shales. The results of hydroretorting shales from Indiana, Alabama, and Tennessee in 100-gram batch tests conducted in the Hydroretorting Assay Unit (HAU) are presented in this paper. Oil yields as high as 218% of the Fischer Assay and carbon conversions up to 90%, 79%, and 80% for Indiana, Alabama, and Tennessee shales, respectively, were achieved. 8 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Roberts, M.J.; Punwani, D.V.; Hu, W.C.S.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Assessment of oil-shale technology in Brazil. Final technical report, October 27, 1980-July 27, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The development of an oil shale industry in the United States will require the solution of a variety of technical, economic, environmental, and health and safety problems. This assessment investigates whether US oil shale developers might benefit from the experience gained by the Brazilians in the operation of their Usina Prototipo do Irati oil shale demonstration plant at Sao Mateus do Sul, and from the data generated from their oil shale research and development programs. A chapter providing background information on Brazil and the Brazilian oil shale deposits is followed by an examination of the potential recovery processes applicable to Brazilian oil shale. The evolution of the Brazilian retorting system is reviewed and compared with the mining and retorting proposed for US shales. Factors impacting on the economics of shale oil production in Brazil are reviewed and compared to economic analyses of oil shale production in the US. Chapters examining the consequences of shale development in terms of impact on the physical environment and the oil shale worker complete the report. Throughout the report, where data permits, similarities and differences are drawn between the oil shale programs underway in Brazil and the US. In addition, research areas in which technology or information transfer could benefit either or both countries' oil shale programs are identified.

1981-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

437

Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI's archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Characteristics of pyrobitumen and oil obtained from the pyrolysis of Tipton member Green River oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The pyrobitumens and oils produced from the Green River oil shale at 375, 400 and 425{degree}C for various reaction times were characterized to obtain information for kerogen decomposition models. The atomic H/C ratio of pyrobitumen decreased with increasing reaction temperature and time. The average molecular weight of pyrobitumen increased with reaction temperature and time, reached a maximum at each temperature, and then decreased. The pyrobitumens contained an extremely high amount of polar materials; the variations of polar materials, nitrogen contents of pyrobitumen, and pyrobitumen amounts followed the same pattern, suggesting that the nitrogen functional groups play an important role during kerogen decomposition. In contrast, the oils contained much lower amounts of polars and had a constant atomic H/C ratio of 1.70 and an average molecular weight of about 270. Most of the aliphatic hydrocarbons occurred in the oil rather than pyrobitumen after the oil shale pyrolysis.

Chong, S.L.; Miknis, F.P. (Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY (USA)); Zhao, X. (Daqing Petroleum Institute, Heilongjiang (China)); Holmes, S. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Technology-Based Oil and Natural Gas Plays: Shale Shock! Could ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Technology-Based Oil and Natural Gas Plays: Shale Shock! Could There Be Billions in the Bakken? Through the use of technology, U.S. oil and natural gas operators are ...

440

Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios  

SciTech Connect

A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "naval oil shale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Co-combustion Character of Oil Shale and Its Semi-coke on CFB Bench  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Semi-coke is by-product from oil shale retorts and it is important to burn it in CFB furnace. But limited to the inflammable combustion traits, co-combustion of semi-coke with raw oil shale would be meaningful. Experimental research on co-combustion ... Keywords: combustion, distribution, semi-coke, temperature

Sun Baizhong; Huang Zhirong

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale, Division of Oil, Gas and Shale Technology of the U.S.Shale, Division of Oil, Gas and Shale Technology of the U.S.shale oil, considerable amounts of process waters which originate from mineral dehydration, combustion, groundwater steam and moisture in the input gas.

Fish, Richard H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

DOE oil shale reference sample bank: Quarterly report, July-September 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The DOE Oil Shale Program was restructured in FY84 to implement a 5-year period of basic and applied research in the study of the phenomena involved in oil shale pyrolysis/retorting. The program calls for the study of two reference shales per year for a period of 5 years. Consequently, the program calls for the identification, acquisition, processing, characterization, storage, disbursement, and record keeping for ten reference shales in a period of 5 years. Two FY86 and one FY87 reference shales have been acquired, processed and stored under inert gas. The Eastern shale, designated E86, was obtained from the Clegg Creek Member of the New Albany Shale at a quarry near Louisville, Kentucky in the first quarter of FY86. The FY86 Western Shale was obtained from the Exxon Colony Mine, located near Parachute, Colorado, during the first quarter of FY86. The FY87 Western Shale was obtained from the Tipton Member of the Green River Formation near Rock Springs, Wyoming during the fourth quarter of FY87. Partial distributions of the FY86 shale have been made to DOE and non-DOE contractors. Complete descriptions of the FY87 Western reference shale locale, shale processing procedures and analytical characterization are provided in this report. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Owen, L.B.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Oil Shale RD&D Leases in the United States | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil Shale RD&D Leases in the United States Oil Shale RD&D Leases in the United States Oil Shale RD&D Leases in the United States This paper describes the original plans, progress and accomplishments, and future plans for nine oil shale research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects on six existing RD&D leases awarded in 2006 and 2007 by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to Shell, Chevron, EGL (now AMSO), and OSEC (now Enefit American, respectively); as well as three pending leases to Exxon, Natural Soda, and AuraSource, that were offered in 2010. The outcomes associated with these projects are expected to have global applicability. Assessment of Plans and Progress on BLM Oil Shale RD&D Leases in the United States More Documents & Publications

445

Oil shale: potential environmental impacts and control technology. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio (IERL-Ci) has performed research related to oil shale processing and disposal since 1973. This research is in support of the Clean Air Act, The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act. Potential environmental impacts from oil shale development activities have been identified and potential control technologies are being evaluated through a combination of laboratory and field tests on actual oil shale waste streams. This paper discusses recent results from this program. Included are field test results on control of sulfur gases at Occidental Oil Shale's Logan Wash Site and Geokinetic's Kamp Kerogen Site, wastewater treatability studies on retort water and gas condensate at Logan Wash, and results of laboratory and field testing on raw and retorted oil shales.

Bates, E.R.; Liberick, W.W.; Burckle, J.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Investigation and development of alternative methods for shale oil processing and analysis. Final technical report, October 1979--April 1983  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oil shale, a carbonaceous rock which occurs abundantly in the earth`s crust, has been investigated for many years as an alternate source of fuel oil. The insoluble organic matter contained in such shales is termed {open_quotes}Kerogen{close_quotes} from the Greek meaning oil or oil forming. The kerogen in oil shale breaks down into oil-like products when subjected to conditions simulating destructive distillation. These products have been the subject of extensive investigations by several researchers and many of the constituents of shale oil have been identified. (1) Forsman (2) estimates that the kerogen content of the earth is roughly 3 {times} 10{sup 15} tons as compared to total coal reserves of about 5 {times} 10{sup 12}. Although the current cost per barrel estimate for commercial production of shale oil is higher than that of fossil oil, as our oil reserves continue to dwindle, shale oil technology will become more and more important. When oil shale is heated, kerogen is said to undergo chemical transformation to usable oil in two steps (3): Kerogen (in oil shale) 300-500{degrees}C bitumen. Crude shale oil and other products. The crude shale oil so obtained differs from fossil oil in that: (1) kerogen is thought to have been produced from the aging of plant matter over many years; (2) shale oil has a higher nitrogen content than fossil oil; (3) non-hydrocarbons are present to a much greater extent in shale oil; and (4) the hydrocarbons in shale oil are much more unsaturated than those in fossil oil (petroleum).

Evans, R.A.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Weathering effects on some chemical and physical properties of retorted oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Union B retorted Utah oil shale, Paraho retorted Utah oil shale, and Paraho retorted Colorado oil shale differed in texture, pH, and salinity. Physical breakdown of Paraho retorted Colorado oil shale particles was observed at the surface of columns exposed to field conditions in eastern Utah for 9 months, but no physical weathering was observed in the other two retorted oil shale types under the same conditions. Exposure to weather resulted in pH reduction of all three retorted shales but was most pronounced in the more highly alkaline Paraho retorted Utah oil shale. The finer particle (< 2 mm) fractions tended to have lower pH values and higher electrical conductivities than the more coarse fractions, even when the latter were crushed to < 2 mm. Freezing and thawing in the laboratory were very effective in causing particle breakdown of Paraho retorted Colorado oil shale. During weathering the large particles first separated along cleavage planes, followed by disintegration of the lamina.

Richardson, S.G. (Utah State Univ., Logan); McKell, C.M.; George, M.R.; Gray, G.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort, January 1991--September 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our objective, together with our CRADA partners, is to demonstrate advanced technology that could lead to an economic and environmentally acceptable commercialization of oil shale. We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

Cena, R.J.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

retort waters. Process waters are produced within the retortorganics. Process waters are produced in large quantities.Measurements Retort waters are co-produced with shale oil

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Toxicity of shale oil to freshwater algae: comparisons with petroleum and coal-derived oils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The toxicities of various water-soluble fractions of Paraho/SOHIO shale oils and coal liquefaction products to the algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Microcystis aeruginosa are investigated. Photosynthetic inhibition is the criterion of toxicity. A secondary objective of the algal bioassay is determination of the range of toxic concentrations. (ACR)

Giddings, J.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Fracture mechanics of oil shale: some preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

Results of a comprehensive series of fracture toughness tests on oil shale from Anvil Points are presented. Since oil shale is layered and transversely isotropic, three-point-bend specimens representing 20 and 40 gal/ton were tested in the three principal crack orientations--divider, arrester, and short transverse. These specimens were fatigue cracked to produce a sharp natural crack in a stable manner by means of loading between fixed limits of the crack opening displacement. Crack front position was marked by immersing the specimen in a penetrating dye so that the crack length could be determined after final failure. Load-to-failure records of load vs. crack opening displacement showed evidence of crack surface interference or crack closure. Fracture toughness was found to decrease by approximately 40 percent for an increase in kerogen content from 20 to 40 gal/ton. Highest values of fracture toughness were found for the divider geometry, lowest for short transverse, and intermediate for arrester with the actual values varying from 0.3 to 1.1 MN m/sup -/sup 3///sub 2/.

Schmidt, R.A. Huddle, C.W.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The steps in assembling the computational tools needed to simulate the explosive fracture of oil shale have been described. The resulting code, with its input data, was then used to simulate three explosive field experiments. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with what actually occurred in the field. Further detailed comparisons are in progress for these experiments and the others that have been conducted. As this is done, improvements will be made in the input data and in the code physics. The development of computer codes as tools to predict rock breakage makes a variety of interesting studies possible. The properties of the explosive can be changed to see how the extent of rubbling is affected. Studies of spacing and delays for decked charges are also possible. Finally, the codes can be applied in situations, such as confined-volume blasting, at the frontiers of blasting technology. These areas are vital to the effective utilization of our oil shale resources, especially with in situ techniques. Computer simulation will play a central role in the development of new technology for energy and mineral resource recovery.

Adams, T.F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Characterization of in situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

Turner, Thomas F. (Laramie, WY); Moore, Dennis F. (Laramie, WY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

Hackworth, J.H.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z