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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II Title Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6193E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Rapp, Vi H., Albert Pastor-Perez, Brett C. Singer, and Craig P. Wray Date Published 04/2013 Abstract VENT-II is a computer program designed to provide detailed analysis of natural draft and induced draft combustion appliance vent-systems (i.e., furnace or water heater). This program is capable of predicting house depressurization thresholds that lead to backdrafting and spillage of combustion appliances; however, validation reports of the program being applied for this

2

Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation  

SciTech Connect

This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air  

SciTech Connect

This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

Brand, L.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II Vi H. Rapp, Albert Pastor-Perez, Brett C. Singer, and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II Vi H. Rapp, Albert Pastor-Perez, Brett C. Singer, and Craig P. Wray Environmental Energy Technologies Division April 2013 In Press as: Vi H. Rapp, Albert Pastor-Perez, Brett C. Singer, and Craig P. Wray. 2013. "Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: A Validation of VENT-II". HVAC&R Research, DOI:10.1080/10789669.2013.771948 LBNL-6193E 2 DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof,

5

Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Discusses a novel TEG which utilizes a...

6

Gas turbine alternative fuels combustion characteristics  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain combustion performance and exhaust pollutant concentrations for specific synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Baseline comparison fuels used were gasoline and diesel fuel number two. Testing was done over a range of fuel to air mass ratios, total mass flow rates, and input combustion air temperatures in a flame-tube-type gas turbine combustor. Test results were obtained in terms of released heat and combustion gas emission values. The results were comparable to those obtained with the base fuels with variations being obtained with changing operating conditions. The release of carbon particles during the tests was minimal. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Rollbuhler, R.J.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Premixed Combustion of Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Premixed Combustion of Hydrogen Premixed Combustion of Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas * Lean premixed combustion * Effective for emission reduction with natural gas * High hydrogen flame speed requires care in premixer design for SGH fuels * UC Irvine study quantifies effectiveness of hydrogen augmentation strategy * Lean stability limit improves linearly with hydrogen augmentation * Emissions reduction can be achieved * Two OEM's and the California Energy Commission have used the results to help guide them on adapting to hydrogen fuel UC Irvine Scott Samuelsen / Vince McDonell Project 98-01-SR062 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Hydrogen Volume in Main Fuel (%) Adiabatic Flame Temperature (K) P0(3/4) High Stability High Stability Low emission Low emission operational zone operational zone

8

Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the combustion products and excess air as it rises throughthe combustion products and the excess air that was pulledThe combustion products mixed with excess air rise through

Lutz, James D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power usingThermoelectric Engines...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solutions Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power using Thermoelectric Engines John LaGrandeur October 5, 2011 Advanced Thermoelectric Solutions - 1 - Market motivation based on CO 2...

10

Understanding and Control of Combustion Dynamics in Gas Turbine Combustors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control of Combustion Understanding and Control of Combustion Control of Combustion Understanding and Control of Combustion Dynamics in Gas Turbine Combustors Dynamics in Gas Turbine Combustors Georgia Institute of Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Ben T. Zinn, Tim Lieuwen, Yedidia Neumeier, and Ben Bellows SCIES Project 02-01-SR095 DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT DE-FC26-02NT41431 Tom J. George, Program Manager, DOE/NETL Richard Wenglarz, Manager of Research, SCIES Project Awarded (05/01/2002, 36 Month Duration) $452,695 Total Contract Value CLEMSONPRES.PPT, 10/28/2003, B.T. ZINN, T. LIEUWEN, Y. NEUMEIER Gas Turbine Need Gas Turbine Need * Need: Gas turbine reliability and availability is important factor affecting power plant economics - Problem: Combustion driven oscillations severely reduce part life, requiring substantially more frequent outages

11

Optimal design of a dry-type natural-draft cooling tower by geometric programming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the optimal design of dry-type natural-draft cooling towers is investigated. Using...

J. G. Ecker; R. D. Wiebking

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Optimal Design of a Dry-Type Natural-Draft Cooling Tower by Geometric Programming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the optimal design of dry-type natural-draft cooling towers is investigated. Using...

J. G. Ecker; R. D. Wiebking

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Electrical Control of Gas Flows in Combustion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Electrical Control of Gas Flows in Combustion Processes J. Lawton P. J. Mayo F. J. Weinberg The theory...where they can be used to modify a variety of combustion processes. Theoretical maximum values of the flow parameters...

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION  

SciTech Connect

In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

15

Simplified method for determining heat of combustion of natural gas  

SciTech Connect

A simplified technique for determination of the heat of combustion of natural gas has been developed. It is a variation of the previously developed technique wherein the carrier air, in which the test sample was burnt, was oxygen enriched to adjust the mole fraction of oxygen in the combustion product gases up to that in the carrier air. The new technique eliminates the need for oxygen enrichment of the experimental mixtures and natural gas samples and has been found to predict their heats of combustion to an uncertainty of the order of 1 percent.

Singh, J.J.; Chegini, H.; Mall, G.H.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Large bore natural gas engine performance improvements and combustion stabilization through reformed natural gas precombustion chamber fueling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lean combustion is a standard approach used to reduce NOx emissions in large bore natural gas engines. However, at lean operating points, combustion instabilities and… (more)

Ruter, Matthew D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETL’s Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J. (Woodward)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

19

Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the high nitrogen content (1-2%) of the agricultural wastes, burning of the LCV gas derived from them can result in NO?emissions in excess of 2000 ppm. NO?emissions during combustion of LCV gas derived from gasification of cotton gin trash have been.... Wayne A. LePori for serving on my committee and for the advice and time he offer me. His experience on gasification and combustion of LCV gas was an invaluable source. I appreciate Dr. Mario A. Colaluca for serving on my committee and for his help...

Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

Wu, Ko-Jen

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

22

Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

23

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) R&D Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D Program portfolio of post- and

24

Carbon and Hydrogen Analyses of the Components of a Mixture Utilizing Separation-Combustion Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Utilizing Separation-Combustion Gas Chromatography...temperature copper oxide combustion tube which feeds...solution of brominated hydrocarbons (1% v/v) in...was passed into a combustion tube. Following...Wisconsin) was used to heat the combustion tube...indi- cated by the data of Table II. The......

Sam N. Pennington; Harry D. Brown

1968-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Exhaust gas recirculation for advanced diesel combustion cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Modern diesel engines tend to utilize significantly large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and high intake pressures across the engine load range to meet \\{NOx\\} targets. At such high EGR rates, the combustion process and exhaust emissions tend to exhibit a marked sensitivity to small changes in the EGR quantity, resulting in unintended deviations from the desired engine performance characteristics (energy efficiency, emissions, stability). An accurate estimation of EGR and its effect on the intake dilution are, therefore, necessary to enable its application during transient engine operation or unstable combustion regimes. In this research, a detailed analysis that includes estimation of the transient (cycle-by-cycle) build-up of EGR and the time (engine cycles) required to reach the steady-state EGR operation has been carried out. One-step global equations to calculate the transient and steady-state gas concentrations in the intake and exhaust are proposed. The effects of engine load and intake pressure on EGR have been examined and explained in terms of intake charge dilution and in-cylinder excess-air ratio. The EGR analysis is validated against a wide range of empirical data that include low temperature combustion cycles, intake pressure and load sweeps. This research intends to not only formulate a clear understanding of EGR application for advanced diesel combustion but also to set forth guidelines for transient analysis of EGR.

Usman Asad; Ming Zheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

New Developments in Closed Loop Combustion Control Using Flue Gas Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New developments in closed loop combustion control are causing radical changes in the way combustion control systems are implemented. The recent availability of in line flue gas analyzers and microprocessor technology are teaming up to produce...

Nelson, R. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Development and test of combustion chamber for Stirling engine heated by natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion chamber is an important component for the Stirling engine heated by natural gas. In the paper ... , we develop a combustion chamber for the Stirling engine which aims to generate 3?5 kWe...electric...

Tie Li; Xiange Song; Xiaohong Gui; Dawei Tang; Zhigang Li…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Toxic oxide deposits from the combustion of landfill gas and biogas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxide deposits found in combustion systems of landfill gas fired power stations contain relatively high concentrations ... They are selectively transported as part of the landfill gas into the gas-burning devices...

Dietmar Glindemann; Peter Morgenstern…

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Evaluation of the residual gas tolerance of homogeneous combustion processes with high exhaust-gas recirculation rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of concepts with low emissions and fuel consumption for gasoline engines requires an early knowledge of the combustion process’ residual gas tolerance. At the Institute...

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Thomas Lauer…

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Advanced combustion technologies for gas turbine power plants  

SciTech Connect

Objectives are to develop actuators for enhancing the mixing between gas streams, increase combustion stability, and develop hgih-temperature materials for actuators and sensors in combustors. Turbulent kinetic energy maps of an excited jet with co-flow in a cavity with a partially closed exhaust end are given with and without a longitudinal or a transverse acoustic field. Dielectric constants and piezoelectric coefficients were determined for Sr{sub 2}(Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics.

Vandsburger, U. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Roe, L.A. [Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Desu, S.B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

31

Waste gas combustion in a Hanford radioactive waste tank  

SciTech Connect

It has been observed that a high-level radioactive waste tank generates quantities of hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen that are potentially well within flammability limits. These gases are produced from chemical and nuclear decay reactions in a slurry of radioactive waste materials. Significant amounts of combustible and reactant gases accumulate in the waste over a 110- to 120-d period. The slurry becomes Taylor unstable owing to the buoyancy of the gases trapped in a matrix of sodium nitrate and nitrite salts. As the contents of the tank roll over, the generated waste gases rupture through the waste material surface, allowing the gases to be transported and mixed with air in the cover-gas space in the dome of the tank. An ignition source is postulated in the dome space where the waste gases combust in the presence of air resulting in pressure and temperature loadings on the double-walled waste tank. This analysis is conducted with hydrogen mixing studies HMS, a three-dimensional, time-dependent fluid dynamics code coupled with finite-rate chemical kinetics. The waste tank has a ventilation system designed to maintain a slight negative gage pressure during normal operation. We modeled the ventilation system with the transient reactor analysis code (TRAC), and we coupled these two best-estimate accident analysis computer codes to model the ventilation system response to pressures and temperatures generated by the hydrogen and ammonia combustion.

Travis, J.R.; Fujita, R.K.; Spore, J.W.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Utilization and Mitigation of VAM/CMM Emissions by a Catalytic Combustion Gas Turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A system configured with a catalytic combustion gas turbine generator unit is introduced. The system has ... Heavy Industries, Ltd., such as small gas turbines, recuperators and catalytic combustors, and catalyti...

K. Tanaka; Y. Yoshino; H. Kashihara; S. Kajita

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Pressure pulsations in combustion chambers of large gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

Flame instabilities and pressure pulsations have been measured in three different types of gas turbine combustors. These are the single and twin silo (such as the ABB GT13E and the Siemens V94.2), the annular combustion chamber (ABB GT 13E2, Siemens V84.3A, etc), and the multi-can combustors common on GEC-EGT gas turbines. Pressure pulsations are mostly resonant. They are interpreted with help of an acoustical model. Non-resonant modes at low frequencies (flame flicker) are ascribed to imperfect mixing especially in premix burners. At higher frequencies they are often due to vortices from the burners. Modifications of the burners, changes in the geometry of the liners and the addition of acoustical dampers are means to abate flame instabilities and the associated resonances. Judicious ways to run the gas turbine can help to avoid them. The efficiency of acoustical dampers of the Helmholtz type has been investigated experimentally and with model predictions.

Verhage, A.J.L.; Stevens, P.M.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

ALCF Research Aimed at Safer, Cleaner Combustion for Gas Turbines | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Aimed at Safer, Cleaner Combustion for Gas Turbines Research Aimed at Safer, Cleaner Combustion for Gas Turbines December 3, 2013 Printer-friendly version Researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) and the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) are using supercomputers to advance the development of safer and cleaner gas turbine engines by studying the operating conditions that can lead to a potentially dangerous phenomenon called autoignition. This phenomenon, which involves the spontaneous ignition of a combustible mixture without an external ignition source, can result in a premature combustion event, called flashback, that causes significant damage to the gas turbine. Understanding autoignition is critical to the design of turbines that operate with novel combustion strategies, such as lean

35

Optical backscatter probe for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream is disclosed. The system transmits light into a combustion gas stream, and thereafter detects a portion of the transmitted light as scattered light in an amount corresponding to the amount of particulates in the emissions. Purge gas may be supplied adjacent the light supply and the detector to reduce particles in the emissions from coating or otherwise compromising the transmission of light into the emissions and recovery of scattered light from the emissions.

Parks, James E; Partridge, William P

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

36

Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector development, multiple concepts including high thermal resistance thermal barrier coatings (TBC), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC), and monolithic ceramics were evaluated before down-selection to the most promising candidate materials for field evaluation. Preliminary, component and sub-scale testing was conducted to determine material properties and demonstrate proof-of-concept. Full-scale rig and engine testing was used to validated engine performance prior to field evaluation at a Qualcomm Inc. cogeneration site located in San Diego, California. To ensure that the CFCC liners with the EBC proposed under this program would meet the target life, field evaluations of ceramic matrix composite liners in Centaur{reg_sign} 50 gas turbine engines, which had previously been conducted under the DOE sponsored Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program (DE-AC02-92CE40960), was continued under this program at commercial end-user sites under Program Subtask 1A - Extended CFCC Materials Durability Testing. The goal of these field demonstrations was to demonstrate significant component life, with milestones of 20,000 and 30,000 hours. Solar personnel monitor the condition of the liners at the field demonstration sites through periodic borescope inspections and emissions measurements. This program was highly successful at evaluating advanced materials and down-selecting promising solutions for use in gas turbine combustions systems. The addition of the advanced materials technology has enabled the predicted life of the Mercury 50 combustion system to reach 30,000 hours, which is Solar's typical time before overhaul for production engines. In particular, a 40 mil thick advanced Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system was selected over various other TBC systems, ODS liners and CFCC liners for the 4,000-hour field evaluation under the program. This advanced TBC is now production bill-of-material at various thicknesses up to 40 mils for all of Solar's advanced backside-cooled combustor liners (Centaur 50, Taurus 60, Mars 100, Taurus 70,

Price, Jeffrey

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

Modeling and Control of Lean Premixed Combustion Dynamics for Gas Turbines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Virginia Active Combustion Control Group Virginia Active Combustion Control Group Tech Virginia VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND STATE UNIVERSITY Reacting Flows Laboratory Modeling and Control of Lean Premixed Combustion Dynamics for Gas Turbines Virginia Tech Principal Investigator: Uri Vandsburger SCIES Project 02- 01- SR099 DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT DE-FC26-02NT41431 Tom J. George, Program Manager, DOE/NETL Richard Wenglarz, Manager of Research, SCIES Project Awarded (05/01/02, 36 Month Duration) $ 756,700 Total Contract Value ($ 603,600 DOE) Virginia Active Combustion Control Group Tech Virginia VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND STATE UNIVERSITY Reacting Flows Laboratory Gas Turbine Technology Needs DLN/LP Gas Turbines * Improved Combustion Stability * Improved Design Methodology With a focus on: - Thermoacoustics

38

Single-stage conversion of associated petroleum gas and natural gas to syngas in combustion and auto-ignition processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single-stage conversion of alkane mixtures simulating associated petroleum gas (APG) to syngas is studied in a static installation and ... in a flow reactor based on the rocket combustion chamber. Yields of the d...

Yu. A. Kolbanovskii; I. V. Bilera; I. V. Rossikhin…

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Condition Based Monitoring of Gas Turbine Combustion Components  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to develop sensors that allow condition based monitoring of critical combustion parts of gas turbines. Siemens teamed with innovative, small companies that were developing sensor concepts that could monitor wearing and cracking of hot turbine parts. A magnetic crack monitoring sensor concept developed by JENTEK Sensors, Inc. was evaluated in laboratory tests. Designs for engine application were evaluated. The inability to develop a robust lead wire to transmit the signal long distances resulted in a discontinuation of this concept. An optical wear sensor concept proposed by K Sciences GP, LLC was tested in proof-of concept testing. The sensor concept depended, however, on optical fiber tips wearing with the loaded part. The fiber tip wear resulted in too much optical input variability; the sensor could not provide adequate stability for measurement. Siemens developed an alternative optical wear sensor approach that used a commercial PHILTEC, Inc. optical gap sensor with an optical spacer to remove fibers from the wearing surface. The gap sensor measured the length of the wearing spacer to follow loaded part wear. This optical wear sensor was developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. It was validated in lab tests and installed on a floating transition seal in an F-Class gas turbine. Laboratory tests indicate that the concept can measure wear on loaded parts at temperatures up to 800{degrees}C with uncertainty of < 0.3 mm. Testing in an F-Class engine installation showed that the optical spacer wore with the wearing part. The electro-optics box located outside the engine enclosure survived the engine enclosure environment. The fiber optic cable and the optical spacer, however, both degraded after about 100 operating hours, impacting the signal analysis.

Ulerich, Nancy; Kidane, Getnet; Spiegelberg, Christine; Tevs, Nikolai

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Gas-phase combustion processes in light of the theory of non-isothermal chain reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The presented experimental and theoretical results demonstrate, in contrast to the concept commonly accepted until recently, the key role of the branching-chain reaction mechanism in gas-phase combustion processes

V. V. Azatyan

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Investigation of two-fluid methods for Large Eddy Simulation of spray combustion in Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of two-fluid methods for Large Eddy Simulation of spray combustion in Gas Turbines the EL method well suited for gas turbine computations, but RANS with the EE approach may also be found and coupled with the LES solver of the gas phase. The equations used for each phase and the coupling terms

42

An investigation into the feasibility of an external combustion, steam injected gas turbine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

output of the turbine without increasing the work required for compression. Second, the steam may be generated with waste 15 heat from the combustion process. In an internal combustion gas turbine, this would result in an increased work output per... which are: 1. Gas Turbine Engine 2. Heat Exchanger Unit 3. Steam Generator Unit 4. Dynamometer 26 A detailed description of the equipment used in the experiment will be presented in the section entitled Ap- paratus since the purpose...

Ford, David Bruce

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

43

GEI 41040G - Specification for Fuel Gases for COmbustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Turbine Gas Turbine Revised, January 2002 GEI 41040G These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment nor to provide for every possible contingency to be met in connection with installation, operation or maintenance. Should further information be desired or should particular problems arise which are not covered sufficiently for the purchaser's purposes the matter should be referred to the GE Company. © 1999 GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY Specification for Fuel Gases for Combustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines GEI 41040G Specification for Fuel Gases for Combustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

Combustion Instability and Blowout Characteristics of Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine Combustors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Instability and Blowout Combustion Instability and Blowout Characteristics of Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine Characteristics of Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine Combustors Combustors Georgia Institute of Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Tim Lieuwen, Ben Zinn Bobby Noble, Qingguo Zhang DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT DE-FC26-02NT41431 Tom J. George, Program Manager, DOE/NETL Richard Wenglarz, Manager of Research, SCIES SCIES Project 03-01-SR111 Project Awarded (07/01/03, 36 Month Duration) Total Contract Value $376,722 . CLEMSON presentation, T.L., B.Z., B.N., Q.Z. Gas Turbine Need Gas Turbine Need * Need: Gas turbines with sufficient flexibility to cleanly and efficiently combust a wide range of fuels, particularly coal-derived gases - Problem: Inherent variability in composition and heating

45

Corrosion and Mechanical Properties of Materials in Combustion and Mixed-Gas Environments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Corrosion and Mechanical Properties of Corrosion and Mechanical Properties of Materials in Combustion and Mixed-Gas Environments Background A number of advanced technologies are being developed to convert coal to clean fuels for power generation and for use as a feedstock in chemical plants. Coal con- version and combustion processes create by-products that affect the performance of the materials of which the plant components are fabricated, reducing the systems'

46

Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Study of Lean Premixed Methane Combustion with CO2 Dilution under Gas Turbine Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In gas turbines, high air dilution is used in order to keep the turbine inlet temperature (TIT)(7) below the metallurgical temperature limit of the first turbine stages. ... It was shown that CO2 dilution could be an efficient method for increasing CO2 concentration in exhaust gas, thus making its capture easier. ... Efforts were focused on the impacts on cycle efficiency, combustion, gas turbine components, and cost. ...

Stéphanie de Persis; Gilles Cabot; Laure Pillier; Iskender Gökalp; Abdelakrim Mourad Boukhalfa

2012-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

49

Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

Venkatesan, Krishna

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

50

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by-product sulfuric and nitric acids that meet the commercial product specifications. The sulfuric acid will have to be disposed of by neutralization, thus lowering the value of the technology to same level as that of the activated carbon process. Therefore, it was decided to discontinue any further efforts on sulfuric acid process. Because of encouraging results on the activated carbon process, it was decided to add a new subtask on testing this process in a dual bed continuous unit. A 40 days long continuous operation test confirmed the excellent SOx/NOx removal efficiencies achieved in the batch operation. This test also indicated the need for further efforts on optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level. The VPSA process was tested in a pilot unit. It achieved CO{sub 2} recovery of > 95% and CO{sub 2} purity of >80% (by vol.) from simulated cold box feed streams. The overall CO{sub 2} recovery from the cold box VPSA hybrid process was projected to be >99% for plants with low air ingress (2%) and >97% for plants with high air ingress (10%). Economic analysis was performed to assess value of the NZE CPU. The advantage of NZE CPU over conventional CPU is only apparent when CO{sub 2} capture and avoided costs are compared. For greenfield plants, cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and cost of captured CO{sub 2} are generally about 11-14% lower using the NZE CPU compared to using a conventional CPU. For older plants with high air intrusion, the cost of avoided CO{sub 2} and capture CO{sub 2} are about 18-24% lower using the NZE CPU. Lower capture costs for NZE CPU are due to lower capital investment in FGD/SCR and higher CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In summary, as a result of this project, we now have developed one technology option for NZE CPU based on the activated carbon process and coldbox-VPSA hybrid process. This technology is projected to work for both low and high sulfur coal plants. The NZE CPU technology is projected to achieve near zero stack emissions

Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

51

Reduced and Validated Kinetic Mechanisms for Hydrogen-CO-sir Combustion in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect

Rigorous experimental, theoretical, and numerical investigation of various issues relevant to the development of reduced, validated kinetic mechanisms for synthetic gas combustion in gas turbines was carried out - including the construction of new radiation models for combusting flows, improvement of flame speed measurement techniques, measurements and chemical kinetic analysis of H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mixtures, revision of the H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} kinetic model to improve flame speed prediction capabilities, and development of a multi-time scale algorithm to improve computational efficiency in reacting flow simulations.

Yiguang Ju; Frederick Dryer

2009-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

Performance of an Internal Combustion Engine Operating on Landfill Gas and the Effect of Syngas Addition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance of an Internal Combustion Engine Operating on Landfill Gas and the Effect of Syngas Addition ... The performance of a four-stroke Honda GC160E spark ignition (SI) internal combustion (IC) engine operating on landfill gas (LFG) was investigated, as well as the impact of H2 and CO (syngas) addition on emissions and engine efficiency. ... In addition, variation across both the syngas content (up to 15%) and the ratio of H2 to CO in the syngas (H2/CO = 0.5, 1, and 2) were tested. ...

McKenzie P. Kohn; Jechan Lee; Matthew L. Basinger; Marco J. Castaldi

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compressin of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flue Gas Purification Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SO X /NO X Reactions During Compression of CO 2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion Background Oxy-combustion in a pulverized coal-fired power station produces a raw carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) product containing contaminants such as water vapor, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon from impurities in the oxygen used and any air leakage into the system. Acid gases are also produced as combustion products, such as sulfur oxides (SO

55

Recent Development in Oxy-Combustion Technology and Its Applications to Gas Turbine Combustors and ITM Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent Development in Oxy-Combustion Technology and Its Applications to Gas Turbine Combustors and ITM Reactors ... Also, the application of oxy-combustion technology into gas turbines is possible; however, the combustion temperature will be increased tremendously, which needs more control to make safe the turbine blades. ... technologies, a simplified model of a power plant with two forms of CO2 capture was developed. ...

Mohamed A. Habib; Medhat Nemitallah; Rached Ben-Mansour

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

56

Cogeneration system with low NO sub x combustion of fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cogeneration system for the production of electricity and refrigeration with low NO{sub x} combustion of fuel gas supplied at a high pressure. It comprises a heat exchanger to heat the fuel gas at high pressure; a turbo-expander connected to receive and expand the heated fuel gas from the heat exchanger; a centrifugal compressor driven by the turbo-expander the compressor being the refrigerant compressor of a refrigeration system; a porous fiber burner connected to receive the expanded fuel gas from the turbo-expander together with the requisite combustion air; a high-pressure steam boiler heated by the combustion of the expanded fuel gas on the outer surface of the porous fiber burner, the boiler being connected to pass the resulting flue gas with low NO{sub x} content through the heat exchanger to heat the fuel gas at high pressure; a steam turbine connected to receive and expand highpressure steam from the boiler and to return expanded and condensed steam to the boiler; and an electric generator driven by the steam turbine.

Garbo, P.W.

1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

57

Improving a Pre-Combustion CCS Concept in Gas Turbine Combined Cycle for CHP Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper describes modifications to improve the feasibility of a pre-combustion CCS concept for a gas turbine combined cycle. A natural gas-fired greenfield combined heat and power (CHP) plant equipped with pre-combustion capture was used as a base case, for which various improvement options were identified, assessed and selected. The base case was modified using the selected improvement options, after which the investment costs were re-evaluated. The results showed that the investment cost can be reduced with 8% by excluding the pre-reformer and the low temperature water-gas-shift reactor from the reforming process. The exclusion of the pre-reformer did not affect the performance of the plant, but the exclusion of the low temperature water-gas-shift reactor led to higher CO2 emissions.

Marjut S. Suomalainen; Antti Arasto; Sebastian Teir; Sari Siitonen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A 25 kWe low concentration methane catalytic combustion gas turbine prototype unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Low concentration methane, emitted from various industries e.g. coal mines and landfills into atmosphere, is not only an important greenhouse gas, but also a wasted energy resource if not utilized. In the past decade, we have been developing a novel VAMCAT (ventilation air methane catalytic combustion gas turbine) technology. This turbine technology can be used to mitigate methane emissions for greenhouse gas reduction, and also to utilize the low concentration methane as an energy source. This paper presents our latest research results on the development and demonstration of a 25 kWe lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine prototype unit. Recent experimental results show that the unit can be operated with 0.8 vol% of methane in air, producing about 19–21 kWe of electricity output.

Shi Su; Xinxiang Yu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The effects and characteristics of hydrogen in SNG on gas turbine combustion using a diffusion type combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Converting coal to natural gas may be one of the alternative solutions for satisfying the demand for natural gas. However, synthetic natural gas (SNG) has not been proven effective in natural gas-fired power plants. In this research, several combustion tests using a diffusion type combustor were conducted to determine the effect of hydrogen content in SNG on gas turbine combustion. Three kinds of SNG with different H2 content up to 3%vol were used for the combustion tests. Even a small amount of hydrogen in SNG affects the flame structure: it shortened the flame length and enlarged the flame angle slightly. However, hydrogen content up to 3% in SNG did not affect the gas turbine combustion characteristics, which are emission performance and combustion efficiency. Due to a similarity with real gas turbine combustor conditions for power generation, a high pressure combustion test helped us verify the ambient pressure combustion tests conducted to determine the effect of hydrogen in SNG. In the high pressure combustion test, the pattern factors were identical even though the hydrogen content was varied from 0% to 3%.

Seik Park; Uisik Kim; Minchul Lee; Sungchul Kim; Dongjin Cha

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Tungsten carbide synthesized by low-temperature combustion as gas diffusion electrode catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

June 2014 Keywords: Low-temperature combustion syn- thesis Tungsten carbide Electrocatalyst Gas burning on the environment, and reduce dependence on fossil fuels, development of pure electric and fuel of highly efficient low-cost electrode catalysts for the oxygen reduction cathode, metaleair batteries have

Volinsky, Alex A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OXIDES OF NITROGEN Nitrogen Dioxide (N0 2) Nitrous Oxide (NFigure 7. Emissions of nitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (by AiResearch(8)) . Nitrogen dioxide emissions from a

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

The influence of fuel composition on the combustion and emission characteristics of natural gas fueled engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As global energy demand rises, natural gas (NG) plays an important strategic role in energy supply. Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel that has been investigated extensively for use in spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the research on the effects of natural gas composition on combustion and emission characteristics of natural gas fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) and reports the most achievements obtained by researchers in this field. It has been reported that the engine performance and emission are greatly affected by varying compositions of natural gas. The most important NG fuel property is the Wobbe number (WN). Generally, it was agreed by researchers that the fuels with higher hydrocarbons, higher WN, and higher energy content exhibited better fuel economy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were also increased for gases with higher levels of higher WN, while total hydrocarbons (THCs), carbon monoxide (CO), showed some reductions for these gases. On the other hand, particulate matter (PM) emissions did not show any fuel effects. Moreover, adding of small fractions of higher alkanes, such as ethane and propane, significantly improved ignition qualities of natural gas engines. The results presented provide a good insight for researchers to pursue their future research on natural gas fueled ICEs.

Amir-Hasan Kakaee; Amin Paykani; Mostafa Ghajar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Post-combustion Carbon Capture with a Gas Separation Membrane: Parametric Study, Capture Cost, and Exergy Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Post-combustion Carbon Capture with a Gas Separation Membrane: Parametric Study, Capture Cost, and Exergy Analysis ... (5) In a post-combustion CO2 capture process, the purity of the captured CO2 in the permeate stream mainly depends upon the selectivity of CO2 over the other gas species, such as N2 and O2. ... Capturing CO2 from flue gases in a power plant is not like traditional gas processing or purification, there are no strict requirements on the decarbonized sweet gas, which means no strict requirement on the CO2 concentration in the sweet gas or CO2 capture ratio. ...

Xiangping Zhang; Xuezhong He; Truls Gundersen

2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

64

Lean Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-low Emissions at High Temperature in Gas-Turbine Burners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This illustrates the weak point of current catalytic combustion technology: the unavailability of catalytic systems stable at the temperature of the gas turbine inlet temperature. ... The possible feeds are methane, gaseous fuels, and gasified biomasses. ... In particular, the paper presents current development status and design challenges being addressed by Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. for large industrial engines (>200 MW) and by Solar Turbines for smaller engines (Turbine Systems (ATS) program. ...

Fabrizio D’Alessandro; Giovanna Pacchiarotta; Alberto Rubino; Mauro Sperandio; Pierluigi Villa; Arturo Manrique Carrera; Reza Fakhrai; Gianluigi Marra; Annalisa Congiu

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

65

A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream is proposed, and the results of numerical simulation of the burnout dynamics of Kansk-Achinsk coals in the pu...

E. A. Boiko; S. V. Pachkovskii

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

LASER STABILIZATION FOR NEAR ZERO NO{sub x} GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the development of new industrial gas turbines has been primarily driven by the intent to achieve higher efficiency, lower operating costs and lower emissions. Higher efficiency and lower cost is obtained through higher turbine operating temperatures, while reduction in emissions is obtained by extending the lean operating limit of the combustor. However reduction in the lean stability limit of operation is limited greatly by the chemistry of the combustion process and by the occurrence of thermo-acoustic instabilities. Solar Turbines, CFD Research Corporation, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have teamed to advance the technology associated with laser-assisted ignition and flame stabilization, to a level where it could be incorporated onto a gas turbine combustor. The system being developed is expected to enhance the lean stability limit of the swirl stabilized combustion process and assist in reducing combustion oscillations. Such a system has the potential to allow operation at the ultra-lean conditions needed to achieve NO{sub x} emissions below 5 ppm without the need of exhaust treatment or catalytic technologies. The research effort was focused on analytically modeling laser-assisted flame stabilization using advanced CFD techniques, and experimentally demonstrating the technology, using a solid-state laser and low-cost durable optics. A pulsed laser beam was used to generate a plasma pool at strategic locations within the combustor flow field such that the energy from the plasma became an ignition source and helped maintain a flame at ultra lean operating conditions. The periodic plasma generation and decay was used to nullify the fluctuations in the heat release from the flame itself, thus decoupling the heat release from the combustor acoustics and effectively reducing the combustion oscillations. The program was built on an existing technology base and includes: extending LANL's existing laser stabilization experience to a sub-scale combustor rig, performing and validating CFD predictions, and ultimately conducting a full system demonstration in a multi-injector combustion system at Solar Turbines.

Vivek Khanna

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

Reducing nitrogen oxides emissions from the combustion of LCV gas staged firing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with cotton gin tr ash, one of the primary fuels under consider ation, r esulted in flue NO levels ranging from 650-B60 ng/J (1. 5-2. 0 lb/MBtu). The Texas Air Control Board (TACB) will issue a facility a permit to operate only if NOx emissions are within... NO Methods of NOx Control Methods of NOx control may be lumped into two cate- gories: flue gas treatment (FGT) and combustion modifica- tion. The different processes are described below. Flue Gas Tr eatment Most of the research on FGT to date has been...

Finch, Stanley Frank

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

68

Erosion-Corrosion of Iron and Nickel Alloys at Elevated Temperature in a Combustion Gas Environment  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the results of a study that compares the erosion-corrosion behavior of a variety of alloys (Fe- 2¼Cr 1Mo, 304 SS, 310 SS, Incoloy 800, Haynes 230 and a Fe3Al) in a combustion environment. Advanced coal combustion environments, with higher temperatures, are driving re-examination of traditional and examination of new alloys in these hostile environments. In order to simulate conditions in advanced coal combustion boilers, a special erosion apparatus was used to allow for impingement of particles under a low abrasive flux in a gaseous environment comprised of 20 % CO2, 0.05 % HCl, 77 % N2, 3 % O2, and 0.1 % SO2. Tests were conducted at room temperature and 700 °C with ~ 270 ?m silica, using an impact velocity of 20 m/s in both air and the simulated combustion gas environment. The erosion-corrosion behavior was characterized by gravimetric measurements and by examination of the degraded surfaces optically and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At room temperature most of the alloys had similar loss rates. Not surprisingly, at 700 °C the lower chrome-iron alloy had a very high loss rate. The nickel alloys tended to have higher loss rates than the high chrome austenitic alloys.

Tylczak, Joseph [NETL] [NETL

2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

69

Syngas production from wood pellet using filtration combustion of lean natural gas–air mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A common method for the production of hydrogen and syngas is solid fuel gasification. This paper discusses the experimental results obtained from the combustion of lean natural gas–air mixtures in a porous medium composed of aleatory alumina spheres and wood pellets, called hybrid bed. Temperature, velocity, and chemical products (H2, CO, CO2, CH4) of the combustion waves were recorded experimentally in an inert bed (baseline) and hybrid bed (with a volume wood fraction of 50%), for equivalence ratios (?) from 0.3 to 1.0, and a constant filtration velocity of 15 cm/s. Upstream, downstream and standing combustion waves were observed for inert and hybrid bed. The maximum hydrogen conversion in hybrid filtration combustion is found to be ?99% at ? = 0.3. Results demonstrate that wood gasification process occurs with high temperature (1188 K) and oxygen available, and the lean hybrid filtration process can be used to reform solid fuels into hydrogen and syngas.

Karina Araus; Felipe Reyes; Mario Toledo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

71

Numerical prediction of interaction between combustion, acoustics and vibration in gas turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The turbulent flame in the lean combustion regime in a gas turbine combustor generates significant thermo?acoustic instabilities. The flame can amplify fluctuations in the released heat and thus in the acoustic field as well. The induced pressure oscillations will drive vibrations of the combustor walls and burner parts. Stronger fluctuating pressure results in stronger fluctuations in the wall structure. Due to fatigue the remaining life time of the hard ware will be reduced significantly. This paper investigates modeling of acoustic oscillations and mechanical vibrations induced by lean premixed natural gascombustion. The mutual interaction of the combustion processes induced oscillating pressure field in the combustion chamber and induced vibration of the liner walls are investigated with numerical techniques. A partitioned procedure is used here: CFX?10 for the CFD analysis and Ansys?10 for the CSD analysis are coupled to give insight into a correlation between acoustic pressure oscillations and liner vibrations. These results will be compared with the available experimental data. The data are gathered in a purpose built 500 kW/5 bar premixed natural gas test rig.

Artur Pozarlik; Jim B. Kok

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

74

NO, Reduction in a Gas Fired Utility Boiler by Combustion Modifications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data on the effect of several combustion modifications on the for-math of nitrogen oxides and on boiler efficiency were acquired and analyzed for a 110 MW gas fired utility boiler. The results from the study showed that decreasing the oxygen in the flue gas from 2.2% to 0.6 % reduced the NO, formation by 33 % and also gave better boiler efficiencies. Flue gas recirculation through the bottom of the fire4mx WBS founb to be Ineffective. Staged combustion was found to reduce the NO, emlssions by as much as 55 % while decreasing the efficiency by about 5%. Adjustment of the burner air registers reduced the NO, formation by about 20 ppm. The lowest NO, emisdons of 42 ppm (at about 3 % 02) in the stack was obtained for air only to one top burner and 0.5 % oxygen in the flue gas. The reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO,) emissions from steam boilers has been under study for several years. The NO, from boilers consist almost entirely of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N02) with NO2 usually only l or 2 % of the total. After leaving the stack, the NO eventually combines with atmospheric oxygen to form NOp. The Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored several studies1-I0 on reducing NO, emissions while maintaining thermal efficiency of boilers. Other studies have been sponsored by The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) " and Argonne National

Jerry A. Bullin; Dan Wilkerson

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

2002-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

76

System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines  

SciTech Connect

Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

16 - Ultra-low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions combustion in gas turbine systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The historical development of gas turbine low \\{NOx\\} combustion from the pioneering NASA work in the early 1970s to the present generation of ultra-low \\{NOx\\} industrial gas turbine combustors is reviewed. The principles of operation of single digit ultra-low \\{NOx\\} gas turbine combustion for industrial applications are outlined. The review shows the potential has been demonstrated by several investigators using different flame stabilizers for \\{NOx\\} to be reduced to 1 ppm at 1700 K, 2 ppm at 1800 K and 3–4 ppm at 1900 K with no influence of operating pressure and with a practical operating flame stability margin. Under these conditions it is shown that no thermal \\{NOx\\} should occur and all the \\{NOx\\} is formed by the prompt \\{NOx\\} mechanisms. The elimination of thermal \\{NOx\\} makes the \\{NOx\\} emissions independent of residence time or reference velocity and independent of pressure. Also there is no influence of air inlet temperature for the same flame temperature. Where legislation requires emissions to be as low as can be achieved, emissions below 4 ppm in production engines are current technology and this review shows the potential to get even lower than this in the future.

G.E. Andrews

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

79

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

80

Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers advantages compared to burning coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals (or chars) derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use due to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. Also, natural gas provides a clean cofiring fuel source which can enhance the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. Addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emissions through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. This research program addresses the contributions and the mechanisms of cofiring natural gas with Illinois coal through studies of particle ignition, burning rates and ash characterization.

Buckius, R.O.; Peters, J.E.; Krier, H. [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Oxygen carrier development for chemical looping combustion of coal derived synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, NETL researchers have studied chemical looping combustion (CLC) with an oxygen carrier NiO/bentonite (60 wt.% NiO) for the IGCC systems utilizing simulated synthesis gas. Multi cycle CLC was conducted with NiO/Bentonite in TGA at atmospheric pressure and in a high pressure reactor in a temperature range between 700-900°C. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation as a function of conversion were calculated for all oxidation-reduction cycles utilizing the TGA data. The effect of particle size of the oxygen carrier on CLC was studied for the size between 20-200 mesh. The multi cycle CLC tests conducted in a high pressure packed bed flow reactor indicated constant total production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800°C and 900°C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction.

Siriwardane, R.V.; Chaudhari, K.; Zinn, A.N.; Simonyi, T.; Robinson, Clark; Poston, J.A.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Stirling Engine Natural Gas Combustion Demonstration Program. Final report, October 1989-January 1991  

SciTech Connect

Fueled on natural gas, the Stirling engine is an inherently clean, quiet, and efficient engine. With increasing environmental concern for air quality and the increasingly more stringent requirements for low engine exhaust emissions, the Stirling engine may be an attractive alternative to internal combustion (IC) engines. The study has demonstrated that ultra low emissions can be attained with a Stirling-engine-driven electric generator configured to burn natural gas. Combustion parameters were optimized to produce the lowest possible exhaust emissions for a flame-type combustor without compromising overall engine thermal efficiency. A market application survey and manufacturing cost analysis indicate that a market opportunity potentially exists in the volumes needed to economically manufacture a newly designed Stirling engine (Mod III) for stationary applications and hybrid vehicles. The translation of such potential markets into actual markets does, however, pose difficult challenges as substantial investments are required. Also, the general acceptance of a new engine type by purchasers requires a considerable amount of time.

Ernst, W.; Moryl, J.; Riecke, G.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Heat loss reduction and hydrocarbon combustion in ultra-micro combustors for ultra-micro gas turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the development of ultra-micro combustors for Ultra-Micro Gas Turbines (UMGT), heat loss reduction and hydrocarbon fuel use are the key issues. An approach for reducing the effect of heat loss in ultra-micro combustors was proposed. The heat loss ratio (HLR), which was defined as the ratio of heat loss rate from a combustor to heat release rate in the combustor, was related to the space heating rate (SHR), and experiments using some flat-flame ultra-micro combustors with hydrogen/air premixture exhibited the relation of HLR ? SHR?0.92/? (?, characteristic length of combustor). From the viewpoint of heat loss reduction, burning at high SHR in compact ultra-micro combustors is essential for a practical UMGT combustor. As for hydrocarbon combustion, the flat-flame burning method with and without catalyst was applied to propane fuel. The flat-flame combustor, having an inner diameter of 18.5 mm, a height of 3.5 mm, and a volume of 0.806 cm3, could form a propane flame successfully in the chamber without a catalyst and achieved an extremely high SHR of 3370 MW/(MPa m3). Flame stable region was wide enough, and the combustion efficiency achieved was more than 99.4% between the equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 0.7 at m ? a = 0.06 g / s . The flat-flame combustor using a Pt-impregnated porous plate showed catalytic combustion, but did not improve the combustion characteristic. On the other hand, the flat-flame combustor using a nozzle whose surface was covered with Pt showed a combination of catalytic and gas-phase combustion with improved combustion efficiency for a wider range of equivalence ratios, due to CO oxidation in the burned gas after gas-phase combustion in the chamber.

Takashi Sakurai; Saburo Yuasa; Taku Honda; Shoko Shimotori

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Thermochemical Gasification of Biomass: Fuel Conversion, Hot Gas Cleanup and Gas Turbine Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air-blown fluidized bed biomass gasification integrated with a gas- and steam turbine combined cycle (BIGCC) is a potentially attractive way to convert biomass into electricity and heat with a high efficiency.

J. Andries; W. de Jong; P. D. J. Hoppesteyn…

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Seventh Quarter of the First Budget Period, April 1 through June 30, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion will include the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams. Combustion Gas Turbine; Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment; and Externally Fired Gas Turbine/Water Augmented Gas Turbine. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

Not Available

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

2011-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

87

Energy exploitation of acid gas with high H2S content by means of a chemical looping combustion system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In gas and petroleum industry, the waste gas stream from the sweetening process of a sour natural gas stream is commonly referred as acid gas. Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) technology has the potential to exploit the combustible fraction of acid gas, H2S, to produce energy obtaining a flue gas highly concentrated on CO2 and SO2, which can be cost-effectively separated for subsequent applications, such as sulfuric acid production. At the same time, a concentrated CO2 stream ready for storage is obtained. The resistance of oxygen carriers to sulfur becomes crucial when an acid gas is subjected to a CLC process since the H2S content can be very high. In this work, a total of 41 h of continuous operation with acid gas and H2S concentrations up to 20 vol.% has been carried out in a 500 Wth CLC unit with two oxygen carriers based on Cu (Cu14?Al) and Fe (Fe20?Al). The formation of copper sulfides and the SO2 emissions in the air reactor made the Cu14?Al material not adequate for the process. In contrast, excellent results were obtained during acid gas combustion with the Fe20?Al oxygen carrier. H2S was fully burnt to SO2 in the fuel reactor at all operating conditions, SO2 was never detected in the gas outlet stream of the air reactor, and iron sulfides were never formed even at H2S concentrations as high as 20 vol.%. Furthermore, it was found that a H2S content of 20 vol.% in the acid gas was high enough to turn the CLC process into an auto-thermal process. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the Fe-based materials prepared by impregnation are very adequate to exploit the energy potential of acid gas mixtures with CO2 capture.

F. García-Labiano; L.F. de Diego; P. Gayán; A. Abad; A. Cabello; J. Adánez; G. Sprachmann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion  

SciTech Connect

This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other well-characterized reactions including hydrocarbon and propellant fires. The aluminized flame is also used to measure the burning rate of the particles. This work describes the application of this burner for re-creating small-scale propellant flame conditions and as a test platform for experiments that contribute to the development of a particle combustion model, particularly in propellant fires. (author)

Jackson, Matt [Engineering Department, West Texas A and M University, Canyon, TX 79016 (United States); Pantoya, Michelle L. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

A new BML-based RANS modelling for the description of gas turbine typical combustion processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The work is concentrated on the formulation and validation of integral models within RANS framework for the numerical prediction of the premixed and partially premixed flames occurring in gas turbine combustors. The premixed combustion modelling is based on the BML approach coupled to the mixing transport providing variable equivalence ratio. Chemistry is described by means of ILDM model solving transport equations for reaction progress variables conditioned on the flame front. Multivariate presumed PDF model is used for the turbulence-chemistry interaction treatment. Turbulence is modelled using the second moment closure (SMC) and the standard ?-? model as well. The influence of non-gradient turbulent transport is investigated comparing the gradient diffusion closure and the solution of the scalar flux transport equations. Different model combinations are assessed simulating several premixed and partially premixed flame configurations and comparing results to the experimental data. The proposed model provides good predictions particularly in combination with SMC.

A. Maltsev; A. Sadiki; J. Janicka

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Effect of fuel gas composition in chemical-looping combustion with Ni-based oxygen carriers. 1. Fate of sulfur  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has been suggested among the best alternatives to reduce the economic cost of CO{sub 2} capture using fuel gas because CO{sub 2} is inherently separated in the process. For gaseous fuels, natural gas, refinery gas, or syngas from coal gasification can be used. These fuels may contain different amounts of sulfur compounds, such as H{sub 2}S and COS. An experimental investigation of the fate of sulfur during CH{sub 4} combustion in a 500 W{sub th} CLC prototype using a Ni-based oxygen carrier has been carried out. The effect on the oxygen carrier behavior and combustion efficiency of several operating conditions such as temperature and H{sub 2}S concentration has been analyzed. Nickel sulfide, Ni3S{sub 2}, was formed at all operating conditions in the fuel reactor, which produced an oxygen carrier deactivation and lower combustion efficiencies. However, the oxygen carrier recovered their initial reactivity after certain time without sulfur addition. The sulfides were transported to the air reactor where SO{sub 2} was produced as final gas product. Agglomeration problems derived from the sulfides formation were never detected during continuous operation. Considering both operational and environmental aspects, fuels with sulfur contents below 100 vppm H{sub 2}S seem to be adequate to be used in an industrial CLC plant.

Garcia-Labiano, F.; de Diego, L.F.; Gayan, P.; Adanez, J.; Abad, A.; Dueso, C. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Multi-zone modelling of partially premixed low-temperature combustion in pilot-ignited natural-gas engines  

SciTech Connect

Detailed results from a multi-zone phenomenological simulation of partially premixed advanced-injection low-pilot-ignited natural-gas low-temperature combustion are presented with a focus on early injection timings (the beginning of (pilot) injection (BOI)) and very small diesel quantities (2-3 per cent of total fuel energy). Combining several aspects of diesel and spark ignition engine combustion models, the closed-cycle simulation accounted for diesel autoignition, diesel spray combustion, and natural-gas combustion by premixed turbulent flame propagation. The cylinder contents were divided into an unburned zone, several pilot fuel zones (or 'packets') that modelled diesel evaporation and ignition, a flame zone for natural-gas combustion, and a burned zone. The simulation predicted the onset of ignition, cylinder pressures, and heat release rate profiles satisfactorily over a wide range of BOIs (20-60���° before top dead centre (before TDC)) but especially well at early BOIs. Strong coupling was observed between pilot spray combustion in the packets and premixed turbulent combustion in the flame zone and, therefore, the number of ignition centres (packets) profoundly affected flame combustion. The highest local peak temperatures (greater than 2000 K) were observed in the packets, while the flame zone was much cooler (about 1650 K), indicating that pilot diesel spray combustion is probably the dominant source of engine-out emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO x). Further, the 60���° before TDC BOI yielded the lowest average peak packet temperatures (about 1720 K) compared with the 20���° before TDC BOI (about 2480 K) and 40���° before TDC BOI (about 2700 K). These trends support experimental NO x trends, which showed the lowest NO x emissions for the 60���°, 20���°, and 40���° before TDC BOIs in that order. Parametric studies showed that increasing the intake charge temperature, pilot quantity, and natural-gas equivalence ratio all led to higher peak heat release rates and hotter packets but the pilot quantity and intake temperature affected the potential for NO x formation to a greater extent.

Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

92

Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development Presentation shows how 1-cylinder testing, 3D combustion CFD and 1D gas exchange with an advanced combustion model are used...

93

Chemical-looping combustion of simulated synthesis gas using nickel oxide oxygen carrier supported on bentonite  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology for clean and efficient utilization of fossil fuels for energy production. This process which produces sequestration ready CO2 systems is a promising technology to be utilized with coal gasification systems. In the present work, chemical-looping combustion has been studied with an oxygen carrier, NiO/bentonite (60 wt % NiO) for the gasification systems utilizing simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation as a function of conversion were calculated for oxidation-reduction cycles utilizing the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data on multicycle tests conducted with NiO/bentonite at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. The rate of reduction increased slightly with an increase in temperature, while the rate of oxidation decreased at 900 °C. The effect of particle size of the oxygen carrier on CLC was studied for the particle size between 20 and 200 mesh. The rates of reactions depended on the particle size of the oxygen carrier. The smaller the particle size, the higher the reaction rates. The multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for the production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. The data from a one cycle test on the effect of the pressure on the performance with NiO/bentonite utilizing the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) showed a positive effect of the pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of the NiO phase in NiO/bentonite with the oxidized sample in the highpressure reactor and Ni phase with the reduced sample. The presence of a small amount of NiO in the reduced sample detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) may be due to its exposure to air during sample transfer from the reactor to XPS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed no significant changes in morphology of NiO/bentonite reacted in the temperature range 700-800 °C in an atmospheric TGA for 10 oxidation-reduction cycles, but some loss of surface area and porosity was observed at 900 °C. This effect was found to be greater with increase in the particle size of the oxygen carrier.

Siriwardane, R.V.; Chaudhari, K.; Poston, J.A.; Zinn, A.; Simonyi, T.; Robinson, C.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Flame kernel characterization of laser ignition of natural gas–air mixture in a constant volume combustion chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, laser-induced ignition was investigated for compressed natural gas–air mixtures. Experiments were performed in a constant volume combustion chamber, which simulate end of the compression stroke conditions of a SI engine. This chamber simulates the engine combustion chamber conditions except turbulence of air–fuel mixture. It has four optical windows at diametrically opposite locations, which are used for laser ignition and optical diagnostics simultaneously. All experiments were conducted at 10 bar chamber pressure and 373 K chamber temperature. Initial stage of combustion phenomena was visualized by employing Shadowgraphy technique using a high speed CMOS camera. Flame kernel development of the combustible fuel–air mixture was investigated under different relative air–fuel ratios (?=1.2?1.7) and the images were interrogated for temporal propagation of flame front. Pressure-time history inside the combustion chamber was recorded and analyzed. This data is useful in characterizing the laser ignition of natural gas–air mixture and can be used in developing an appropriate laser ignition system for commercial use in SI engines.

Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava; Kewal Dharamshi; Avinash Kumar Agarwal

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Experimental study on combustion characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends combining with EGR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study on the effect of hydrogen fraction and EGR rate on the combustion characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends was investigated. The results show that flame development duration, rapid combustion duration and total combustion duration are increased with the increase of EGR rate and decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction in the blends. Hydrogen addition shows larger influence on flame development duration than that on rapid combustion duration. The coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure increases with the increase of EGR rate. And hydrogen addition into natural gas decreases the coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure, and this effectiveness becomes more obviously at high EGR rate. Engine fueled with natural gas–hydrogen blends combining with proper EGR rate can realize the stable low temperature combustion in gas engine.

Erjiang Hu; Zuohua Huang; Bing Liu; Jianjun Zheng; Xiaolei Gu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Combustion Timing Control of Natural Gas HCCI Engines Using Physics-Based Modeling and LQR Controller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines hold promises of being the next generation of internal combustion engines due to their ability to produce high thermal efficiencies and low emission levels. HCCI combustion is achieved through...

Abdelgawad, Marwa

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

97

Non-adiabatic flamelet modeling for combustion processes of oxy-natural gas flame  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to realistically predict the combustion characteristics of the oxy-fuel flame, the present study employs the non-adiabatic flamelet approach. In this combustion model, the detailed equilibrium chemist...

Gunhong Kim; Yongmo Kim

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 90, 022139 (2014) Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 90, 022139 (2014) Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing; published 28 August 2014) The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing Optimizing the internal combustion engine to achieve the highest possible fuel efficiency can be approached

99

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

100

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Combustion and performance of a diesel engine with preheated Jatropha curcas oil using waste heat from exhaust gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The viscosity and density of CJO (crude Jatropha oil) were reduced by heating it using the heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine with an appropriately designed helical coil heat exchanger. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combustion characteristics of a DI (direct injection) diesel engine using PJO (preheated Jatropha oil). It exhibited a marginally higher cylinder gas pressure, rate of pressure rise and heat release rate as compared to HSD (high speed diesel) during the initial stages of combustion for all engine loadings. Ignition delay was shorter for PJO as compared to HSD. The results also indicated that BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and EGT (exhaust gas temperature) increased while BTE (brake thermal efficiency) decreased with PJO as compared to HSD for all engine loadings. The reductions in CO2 (carbon dioxide), HC (hydrocarbon) and \\{NOx\\} (nitrous oxide) emissions were observed for PJO along with increased CO (carbon monoxide) emission as compared to those of HSD.

Priyabrata Pradhan; Hifjur Raheman; Debasish Padhee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect

CuO/bentonite and CuO-BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation-reduction cycles above 700 °C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO-BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700-900 °C.

Tian, H.; Chaudhari, K.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.; Liu, T.; Sanders, T.; Veser, G.; Siriwardane, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect

CuO/bentonite and CuO?BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction?oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation?reduction cycles above 700 °C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO?BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700?900 °C.

Tian, Hanjing; Chaudhari, K.P.; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, J.A.; Liu, Tengfei; Sanders, Tom; Veser, Goetz; Siriwardane, R.V.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

Robert Patton

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

SILICON CARBIDE MICRO-DEVICES FOR COMBUSTION GAS SENSING UNDER HARSH CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

A sensor based on the wide bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC), has been developed for the detection of combustion products in power plant environments. The sensor is a catalytic gate field effect device that can detect hydrogen containing species in chemically reactive, high temperature environments. For these capacitive sensors we have determined that the optimum sensor operating point in terms of sensor lifetime and response time is at midgap. Detailed measurements of the oxide leakage current as a function of temperature were performed to investigate the high temperature reliability of the devices. In addition, robust metallization and electrical contacting techniques have been developed for device operation at elevated temperatures. To characterize the time response of the sensor responses in the millisecond range, a conceptually new apparatus has been built. Using laser induced fluorescence imaging techniques we have shown that the gas underneath the sensor can be completely exchanged with a time constant under 1 millisecond. Ultrahigh vacuum studies of the surface chemistry of the platinum gate have shown that sensor deactivation by adsorbed sulfur is a possible problem. Investigations on the chemical removal of sulfur by catalytic oxidation or reduction are continuing.

Ruby N. Ghosh; Peter Tobias; Roger G. Tobin

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect

CuO/bentonite and CuO-BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900{degree}C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO{sub 2} from fuel gas at 800 and 900{degree}C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation-reduction cycles above 700{degree}C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO-BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700-900{degree}C. 48 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

Hanjing Tian; Karuna Chaudhari; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston; Tengfei Liu; Tom Sanders; Goetz Veser; Ranjani Siriwardane [U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion Project. Quarterly report, April--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived as streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed Include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning, techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing, Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: 1 . Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating, Fluidized Bed Gas Source; 2. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; 3. Combustion Gas Turbine; 4. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during, this reporting period was continuing, the detailed design of the FW portion of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is complete and the construction of steel for the coal preparation structure is complete.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

Rue, David

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

109

Effect of ignition location on the in-process removal of combustion deposits from the output window of a gas turbine laser ignition system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of ignition location on the effectiveness of combustion deposit removal from the reverse side of an optical window in a laser ignition system for use in gas turbines is presented. Such deposits consist of carbon and other by-products which accumulate on the walls of the chamber as a result of incomplete combustion. In laser based ignition systems this accumulation of combustion deposits has the potential to reduce the transmissive properties of the output window required for transmission of the laser radiation into the combustion chamber, adversely affecting the likelihood of successful ignition. In this work, a full empirical study into the in-process removal of combustion deposits from the reverse side of the optical window in a laser ignition system using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is presented, with an emphasis on the effect of ignition location on the effectiveness of combustion deposit removal. In addition, the mechanism of deposit removal is discussed.

J. Griffiths; J. Lawrence; P. Fitzsimons

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Silicon Carbide Micro-devices for Combustion Gas Sensing under Harsh Conditions  

SciTech Connect

A sensor based on the wide bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC), has been developed for the detection of combustion products in power plant environments. The sensor is a catalytic gate field effect device that can detect hydrogen-containing species in chemically reactive, high temperature environments. For fast and stable sensor response measurements, a gate activation process is required. Activation of all sensors took place by switching back and forth between oxidizing (1.0% oxygen in nitrogen) and reducing (10% hydrogen in nitrogen) gases for several hours at a sensor temperature {ge}620 C. All 52 devices on the sensor chip were activated simultaneously by flooding the entire chip with gas. The effects of activation on surface morphology and structure of Pt gates before and after activation were investigated. The optical images obtained from Pt gates demonstrated a clear transition from a smooth and shiny surface to a grainy and cloudy surface morphology. XRD scans collected from Pt gates suggest the presence of an amorphous layer and species other than Pt (111) after activation. The reliability of the gate insulator of our metal-oxide-SiC sensors for long-term device operation at 630 C was studied. We find that the dielectric is stable against breakdown due to electron injection from the substrate with gate leakage current densities as low at 5nA/cm{sup 2} at 630 C. We also designed and constructed a new nano-reactor capable of high gas flow rates at elevated pressure. Our reactor, which is a miniature version of an industrial reactor, is designed to heat the flowing gas up to 700 C. Measurements in ultrahigh vacuum demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide readily deposits sulfur on the gate surface, even at the very high hydrogen/hydrogen sulfide ratios (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5}) expected in applications. Once deposited, the sulfur adversely affects sensor response, and could not be removed by exposure to hydrogen at the temperatures and pressures accessible in the ultrahigh vacuum experiments. Oxygen exposures, however, were very effective at removing sulfur, and the device performance after sulfur removal was indistinguishable from performance before exposure to H{sub 2}S.

Ruby N. Ghosh; Reza Loloee; Roger G. Tobin; Yung Ho Kahng

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Sixth Quarter of the First Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. The major emphasis during this reporting period was expanding the test facility to address system integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced power generation systems. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include additional modules for the expansion of the test facility, which is referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSOF). A letter agreement was negotiated between Southern Company Services (SCS) and Foster Wheeler (FW) for the conceptual design of the Advanced Pressurized Fluid-Bed Combustion (APFBC)/Topping Combustor/Gas Turbine System to be added to the facility. The expanded conceptual design also included modifications to the existing conceptual design for the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility (HGCTF), facility layout and balance of plant design for the PSOF. Southern Research Institute (SRI) began investigating the sampling requirements for the expanded facility and assisted SCS in contacting Particulate Control Device (PCD) vendors for additional information. SCS also contacted the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and two molten carbonate fuel cell vendors for input on the fuel cell module for the PSDF.

Not Available

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

Fogash, Kevin

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

113

Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

Kevin Fogash

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

An acoustic energy framework for predicting combustion- driven acoustic instabilities in premixed gas-turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2000. Vol. 122:of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2000. Vol. 122:in Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustors," Journal of

Ibrahim, Zuhair M. A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Using Large Eddy Simulations to Understand Combustion Instabilities in Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a study of the stability of a swirled premixed combustion chamber both with and without reaction using Large Eddy Simulation and a numerical solver able to handle complex geometries. It is ...

Thierry Poinsot; Jörg Schlüter…

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Thermochemical conversion of fuels into hydrogen-containing gas using recuperative heat of internal combustion engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problem of the thermochemical recuperation of heat from the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (ICEs) as a method of ... the steam conversion of oxygen-containing fuels into syngas were developed, a...

V. A. Kirillov; A. B. Shigarov; N. A. Kuzin…

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Pressurised Combustion of Biomass-Derived, Low Calorific Value, Fuel Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During a 3 year (1996 – 1998) project, partly funded by the EU as part of their JOULE 3 programme, experimental and theoretical research will be done on the pressurised combustion of biomass-derived, LCV, fuel ga...

J. Andries; P. D. J. Hoppesteyn…

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Advanced Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Systems Advanced Combustion Background Conventional coal-fired power plants utilize steam turbines to generate electricity, which operate at efficiencies of 35-37 percent. Operation at higher temperatures and pressures can lead to higher efficiencies, resulting in reduced fuel consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Higher efficiency also reduces CO2 production for the same amount of energy produced, thereby facilitating a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. When combined, oxy-combustion comes with an efficiency hit, so it will actually increase the amount of CO2 to be captured. But without so much N2 in the flue gas, it will be easier and perhaps more efficient to capture, utilize and sequester. NETL's Advanced Combustion Project and members of the NETL-Regional University

119

Heat-pipe gas-combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine. Final report, May 1990-September 1990  

SciTech Connect

Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion System (HPGC) suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator and a film cooled gas combustor. A principal component of the HPGC is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. The report presents test results of endurance tests run on a Gas-Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE). Tests on a dynamometer test stand yielded 67 hours of engine operation at power levels over 10 kW (13.5 hp) with 26 hours at power levels above 15 kW (20 hp). Total testing of the engine, including both motoring tests and engine operation, yielded 245 hours of engine run time.

Mahrle, P.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Effects of Combustion-Induced Vortex Breakdown on Flashback Limits of Syngas-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustors  

SciTech Connect

Turbine combustors of advanced power systems have goals to achieve very low pollutants emissions, fuel variability, and fuel flexibility. Future generation gas turbine combustors should tolerate fuel compositions ranging from natural gas to a broad range of syngas without sacrificing operational advantages and low emission characteristics. Additionally, current designs of advanced turbine combustors use various degrees of swirl and lean premixing for stabilizing flames and controlling high temperature NOx formation zones. However, issues of fuel variability and NOx control through premixing also bring a number of concerns, especially combustor flashback and flame blowout. Flashback is a combustion condition at which the flame propagates upstream against the gas stream into the burner tube. Flashback is a critical issue for premixed combustor designs, because it not only causes serious hardware damages but also increases pollutant emissions. In swirl stabilized lean premixed turbine combustors onset of flashback may occur due to (i) boundary layer flame propagation (critical velocity gradient), (ii) turbulent flame propagation in core flow, (iii) combustion instabilities, and (iv) upstream flame propagation induced by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). Flashback due to first two foregoing mechanisms is a topic of classical interest and has been studied extensively. Generally, analytical theories and experimental determinations of laminar and turbulent burning velocities model these mechanisms with sufficient precision for design usages. However, the swirling flow complicates the flashback processes in premixed combustions and the first two mechanisms inadequately describe the flashback propensity of most practical combustor designs. The presence of hydrogen in syngas significantly increases the potential for flashback. Due to high laminar burning velocity and low lean flammability limit, hydrogen tends to shift the combustor operating conditions towards flashback regime. Even a small amount of hydrogen in a fuel blend triggers the onset of flashback by altering the kinetics and thermophysical characteristics of the mixture. Additionally, the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture modifies the response of the flame to the global effects of stretch and preferential diffusion. Despite its immense importance in fuel flexible combustor design, little is known about the magnitude of fuel effects on CIVB induced flashback mechanism. Hence, this project investigates the effects of syngas compositions on flashback resulting from combustion induced vortex breakdown. The project uses controlled experiments and parametric modeling to understand the velocity field and flame interaction leading to CIVB driven flashback.

Ahsan Choudhuri

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

CONCEPTUAL STUDIES OF A FUEL-FLEXIBLE LOW-SWIRL COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR THE GAS TURBINE IN CLEAN COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the results of preliminary analyses that show the feasibility of developing a fuel flexible (natural gas, syngas and high-hydrogen fuel) combustion system for IGCC gas turbines. Of particular interest is the use of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's DLN low swirl combustion technology as the basis for the IGCC turbine combustor. Conceptual designs of the combustion system and the requirements for the fuel handling and delivery circuits are discussed. The analyses show the feasibility of a multi-fuel, utility-sized, LSI-based, gas turbine engine. A conceptual design of the fuel injection system shows that dual parallel fuel circuits can provide range of gas turbine operation in a configuration consistent with low pollutant emissions. Additionally, several issues and challenges associated with the development of such a system, such as flashback and auto-ignition of the high-hydrogen fuels, are outlined.

Smith, K.O.; Littlejohn, David; Therkelsen, Peter; Cheng, Robert K.; Ali, S.

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

122

Combustion Characteristics and Heat Release Analysis of a Spark-Ignited Engine Fueled with Natural Gas?Hydrogen Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It can be seen that the laminar-burning velocity of hydrogen is 5 times that of natural gas and that the quenching distance of hydrogen is one-third that of natural gas, while the latter is beneficial to reduce the unburned hydrocarbons near the wall and from the top-land crevice. ... The signal of cylinder pressure was acquired for every 0.5 deg CA, the acquisition process covered 254 completed cycles, and the averaged value of these 254 cycles was outputted as the pressure data for calculation of the combustion parameters. ... Two factors are considered to influence the cylinder pressure:? one is the increase in flame propagation speed or combustion speed with the increase of the hydrogen fraction in the blends, and this will cause a rapid rising in the cylinder pressure and bring a higher value of the peak cylinder pressure; another is the decrease in the heating value of the fuel blends with the increase of the hydrogen fraction in natural gas?hydrogen blends, and this will decrease the volumetric heat release rate and the cylinder pressure rising, leading to the lower value of the peak cylinder pressure. ...

Zuohua Huang; Bing Liu; Ke Zeng; Yinyu Huang; Deming Jiang; Xibin Wang; Haiyan Miao

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Gas temperature profiles at different flow rates and heating rates suffice to estimate kinetic parameters for fluidised bed combustion  

SciTech Connect

Experimental work on estimation kinetic parameters for combustion was conducted in a bench-scale fluidised bed (FB: 105x200mm). Combustion medium was obtained by using an electrical heater immersed into the bed. The ratio of heating rate (kJ/s) to molar flow rate of air (mol/s) regulated by a rheostat so that the heat of combustion (kJ/mol) can be synthetically obtained by an electrical power supply for relevant O{sub 2}-feedstock concentration (C{sub 0}). O{sub 2}-restriction ratio ({beta}) was defined by the ratio of O{sub 2}-feedstock concentration to O{sub 2}-air concentration (C{sub O{sub 2}-AIR}) at prevailing heating rates. Compressed air at further atmospheric pressure ({approx_equal}102.7kPa) entered the bed that was alumina particles (250{mu}m). Experiments were carried out at different gas flow rates and heating rates. FB was operated with a single charge of (1300g) particles for obtaining the T/T{sub 0} curves, and than C/C{sub 0} curves. The mathematical relationships between temperature (T) and conversion ratio (X) were expressed by combining total energy balance and mass balance in FB. Observed surface reaction rate constants (k{sub S}) was obtained from the combined balances and proposed model was also tested for these kinetic parameters (frequency factor: k{sub 0}, activation energy: E{sub A}, and reaction order: n) obtained from air temperature measurements. It was found that the model curves allow a good description of the experimental data. Thus, reaction rate for combustion was sufficiently expressed. (author)

Suyadal, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ankara University, 06100-Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Effects of Steam and CO2 in the Fluidizing Gas when Using Bituminous Coal in Chemical-Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology where an oxygen carrier is used to transfer oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel in order to...2 is inherently separated from the flue gases with...

H. Leion; A. Lyngfelt; T. Mattisson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

On the dynamic nature of azimuthal thermoacoustic modes in annular gas turbine combustion chambers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gas turbine combustor, it has...the dynamic pressure field which...requirements in real gas turbine applications...manner that high-amplitude...in annular gas turbines...bifurcations in gas turbine combustor. Int. J...effects on high-frequency...characteristics of pressure oscillations...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture  

SciTech Connect

The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Performance of a spark ignition, lean burn, natural gas internal combustion engine .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Relative to gasoline and diesel, use of natural gas as a transport fuel can produce significantly lower emissions of particulate matter and greenhouse gases. Future… (more)

ABBASI ATIBEH, PAYMAN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

A Novel High-Heat Transfer Low-NO{sub x} Natural Gas Combustion System. Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel high-heat transfer low NO(sub x) natural gas combustion system. The objectives of this program are to research, develop, test, and commercialize a novel high-heat transfer low-NO{sub x} natural gas combustion system for oxygen-, oxygen-enriched air, and air-fired furnaces. This technology will improve the process efficiency (productivity and product quality) and the energy efficiency of high-temperature industrial furnaces by at least 20%. GTI's high-heat transfer burner has applications in high-temperature air, oxygen-enriched air, and oxygen furnaces used in the glass, metals, cement, and other industries. Development work in this program is focused on using this burner to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of glass melting furnaces that are major industrial energy consumers. The following specific project objectives are defined to provide a means of achieving the overall project objectives. (1) Identify topics to be covered, problems requiring attention, equipment to be used in the program, and test plans to be followed in Phase II and Phase III. (2) Use existing codes to develop models of gas combustion and soot nucleation and growth as well as a thermodynamic and parametric description of furnace heat transfer issues. (3) Conduct a parametric study to confirm the increase in process and energy efficiency. (4) Design and fabricate a high-heat transfer low-NOx natural gas burners for laboratory, pilot- and demonstration-scale tests. (5) Test the high-heat transfer burner in one of GTI's laboratory-scale high-temperature furnaces. (6) Design and demonstrate the high-heat transfer burner on GTI's unique pilot-scale glass tank simulator. (7) Complete one long term demonstration test of this burner technology on an Owens Corning full-scale industrial glass melting furnace. (8) Prepare an Industrial Adoption Plan. This Plan will be updated in each program Phase as additional information becomes available. The Plan will include technical and economic analyses, energy savings and waste reduction predictions, evaluation of environmental effects, and outline issues concerning manufacturing, marketing, and financing. Combustion Tec, Owens Corning, and GTI will all take active roles in defining this Plan. During Phase I, the first three objectives were addressed and completed along with the design component of the fourth objective. In Phase II, the fabrication component of the fourth objective was completed along with objectives five and six. Results of the Phase I work were reported in the Phase I Final Report and are summarized in this Final Technical Report. Work for Phase II was divided in four specific Tasks. Results of the Phase II work were reported in the Phase II Final Report and are also summarized in this Final Technical Report. No Phase III Final Report was prepared, so this Final Technical Report presents the results of Phase III commercial demonstration efforts. A description of each Task in Phases I, II, and III is presented in this report.

Abbasi, H.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Nanocomposite oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of sulfur-contaminated synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean combustion. We have previously demonstrated that the embedding of metal nanoparticles into a nanostructured ceramic matrix can result in unusually active and sinter-resistant nanocomposite oxygen carrier materials for CLC, which combine the high reactivity of metals with the high-temperature stability of ceramics. In the present study, we investigate the effect of H{sub 2}S in a typical coal-derived syngas on the stability and redox kinetics of Ni- and Cu-based nanostructured oxygen carriers. Both carriers show excellent structural stability and only mildly changed redox kinetics upon exposure to H{sub 2}S, despite a significant degree of sulfide formation. Surprisingly, partial sulfidation of the support results in a strong increase in oxygen carrier capacity in both cases because of the addition of a sulfide-sulfate cycle. Overall, the carriers show great potential for use in CLC of high-sulfur fuels. 21 refs., 13 figs. 1 tab.

Rahul D. Solunke; Goetz Veser [United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Simultaneous Gas Chromatographic Determination of Four Toxic Gases Generally Present in Combustion Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......determining these gases in mixtures...dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and...determining these gases in mixtures...dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and...to the solubility of A HCN in water, which was...thevariationin gas con- centrations......

Boyd R. Endecott; Donald C. Sanders; Arvind K. Chaturvedi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

COMBUSTIVE APPROACH FOR MEASURING TOTAL VOLATILE PHOSPHORUS CONTENT IN LANDFILL GAS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A technique was developed to measure the total gaseous phosphorus content in biogas. The amount of air needed for a neutral to oxidising flame was mixed with the biogas. The gas mixture was burnt in a closed quar...

JORIS ROELS; FRANK VANHAECKE; WILLY VERSTRAETE

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Ignition of a combustible gas mixture by a laser spark excited in the reactor volume  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ignition of a stoichiometric CH4: O2 mixture by a laser spark excited in the reactor volume is ... which indicates fast (involving branching chain reactions) ignition of the gas mixture. A conclusion is ... regar...

S. Yu. Kazantsev; I. G. Kononov; I. A. Kossyi; N. M. Tarasova…

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

SILICON CARBIDE MICRO-DEVICES FOR COMBUSTION GAS SENSING UNDER HARSH CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

A sensor based on the wide bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC), has been developed for the detection of combustion products in power plant environments. The sensor is a catalytic gate field effect device that can detect hydrogen containing species in chemically reactive, high temperature environments. Robust metallization and electrical contacting techniques have been developed for device operation at elevated temperatures. To characterize the time response of the sensor responses in the millisecond range, a conceptually new apparatus has been built. Software has been developed to cope with the requirements of fast sensor control and data recording. In addition user friendly software has been developed to facilitate use of the SiC sensors for industrial process control applications.

Ruby N. Ghosh; Peter Tobias; Roger G. Tobin

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Combustion Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using a liquid fuel. The air and fuel valve designs are vastly different, with different flow characteristics. These factors make the initial adjustment of the system difficult, and proper maintenance of ratio accuracy unlikely. Linked valves... casing of the fuel control regulator with the combustion air piping. The upstream pressure on the burner air orifice is applied to the main diaphragm of the pressure balanced regulator. Assuming sufficient gas pressure at the regulator inlet...

Riccardi, R. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

US National Technical Meeting of the Combustion Institute  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

potential to enhance combustion performance in gas turbines and scramjet engines. Extensive efforts have

Ju, Yiguang

137

Initiation of ignition of a combustible gas mixture in a closed volume by the radiation of a high-power pulsed CO{sub 2} laser  

SciTech Connect

The results of experiments on initiating the ignition of a CH{sub 4} - O{sub 2} - SF{sub 6} triple gas mixture in a closed volume by the radiation of a high-power CO{sub 2} laser are presented. It is shown that spatially nonuniform (in the direction of the laser beam) gas heating by the laser radiation leads to formation of a fast combustion wave, propagating along the chamber axis and giving rise to 'instantaneous' ignition. At the threshold value 16.5 J of the laser radiation energy the fast combustion wave is transformed into a detonation wave, which causes an explosion and destruction of the reaction chamber.

Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Kossyi, I A; Popov, N A; Tarasova, N M; Firsov, K N

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance  

SciTech Connect

A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

The effects of fuel type and stove design on emissions and efficiency of natural-draft semi-gasifier biomass cookstoves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To assess the effects of stove design and fuel type on efficiency and emissions, five configurations of natural-draft, top-lit up-draft (TLUD) semi-gasifier cookstoves were tested with two biomass fuels.  An energy balance model was developed using measured temperature data to identify the major sources of efficiency loss.  Emissions and efficiency varied substantially with stove design and fuel type, and transient increases in CO emission correlated with refueling.  The highest measured thermal efficiency was 42%.  The lowest CO and PM emissions were 0.6 g MJd? 1 and 48 g MJd? 1. These results fall within Tier 3 for high-power efficiency and emissions and suggest that development of a Tier 4 natural-draft semi-gasifier cookstove is possible. The energy balance illustrates that up to 60% of the energy input as fuel can remain as char once the fuel has gasified. This result suggests that both thermal and overall efficiencies should be calculated when evaluating TLUD cookstoves.

Jessica Tryner; Bryan D. Willson; Anthony J. Marchese

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Variability in natural gas fuel composition and its effects on the performance of catalytic combustion systems. Final report for period September 18, 1998 - September 17, 2000  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is composed primarily of methane with small amounts of higher hydrocarbons and diluents, which vary by region and over time. Compositions of natural gas from domestic and worldwide sources were surveyed with respect to content of higher hydrocarbons and diluents. The survey showed slight compositional variability between most of the gases, with a small fraction of them containing significantly larger contents of higher hydrocarbons than the mean. As gas-fired turbines will be used for power generation all over the world, they will need to tolerate operation with fuels with a wide variety of compositions, particularly with respect to the concentration of higher hydrocarbons and diluents. Subscale catalytic combustion modules typical of those used in gas turbine power generation with ultra low emissions of pollutants were tested in a subscale test system with natural gas alone and with added known levels of hydrocarbon compounds and diluents. The range of compositions tested contained the range observed in the survey. Test results were used to calculate the effect of composition on catalyst performance. The compositional variability is of little consequence to the catalyst for most of the gases in the survey, including nearly all of the gases delivered in the U.S. To accommodate the remaining gases, the catalyst inlet temperature must be lowered to maintain combustor durability. These results support commercial acceptance of catalytic combustion systems for use in natural gas fired turbines in distributed power generation with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions.

Ginter, David; Simchick, Chuck; Schlatter, Jim

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Coal combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Experimental investigation of the thermal and diluent effects of EGR components on combustion and \\{NOx\\} emissions of a turbocharged natural gas SI engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of effective measures used in natural gas (NG) engines to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Each component of EGR gases can exert different effects on NG combustion and \\{NOx\\} formation rates, such as thermal effect, diluent effect, and chemical effect. In this study, the thermal and diluent effects of the main components of EGR gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2), were experimentally investigated. The experiments were arranged based on an electronically controlled heavy-duty natural gas spark-ignition (SI) engine with multi-point injection and 6-cylinder. In order to define the diluent effect of EGR components, argon (Ar) was introduced to the test, for its low and unchangeable specific heat capacity under different temperatures. The results showed that the contribution of the diluent effect on \\{NOx\\} reductions was 50–60% and 41–53% for N2 and CO2 respectively, and the relevant contribution of the thermal effect was 40–50% and 47–59% respectively. CO2 had greater effects on NG combustion and \\{NOx\\} formation rates than N2 at the same dilution ratio. Increasing Ar improved the thermal efficiency due to the higher specific heat ratio provided. Meanwhile, \\{NOx\\} emissions were found to be decreased with increasing DR as a result of the diluent effect of Ar on combustion and \\{NOx\\} formations.

Weifeng Li; Zhongchang Liu; Zhongshu Wang; Yun Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emissions from the Combustion of Alternative Fuels in a Gas Turbine Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

? Centre of Excellence for Aerospace Particulate Emissions Reduction Research, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409, United States ... Within the aviation sector, the development and certification of alternative drop-in fuels are progressing at a rapid pace: a standard specification for aviation fuel containing synthesized hydrocarbons was approved by ASTM in 2009,(4) Hydrogenated esters and fatty acids (HEFA), also often referred to as hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ), qualified as a 50/50 blend with petroleum Jet A-1 in 2011,(4) and the Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI) anticipate fully synthetic Fischer–Tropsch (FT) fuel to qualify in 2012. ... Impact of Alternative Fuels on Emissions Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine – Part 1: Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions ...

Simon Christie; David Raper; David S. Lee; Paul I. Williams; Lucas Rye; Simon Blakey; Chris W. Wilson; Prem Lobo; Donald Hagen; Philip D. Whitefield

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

144

DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

Glenn C. England

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

145

Proceedings: EPRI Workshop on Condition and Remaining Life Assessment of Hot Gas Path Components of Combustion Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The severity of modern combustion turbine operation is a reflection of industry competition to achieve higher thermal efficiency. This competitive stance has resulted in new turbine designs and material systems that have at times outpaced condition and remaining life assessment (CARLA) technology. These proceedings summarize a two-day workshop on CARLA technology for hot section components of large combustion turbines.

None

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in...

149

Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Oxy-combustion Boiler Material Development Background In an oxy-combustion system, combustion air (79 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen) is replaced by oxygen and recycled flue gas (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ] and water), eliminating nitrogen in the flue gas stream. When applied to an existing boiler, the flue gas recirculation rate is adjusted to enable the boiler to maintain its original air-fired heat absorption performance, eliminating the need to derate the boiler

150

Combustion Safety Overview  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

March 1-2, 2012 March 1-2, 2012 Building America Stakeholders Meeting Austin, Texas Combustion Safety in the Codes Larry Brand Gas Technology Institute Acknowledgement to Paul Cabot - American Gas Association 2 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Combustion Safety in the Codes Widely adopted fuel gas codes: * National Fuel Gas Code - ANSI Z223.1/NFPA 54, published by AGA and NFPA (NFGC) * International Fuel Gas Code - published by the International Code Council (IFGC) * Uniform Plumbing Code published by IAPMO (UPC) Safety codes become requirements when adopted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction (governments or fire safety authorities) 3 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Combustion Safety in the Codes Formal Relationships Between these codes: - The IFGC extracts many safety

151

Use of Combusted Natural Gas to Cultivate the Anaerobic Bacterial Flora from the Cecum Contents of Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of an inert gas generator, the gas-to-air...of the inert gas generator. A small compressor...pressure of 250 mm water gauge (WG). By...of changes in the atmospheric pressure. With...temperature ofthe cooling water in the cooling jacket...of the inert gas generator. Parts: 1, stopcock...

J. P. Koopman; J. P. Van Oeveren; F. G. J. Janssen

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

METC ceramic corrosion/erosion studies: turbine-material screening tests in high-temperature, low-Btu, coal-derived-gas combustion products  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center, through its Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies, has participated in the United States Department of Energy's High-Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Ceramic Technology Readiness. The program's overall objective is to advance the turbine firing temperature to a range of 2600/sup 0/ to 3000/sup 0/F (1700 to 1922K) with a reasonable service life using coal or coal-derived fuel. The Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies' major objective was to conduct a screening test for several ceramic materials to assess their probability of survival in turbine applications. The materials were exposed to combustion products from low heating value coal-derived gas and air at several high temperatures and velocities. The combustion product composition and temperatures simulated actual environment that may be found in stationary power generating gas turbines except for the pressure levels. The results of approximately 1000 hours of accumulative exposure time of material at the specific test conditions are presented in this report.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Waltermire, D.M.; Hawkins, L.W.; Jarrett, T.L.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

In-cylinder investigations and analysis of a SI gas engine fuelled with H2 and CO rich syngas fuel: Sensitivity analysis of combustion descriptors for engine diagnostics and control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The sensitivity of combustion phasing and combustion descriptors to ignition timing, load and mixture quality on fuelling a multi-cylinder natural gas engine with bio-derived H2 and CO rich syngas is addressed. While the descriptors for conventional fuels are well established and are in use for closed loop engine control, presence of H2 in syngas potentially alters the mixture properties and hence combustion phasing, necessitating the current study. The ability of the descriptors to predict abnormal combustion, hitherto missing in the literature, is also addressed. Results from experiments using multi-cylinder engines and numerical studies using zero dimensional Wiebe function based simulation models are reported. For syngas with 20% H2 and CO and 2% CH4 (producer gas), an ignition retard of 5 ± 1 degrees was required compared to natural gas ignition timing to achieve peak load of 72.8 kWe. It is found that, for syngas, whose flammability limits are 0.42–1.93, the optimal engine operation was at an equivalence ratio of 1.12. The same methodology is extended to a two cylinder engine towards addressing the influence of syngas composition, especially H2 fraction (varying from 13% to 37%), on the combustion phasing. The study confirms the utility of pressure trace derived combustion descriptors, except for the pressure trace first derivative, in describing the MBT operating condition of the engine when fuelled with an alternative fuel. Both experiments and analysis suggest most of the combustion descriptors to be independent of the engine load and mixture quality. A near linear relationship with ignition angle is observed. The general trend(s) of the combustion descriptors for syngas fuelled operation are similar to those of conventional fuels; the differences in sensitivity of the descriptors for syngas fuelled engine operation requires re-calibration of control logic for MBT conditions.

Anand M. Shivapuji; S. Dasappa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

A new type of self-organization in combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a solid-phase gasless combustion3 which proceeds with the formation of a melt or a flameless gas3'4. ... gas3'4. Flameless combustion has recently been described for several tetrazole compounds5.

A. I. Lesnikovich; V. V. Sviridov; G. V. Printsev; O. A. Ivashkevich; P. N. Gaponik

1986-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

155

MILD combustion for hydrogen and syngas at elevated pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As gas recirculation constitutes a fundamental condition for the realization of MILD combustion, it is necessary to determine gas recirculation ratio before designing MILD combustor. MILD combustion model with ga...

Mingming Huang; Zhedian Zhang; Weiwei Shao; Yan Xiong…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Combustion and Exhaust Emissions in a Dual-Fuel Diesel/Natural Gas Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, UTV, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, and IM-CNR, Istituto Motori of Italian National Research Council, Naples, Italy ... Accordingly, the use of NG as primary fuel allows the same compression ratio of the conventional diesel engine; thus, existing diesel engines can be easily converted to dual-fuel operation. ... Thus, a more general combustion model (G-equation or EDC) could be considered to represent flame propagation. ...

Stefano Cordiner; Michele Gambino; Sabato Iannaccone; Vittorio Rocco; Riccardo Scarcelli

2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

157

Polymer combustion: effects of flame emissivity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gas phase. Polymer combustion chemistry is modelled...investigating polymer combustion it has proven advantageous...properties and treat the heat flux from the ignition...luminous flames from hydrocarbon fuels, it is common...A (1999) Polymer combustion: effects of flame emissivity...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Staged Combustion of Pulverized Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The emissions of nitrogen oxides are much higher with the combustion of fossil fuels containing organic bound nitrogen compounds than with clean fuels like natural gas and light distillate oil. During combusti...

H. Kremer; R. Mechenbier; W. Schulz

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Third millenium ideal gas and condensed phase thermochemical database for combustion (with update from active thermochemical tables).  

SciTech Connect

The thermochemical database of species involved in combustion processes is and has been available for free use for over 25 years. It was first published in print in 1984, approximately 8 years after it was first assembled, and contained 215 species at the time. This is the 7th printed edition and most likely will be the last one in print in the present format, which involves substantial manual labor. The database currently contains more than 1300 species, specifically organic molecules and radicals, but also inorganic species connected to combustion and air pollution. Since 1991 this database is freely available on the internet, at the Technion-IIT ftp server, and it is continuously expanded and corrected. The database is mirrored daily at an official mirror site, and at random at about a dozen unofficial mirror and 'finger' sites. The present edition contains numerous corrections and many recalculations of data of provisory type by the G3//B3LYP method, a high-accuracy composite ab initio calculation. About 300 species are newly calculated and are not yet published elsewhere. In anticipation of the full coupling, which is under development, the database started incorporating the available (as yet unpublished) values from Active Thermochemical Tables. The electronic version now also contains an XML file of the main database to allow transfer to other formats and ease finding specific information of interest. The database is used by scientists, educators, engineers and students at all levels, dealing primarily with combustion and air pollution, jet engines, rocket propulsion, fireworks, but also by researchers involved in upper atmosphere kinetics, astrophysics, abrasion metallurgy, etc. This introductory article contains explanations of the database and the means to use it, its sources, ways of calculation, and assessments of the accuracy of data.

Burcat, A.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry; Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech.

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

160

Steam Reactivation and Separation of Limestone Sorbents for High Temperature Post-combustion CO2 Capture from Flue Gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Increasing global population and demand for energy has raised concerns of excessive anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from consumption of fossil fuels. Coal, in particular,… (more)

Wang, Alan Yao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Performance and emission characteristics of natural gas combined cycle power generation system with steam injection and oxyfuel combustion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Natural gas combined cycle power generation systems are gaining popularity due to their high power generation efficiency and reduced emission. In the present work, combined… (more)

Varia, Nitin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

Zhong Zhaoping [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Huang Yaji [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhou Hongcang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lan Jixiang [Department of Power Engineering, Research Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Effect of temperature on reduction of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion of simulated coal gas in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a promising combustion technology for gaseous and solid fuel with efficient use of energy and inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. The concept of a coal-fueled CLC system using, calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) as oxygen carrier is proposed in this study. Reduction tests of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier with simulated coal gas were performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor in the temperature range of 890-950{degree}C. A high concentration of CO{sub 2} was obtained at the initial reduction period. CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier exhibited high reactivity initially and decreased gradually at the late period of reduction. The sulfur release during the reduction of CaSO{sub 4} as oxygen carrier was also observed and analyzed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} conversions were greatly influenced by reduction temperature. The oxygen carrier conversion and mass-based reaction rates during the reduction at typical temperatures were compared. Higher temperatures would enhance reaction rates and result in high conversion of oxygen carrier. An XRD patterns study indicated that CaS was the dominant product of reduction and the variation of relative intensity with temperature is in agreement with the solid conversion. ESEM analysis indicated that the surface structure of oxygen carrier particles changed significantly from impervious to porous after reduction. EDS analysis also demonstrated the transfer of oxygen from the oxygen carrier to the fuel gas and a certain amount of sulfur loss and CaO formation on the surface at higher temperatures. The reduction kinetics of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier was explored with the shrinking unreacted-core model. The apparent kinetic parameters were obtained, and the kinetic equation well predicted the experimental data. Finally, some basic considerations on the use of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in a CLC system for solid fuels were discussed.

Song, Q.L.; Xiao, R.; Deng, Z.Y.; Shen, L.H.; Xiao, J.; Zhang, M.Y. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen CROSS EFFECTS, TOTAL SYSTEM LAY-OUT 13.6.2001 10-1 Figure 10.1 Typical pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up system: dry scrubber +  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up system: dry scrubber + baghouse filter for SO2 and particulate For a conventional pulverised coal-fired power plant a set-up is shown in Figure 10.1, with a gas clean-up system scrubber (pH ~ 6) 60 - 70 7 Re-heater 350 - 400 8 SCR DeNOx 300 - 400 9 Active coke bed 100 - 150 Figure 10

Zevenhoven, Ron

166

Prediction of formation of gas-phase bubbles correlated by vortices in the fuel reactor of chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical looping combustion (CLC) as a potential CO2 capture technology has been considered as a promising and likely alternative to traditional combustion technology to mitigate the CO2 emission due to its prosecution of CO2 sequestration at a low cost. Although a number of studies on the hydrodynamic behaviours of the CLC process in fuel reactor have been documented in the open literature, there have been rare studies on the correlation between the bubble formation and the local particulate volume fraction. This paper aims to investigate the CLC process in a fuel reactor using the CFD modelling, coupled with the heterogeneous reactions, the hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics occurring in the fuel reactor. A parameter correlating the occurrence of bubble and dynamic properties is proposed. The parameter may be acted as an indicator of time-dependent bubble evolution with a potential to be adopted in the CLC for controlling the bubbling phenomena since the occurrence of the bubbles at specific positions is highly correlated with the local large eddies embedded in the flow. The results obtained clearly indicate that the CFD model developed in the current study reasonably forecasts the hydrodynamic behaviours and important phenomena observed in the fuel reactor.

Luming Chen; Xiaogang Yang; Xia Li; Guang Li; Colin Snape

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Measurement and simulation of swirling coal combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particle image velocimetry (PIV), thermocouples and flue gas analyzer are used to study swirling coal combustion and NO formation under different secondary-air ratios. Eulerian–Lagrangian large-eddy simulation (LES) using the Smagorinsky–Lilly sub-grid scale stress model, presumed-PDF fast chemistry and eddy-break-up (EBU) gas combustion models, particle devolatilization and particle combustion models, are simultaneously used to simulate swirling coal combustion. Statistical LES results are validated by measurement results. Instantaneous LES results show that the coherent structures for swirling coal combustion are stronger than those for swirling gas combustion. Particles are shown to concentrate along the periphery of the coherent structures. Combustion flame is located in the high vorticity and high particle concentration zones. Measurement shows that secondary-air ratios have little effect on final NO formation at the exit of the combustor.

Liyuan Hu; Lixing Zhou; Yonghao Luo; Caisong Xu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Landfill gas (LFG), composed largely of methane and carbon dioxide, is used in over 450 operational projects in 43 states. These projects convert a large source of greenhouse gases into a fuel that...

169

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced combustion systems Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of these include pulverized coal combustion... combustion in gas turbines and coal gasification-fuel cell systems hold out ... Source: Kammen, Daniel M. - Renewable and...

170

Advanced Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this presentation include: the continued importance of coal; related materials challenges; combining oxy-combustion & A-USC steam; and casting large superalloy turbine components.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

171

Kinetic determination of a highly reactive impregnated Fe2O3/Al2O3 oxygen carrier for use in gas-fueled Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this work was to determine the kinetic parameters for reduction and oxidation reactions of a highly reactive Fe-based oxygen carrier for use in Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) of gaseous fuels containing CH4, CO and/or H2, e.g. natural gas, syngas and PSA-off gas. The oxygen carrier was prepared by impregnation of iron on alumina. The effect of both the temperature and gas concentration was analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The grain model with uniform conversion in the particle and reaction in grains following the shrinking core model (SCM) was used for kinetics determination. It was assumed that the reduction reactions were controlled by two different resistances: the reaction rate was controlled by chemical reaction in a first step, whereas the mechanism that controlled the reactions at higher conversion values was diffusion through the product layer around the grains. Furthermore, it was found that the reduction reaction mechanism was based on the interaction of Fe2O3 with Al2O3 in presence of the reacting gases to form FeAl2O4 as the only stable Fe-based phase. The reaction order values found for the reducing gases were 0.25, 0.3 and 0.6 for CH4, H2 and CO, respectively, and the activation energy took values of between 8 kJ mol?1 (for H2) and 66 kJ mol?1 (for CH4). With regard to oxidation kinetics, the reacting model assumed a reaction rate that was only controlled by chemical reaction. Values of 0.9 and 23 kJ mol?1 were found for reaction order and activation energy, respectively. Finally, the solids inventory needed in a CLC system was also estimated by considering kinetic parameters. The total solids inventory in the CLC unit took a minimum value of 150 kg MW?1 for CH4 combustion, which is a low value when compared to those of other Fe-based materials found in the literature.

A. Cabello; A. Abad; F. García-Labiano; P. Gayán; L.F. de Diego; J. Adánez

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Comparative investigation on chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas containing H2S over supported NiO oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of simulated coal-derived synthesis gas was conducted with NiO oxygen carriers supported on SiO2, ZrO2, TiO2, and sepiolite. The effect of H2S on the performance of these samples for the CLC process was also evaluated. Five-cycle thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests at 800 #1;C indicated that all oxygen carriers had a stable performance at 800 #1;C, except NiO/SiO2. Full reduction/oxidation reactions of the oxygen carrier were obtained during the five-cycle test. It was found that support had a significant effect on reaction performance of NiO both in reduction and oxidation rates. The reduction reaction was significantly faster than the oxidation reaction for all oxygen carriers, while the oxidation reaction is fairly slow due to oxygen diffusion on NiO layers. The reaction profile was greatly affected by the presence of H2S, but there was no effect on the capacity due to the presence of H2S in synthesis gas. The presence of H2S decreased reduction reaction rates significantly, but oxidation rates of reduced samples increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of the oxidized samples after a five-cycle test showed stable crystalline phases without any formation of sulfides or sulfites/sulfates. Increase in reaction temperature to 900 #1;C had a positive effect on the performance.

Ksepko, E.; Siriwardane, R.; Tian, H.; Simonyi, T.; Sciazko, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Effect of hydrogen sulfide on chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over bentonite-supported metal-oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect

The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) on the chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas with bentonite-supported metal oxides - such as iron oxide, nickel oxide, manganese oxide, and copper oxide - was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). During the reaction with synthesis gas containing H{sub 2}S, metal-oxide oxygen carriers were first reduced by carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and then interacted with H{sub 2}S to form metal sulfide, which resulted in a weight gain during the reduction/sulfidation step. The reduced/sulfurized compounds could be regenerated to form sulfur dioxide and oxides during the oxidation reaction with air. The reduction/oxidation capacities of iron oxide and nickel oxide were not affected by the presence of H{sub 2}S, but both manganese oxide and copper oxide showed decreased reduction/oxidation capacities. However, the rates of reduction and oxidation decreased in the presence of H{sub 2}S for all four metal oxides.

Tian, H.J.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.; Siriwardane, R. [US DOE, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Abbreviations & Acronyms Abbreviations & Acronyms Reference Shelf Solicitations & Awards Abbreviations & Acronyms The Combustion Technologies Product uses a number of abbreviations and acronyms. This web page gives you a definition of frequently used terms, as follows: 1½-Generation PFBC -- A PFBC plant where the hot (about 1400ºF) PFBC exhaust gases are used as a vitiated air supply for a natural gas combustor supplying high-temperature gas (above 2000ºF) to a combustion turbine expander (synonym for "PFB-NGT"). 1st-Generation PFBC -- Commercial PFBC technology where an unfired low-temperature (below 1650ºF) ruggedized turbine expander expands PFBC exhaust gases (synonym for "PFB-EGT"). 2nd-Generation PFBC (see synonyms: "APFBC," "PFB-CGT") -- Advanced PFBC where a carbonizer (mild gasifier) provides hot (about 1400ºF) coal-derived synthetic fuel gas to a special topping combustor. The carbonizer char is burned in the PFBC, and the PFBC exhaust is used as a hot (about 1400ºF) vitiated air supply for the topping combustor. The syngas and vitiated air are burned in a topping combustor to provide high-temperature gas (above 1700ºF) to a combustion turbine expander.

175

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nebraska Public Power District's Sheldon Station with APFBC Technology Nebraska Public Power District's Sheldon Station with APFBC Technology FBC Repower APFBC AES Greenidge APFBC Dan River FBC, APFBC Four Corners CHIPPS H.F. Lee Products Summary Sheldon Summary APFBC Sheldon GFBCC Sheldon APFBC L.V. Sutton Contents: APFBC Repowering Project Summary Key Features Site Layout Performance Environmental Characteristics Cost Other Combustion Systems Repowering Study Links: A related study is underway that would repower Sheldon Unit 1 and Unit 2 with gasification fluidized-bed combined cycle technology (GFBCC). CLICK HERE to find out more about repowering the Sheldon station with GFBCC instead. APFBC Repowering Project Summary Click on picture to enlarge Advanced circulating pressurized fluidized-bed combustion combined cycle systems (APFBC) are systems with jetting-bed pressurized fluidized-bed (PFB) carbonizer/gasifier and circulating PFBC combustor. The PFB carbonizer and PFBC both operate at elevated pressures (10 to 30 times atmospheric pressure) to provide syngas for operating a gas turbine topping combustor giving high cycle energy efficiency. The remaining char from the PFB carbonizer is burned in the pressurized PFBC. The combustion gas from the PFB also feeds thermal energy to the gas turbine topping combustor. This provides combined cycle plant efficiency on coal by providing the opportunity to generate electricity using both high efficiency gas turbines and steam.

176

Combustion Noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stabilize or destabilize the modes of the system, depending on the configuration of the combustor and the form of the coupling [26, 30]. In contrast to combustion instability, in broad-band combustion noise the unsteadiness in the rate of combustion... from th s in a mod on tempera , entropic a de of indir t frequenci r, open que sical theory assical expe s [14] who it by a spa d a transie le gases. A e bubble si idered as a flame was ent was o ng and dif depended udy it wa ion, ? ?,p r t? : (a...

Dowling, Ann P.; Mahmoudi, Yasser

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

20 - Chemical looping combustion (CLC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO2. The technology involves the use of a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier which transfers oxygen from combustion air to the fuel, and hence a direct contact between air and fuel is avoided. Two inter-connected fluidized beds, i.e. fuel reactor and air reactor, are used in the process. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists ideally of CO2 and H2O, and the latter is easily removed by condensation. This chapter presents the basic principles, gives an overview of oxygen-carrier materials and operational experiences, discusses the application to gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and the use for combustion as well as for hydrogen production.

A. Lyngfelt

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Large-Eddy Simulation of Swirling Pulverized-Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Eulerian-Lagrangian large-eddy simulation (LES) with a Smagorinsky-Lilly sub-grid scale stress model, presumed-PDF fast chemistry and EBU gas combustion models, particle devolatilization and particle combustion

L. Y. Hu; L. X. Zhou; Y. H. Luo; C. S. Xu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Combustion Engine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Pictured here is an animation showing the basic mechanics of how an internal combustion engine works. With support from the Energy Department, General Motors researchers developed a new technology ...

180

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Turbines for APFBC Gas Turbines for APFBC FBC Repower Simple Description Detailed Description APFBC Specs GTs for APFBC Suited for Repowering Existing Power Plants with Advanced Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combined Cycles APFBC combined cycles have high energy efficiency levels because they use modern, high-temperature, high-efficiency gas turbines as the core of a combined power cycle. This web page discusses a current U.S. Department of Energy project that is evaluating combustion turbines suited for repowering existing steam plants. The natural-gas-fueled version of the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation W501F. Modified versions of this gas turbine core are suited for operating in APFBC power plants. Contents: Introduction APFBC Repowering Considerations

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Pulse combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pulse combustion has been gaining increased interest because of its potential for higher combustion efficiency greater combustion intensity and lower pollutant emissions. Unsteady combustion causes increased mass momentum and heat transfer. As a result reactants mix faster heat release is accelerated and heat transfer is enhanced in unsteady reacting flows. Many of these phenomena were discovered long ago by engineers looking for the cause of often detrimental combustion instabilities. Much more recently some of these enhanced transfer properties have been used to design efficient and compact pulse combustors. Although to date successful commercialization on a large scale has been limited to home heating units (e.g. the Lenox Pulse Furnace) highly efficient pulse spray dryers (Bepex Unison Dryer) pulse calciners and pulse waste incinerators have been designed. Pulsations have also been applied to carbon black fluidized bed gasifiers. Not all these designs will become economically viable. However the development of tunable pulse combustors that can be acoustically matched to the changing resonance frequency of these pulse processes have made many of them more promising. Recent findings that pulsation can enhance burning even in turbulent flows lend further encouragement to the developers of novel pulse combustion devices.

Jechiel I. Jagoda

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deposition due to the heat of combustion. The problem wedimensionless heat of combustion, QpYoxoolhw t transferredfraction of specie i heat of combustion per gram of fuel

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions  

SciTech Connect

A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

184

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxy-Combustion Boiler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development Project No.: DE-NT0005262 CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Foster Wheeler Oxy-combustion CFD Graphic The objectives of this Foster Wheeler Corporation-managed program are to assess the corrosion characteristics of oxy-combustion relative to air-fired combustion; identify the corrosion mechanisms involved; and determine the effects of oxy-combustion on conventional boiler tube materials, conventional protective coatings, and alternative materials and coatings when operating with high to low sulfur coals. The program involves the prediction of oxy-combustion gas compositions by computational fluid dynamic calculations, exposure of coupons of boiler materials and coverings coated with coal ash deposit to simulated oxy-combustion gases in electric

185

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

SciTech Connect

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

187

Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

turbine (s) Heat recovery steam generator (s) - HRSG with or without duct firing Natural gas supply11/17/2014 1 Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Utility Scale Solar PV Steven doing recently around two key supply-side resource technologies 1. Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine

188

NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

None

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

189

Turbulent combustion  

SciTech Connect

Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Combustion & Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH Winifred J. Hamilton, PhD, SM Clear Air Through Energy Efficiency (CATEE) Galveston, TX October 9?11, 2012 FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH FFCOMBUSTION: THE THREAT ? Biggest threat to world ecosystems (and to human health...) ? Combustion of fossil fuels for ? Electricity ? Industrial processes ? Vehicle propulsion ? Cooking and heat ? Other ? Munitions ? Fireworks ? Light ? Cigarettes, hookahs? FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH FFCOMBUSTION: THE THREAT ? SCALE (think health...

Hamilton, W.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Combustion Characteristics, Emissions and Heat Release Rate Analysis of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Fuelled with Diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The EGR, a very well-known method for NOx reduction in diesel engines, is also a method in HCCI combustion mode, when fuelled with commercial fuel, to improve engine power, mainly because of the increase of the ignition delay. ... Heywood, J. B. “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”, Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Singapur (Singapur), 1988. ... (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory MITI) “Chemical Kinetic Study of a Cetane Number Enhancing Additive for an LGP DI Diesel Engine,” ...

Miguel Torres García; Francisco J. Jiménez-Espadafor Aguilar; Tomás Sánchez Lencero

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

192

Advances in Diode Laser Absorption Sensors for Combustion and Propulsion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Progress is reported in the evolution of diode laser sensors for combustion and propulsion systems. Applications are diverse, ranging from IC engines and gas turbine combustors to...

Hanson, Ronald K

193

Gas Natural - CNG y GNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Natural Dispensador de Gas Natural Gas Natural Dispensador de Gas Natural El gas natural, un combustible fósil compuesto básicamente de metano, es uno de los combustibles alternativos menos contaminantes. Puede ser usado como gas natural comprimido (GNC) o como gas natural licuado (GNL) para autos y camiones. Existen vehículos diseñados para funcionar exclusivamente con gas natural. Por otra parte hay vehículos de doble combustible o bi-combustibles que también puede funcionar con gasolina o diesel. Los vehículos de doble combustible permiten que el usuario aproveche la gran disponibilidad de gasolina o diesel, pero use la alternativa menos contaminante y más económica cuando el gas natural esté disponible. Ya que el gas natural es almacenado en depósitos de combustible de alta

194

Paper # A02 Topic: Laminar Flames US Combustion Meeting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

been focused on synthetic fuel gas (syngas) combustion. Syngas is derived from coal throughPaper # A02 Topic: Laminar Flames 1 5th US Combustion Meeting Organized by the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute and Hosted by the University of California at San Diego March 25

Seitzman, Jerry M.

195

Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

196

Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

197

Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

Maupin, Gary D. (Richland, WA); Chick, Lawrence A. (West Richland, WA); Kurosky, Randal P. (Maple Valley, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System October 7, 2013 - 9:12am Addthis This composite photo shows technicians observing operation at the monitoring station and making subsequent fine adjustments on combustion system controls Technical staff are making boiler adjustments with the control and monitoring system. Photo courtesy of the Department of Defense's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. Technology Description A novel combustion control system, along with gas sensors, sets the opening of fuel and air inlets based on flue-gas concentrations. Continuous feedback from measurements of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide concentrations enable the control system

199

Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station  

SciTech Connect

A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

Not Available

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Argonne TTRDC - Engines - Combustion Visualization - emissions,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Visualization Combustion Visualization Exploring Combustion Using Advanced Imaging Techniques In the photo, the GM diesel test cell is shown with vehicle exhaust aftertreatment hardware (diesel particulate filtration and diesel oxidation catalyst) along with other advanced technology-such as a variable geometry turbocharger, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and a common-rail fuel injection system. Fig. 1. The GM diesel test cell is shown with vehicle exhaust aftertreatment hardware (diesel particulate filtration and diesel oxidation catalyst) along with other advanced technology-such as a variable geometry turbocharger, cooled exhaust gas recirculation and a common-rail fuel injection system. Two-dimensional image of hydrogen combustion OH chemiluminescence. Fig. 2. Two-dimensional image of hydrogen combustion OH chemiluminescence.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Rapid Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research under the Turbines Program is the deployment of fuel flexible rich catalytic combustion technology into high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbines. The resulting combustion systems will provide fuel flexibility for gas turbines to burn coal derived synthesis gas or natural gas and achieve NO{sub x} emissions of 2 ppmvd or less (at 15 percent O{sub 2}), cost effectively. This advance will signify a major step towards environmentally friendly electric power generation and coal-based energy independence for the United States. Under Phase 1 of the Program, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) performed a system integration study of rich catalytic combustion in a small high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbine with a silo combustion system that is easily scalable to a larger multi-chamber gas turbine system. An implementation plan for this technology also was studied. The principal achievement of the Phase 1 effort was the sizing of the catalytic module in a manner which allowed a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors) to be used by the combustion system, a conclusion regarding the amount of air that should be allocated to the reaction zone to achieve low emissions, definition of a combustion staging strategy to achieve low emissions, and mechanical integration of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustor liner with the catalytic module.

Richard S. Tuthill

2004-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

202

In Situ NMR Spectroscopy of Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In situ nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of high-temperature reactions is of potential value for the investigation of catalytic combustion and other high-temperature applications of catalysts such as partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and steam reforming. ... Two-dimensional (2D) studies of gas exchange within different heat zones of the combustion process provide valuable insights into the gas-phase dynamics. ... This may be the case at the high combustion temperatures, but neither experimental nor theoretical xenon chemical shift data is available in current literature for temperatures above 1000 K. ...

Satyanarayana Anala; Galina E. Pavlovskaya; Prakash Pichumani; Todd J. Dieken; Michael D. Olsen; Thomas Meersmann

2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

203

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-combustion capture refers to removing CO2 from fossil fuels before combustion is completed. For example, in gasification processes a feedstock (such as coal) is partially oxidized in steam and oxygen/air under high temperature and pressure to form synthesis gas. This synthesis gas, or syngas, is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, CO2, and smaller amounts of other gaseous components, such as methane. The syngas can then undergo the water-gas shift reaction to convert CO and water (H2O) to H2 and CO2, producing a H2 and CO2-rich gas mixture. The concentration of CO2 in this mixture can range from 15-50%. The CO2 can then be captured and separated, transported, and ultimately sequestered, and the H2-rich fuel combusted.

204

Advanced Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lead to higher efficiencies, resulting in reduced fuel consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Higher efficiency also reduces CO2 production for the same amount of energy...

205

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

206

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J. Birch (San Jose, CA); Kelly, Michael (West Alexandria, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D. Ronney  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

title: Extinction limits in excess enthalpy burners To be published in Proceedings of the Combustion that hydrocarbon fuels contain 100 times more energy per unit mass than lithium-ion batteries, thus devices engines may be impractical. Consequently, many groups have considered heat-recirculating, or "excess

210

Combustion air preheating for refinery heaters using plate-type heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Combustion air preheating by recovering heat from combustion gases is a cost effective method of increasing the overall thermal efficiency of the refining and petrochemical processes. This paper presents the advantages of the plate-type air preheaters made of smooth plates without extended surfaces. These exchangers provide a relatively high heat transfer coefficient at a relatively low pressure drop, resulting in a flexible and compact design. The air preheater design can easily be integrated into the heater design. Top mounting with natural draft becomes possible for many applications, eliminating the need for I.D. fan and expensive ductwork. The economical extent of heat recovery function of the fuel fired is presented based on practical experience. The use of porcelain enameled (glass coated) plates and of stainless steel materials allows the operation of the air preheater below the acidic and water dew point. Finally the paper presents the experience of the Canadian refineries and petrochemical plants with plate-type heat exchangers used for combustion air preheating.

Dinulescu, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Combustion chemistry  

SciTech Connect

This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

On-line measurement of heat of combustion. Final report, period ended 30 April 1988  

SciTech Connect

An experimental method for an on-line measurement of heat of combustion of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture of unknown composition is developed. It involves combustion of a test gas with a known quantity of air to achieve a predetermined oxygen concentration level in the combustion products. This is accomplished by a feedback controller which maintains the gas volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the products. The heat of combustion is determined from a known correlation with the gas volumetric flow rate. An on-line microcomputer accesses the gas volumetric flow data, and displays the heat of combustion values at desired time intervals.

Chaturvedi, S.K.; Chegini, H.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Fine Particle Emissions from Combustion Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fine Particle Emissions from Combustion Systems Fine Particle Emissions from Combustion Systems Speaker(s): Allen Robinson Date: November 11, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Combustion systems such as motor vehicles and power plants are major sources of fine particulate matter. This talk describes some of the changes in fine particle emissions that occur as exhaust from combustion systems mix with background air. This mixing cools and dilutes the exhaust which influences gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile species, the aerosol size distribution, and the fine particle mass. Dilution sampling is used to characterize fine particle emissions from combustion systems because it simulates the rapid cooling and dilution that occur as exhaust mixes with the atmosphere. Results from dilution sampler

214

Advanced Combustion Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Technologies Advanced Combustion Technologies Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, uses laser-based Rayleigh light scattering to measure flame density and speed over a flat flame burner. Oxyfuel combustion, using oxygen in place of air with diluents such as steam or carbon dioxide, can reduce pollutant emissions in advanced power cycles using gas turbines. Photo courtesy of NETL Multimedia. Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, uses laser-based Rayleigh light scattering to measure flame density and speed over a flat flame burner. Oxyfuel combustion, using oxygen in place of air with diluents such as steam or carbon dioxide, can reduce pollutant

215

Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

Chen, Haijie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Paradigms in turbulent combustion research R.W. Bilgera,*, S.B. Popeb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at a fundamental level with the problems of combustion processes in engines (spark-igni- tion, diesel, gas then in combustion development. He cites the discovery of lead tetraethyl as an anti- knock additive after

217

E-Print Network 3.0 - adiabatic in-situ combustion Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paul D. Ronney Summary: , corresponding to low Re, H can be negative, indicating self-sustaining combustion at highly sub-adiabatic... 1 Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in...

218

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

D.C. ace15daw.pdf More Documents & Publications Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Fundamental Studies in Syngas Premixed Combustion Dynamics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Studies Studies in Syngas Premixed Combustion Dynamics Ahmed F. Ghoniem, Anuradha M. Annaswamy, Raymond L. Speth, H. Murat Altay Massachusetts Institute of Technology SCIES Project 05-01-SR121 Project Awarded (08/01/2005, 36 Month Duration) Needs & Objectives Gas Turbine Needs Flexibility to operate with variable syngas compositions Ensure stable operation over a wide range of conditions Reduce emissions of CO and NO x Project Objectives Study experimentally lean premixed syngas combustion

222

Numerical modelling of MILD combustion for coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions of nitrogen oxides from coal combustion are a major environmental problem because they have been shown to contribute to the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. Moderate and Intensive Low oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is a promising technology for decreasing pollutant emissions and improving combustion efficiency. A combination of air preheating and fuel dilution with combustion products of low oxygen concentration are the main features of this technique. In the MILD combustion mode, preheated air and fuel are gradually mixed with large amounts of recirculated exhaust gas. The objective of the present work is to investigate the capability of present fuel NO mechanisms for pulverised coal combustion to predict the observed nitrogen oxide levels in MILD combustion mode. For this purpose, knowledge of the fate of coal nitrogen during the combustion process is vital. The interaction between turbulence and chemistry is modelled by an advanced Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC). The NOx model is used to predict NO profiles that are compared to measurements obtained from semi-industrial scale experiments.

Ju Pyo Kim; U. Schnell; G. Scheffknecht; A.C. Benim

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Code Gaps and Future Research Needs of Combustion Safety: Building America Expert Meeting Update  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technical Update Meeting April 2013 Technical Update Meeting April 2013 www.buildingamerica.gov Buildings Technologies Program Code Gaps and Future Research Needs for Combustion Safety 2012 Expert Meeting Larry Brand Gas Technology Institute April 29-30, 2013 Building America Technical Update Meeting Denver, Colorado installation, inspection and testing 2. Appliance Installation: clearances to combustible materials, combustion air, and testing 3. Appliance venting: allowed materials, vent type selection, sizing, installation, and testing Fundamental Combustion Safety Related Coverage: 2 | Building America Technical Update Meeting April 2013 www.buildingamerica.gov 1. Gas piping: allowed materials, sizing, Code Coverage Three Key Provisions For Combustion Safety in the Codes 1. Combustion air

224

Comparative experimental evaluation of performance, combustion and emissions of laser ignition with conventional spark plug in a compressed natural gas fuelled single cylinder engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Laser is emerging as a strong concept for alternative ignition in spark ignition engine. Laser ignition has potential advantages over conventional spark plug ignition. Laser ignition system is free from spark electrodes hence there is no loss of spark energy to the electrodes, which are also free from erosion effect. In addition, there is flexibility in choosing spark location and it offers excellent performance under high in-cylinder pressures. In this paper, performances of laser ignition and conventional spark ignition systems are comparatively evaluated in terms of in-cylinder pressure variation, combustion stability, fuel consumption, power output and exhaust emissions at similar operating conditions of the engine.

Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava; Avinash Kumar Agarwal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Co-combustion of biomass and gaseous fuel in a novel configuration of fluidized bed: Combustion characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Experimental study on co-combustion of rice straw and natural gas has been performed in a bubbling fluidized bed. The used combustor allows a novel jetting-fountain configuration and the conventional operation as well. In the jetting-fountain configuration, natural gas premixed with the air sufficient for combustion proceeds through the jet pipe to create a jet-fountain zone. Whereas only the air required for rice straw combustion passes through the gas distributor. The findings of the experiments confirm that smooth combustion of natural gas with rice straw can be performed in the novel jetting-fountain fluidized bed. This avoids acoustic effects and explosions of burning bubbles that occurs in the conventional operation. Natural gas contribution had a major impact on combustion characteristics and the performance of the combustor has been found to be much better when applying the jetting-fountain configuration. There are considerable reductions (up to 64%, 28% and 34%) in CO, \\{NOx\\} and SO2 emissions, respectively. The fixed carbon loss reduces (up to 65%) as well. Combustion efficiency records generally higher values with the jetting-fountain configuration. Combustion efficiency steadily improves with increasing natural gas contribution (up to 99.8%). Increasing bed temperature (up to 900 °C) is beneficial for reducing CO, decreasing fixed carbon loss and improving combustion efficiency. The existence of an optimum bed temperature for sulfur retention has been confirmed. As normal, \\{NOx\\} increases with bed temperature.

F. Okasha; G. Zaater; S. El-Emam; M. Awad; E. Zeidan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Advanced Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Advanced Combustion Combustion engines drive a large percentage of our nation's transportation vehicles and power generation and manufacturing facilities. Today's...

227

Mercury Capture on Fly Ash and Sorbents: The Effects of Coal Properties and Combustion Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The control of mercury from coal combustion is very dependent upon the flue gas chemistry. The flue gas chemistry is a function of the time–temperature ... duct, etc. However, the flue gas chemistry, and thus mer...

Nick D. Hutson

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Experimental investigations on combustion characteristics of syngas composed of CH4, CO, and H2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The residual gas and remained raw gas in dual gas resources polygeneration system are quite complex in components (mainly CH4, CO, and H2...), and these results to the distinguished differences in combustion reac...

Qingwei Fan; Shien Hui; Qulan Zhou…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

E-Print Network 3.0 - automotive exhaust gas Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ON INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 1. F. Obert, Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution, Intext Educational Publishers, 1973 Summary: , Critical Topics in Exhaust Gas...

231

Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

Besmann, Theodore M

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

232

Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and looping cycles in general represent an important new ... technologies, which can be deployed for direct combustion as well as be used in gasification...2...stream suitable fo...

Edward John (Ben) Anthony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Chemistry of Combustion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The quantitative description and understanding of combustion processes needs extreme computational efforts and has at ... treatment can give a lot of insight into combustion processes, as demonstrated in the foll...

J. Warnatz

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Overview of Biomass Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main combustion systems for biomass fuels are presented and the respective requirements ... etc.) in industrial boilers or for co-combustion in power plants. For fuels with high ... moving grate firings are u...

T. Nussbaumer; J. E. Hustad

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Insights into Conventional and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Using Combustion Trajectory Prediction Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.................................................. 61 4.2.1 Rail pressure sweep ...................................................................................... 61 4.2.2 Exhaust gas recirculation sweep ................................................................... 66 4.3 Low temperature... combustion trajectory analysis............................................. 71 4.3.1 Rail pressure sweep ...................................................................................... 71 4.3.2 Exhaust gas recirculation sweep...

Bittle, Joshua A

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

236

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxy-Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control IEP - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications Project No.: DE-NT0005290 Alstom oxy-combustion test facility Alstom oxy-combustion test facility. Alstom will develop an oxyfuel firing system design specifically for retrofit to tangential-fired (T-fired) boilers and provide information to address the technical gaps for commercial boiler design. Several oxyfuel system design concepts, such as internal flue gas recirculation and various oxygen injection schemes, will be evaluated for cost-effectiveness in satisfying furnace design conditions in a T-fired boiler. The evaluation will use an array of tools, including Alstom's proprietary models and design codes, along with 3-D computational fluid dynamics modeling. A

237

Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Jet Ignition Research for Clean Efficient Combustion Engines Prasanna Chinnathambi, Abdullah Karimi, Manikanda Rajagopal, Razi Nalim  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-chamber internal combustion engines and in innovative pressure-gain combustors for gas turbine engines. Jet engines using low-cost, low-carbon natural gas need improved methods for ignition of lean mixtures rotor combustor. A wave rotor combustion chamber is best ignited with a jet of hot gas that may come

Zhou, Yaoqi

239

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas - Energy Innovation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

those for selective catalytic reduction (SCR)), scrubbing liquors, flue gas or coal additives, combustion modifications, barrier discharges, and ultraviolet radiation....

240

Low NOx combustion system for heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the increasing demand for white oil as one of countermeasures for pollution control and as a fuel for motor vehicle, coupled with the increasing import of heavy crude oil, heavy oils such as asphalt and distillation residue have become surplus in Japan. It is difficult by the conventional low NOx technology to control the NOx emission from the industrial small and medium capacity boilers, which use heavy oil as their fuels. The authors have been developing and improving NOx control technologies for boilers such as low NOx burners, two-stage combustion methods and so on. They have developed a new combustion system for heavy oil, which generates less NOx and soot than conventional systems, by applying the knowledge, obtained in the course of their development of Coal Partial Combustor (CPC). The conventional low NOx combustion method for oil firing boilers has been developed based on decreasing the flame temperature and delaying the combustion reaction. In the system, however, the heavy oil shall be combusted in the intense reducing atmosphere at the high flame temperature between 1,500 C and 1,600 C, and then the combustions gas shall be cooled and oxidized by two-stage combustion air. With this system, NOx emission can be suppressed below 100ppm (converted as O{sub 2}=4%).

Kurata, Chikatoshi; Sasaki, Hideki

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

UCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentrations of H2 along with CO and CH4. Before developing engines to operate with syngas, the combustionUCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu GOALS The present research effort aims to quantify such alternative fuel is synthesis gas (syngas) which is derived from gasification of coal. Syngas contains high

Mease, Kenneth D.

242

Micro-HCCI Combustion: Experimental Characterization and Development of a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: The Micro-Gas Turbine Engine at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology [2]; The MEMS Rotary EngineMicro-HCCI Combustion: Experimental Characterization and Development of a Detailed Chemical Kinetic is developed and used to interpret the experimental results and to explore HCCI combustion with a free

Zachariah, Michael R.

243

Task 2 Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems (NETL-US)  

SciTech Connect

Exposures were completed to ~1400 hr. Analysis of kinetics are close to completion. No oxy-combustion gas phase effects were found at 700{degrees}C.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Tylczak, Joseph [NETL

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

244

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid combustion rate Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

air flows are established to provide local and overall... content, and the combustion gas heat loss rate. ... Source: Columbia University - Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology...

245

A non linear model for combustion instability : analysis and quenching of the oscillations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- ing the oscillations. 1 Introduction Combustion instabilities phenomena in gas turbine are the focus, this correspond to a positive feedback coupling between the heat-release process and acoustics of the combustion. Landau, F. Bouziani and R. R. Bitmead Thermal part (combustion) Acoustics Fig. 1. Positive feedback

Boyer, Edmond

246

Combustion Technology Development for an Advanced Glass Melting System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concept feasibility of an innovative technology for glass production has recently been demonstrated. It is based on suspension heating of the glass-forming batch minerals while entrained in a combustion flow of preheated air and natural gas...

Stickler, D. B.; Westra, L.; Woodroffe, J.; Jeong, K. M.; Donaldson, L. W.

247

Selective diagnostics of combustion processes in multi-burner boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The process of gas hydrocarbon combustion was tested in real (industrial) conditions on boilers with many burners. For key operation modes, the main regularities of emission from single flames were studied. Th...

S. M. Borzov; V. V. Garkusha; V. I. Kozik; V. P. Mikheev…

248

Method and system for the removal of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur from combustion processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing oxide contaminants from combustion gas, and employing a solid electrolyte reactor, includes: (a) flowing the combustion gas into a zone containing a solid electrolyte and applying a voltage and at elevated temperature to thereby separate oxygen via the solid electrolyte, (b) removing oxygen from that zone in a first stream and removing hot effluent gas from that zone in a second stream, the effluent gas containing contaminant, (c) and pre-heating the combustion gas flowing to that zone by passing it in heat exchange relation with the hot effluent gas.

Walsh, John V. (Glendora, CA)

1987-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Real-time Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor-Pressure Oscillation Monitor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Control and Diagnostics Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor-Pressure Oscillation Monitor Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing its patented "Real-Time Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor-Pressure Oscillation Monitor" technology. Disclosed is NETL's sensor system and process for monitoring and controlling the amplitude and/or frequencies of dynamic pressure oscillations in combustion systems during active combustion processes. The combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS) is designed for gas turbine combustors that are operated near the fuel-lean flame extinction limit to minimize production of the atmospheric pollutant NOx. CCADS eliminates the problems of flashback,

250

A MODEL FOR POROUS-MEDIUM COMBUSTION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......usually taken from experiments; Vo is determined by the inlet gas velocity under consideration, and for the typical combustion processes where Vo is parallel to the z-axis in which we are interested it is natural to choose V3o~0-1 to 1-Oms......

J. NORBURY; A. M. STUART

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

Bowman, J.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS PRE-COMBUSTION SORBENTS PRE-COMBUSTION MEMBRANES POST-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS POST-COMBUSTION SORBENTS POST-COMBUSTION MEMBRANES OXY-COMBUSTION OXYGEN PRODUCTION CHEMICAL LOOPING ADVANCED COMPRESSION R&D COLLABORATIONS B-1 APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS B-6 SRI International - CO 2 Capture Using AC-ABC Processt B-7 PRE-COMBUSTION SORBENTS B-14 TDA Research - CO 2 Capture for Low-Rank Coal IGCC Systems B-15 URS Group - Sorbent Development for WGS B-18 Air Products and Chemicals - Advanced Acid Gas Separation B-24 Ohio State University-Department of Chemical Engineering - Calcium Looping for Hydrogen Production B-33

253

Effect of Oxyfuel Combustion on Superheater Corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of coal in an oxygen environment (as opposed to air) will facilitate the sequestering of carbon dioxide by minimizing the amount of nitrogen in the exit gas stream. The presence of higher levels of certain gases associated with oxyfuel combustion (eg, CO2, SO2, and H2O) may impact the corrosion of waterwalls, superheaters, headers, reheaters, and other boiler components. Research is being conducted on bare and ash-embedded boiler tube materials in simulated oxyfuel- combustion and air-combustion environments at a superheater temperature of 675°C. Alloys were exposed at temperature to two different gaseous environments. Preliminary results show: (1) an increase in corrosion rate of bare K02707, K11547, K21590, K91560, K92460, S30409, S34700, and N06617 exposed to the oxyfuel combustion environment when compared to the air combustion environment; (2) an increase in corrosion rate of alloys K21590, K92460, S34700, and N06617, when embedded in ash in comparison to bare exposure; and (3) no effect of gaseous environment on alloy corrosion rate when embedded in ash.

Covino, B.S., Jr.; Matthes, S.A.; Bullard, S.J.

2008-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

254

Low NOx combustion  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

255

Low NOx combustion  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

256

Introduction to Biomass Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass was the major fuel in the world ... hundreds when coal then became dominant. The combustion of solid biofuels as a primary energy...

Jenny M. Jones; Amanda R. Lea-Langton…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Introduction HYBRID FLAME: combustion of a combustible gas and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in numerous cases (e.g. explosion in coal mines) QUENCHING DISTANCES: narrowest passage through which aflame due to the difficulty of obtaining a hybrid flame. Setup Methodology Dust fed by actuator with methane Future Work Verify data obtained for methane and aluminum flame Run test with constant equivalence ratio

Barthelat, Francois

258

Coal combustion science. Quarterly progress report, April 1993--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document is a quarterly status report of the Coal Combustion Science Project that is being conducted at the Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories. The information reported is for Apr-Jun 1993. The objective of this work is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This project consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the PETC Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. The objective of the kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion task is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. Work is being done in four areas: kinetics of heterogeneous fuel particle populations; char combustion kinetics at high carbon conversion; the role of particle structure and the char formation process in combustion and; unification of the Sandia char combustion data base. This data base on the high temperature reactivities of chars from strategic US coals will permit identification of important fuel-specific trends and development of predictive capabilities for advanced coal combustion systems. The objective of the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion task is the establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of inorganic material during coal combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of inorganic species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition. In addition, optical diagnostic capabilities are being developed for in situ, real-time detection of inorganic vapor species and surface species during ash deposition. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Hardesty, D.R. [ed.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

The Combustion of Solid Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of solid biomass is covered in this chapter. This covers the general mechanism of combustion, moisture evaporation, devolatilisation, the combustion of the volatiles gases and tars and finally char...

Jenny M. Jones; Amanda R. Lea-Langton…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Gas turbine topping combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustor for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone.

Beer, Janos (Winchester, MA); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL); Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Multicycle study on chemical-looping combustion of simulated coal gas with a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

The cyclic test of a CaSO{sub 4}-based oxygen carrier (natural anhydrite) in alternating reducing simulated coal gas and oxidizing conditions was performed at 950{degree}C in a fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. A high concentration of CO{sub 2} was obtained in the reduction. The H{sub 2} and CO conversions and CO{sub 2} yield increased initially and final decreased significantly. The release of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S during the cyclic test was found to be responsible for the decrease of reactivity of a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier. The oxygen carrier conversion after the reduction reaction decreased gradually in the cyclic test. Through the comparison of mass-based reaction rates as a function of mass conversion at typical cycles, it was also evident that the reactivity of a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier increased for the initial cycles but finally decreased after around 15 cycles. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the presence and intensity of the reduction sulfur species was in accordance with the results of gas conversion. The content of CaO was higher than expected, suggesting the formation of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S during the cycles. Surface morphology analysis demonstrates that the natural anhydrite particle surface varied from impervious to porous after the cyclic test. It was also observed that the small grains on the surface of the oxygen carrier sintered in the cyclic tests. Energy-dispersive spectrum analysis also demonstrated the decrease of oxygen intensity after reduction, and CaO became the main component after the 20th oxidation. Pore structure analysis suggested that the particles agglomerated or sintered in the cyclic tests. The possible method for sulfur mitigation is proposed. Finally, some basic consideration on the design criteria of a CLC system for solid fuels using a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier is discussed by the references and provides direction for future work. 49 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Qilei Song; Rui Xiao; Zhongyi Deng; Wenguang Zheng; Laihong Shen; Jun Xiao [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

Fifteenth combustion research conference  

SciTech Connect

The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

NONE

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

credit for renewable energy, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas combustion. Wastewater treatment, including both domestic wastewater (about two-thirds) and industrial...

264

Engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of gas to liquid (GTL) fuels and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Crude oil price hikes, energy security concerns and environmental drivers have turned the focus to alternative fuels. Gas to liquid (GTL) diesel is regarded as a promising alternative diesel fuel, considering the adeptness to use directly as a diesel fuel or in blends with petroleum-derived diesel or bio-diesel. GTL fuel derived from Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is of distinctly different characteristics than fossil diesel fuel due to its paraffinic nature, virtually zero sulfur, low aromatic contents and very high cetane number. GTL fuel is referred to as a “clean fuel” for its inherent ability to reduce engine exhaust emission even with blends of diesel and bio-diesel. This paper illustrates feasibility of GTL fuel in context of comparative fuel properties with conventional diesel and bio-diesels. This review also describes the technical attributes of GTL and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel focusing their impact on engine performance and emission characteristics on the basis of the previous research works. It can introduce an efficacious guideline to devise several blends of alternative fuels, further the development of engine performance and constrain exhaust emission to cope with the relentless efforts to manufacture efficient and environment friendly powertrains.

H. Sajjad; H.H. Masjuki; M. Varman; M.A. Kalam; M.I. Arbab; S. Imtenan; S.M. Ashrafur Rahman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Evaluation of synthetic-fuel character effects on rich-lean stationary gas-turbine combustion systems. Volume 2. Full-scale test program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The effect of burner geometric scale on the emissions and performance produced by staged, rich lean combustors was investigated. Tests were conducted using a 25-cm diameter burner and the results obtained were compared with results previously obtained using a similar, but smaller (12.5-cm diameter) burner. The larger burner employed a convectively-cooled rich-burn section; the size of the burner is the size of the burner cans employed in the 25 Megawatt FT4 industrial gas turbine. Scale effects are of concern in staged rich/lean combustors because of the suspected critical importance of quench air jet penetration and fuel injector spray distribution, both processes being scaled dependent. Tests were conducted both with No. 2 petroleum distillate and with a nitrogen-bearing, middle-distillate synthetic fuel produced by the H-Coal process. Measurements of burner exit temperature profile, liner temperature, gaseous emission, and smoke emissions are presented and the results compared with subscale test results.

Kennedy, J.B.; McVey, J.B.; Rosfjord, T.J.; Russel, P.; Beal, G.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Simulation of coal combustion by AUSM turbulence-chemistry char combustion model and a full two-fluid model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An algebraic unified second-order moment (AUSM) turbulence-chemistry model of char combustion is introduced in this paper, to calculate the effect of particle temperature fluctuation on char combustion. The AUSM model is used to simulate gas-particle flows, in coal combustion in a pulverized coal combustor, together with a full two-fluid model for reacting gas-particle flows and coal combustion, including the sub-models as the k-?-kp two-phase turbulence model, the EBU-Arrhenius volatile and CO combustion model, and the six-flux radiation model. A new method for calculating particle mass flow rate is also used in this model to correct particle outflow rate and mass flow rate for inside sections, which can obey the principle of mass conservation for the particle phase and can also speed up the iterating convergence of the computation procedure effectively. The simulation results indicate that, the AUSM char combustion model is more preferable to the old char combustion model, since the later totally eliminate the influence of particle temperature fluctuation on char combustion rate.

Yu Zhang; Xiao-Lin Wei; Li-Xing Zhou; Hong-Zhi Sheng

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Microsoft Word - 41890_PW_Catalytic Combustion_Factsheet_Rev01_12-03.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion DE-FC26-03NT41890 I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS A. Prime: United Technologies Corporation through its Pratt and Whitney Division B. Sub-award: Precision Combustion, Incorporated II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objectives: Create an Implementation Plan and Integration Study for rich catalytic combustion as applied to industrial gas turbines fired on both natural gas and coal derived synthesis gas. The overall goal is a combustion system that will be capable of NOx less than 2 ppmvd. at 15% oxygen in an F-class gas turbine without exhaust gas after-treatment. B. Background/relevancy: The objective of the Turbines (HEET) program is to create the necessary technology base leading to Vision 21 (V21) goals. V21

268

Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion  

SciTech Connect

The motivation for this project is the need to obtain a better quantitative understanding of the technologically-important phenomenon of turbulent combustion. In nearly all applications in which fuel is burned-for example, fossil-fuel power plants, furnaces, gas-turbines and internal-combustion engines-the combustion takes place in a turbulent flow. Designers continually demand more quantitative information about this phenomenon-in the form of turbulent combustion models-so that they can design equipment with increased efficiency and decreased environmental impact. For some time the PI has been developing a class of turbulent combustion models known as PDF methods. These methods have the important virtue that both convection and reaction can be treated without turbulence-modelling assumptions. However, a mixing model is required to account for the effects of molecular diffusion. Currently, the available mixing models are known to have some significant defects. The major motivation of the project is to seek a better understanding of molecular diffusion in turbulent reactive flows, and hence to develop a better mixing model.

Pope, S.B. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ithaca, NY (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity Fuels- Fact Sheet, 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Factsheet summarizing how this project will modify a gas turbine combustion system to operate on hydrogen-rich opportunity fuels

270

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

combustion products (CCPs) combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an important contribution in this regard. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Coal Combustion Products Fossil Energy Research Benefits

271

Thermal ignition combustion system  

SciTech Connect

A thermal ignition combustion system adapted for use with an internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) means for providing ignition chamber walls defining an ignition chamber, the chamber walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m/sup 0/C. and a specific heat greater than 480J/kg/sup 0/C., the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber; (b) means for maintaining the temperature of the chamber walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel; and (c) means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

272

Environmental impact of fossil fuel combustion in power generation  

SciTech Connect

All the recent developments in the combustion systems employed for power generation have been based on environmental considerations. Combustion modifications have been developed and utilised in order to control NO{sub x} emissions and improvements continue to be made as the legislative requirements tighten. Chemical processes and fuel switching are used to control SO{sub x} emissions. After nitrogen, carbon dioxide is the major gas emitted from the combustion process and its potential potency as a greenhouse gas is well documented. Increased efficiency cycles, mainly based on natural gas as the prime fuel, can minimise the amount of CO{sub x} produced per unit of power generated. As the economics of natural gas utilisation become less favourable a return to clean coal technology based power generation processes may be required.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [International Combustion Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review  

SciTech Connect

This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 fuel fuel feed air products air fuel Retort) products Underfeed Combustion fuel feed air #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 required #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Overfeed Bed fuel motion products air

Hallett, William L.H.

275

Engine Combustion & Efficiency - FEERC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engine Combustion & Efficiency Engine Combustion & Efficiency ORNL currently and historically supports the U.S. DOE on multi-cylinder and vehicle applications of diesel combustion, lean burn gasoline combustion, and low temperature combustion processes, and performs principal research on efficiency enabling technologies including emission controls, thermal energy recovery, and bio-renewable fuels. Research areas span from fundamental concepts to engine/vehicle integration and demonstration with a particular emphasis on the following areas: Thermodynamics for identifying and characterizing efficiency opportunities for engine-systems as well as the development of non-conventional combustion concepts for reducing fundamental combustion losses. Nonlinear sciences for improving the physical understanding and

276

Definition: Combustion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Combustion Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Combustion The process of burning; chemical oxidation accompanied by the generation of light and heat.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition "Burning" redirects here. For combustion without external ignition, see spontaneous combustion. For the vehicle engine, see internal combustion engine. For other uses, see Burning (disambiguation) and Combustion (disambiguation). Error creating thumbnail: Unable to create destination directory This article's introduction section may not adequately summarize its contents. To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, please consider modifying the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points in such a way that it can stand on its own as a

277

Microsoft Word - 41521_PCI_RCL Combustion_Factsheet_Rev01-00-00-03.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RCL RCL TM System Study for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas (Precision Combustion, Inc.) 1 FACT SHEET (DRAFT 3/17/03) I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS 1. Prime Participant: Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) 2. Other Participants: General Electric Power Systems, Pratt and Whitney Power Systems, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, American Electric Power, Calpine. , II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objective(s): The objective of this project is to conduct a system study evaluating the potential impact on power generation turbines of a novel catalytic combustion technology ("Rich Catalytic/Lean burn" or "RCL(tm)" combustion). The study explores the potential for this improved combustion process for elimination of SCR aftertreatment, improved efficiency,

278

NETL: Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process Project No.: DE-FE0000646 The Gas Technology Institute is developing a pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) separation technology based on a solvent scrubbing process using a novel gas/liquid membrane contactor concept. The primary goal of the project is to develop a practical and cost-effective technology for CO2 separation and capture from the pre-combustion syngas in coal gasification plants. The specific objective of the project is to (1) develop a membrane contactor module containing a superhydrophobic--extremely difficult to wet--hollow fiber membrane with optimal pore size and surface chemistry, and (2) design the CO2 separation process and conduct an economic evaluation.

279

Hydrogen Sulfide Combustion:? Relevant Issues under Claus Furnace Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Their mechanisms include the chemistry that leads to the formation of SO, SO2, SO3, and S2, as well as other chemical paths for the destruction of H2S. Another important source of chemistry and kinetics data that is more recent can be found in the University of Leeds, U.K. Sulfur Mechanism (which can be found on the Internet at www.chem.leeds.ac.uk/Combustion/Combustion.html). ... The databank contains the ideal gas heat capacity, free energy of formation, and enthalpy of formation for many species, and these values are accurate at the high temperatures that are typical of combustion for more than 59 stable and radical species. ... Clark et al.4 noted in their study of Claus chemistry that H2S combusts more quickly than the hydrocarbons that were present in the initial gas mixture. ...

Ivan A. Gargurevich

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

280

Reactivity of a CaSO4-oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion of methane in a fixed bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a promising technology for the combustion of gas or solid fuel with efficient...2. A reactivity study of CaSO4 oxygen carrier in CLC of methane was conducted in a laboratory s...

Qilei Song; Rui Xiao; Zhongyi Deng; Laihong Shen…

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Spontaneous Human Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spontaneous Human Combustion Spontaneous Human Combustion Name: S. Phillips. Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: One of our 8th grade students has tried to find information in our library about spontaneous human combustion, but to no avail. Could you tell us where we might locate a simple reference, or provide some in information about this subject for him. Replies: Sorry, but this is definitely "fringe science"...try asking in bookstores. I seem to recall one of those "believe it or not" type of TV shows did an episode on spontaneous human combustion a few years ago in which they reported on some British scientists who investigated this purported phenomenon. Remember that people (back in the Dark Ages, and before) used to believe in "spontaneous generation" of certain plants and animals because they were not aware of the reproduction methods used by those plants and animals.

282

Advanced diesel combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Future emission norms will further reduce the vehicle emissions of diesel engines. To meet the goal of achieving these stringent limits while maintaining attractive attributes of marketability, the combustion ...

Dirk Adolph; Hartwig Busch; Stefan Pischinger; Andreas Kolbeck…

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Advanced Combustion Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The workhorse of America's electric power sector is the coal-fired power plant. Today, coal combustion plants account for more than half of the Nation's electric power generation. Largely because...

284

Catalytic Combustion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents experimental data on the effect of catalytic additives on the combustion characteristics of ammonium nitrate and perchlorate and the explosives of different classes. Burning rates are determ...

A. P. Glaskova

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Oxy-coal Combustion Studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of miscanthus and sewage sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The energetic conversion of biomass into syngas is considered as reliable energy source. In this context, biomass (miscanthus) and sewage sludge have been investigated. A simultaneous thermal analyzer and mass spectrometer was used for the characterization of samples and identified the volatiles evolved during the heating of the sample up to 1100 °C under combustion and gasification conditions. The TG and DTA results were discussed in argon, oxygen, steam and steam blended gas atmospheres. Different stages of pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples have been examined. It was shown that the combustion and gasification of char were occurred in two different temperature zones. The DTA–MS profile of the sample gives information on combustion and gasification process of the samples (ignition, peak combustion and burnout temperatures) and gases released (H2, O2, CO and CO2). The results showed that the different processes were mainly dependent on temperature. The evolution of the gas species was consistent with the weight loss of the samples during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification process. The effect of the ambiences during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples were reported. The appropriate temperature range to the sludge and miscanthus gasification was evaluated. The kinetic parameters of the biomass and sewage sludge were estimated for TGA using two models based on first-order reactions with distributed activation energies. The presence of ash in the biomass char was more influential during the gasification process.

Kandasamy Jayaraman; Iskender Gökalp

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Summary of advanced combustion research...

288

Sandia Combustion Research Program  

SciTech Connect

During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development  

SciTech Connect

Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development  

SciTech Connect

Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Near-Zero Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Project No.: DE-NT0005341 Praxair oxy-combustion test equipment Praxair oxy-combustion test equipment. Praxair Inc. will develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing coal-fired power plants retrofit with oxy-combustion technology. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and mercury (Hg) will be reduced by at least 99 percent, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions will be reduced by greater than 90 percent without the need for wet flue gas desulfurization and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Two separate processes are proposed depending on the sulfur content of the coal. For high-sulfur coal, SO2 and NOx will be recovered as product sulfuric acid and nitric acid, respectively, and Hg will be recovered as

292

Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report  

SciTech Connect

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, Michael F.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

High Efficiency Burners by Retrofit - A Simple Inexpensive Way to Improve Combustion Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Existing direct fired process heaters and steam boilers can have their efficiencies remarkably improved, and thus cut the fuel bill, by conversion from conventional type natural draft burners to high intensity, "forced draft" type burners...

Rogers, W. T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Detonation of Gas-Particle Flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fine organic or metallic particles suspended in an oxidizing or combustible gas form a reactive particle–gas mixture. Explosion pressures in such mixtures are remarkably higher than those of gaseous fuel–air m...

Fan Zhang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Buildings, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Stationary Combustion Guidance[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for stationary combustion is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

298

5 - Combustors in gas turbine systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter discusses combustion systems in gas turbines. It begins by reviewing basic design principles before discussing developments in technology such as advanced fuel staging and reheat combustion systems. The chapter also covers the impact of different natural gas types on combustor operations, including combustor design for low calorific gases and fuel oils.

P. Flohr; P. Stuttaford

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

300

Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

Daniels, Michael A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heaps, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Steffler, Eric D (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance bimodal agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. A particulate having a size different from the size of the particulate in the gas stream to be cleaned is introduced into the system to effectuate the bimodal process. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, the added particulate may be a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Some Experimental Studies of Oscillatory Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements of the perturbations in pressure as recorded by flush?mounted transducers during the combustion of mixtures of air and natural gas in a cooled copper tube at atmospheric pressure are reported for a range of mixture ratios. Also presented are the residual quantities of the oxides of nitrogen as well as the principal components of the products of reaction. The results indicate two stable modes of oscillation. One was found predominantly at mixture ratios above stoichiometric. There was a region near stoichiometric where both modes existed. The quantities of the residual oxides of nitrogen were from 10–30 times as large during oscillatory combustion as during relatively steady combustion. In addition measurements in a smaller cooled copper combustor at pressures up to 50 lb/sq in. absolute are recorded. Again two stable modes of oscillation were encountered and the double amplitude of the oscillation for the mode near stoichiometric was nearly five times as great as that away from stoichiometric. The influence of mixture ratio and rates of flow was explored. The quantities of the oxides of nitrogen were determined after quenching the products of reaction at rates of approximately 5° per ?sec. Again the presence of oscillatory combustion appeared to exert a pronounced influence on the presence of oxides of nitrogen. In the case of the high?pressure combustor the premixed fuel and oxidant were introduced through a supersonic converging?diverging nozzle to avoid coupling between the feed system and the combustor.

B. H. Sage

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

A MODEL FOR POROUS-MEDIUM COMBUSTION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......these applied in coal combustion appears in...understanding of the chemistry of combustion...GLASSMAN, Combustion (Academic Press...ESSENHIGH, In Chemistry of Coal Utilization...POROUS-MEDIUM COMBUSTION 177 8. D. A......

J. NORBURY; A. M. STUART

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Engine Combustion Engine Research to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Combustion Engines Emission Control Waste Heat Recovery Fuels & Lubricants Materials Technologies Combustion Engine Research

305

Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Combustion Advanced Combustion Engines to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Combustion Engines Emission Control Waste Heat Recovery Fuels & Lubricants Materials Technologies Advanced Combustion Engines

306

Natural Gas RD&D Needs*  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Shailesh D. Vora DOE/NETL CO 2 Capture R&D Program Technology Manager, Carbon Capture 2013 NETL CO 2 Capture Technology Meeting July 8 - 11, 2013, Pittsburgh, PA R&D Areas: CO 2 Capture 2 Pre-Combustion Advanced Compression Advanced Combustion Post-Combustion  Solvents  Sorbents  Membranes  Hybrid processes  Water-gas shift reactor  Solvents  Sorbents  Membranes  Hybrid processes  Atmospheric oxy-combustion  Pressurized oxy-combustion  Oxygen transport membrane  Chemical looping  Intra-stage cooling  Cryogenic pumping  Supersonic shock wave compression Technology Classification 3 Pre-Combustion Research Focus 4 Post-Combustion Research Focus 5 Advanced Combustion Program Overview

307

Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine with Oxygenated Fuels and Thermal Barrier Coating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine with Oxygenated Fuels and Thermal Barrier Coating ... Exhaust gas emissions from diesel engines have become a serious problem to the researchers; therefore, a method of reduction of gas emission is needed. ... Their results show that the engine can achieve ultra-low emission without fundamental change to the combustion system. ...

P. Ramu; C. G. Saravanan

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

308

Thermal ignition combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

309

Studies in combustion dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Thermal ignition combustion system  

SciTech Connect

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

312

Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling &...

313

Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Formation in Combustion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions from transportation systems that derive their energy directly from combustion processes include products of incomplete combustion, oxides of...

R. A. Matula

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Wilson, John S. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Aviation Combustion Toxicology: An Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......in a radiant heat furnace. Rats...the produced combustion products in...in both the combustion tube and radiant heat systems proved...literature data for CO2, low...acrolein, and heat expo- sures...primary toxic combustion gases and are...structures. The hydrocarbon constituents......

Arvind K. Chaturvedi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, combustion in a Diesel engine or in furnaces essentially taakes place under non-premixed conditions. In the Diesel engine a liquid fuel spray is injected into hot compressed air, the fuel evaporates and mixes combustion are in general subdivided into two classes: premixed or non-premixed combustion. For example

Peters, Norbert

317

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

318

The evaluation and application of Orimulsion by International Combustion Ltd  

SciTech Connect

Since the introduction of Orimulsion, in the 1980`s as a potential fuel for power generation, International Combustion Ltd. (ICL) have been involved with the original fuel manufacturer PdeV (Petroleos de Venezuela) and their commercial marketing organization (BITOR) in a comprehensive evaluation of this fuel for application to power generation boilers. This work encompassed both chemical and physical analyses of the original fuel formulations and modifications to improve handling and combustion performance. The first commercial scale firing demonstration of Orimulsion was performed by ICL in their full scale combustion test facilities at Derby in the UK. On this occasion PdeV took the opportunity to bring upwards of 40 visitors from 14 different countries to witness this full scale combustion demonstration which took place over a two week period during November, 1987. Further full scale combustion demonstration and development was carried out on alternative fuel formulations and combustion equipment for application to a 400 MWe front wall fired boiler at Florida Power and Light Sanford Utility in 1990. Recently the Orimulsion combustion work at ICL has concentrated on the application of the fuel in low NOx burner systems with potential for utilization in large (500 MWe plus) oil fired boilers both in the UK and USA. Fuel and gas handling equipment and hardware have been supplied by ICL to the 120 MWe and 500 MWe utility boilers operating on Orimulsion, on a continuous basis in the UK.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [International Combustion Ltd., Derby (United Kingdom). Rolls-Royce Industrial Power Group

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

319

FEASIBILITY OF IN-SITU COMBUSTION OF TAR FROM A TARMAT Sidqi A. Abu-Khamsin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HTO = A exp[-EHTO /(RT)] (2) Where A is a frequency factor (consistent units) and R is the universal gas Combustion-tube tests were conducted on a tar of physical and chemical characteristics similar to a natural is difficult to mainatain under ordinary combustion-drive conditions, the tar appeared incapable of supporting

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

320

Evaluation of cation-exchanged zeolite adsorbents for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of cation-exchanged zeolite adsorbents for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture Tae anthro- pogenic sources.1 Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means of limiting evaluated for potential application in post-combustion CO2 capture using a new high-throughput gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion AgencyCompany Organization: World Resources...

322

Chapter 8 - Coal Combustion Residue Disposal Options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal combustion residues (CCRs) are presently regulated as solid waste (Subtitle D) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act. Such classification promotes beneficial use by end-users i.e. mitigating excessive liability. According to the US Environmental Protection agency (USEPA), about 131 million tons of coal combustion residuals—including 71 million tons of fly ash, 20 million tons of bottom ash and boiler slag, and 40 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material—were generated in the US in 2007. Of this, approximately 36% was disposed of in landfills, 21% was disposed of in surface impoundments, 38% was beneficially reused, and 5% was used as minefill. Stringent regulation, as Subtitle C (hazardous waste), would impose a perceived liability upon end-users; greatly reducing beneficial use opportunities. Mandatory use of synthetic liners—would not have prevented dike wall failure and fails to consider inherent engineering characteristics of CCRs.

Richard W. Goodwin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Combustion toxics: Available data and additional needs  

SciTech Connect

With the continuing expansion of air pollution regulations there is an increasing awareness of the potential need to assess the emissions and impact of trace compounds from combustion sources in refineries and chemical plants. It has been found that these trace compounds may be emitted as the result of incomplete fuel combustion, formation of new compounds during combustion, or the presence of inorganics (e.g., metals) in the fuel. Emission factors based on field data from these sources have recently been published by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The emission factors indicate that a large number of trace compounds may be emitted from combustion sources including volatiles, semi-volatiles, PAHs, metals, and dioxins/furans. Some of these trace compounds have been classified as hazardous or toxic. A review of the EPA and API published data sets indicates that, while there is some overlap, many gaps exist in specific source and emission types. Where gaps exist, there is a lack of confirmation for the reported emission factor. Comparison of the EPA and API emission factors for gas and fuel oil fired boilers, however, indicates reasonable agreement for several metals and some PAHs where the data overlap. EPA, however, has sampled for many more metals than API and several EPA factors for PAHs are significantly higher than reported by API. Additionally tests may be warranted where there is insufficient overlap. Much additional work needs to be done to provide reliable factors which can be used to estimate trace toxic emissions from combustion. Many gaps and inconsistencies exist in the emission factors database and changes to existing factors are expected as the database is expanded.

Siegell, J.H.

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

325

Synthesis Gas Generation by Chemical-Looping Reforming of Biomass with Natural Copper Ore as Oxygen Carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical-looping reforming (CLR) of biomass is a ... However, at the cost of synthesis gas combustion for heat, the gas lower heating value...

Lei Guo; Haibo Zhao; Chuguang Zheng

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Gas-phase detonation propagation in mixture composition gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...unconfined gas detonations in hydrocarbon-air mixtures by a sympathetic...Meeting (International) of the Combustion Institute, Bordeaux, France...and A. Linan1995Effects of heat release on triple flamesPhys...model for partially premixed hydrocarbon combustionCombust. Flame...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

In situ combustion with metallic additives SUPRI TR 87  

SciTech Connect

In-situ combustion is the most energy efficient of the thermal oil recovery methods. In this process, a portion of a reservoir`s oil is burned in-situ as fuel to drive the recovery process. In light oil reservoirs, too little fuel may be deposited, making sustained combustion difficult. In heavy oil reservoirs, too much fuel may be deposited leading to high air injection requirements and unfavorable economics. This study has been designed to attack these problems. Water soluble metallic additives are investigated as agents to modify fuel deposition and combustion performance. This report describes seven combustion tube runs using two cradle oils and two metallic additives. The oils are 12{degrees} and 34{degrees} API, both from Cymric (California). The metallic additives tested are ionic nitrate (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}9H{sub 2}O) and zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}6H{sub 2}O). Iron and tin additives improved the combustion efficiency in all cases. Fluctuations in the produced gas compositions were observed in all control runs, but nearly disappeared with the iron and tin additives. The combustion front velocities were also increased by iron and tin. Changes were also observed in the apparent hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio of the fuel, heat of combustion, air requirements, and amount of fuel deposited. Iron and tin caused increases in fuel concentration while causing a decrease in air requirement. The increase in fuel concentration varied between the oils, however, tin and iron were consistently more effective than zinc. A particularly interesting result occurred with the Cymric light oil. In the control runs, a sustained combustion front was not achieved, while in the iron additive runs, stable, sustained combustion was achieved. Iron and tin salts are suitable additives to increase fuel deposition when that is needed. Additives suitable for use as a fuel reducing agent have not yet been found. 26 refs., 23 figs, 6 tabs.

Holt, R.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

In situ combustion with metallic additives SUPRI TR 87  

SciTech Connect

In-situ combustion is the most energy efficient of the thermal oil recovery methods. In this process, a portion of a reservoir's oil is burned in-situ as fuel to drive the recovery process. In light oil reservoirs, too little fuel may be deposited, making sustained combustion difficult. In heavy oil reservoirs, too much fuel may be deposited leading to high air injection requirements and unfavorable economics. This study has been designed to attack these problems. Water soluble metallic additives are investigated as agents to modify fuel deposition and combustion performance. This report describes seven combustion tube runs using two cradle oils and two metallic additives. The oils are 12{degrees} and 34{degrees} API, both from Cymric (California). The metallic additives tested are ionic nitrate (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}9H{sub 2}O) and zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}6H{sub 2}O). Iron and tin additives improved the combustion efficiency in all cases. Fluctuations in the produced gas compositions were observed in all control runs, but nearly disappeared with the iron and tin additives. The combustion front velocities were also increased by iron and tin. Changes were also observed in the apparent hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio of the fuel, heat of combustion, air requirements, and amount of fuel deposited. Iron and tin caused increases in fuel concentration while causing a decrease in air requirement. The increase in fuel concentration varied between the oils, however, tin and iron were consistently more effective than zinc. A particularly interesting result occurred with the Cymric light oil. In the control runs, a sustained combustion front was not achieved, while in the iron additive runs, stable, sustained combustion was achieved. Iron and tin salts are suitable additives to increase fuel deposition when that is needed. Additives suitable for use as a fuel reducing agent have not yet been found. 26 refs., 23 figs, 6 tabs.

Holt, R.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Gasification characteristics of combustible wastes in a 5 ton/day fixed bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasification characteristics of combustible wastes were determined in ... To capture soot or unburned carbon from the gasification reaction, solid/gas separator and water fluidized...2: 10.7%, CH4: 6.0%, CO2:...

See Hoon Lee; Kyong Bin Choi; Jae Goo Lee…

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems  

SciTech Connect

Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass cofired) gas compositions and ash deposits Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardisation

G. R. Holcomb and B. McGhee

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Modeling the structural behavior of the piston rings under different boundary conditions in internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the process of designing internal combustion engine, piston ring plays an important role in fulfilling the requirements of camber gas sealing, friction reduction and lubrication oil consumption. The goal of this thesis ...

Xu, Dian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - asphalt combustion process Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

67 LA-UR-03-3983 July 2003 Approved for public release; Summary: are modeled in this analysis. Asphalt plants generate criteria pollutants from the combustion in the gas... of any...

333

An Enabling Study of Diesel Low-Temperautre Combustion via Adaptive Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Adaptive control strategies based on cylinder pressure and heat release characteristics are implemented to stablilize and enable lw temperature combustion from mid to high loads, at high boost and exhaust gas recirculation.

334

Pulse combusted acoustic agglomeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus and process for removal of particulates entrained in a gas stream are provided. The removal process employs a pulse combustor to provide an acoustic pressure wave to acoustically enhance agglomeration of particulates which may be collected and removed using a conventional separation apparatus. The apparatus may be employed as a direct fired system for improved operation of gas-operated equipment such as a gas turbine, or may, alternatively, be employed as an add-on subsystem for combustion exhaust clean-up. Additionally, added particulates may include a sorbent for effecting sorption of other contaminants such as sulfur. Various other particulates for contaminant removal may also be introduced into the system as exemplified by alkali-gettering agents.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD); Chandran, Ravi (Ellicott City, MD)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Comparative results of the combustion of lignin briquettes and black coal  

SciTech Connect

A new type of biofuel - hydrolytic lignin briquettes - was tested as compared with ordinary SS coal from the Kuznetsk Basin in fuel-bed firing in a Universal-6 boiler. It was found that the (total) efficiency of the boiler with the firing of lignin briquettes was 38% higher than that with the use of black coal. Carbon loss in the combustion of briquettes was 1%, whereas it was 48.2% in the combustion of black coal. The emission of harmful gas pollutants into the environment in the combustion of briquettes was lower than that in the combustion of coal by a factor of 4.5.

V.G. Lurii [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

The potential for clean energy production using oxy-fuel combustion and integrated pollutant removal  

SciTech Connect

Effective remediation of flue gas produced by an oxy-fuel coal combustion process has been proven at bench scale in the course of cooperative research between USDOE’s Albany Research Center (ARC) and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation. All combustion gas pollutants were captured, including CO2 which was compressed to a liquefied state suitable for sequestration. Current laboratory-scale research and the future of combined oxy-fuel/IPR systems are discussed.

Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Weber, Thomas (Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, Schiller Park, IL 60176).; Summers, Cathy A.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

US National Technical Meeting of the Combustion Institute  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the authors for supersonic combustion modeling. The Eule- rian and deterministic nature of this method ensures easy applicability in complex flows like supersonic combustors. Dispersion errors due to numerical density function (PDF) methodol- ogy, where the joint-PDF of the gas phase thermochemical composition

Raman, Venkat

339

UCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu August 2014 PERSONNEL Graduate Student: Andres Colorado, pressure, exhaust gas recirculation and heat losses on the emissions of nitrogen oxides. � Compare, unburned hydrocarbons, soot particles and volatile organic compounds (VOC); moreover the addition

Detwiler, Russell

340

Evaluation of industrial combustion control systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated O/sub 2/ and CO monitoring systems used for combustion controls to provide reliable data on their performance, operating range and accuracy. The study concentrated on three in-situ O/sub 2/ and two in-situ CO monitoring systems which are applicable to furnace and boiler controls. The project provides technical information for cost/benefit analysis of combustion control systems and to help expedite implementation of combustion control technology by industry. The evaluation of the stack gas monitoring systems was carried out for ranges of furnace operating parameters such as fuel to air mixture ratio, burner firing rate, heat extraction rate, fuel type, combustion air preheat temperature, and cyclic operating conditions, which are based on information gathered from typical operational practices of representative industrial furnaces and boilers. The experiments were performed in the NBS experimental furnace under both natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil fired conditions. An on-line gas sampling/analysis system was used as a reference system for comparative evaluation of the stack gas monitors. The system is set up to determine the level of CO, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, NO/NO/sub x/ and total hydrocarbons in the stack gases.

Presser, C.; Semerjian, H.G.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Combustion powered linear actuator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

342

US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The ACEC focuses on advanced engine and aftertreatment technology for three major combustion strategies: (1) Low-Temperature Combustion, (2) Dilute Gasoline combustion, and (3) Clean Diesel Combustion.

343

Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion Processes in a DI Diesel Engine Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion...

344

US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

for three major combustion strategies: (1) Low-Temperature Combustion, (2) Dilute Gasoline combustion, and (3) Clean Diesel Combustion. acecroadmapjune2013.pdf More Documents...

345

Rembolsos de Impestos Federales para Vehículos de Combustible Alternativo  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rembolsos de Impestos Federales para Rembolsos de Impestos Federales para Vehíclulos de Combustibles Alternativos ¡Rembolsos de Impuestos Federales de hasta $4000! Vehíclulo de Combustibles Alternativo Vehículos de combustible alternativo (AFV) que califican que fueron comprados ó puestos en servicio entre Enero 1, 2005 y Diciembre 31, 2010 podrían ser elegibles para un rembolso de impuesto federal de hasta $4,000. Vehículos Combustible Alternativo (VCA) Certificados para Rembolsos de Impuestos Federales Modelo y Marca de Vehículo Combustible Cantidad del Reembolso Honda Honda Civic GX 2005-11 Honda Civic GX CNG $4,000 Fuentes: American Honda Motor Company, Inc - Automóviles de Combustible Alternativos Elegibles (IRS, 5 de octubre del 2010) Vehículos Honda Certificados para funcionar con Gas Natural Comprimido

346

NETL: Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-up Project No.: DE-FE0009702 Washington University in St. Louis is developing a unique pressurized system to capture carbon from coal-fired power plants that incorporates a fuel-staged combustion approach. By staging the combustion, the temperature and heat transfer can be controlled. The potential benefits of the process are: higher efficiency, reduced process gas volume, increased radiative heat transfer, reduced oxygen demands, reduced capital equipment costs, increased CO2 purity entering the carbon compression and purification unit, and reduced auxiliary power demands. These benefits are expected to yield a lower cost of electricity than alternative approaches to pressurized oxy-combustion.

347

Nonequilibrium hydrogen combustion in one- and two-phase supersonic flow  

SciTech Connect

A time-splitting method for the numerical simulation of stiff nonequilibrium combustion problem was developed. The algorithm has been applied to simulate the shock-induced combustion and to investigate a supersonic one-and two-phase flowfield. The results are physically reasonable and demonstrate that the presence of particles has a dramatic effect on the nozzle flowfield and the thrust. Supersonic combustion usually happens in high speed flying aerodynamic problems, such as supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engine for hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. Particularly for the scramjet engine, due to short residence time in the combustion chamber, it still contains incomplete combustion fuel as it enters the nozzle. For solid propellant rocket motors, the exhaust stream contains particles of aluminum oxide. In these two-phase nozzle flows, transfer of momentum and heat between gas particles often result in a decrease of nozzle efficiency.

Chang, H.T.; Hourng, L.W. [National Central Univ., Chung Li (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chien, L.C. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Physics

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

boost. * H 2 enrichment extends lean limit, improves C p C v ratio, lowers cylinder heat loss, assists cold start, lowers combustion irreversibility. IC Engine Work Reformer...

349

Ethanol diesel dual fuel clean combustion with FPGA enabled control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sophisticated engine controls have progressively become vital enablers for implementing clean and efficient combustion. The low temperature combustion in diesel engines is a viable combustion mode that offers ultra-low nitrogen oxides and dry soot emissions, yet only feasible under tightly controlled operating conditions. In this work, the dual fuel application of ethanol and diesel is studied for clean and efficient combustion. A set of real-time controllers has been configured to control the common-rail pressure and injection events, in concert with the use of two fuels in a high compression ratio diesel engine. An improved control algorithm has been implemented into the field programmable gate array devices to promptly execute the injection commands of the port and direct injection events. Such reliable and prompt control of fuel injection has been identified as critical to safely enable simultaneously low nitrogen oxides and soot combustion, especially when excessive or inadequate rate of exhaust gas recirculation is imminent. High load clean combustion was achieved with the improved control system.

Xiaoye Han; Jimi Tjong; Graham T. Reader; Ming Zheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Coal combustion by-products: State regulatory overview  

SciTech Connect

Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) are generated from the combustion of coal for energy production. Approximately 82 million tons of CCBs are produced each year by electric utilities. (1991 Coal Combustion By-Product Production and Use, American Coal Ash Association, 1992.) There are several common types of CCBs produced by coal combustion--fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, flue gas desulfurization material (FGD) and fluidized bed combustion byproducts (FBC). Some CCBs, such as fly ash, have pozzolanic properties and may have cementitious properties, both of which are advantageous for engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) in ASTM C-618 has created two classifications of useful and quality coal ash, Class F ash and Class C ash. Each class of coal ash has different pozzolanic and cementitious characteristics. Coal ash can be utilized in many manufacturing, mining, agricultural, engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. This is a review by state of regulations concerning coal combustion by-products.

Jagiella, D. [Howard and Howard Attorneys, Peoria, IL (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

A comprehensive kinetics model for CO oxidation during char combustion  

SciTech Connect

The most important parameter in representing energy feedback to a particle during char combustion concerns the oxidation of CO to CO/sub 2/. If substantial oxidation of CO occurs near a particle, then the greater heat of combustion for the complete oxidation of carbon to CO/sub 2/ (94.1 kcal/mole vs. 26.4 kcal/mole for oxidation to CO) is available for energy feedback mechanisms. ''Energy feedback'' is here defined as any situation in which an individual particle receives a significant fraction of its heat of combustion directly, through the localized oxidation of emitted combustible species, i.e. CO. Conversely, if the oxidation of CO does not occur near a particle, then energy feedback will occur only indirectly, through heating of the bulk gas. The primary reaction product at the particle surface during char combustion is generally considered to be CO, and the location of the subsequent CO oxidation zone plays a very important role in determining the particle temperature. Ayling and Smith performed experimental and modeling work which indicates that CO oxidation is not of major importance under the conditions they investigated, although they noted the need for improved accuracy in measuring char reactivities, as well as for better modeling of the gas phase CO oxidation kinetics. The modeling work presented in this paper attempts to develop an improved understanding of the boundary layer oxidation of CO through the use of a comprehensive set of kinetic expressions.

Haussmann, G.; Kruger, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work The combustion (gas) turbines being installed in many of today's natural-gas-fueled power plants are complex machines, but they basically involve three main sections: The compressor, which draws air into the engine, pressurizes it, and feeds it to the combustion chamber at speeds of hundreds of miles per hour. The combustion system, typically made up of a ring of fuel injectors that inject a steady stream of fuel into combustion chambers where it mixes with the air. The mixture is burned at temperatures of more than 2000 degrees F. The combustion produces a high temperature, high pressure gas stream that enters and expands through the turbine section. The turbine is an intricate array of alternate stationary and

353

Method for the operation of internal combustion engines. [gasification reactor for reforming gasoline  

SciTech Connect

This is a method for the operation of internal combustion engines which is designed to decontaminate the exhaust gases. The method includes: feeding a gasification air stream into a gasification reactor; feeding fuel into the same gasification reactor; combining the fuel with the gasification air into a homogeneous fuel-air mixture in the gasification reactor; and converting the fuel-air mixture by partial combustion into a soot -free reformed gas. Then, the reformed gas is fed from the gasification reactor to a mixer where the reformed gas is mixed with combustion air and the reformed gas-air mixture is fed to the internal combustion engine for further combustion with the result that there is intensive decontamination of the exhaust gases which thereby reduces air pollution. The reformed gas temperature is adjusted low for maximum engine output, and is adjusted higher for lower engine temperatures in order to obtain a reformed gas which is richer in hydrogen and thereby produce exhaust gases which are lower in harmful substances. In reference to the exhaust gases in an internal combustion engine, this method achieves the highest possible degree of decontamination, not only of the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons , but also of the nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases. Using this method, the internal combustion engine can be operated not only with high-test, no-knock gasoline, but also with cheap, lead-free low octane, straight-run gasoline which is low in aromatics and olefins, which normally do not have no-knock properties, and the internal combustion engine can be operated with the lowest possible fuel consumption. The gasification reactor operates through chemical reaction in the presence of a catalyst. Optionally, this method may include a return of part of the reformed gas to the input of the gasification reactor.

Muhlberg, E.

1980-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

354

Test results of a catalytic combustor for a gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A catalytically assisted low \\{NOx\\} combustor has been developed which has the advantage of catalyst durability. Combustion characteristics of catalysts at high pressure were investigated using a bench scale reactor and an improved catalyst was selected. A combustor for multi-can type gas turbine of 10 MW class was designed and tested at high-pressure conditions using liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel. This combustor is composed of a burner system and a premixed combustion zone in a ceramic type liner. The burner system consists of catalytic combustor segments and premixing nozzles. Catalyst bed temperature is controlled under 1000°C, premixed gas is injected from the premixing nozzles to catalytic combustion gas and lean premixed combustion is carried out in the premixed combustion zone. As a result of the combustion tests, \\{NOx\\} emission was lower than 5 ppm converted at 16% O2 at a combustor outlet temperature of 1350°C and a combustor inlet pressure of 1.33 MPa.

Y Ozawa; T Fujii; Y Tochihara; T Kanazawa; K Sagimori

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Sandia National Laboratories: Diesel Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diesel Combustion Caterpillar, Sandia CRADA Opens Door to Multiple Research Projects On April 17, 2013, in Capabilities, Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Materials...

356

Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on boiler combustion efficiency provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule establishes requirements for emissions from, and design and operation of, municipal waste combustion units. "Municipal waste" means all materials and substances discarded from residential...

358

ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are produced, generally, when insufficient oxygen or other factors result in incomplete combustion of organic matter (e.g., in engines and incinerators, when biomass burns in...

359

Numerical Modeling of HCCI Combustion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Numerical Modeling of HCCI Combustion Salvador M. Aceves, Daniel L. Flowers, J. Ray Smith, Joel Martinez-Frias, Francisco Espinosa-Loza, Tim Ross, Bruce Buchholz, Nick...

360

Space shuttle based microgravity smoldering combustion experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

zone, and smolder heat of combustion (energy per unit massand Q is the smolder heat of combustion. The mass fluxes ofdata. The smolder heat of combustion is not well determined

Walther, David C; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Urban, David L

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Combustion Catalysts in Industry- An Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applications of combustion catalysts for coal are presented. Combustion efficiency and calculations are discussed, followed by an explanation of the theories of combustion catalysis and a review of three case histories....

Merrell, G. A.; Knight, R. S.

362

Self-tuning regulators for combustion oscillations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...interaction of acoustic waves and combustion processes. An abundant literature...numerical simulations of the combustion processes and coupled fluid dynamics...nonlinear analysis of controlled combustion processes. In Proc. 1999 IEEE Int...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

"Optimization of efficiency of internal combustion engines via using  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimization of efficiency of internal combustion engines via using Optimization of efficiency of internal combustion engines via using spinning gas and non-spectroscopic method of determining gas constituents through rotation ..--.. Inventors Nathaniel Fisch, Vasily Geyko An important use of the disclosed approach is the improvement efficiency of thermal cycles and as result efficiency of engines. Different cycles and different ways of compression of spinning gas may be used to maximize possible efficiency gain. In conventional internal combustion engines, gas spinning is either not used at all or used only with the purpose of increasing turbulence and better mixing. In the disclosed method, gas rotation is used for energy storage, hence it allows an improvement in thermal cycle efficiency. To achieve significant effect related to

364

Fuel Effects on a Low-Swirl Injector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions ofInjector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines D. Littlejohn and R.11. IC ENGINE AND GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SHORT TITLE: Fuel

Littlejohn, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Low-NOx Gas Turbine Injectors Utilizing Hydrogen-Rich Opportunity...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of opportunity fuels will avoid greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of natural gas and increase the diversity of fuel sources for U.S. industry. Introduction Gas turbines...

366

Effect of syngas composition on combustion and exhaust emission characteristics in a pilot-ignited dual-fuel engine operated in PREMIER combustion mode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate the performance and emissions of a pilot-ignited, supercharged, dual-fuel engine powered by different types of syngas at various equivalence ratios. It was found that if certain operating conditions were maintained, conventional engine combustion could be transformed into combustion with two-stage heat release. This mode of combustion has been investigated in previous studies with natural gas, and has been given the name \\{PREmixed\\} Mixture Ignition in the End-gas Region (PREMIER) combustion. PREMIER combustion begins as premixed flame propagation, and then, because of mixture autoignition in the end-gas region, ahead of the propagating flame front, a transition occurs, with a rapid increase in the heat release rate. It was determined that the mass of fuel burned during the second stage affected the rate of maximum pressure rise. As the fuel mass fraction burned during the second stage increased, the rate of maximum pressure rise also increased, with a gradual decrease in the delay between the first increase in the heat release rate following pilot fuel injection and the point when the transition to the second stage occurred. The H2 and CO2 content of syngas affected the engine performance and emissions. Increased H2 content led to higher combustion temperatures and efficiency, lower CO and HC emissions, but higher \\{NOx\\} emissions. Increased CO2 content influenced performance and emissions only when it reached a certain level. In the most recent studies, the mean combustion temperature, indicated thermal efficiency, and \\{NOx\\} emissions decreased only when the CO2 content of the syngas increased to 34%. PREMIER combustion did not have a major effect on engine cycle-to-cycle variation. The coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure (COVIMEP) was less than 4% for all types of fuel at various equivalence ratios, indicating that the combustion was within the stability range for engine operation.

Ulugbek Azimov; Eiji Tomita; Nobuyuki Kawahara; Yuji Harada

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Measurements of Laminar Flame Velocity for Components of Natural Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas in combustion engines and power generation systems. The main hydrocarbon included in natural gas, BP 20451, 1 Rue Grandville, 54001 Nancy, France 2 Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University performed by the heat flux method using a newly built flat flame adiabatic burner at atmospheric pressure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Prediction of Combustion Stability and Flashback in Turbines with High-Hydrogen Fuel - Georgia Institute of Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prediction of Combustion Stability Prediction of Combustion Stability and Flashback in Turbines with High- Hydrogen Fuel-Georgia Institute of Technology Background Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), in collaboration with Pennsylvania State University and gas turbine manufacturers, is conducting research to improve the state-of-the-art in understanding and modeling combustion instabilities, one of the most critical problems associated with burning high-hydrogen content (HHC) fuels in

369

VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine  

SciTech Connect

This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of the catalytic bed.

Tom Barton

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

370

Gas turbine topping combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

371

Fluid-bed combustion of solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

For over ten years combustion Power Company has been conducting experimental programs and developing fluid bed systems for agencies of the federal government and for private industry and institutions. Many of these activities have involved systems for the combustion of solid waste materials. Discussed here will be three categories of programs, development of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fired fluid beds, development of wood waste fired fluid beds, and industrial installations. Research and development work on wood wastes has led to the design and construction of two large industrial fluid bed combustors. In one of these, a fluid bed is used for the generation of steam with a fuel that was previously suited only for landfill. Rocks and inerts are continuously removed from this combustor using a patented system. The second FBC is designed to use a variety of fuels as the source of energy to dry hog fuel for use in a high performance power boiler. Here the FBC burns green hog fuel, log yard debris, fly ash (char) from the boiler, and dried wood fines to produce a hot gas system for the wood dryer. A significant advantage of the fluidized bed reactor over conventional incinerators is its ability to reduce noxious gas emission and, finally, the fluidized bed is unique in its ability to efficiently consume low quality fuels. The relatively high inerts and moisture content of solid wastes pose no serious problem and require no associated additional devices for their removal.

Vander Molen, R.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Combustion-thermoelectric tube  

SciTech Connect

In direct combustion-thermoelectric energy conversion, direct fuel injection and reciprocation of the air flowing in a solid matrix are combined with the solid conduction to allow for obtaining super-adiabatic temperatures at the hot junctions. While the solid conductivity is necessary, the relatively large thermal conductivity of the available high-temperature thermoelectric materials (e.g., Si-Ge alloys) results in a large conduction loss from the hot junctions and deteriorates the performance. Here a combustion-thermoelectric tube is introduced and analyzed. Radially averaged temperatures are used for the fluid and solid phases. A combination of external cooling of the cold junctions, and direct injection of the fuel, has been used to increase the energy conversion efficiency for low thermal conductivity, high-melting temperature thermoelectric materials. The parametric study (geometry, flow, stoichiometry, materials) shows that with the current high figure of merit, high temperature Si{sub 0.7}Ge{sub 0.3} properties, a conversion efficiency of about 11% is achievable. With lower thermal conductivities for these high-temperature materials, efficiencies about 25% appear possible. This places this energy conversion in line with the other high efficiency, direct electric power generation methods.

Park, C.W.; Kaviany, M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Ultrarich Filtration Combustion of Ethane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultrarich filtration combustion of ethane is studied in a porous medium composed of alumina spheres with the aim to achieve optimized conversion to hydrogen and syngas. ... Dhamrat, R. S.; Ellzey, J. L.Numerical and experimental study of the conversion of methane to hydrogen in a porous media reactor Combust. ...

Mario Toledo; Khriscia Utria; Alexei V. Saveliev

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

374

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

model. ?H c is the heat of combustion, and the ratio ?H c /?may have widely varying heats of combustion (CO vs. gaseous

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

376

Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

engine * Integration of proposed air path and HCCI combustion control strategies into ECU software * Prototype level 2 updates and proof of combustion concept for vehicle readiness...

377

Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

engine installed and vehicle available for application, emission and fuel economy optimization with advanced combustion modes. 4 Advanced combustion control strategy, capable of...

378

Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

379

Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Batteries Fuel Efficiency & Emissions Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Combustion Idle Reduction Emissions Waste Heat Recovery Lightweighting Parasitic Loss Reduction Lubricants...

380

Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary...

382

Gas-Fired Reciprocating Engines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The reciprocating, or piston-driven, engine is a widespread and well-known technology. Also called internal combustion engines, reciprocating engines require fuel, air, compression, and a combustion source to function. Depending on the ignition source, they generally fall into two categories: (1) spark-ignited engines, typically fueled by gasoline or natural gas, and (2) compression-ignited engines, typically fueled by diesel oil fuel.

383

Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect

For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

384

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Pre-Combustion CO2 Removal System … Demonstration Unit  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Post-Combustion CO Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture System for Existing Coal-fired Power Plant Project Review (DE-FE-0007580) Gökhan Alptekin, PhD Ambal Jayaraman, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD DOE/NETL CO 2 Capture Technology Meeting Meeting Pittsburgh, PA July 8, 2013 TDA R e s e a r c h Project Summary * The objective is to develop a post-combustion capture process for coal-fired power plants and demonstrate technical feasibility (at bench-scale) and economic viability of the new concept * A mesoporous carbon adsorbent is used to selectively remove CO 2 from the flue gas, regenerating under very mild conditions Budget Period 1 * Sorbent Optimization/scale-up and Laboratory Evaluations * Process Design and System Analysis Budget Period 2 * Long-term Sorbent Cycling * Design of a Breadboard Prototype Test Unit

386

CFD model for the simulation of chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A chemical looping combustion (CLC) system uses a metal oxide solid carrier to combust a source of fuel in isolation from the source of oxygen which produces an exhaust gas of primarily carbon dioxide and water. In this work, a full three-dimensional model of a chemical looping combustion system was developed to simulate the particle–fluid hydrodynamics, thermal characteristics, and reaction efficiency of the CLC system using coal particles as a fuel source. Multiple heterogeneous and homogenous reactions are considered in the CLC model including the oxidation and reduction reactions of the metal oxide carrier and gasification reactions. Within each coal particle, the temperature-dependent devolatilization, moisture release, and particle swelling effects are included. Modeling results showing fluidization regimes, circulation rate, reactor efficiencies, and temperature profiles are presented to demonstrate the utility of the model.

James M. Parker

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle Testing Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Internal Combustion Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle Testing Activities James Francfort Idaho National Laboratory 2 Paper #2006-01-0433 Presentation Outline Background and goal APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - design and operations Fuel dispensing and prototype dispenser Hydrogen (H2) and HCNG (compressed natural gas) internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle testing WWW Information 3 Paper #2006-01-0433 Background Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program These activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the AVTA testing partner Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) 4 Paper #2006-01-0433 AVTA Goal Provide benchmark data for technology modeling, research and development programs, and help fleet managers and

388

Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Apparatus and Method for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview The removal of CO2 from power plants is challenging because existing methods to separate CO2 from the gas mixture requires a significant fraction of the power plant output. Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel technology that utilizes a metal oxide oxygen carrier to transport oxygen to the fuel thereby avoiding direct contact between fuel and air. The use of CLC has the advantages of reducing the energy penalty while

389

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Planning for Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Energy use in buildings represents the single largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Federal sector. Buildings can contribute to Scope 1 emissions from direct stationary combustion...

390

The Gas Reactor Makes a Comeback  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...while the operators of a gas reactor can leave the...ofhis high 699 temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR...from the highly pressured turbine drive system might get...would produce combustible gas-es, creating the potential...too much to complete the remaining contracts. So General...

ELIOT MARSHALL

1984-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

391

Premixed-gas flames Paul D. Ronney  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Premixed-gas flames Paul D. Ronney Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 USA ronney@usc.edu Keywords: Microgravity; premixed-gas; cool flames; turbulence. Reference: Ronney, P. D., "Premixed-Gas Flames," in: Microgravity Combustion

392

Combustion of viscous hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for utilizing viscous hydrocarbons as combustible pre-atomized fuels, comprising: (A) forming a hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion using an effective amount of a surfactant package comprising at least one water-soluble surfactant, the hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion (1) comprising a hydrocarbon characterized by API gravity of about 20/sup 0/ API or less, viscosity of about 1000 centipoise or greater at 212/sup 0/F., a paraffin content of about 50% by weight or less and, an aromatic content of about 15% by weight or greater, and (2) having a hydrocarbon water ratio from about 60:40 to about 90:10 by volume; and (B) burning the resultant hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion.

Hayes, M.E.; Hrebenar, K.R.; Murphy, P.L.; Futch, L.E. Jr.; Deal, J.F. III; Bolden, P.L. Jr.

1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

393

Combustion of viscous hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for utilizing viscous hydrocarbons as combustible fuels comprising: (A) forming a hydrocarbosol using a surfactant package in a proportion of about 1:100 to about 1:20,000 by weight based on hydrocarbon, (1) the surfactant package comprising (a) at least one water-soluble surfactant, an effective amount of which surfactant promotes emulsification of a hydrocarbon with API gravity of about 20/sup 0//sup o/ API or less; and (b) at least one water-soluble bioemulsifier, being a microboally-derived substance which predominantly resides at hydrocarbon/water interfaces to substantially surround hydrocarbon droplets in hydrocarbon-in-water emulsions; (2) the hydrocarbosol (a) comprising a hydrocarbon characterized by an API gravity of about 20/sup 0//sup o/ API or less; (b) having a hydrocarbon:water ratio of about 70:30 by volume; and (B) burning the resultant hydrocarbosol.

Hayes, M.E.; Hrebenar, K.R.; Murphy, P.L.; Futch, L.E. Jr.; Deal, J.F. III

1986-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

Chemical-looping combustion -- Efficient conversion of chemical energy in fuels into work  

SciTech Connect

In thermal power plants, a large amount of the useful energy in the fuel is destroyed during the combustion process. This paper presents theoretical thermodynamic studies of a new system to increase the energy conversion efficiency of chemical energy in fuels into work. The system includes a gas turbine system with chemical-looping combustion where a metal oxide is used as an oxygen carrier. Instead of conventional combustion, the oxidation of the fuel is carried out in a two-step reaction. The first reaction step is an exothermic oxidation of a metal with air and the second reaction step an endothermic oxidation of the fuel with the metal oxide from the first step. The low grade heat in the exhaust gas is used to drive the endothermic reaction. This two-step reaction has proven to be one way to increase the energy utilization compared to conventional combustion. Results for a gas turbine reheat cycle with methane as a fuel and NiO as an oxygen carrier show that the gain in net power efficiency for the chemical-looping combustion system is as high as 5 percentage points compared to a similar conventional gas turbine system. An exergy analysis of the reactions shows that less irreversibilities are generated with chemical looping combustion than with conventional combustion. Another advantage with chemical-looping combustion is that the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} is separated from the other exhaust gases without decreasing the overall-system thermal efficiency. This is an important feature since future regulations of CO{sub 2} emission are likely to be strict. Today, most of the suggested CO{sub 2} separation methods are considered to reduce the thermal efficiency at least 5--10 percentage points and to require expensive equipment.

Anheden, M.; Naesholm, A.S.; Svedberg, G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Applied low temperature combustion to the Navistar 6.4L V8 engine with 0.2g NOx/bhp-hr operation attained at the rated 16.5 BMEP

396

Modeling of Combustion Processes in Internal Combustion Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Improving internal combustion engines (ICE) and increasing the quality of operation are linked with the necessity of maximally increasing the degree of compression. For ICE with spark ignition (otto cycle), th...

V. A. Vinokurov; V. A. Kaminskii; V. A. Frost…

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Intermittency as a precursor to self Unsteady combustion in a confined, compressible flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, gas turbine engines generation, as well as rocket engines used for space exploration and defense on the that describes the onset of combustion instability as a lock hydrodynamics and the acoustic field. The model burners which are used for cooking and heating, gas turbine engines used for propulsion and power

Shyamasundar, R.K.

398

Computational Fluid Dynamics Evaluation of Good Combustion Performance in Waste Incinerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a legal requirement to minimize pollution in municipal solid waste incinerators. The conditions for in-furnace destruction of pollutants are stated as: good combustion is achieved when 2-second gas residence time at 850 C of potential pollutants. The residence time needs to be carefully determined based on the gas inlet position

Kim, Yong Jung

399

Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

Hiroshi Gotoda; Yuta Shinoda; Masaki Kobayashi; Yuta Okuno; Shigeru Tachibana

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

400

Experimental research on combustion characteristics of pulverized-coal fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

A new, efficient clean coal combustion method, pulverized-coal fluidized bed combustion (PC-FBC) is proposed firstly in this paper. Research has been conducted on the combustion characteristics of PC-FBC on an experimental rig with 0.3 MW heat input. PC-FBC uses pulverized-coal as its fuel and integrates the characters of the pulverized coal boiler and the fluidized bed boiler. In 850 to 880 C fluidized-bed combustion zone (FBCZ) of PC-FBC, the pulverized coal can be ignited stably and releases 57.7 to 84.2% volatile substance. Seventy (70%) of the released volatile and a part of carbon are burnt in FBCZ. The highest and average gas temperatures are 1100 C and 950 to 1000 C respectively in PC-FBC. A combustion efficiency of 98 to 99% can be reached.

Cheng, H. [North China Electric Power Univ., Baoding, Hebei (China); Jin, B.; Xu, Y. [Southeast Univ., Nanjing, Jiangshu (China)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics  

SciTech Connect

A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Some recent advances in droplet combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reviews the theoretical and experimental advances in droplet combustion since the 1982 Second International Colloquium on Drops and Bubbles. Specific topics discussed include multicomponent droplet combustion and microexplosion convection droplet combustion the combustion of slurries propellants and hazardous wastes soot formation in droplet burning and several miscellaneous subjects. Areas of further research are suggested.

C. K. Law

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Experimental Investigation of Fuel-Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Mode in a Multi-Cylinder, Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was performed to provide the combustion and emission characteristics resulting from fuel-reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode utilizing dual-fuel approach in a light-duty, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline before intake valve opening (IVO) and early-cycle, direct injection of diesel fuel was used as the charge preparation and fuel blending strategy. In order to achieve the desired auto-ignition quality through the stratification of the fuel-air equivalence ratio ( ), blends of commercially available gasoline and diesel fuel were used. Engine experiments were performed at an engine speed of 2300rpm and an engine load of 4.3bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). It was found that significant reduction in both nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was realized successfully through the RCCI combustion mode even without applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed. The low combustion gas temperature during the expansion and exhaust processes seemed to be the dominant source of high CO emissions in the RCCI combustion mode. The high HC emissions during the RCCI combustion mode could be due to the increased combustion quenching layer thickness as well as the -stratification at the periphery of the combustion chamber. The slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the RCCI combustion mode was observed than the other combustion modes, such as the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode, and single-fuel, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The parametric study of the RCCI combustion mode revealed that the combustion phasing and/or the peak cylinder pressure rise rate of the RCCI combustion mode could be controlled by several physical parameters premixed ratio (rp), intake swirl intensity, and start of injection (SOI) timing of directly injected fuel unlike other low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies.

Cho, Kukwon [ORNL] [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

The Emissions of PAHs and Heavy Metals from Co-Combustion of Petrochemical Sludge with Coal in CFB Incinerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn) emission characteristics in flue gas from co-combustion of petrochemical sludge and coal were investigated in a pilot-scale ci...

Ge Zhu; Changsui Zhao; Huichao Chen…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Formation of Liquid Methane-Water Mixture during Combustion of a Laminar Methane Jet at Supercritical Pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and sometimes exceeding 10 MPa. For example, current aviation gas turbines operate at conditions approaching 4 MPa, and the pressures in the liquid propellant rocket engine combustion chambers may reach up to 20

Gülder, �mer L.

406

Chemical-looping combustion of syngas by means of spray-dried NiO oxygen carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of syngas has a potential...2 and CO) appeared to be approximately the sum of the reaction rate of each fuel gas. The experimental results indicated that the spray-dried NiO oxyg...

Jeom-In Baek; Chong Kul Ryu; Tae Hyoung Eom…

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

An Integrated Approach for Oxy-fuel Combustion with CO2 Capture and Compression  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vent Stream Vent Stream (out) CO 2 Product Stream (out) Flue Gas Stream (in) CO 2 CCU Skid Government of Canada Gouvernement du Canada An Integrated Approach for Oxy An Integrated Approach for Oxy- -fuel Combustion with CO fuel Combustion with CO 2 2 Capture and Capture and Compression Compression Kourosh Zanganeh, Ahmed Shafeen, and Carlos Salvador Zero-Emission Technologies Group, Clean Electric Power Generation CANMET CO 2 R&D Consortium CANMET Energy Technology Centre - Ottawa The capture and storage or reuse of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the combustion of fossil fuels as well as industrial off gases represents an opportunity to achieve a significant reduction in anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Fossil fuel combustion is expected to dominate the energy structure in at least the next few decades.

408

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-cooled gas turbine Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State University Collection: Engineering 27 Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using Summary:...

409

E-Print Network 3.0 - application systems gas Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Institute of Technology Collection: Engineering 39 Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using Summary:...

410

Chapter 8 - Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although natural gas is a nonrenewable resource, it is included for discussion because its sudden growth from fracking will impact the development and use of renewable fuels. Firms who are engaged in the development of processes that employ synthesis gas as an intermediate have concluded that the synthesis gas is more economically obtainable by steam reforming of natural gas than by gasification of waste cellulose. In some instances, firms have largely abandoned the effort to produce a renewable fuel as such, and in others firms are developing hybrid processes that employ natural gas in combination with a fermentation system. Moreover, natural gas itself is an attractive fuel for internal combustion engines since it can be the least expensive option on a cost per joule basis. It is also aided by its high octane number of 130.

Arthur M. Brownstein

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

fuel efficiency over the FTP city drive cycle by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine. Develop & design an advanced combustion system that synergistically meets...

412

Chemical Kinetics of Combustion Processes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Combustion Processes Hai Wang B. Yang, J. Camacho, S. Lieb, S. Memarzadeh, S.-K. Gao and S. Koumlis University of Southern California 2010 CEFRC Conference Benzene + O( 3 P) ...

413

Plum Combustion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Plum Combustion Plum Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Name Plum Combustion Place Atlanta, Georgia Product Combustion technology, which reduces NOx-emissions. Coordinates 33.748315°, -84.391109° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.748315,"lon":-84.391109,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

414

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Combustion converter design evolution  

SciTech Connect

The early thermionic converters used hemispherical one-inch-diameter hot shells. They were extensively tested in a natural gas, high-temperature furnace. A converter was life tested for 12,500 hours at emitter temperatures above 1700 K. Two-inch diameter converters with both hemispherical and torispherical shapes were developed next. These converters have been tested in both natural gas-, oil-, and coal-oil slurry-fired environments. A prototype converter for cogeneration applications was also developed using this emitter configuration. A six converter module of cogeneration converters has been constructed.

Goodale, D.B.; Miskolczy, G.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O'Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

2003-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

417

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Table 2.2 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002;" 2 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural","LPG and",,"Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

419

Table 2.3 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002;" 3 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," "," "," ",," "," ",," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","Row" "Characteristic(a)","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

420

Effect of n-Heptane Premixing on Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of n-Heptane Premixing on Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Engine ... Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea ... In a different analysis, Simescu et al.17 explained, using their diesel-fueled partial HCCI engines, that soot formed during the premixed combustion period before DI fuel injection is not oxidized completely and emitted as exhaust gas. ...

Dae Sik Kim; Chang Sik Lee

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF CARBON MONOXIDE IMPROVES COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY OF CO BOILERS Russell L. Branham ana James J. Prichard Ashland Oil Company Catlettsburg, KY ABSTRACT The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO... measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency. INTRODUCTION In the petroleum industry, the efficient operation of a fluid-cata1ytic-cracking unit, produces gases rich in carbon monoxide...

Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Computational fluid dynamics combustion modelling--A comparison of secondary air system designs  

SciTech Connect

A newly developed computer simulation of the combustion process in a kraft recovery furnace uses computational fluid dynamics to model the processes of mass, momentum, and energy transport. This paper describes two models and a presentation of the flow fields obtained. The results predict a dramatic improvement in combustion behavior using a refined secondary air system with reduction in particulate carryover, enhanced operating temperatures, more uniform gas flow, and less carbon monoxide at the furnace exit.

Jones, A.K. (ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Chapman, P.J. (ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Windsor, CT (United States))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

"Table A11. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel" 1. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel" " Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment," 1991 " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" " "," "," "," ","Natural"," "," ","Coke"," "," " " ","Total","Residual","Distillate","Gas(c)"," ","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","RSE" " ","(trillion","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","(trillion","Row"

424

Spent Isopropanol Solution as Possible Liquid Fuel for Moving Bed Reactor in Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spent Isopropanol Solution as Possible Liquid Fuel for Moving Bed Reactor in Chemical Looping Combustion ... The fuels, such as natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass combusted by CLC are frequently studied by various researchers(17, 26-31) and compared in the previous studies;(20, 33) however, only few studies on liquid fuel combustion are reported. ... Ishida, M.; Takeshita, K.; Susuki, K.; Ohba, T..Application of Fe2O3-Al2O3 composite particles as solid looping material of the chemical loop combustor Energy Fuels 2005, 19, 2514– 2518 ...

Ping-Chin Chiu; Young Ku; Hsuan-Chih Wu; Yu-Lin Kuo; Yao-Hsuan Tseng

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

425

Thermodynamic Investigation of Carbon Deposition and Sulfur Evolution in Chemical Looping Combustion with Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Investigation of Carbon Deposition and Sulfur Evolution in Chemical Looping Combustion with Syngas ... Chemical looping combustion (CLC) with syngas, a synthesized gas mixture of CO, H2, CO2, H2O(g), N2, and H2S, was investigated using thermodynamic simulation, with focus on carbon deposition and sulfur evolution in CLC. ... Abad, A.; Garcia-Labiano, F.; de Diego, L. F.; Gayan, P.; Adanez, J. Reduction kinetics of Cu-,Ni-, and Fe-based oxygen carriers using syngas (CO+H2) for chemical-looping combustion Energy Fuels 2007 21 4 1854 1858 ...

Baowen Wang; Rong Yan; Dong Ho Lee; David Tee Liang; Ying Zheng; Haibo Zhao; Chuguang Zheng

2008-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

426

Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

Ho, Min-Da.

1993-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

427

Coal combustion products 2007 production and use report  

SciTech Connect

The American Coal Ash Association's 2007 Annual Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are derived from data from more than 170 power plants. The amount of CCPs used was 40.55%, a decrease of 2.88% from 2006, attributed to reduced fuel burn and a decrease in demand in the building industry. Figures are given for the production of fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, bottom ash, FBC ash and boiler slag. The article summarises results of the survey. 1 ref., 1 tab.

NONE

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Wittgenstein's combustion chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...further: the exhaust gases from the turbine may be used to drive an additional turbine mounted on the main...small residual thrust remaining). The shaft is...the momentum of a gas. One article17...WittgensteinWittgenstein-a life 1988 1DuckworthLondonxi...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Combustion processes (B3)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance 1° C or 1 K is termed the specific heat capacity of that substance (c). For water c is 4.19 kJ/(kg °C) or kJ/(kg K). Imagine 1 kg of gas...

P. W. Kett

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems  

SciTech Connect

Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This work focused on two classes of oxygen carrier, one that merely undergoes a change in oxidation state, such as Fe3O4/Fe2O3 and one that is converted from its higher to its lower oxidation state by the release of oxygen on heating, i.e., CuO/Cu2O. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification (3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratory-scale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability (4) the identification of mechanisms and rates for the copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide system using thermogravimetric analysis.

Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Co-combustion feasibility study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the technical and economic feasibility of co-combusting municipal sewage sludge produced by the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 with paper mill sludge produced by the Cottrell Paper Company, Encore Paper Company, International Paper Company, Mohawk Paper Mills, and TAGSONS Papers at the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1`s secondary wastewater treatment plant and recovering any available energy products. The co-combustion facility would consist of sludge and wood chip storage and conveying systems, belt filter presses, screw presses, fluidized-bed incinerators, venturi scrubbers and tray cooling systems, ash dewatering facilities, heat recovery steam generators, gas-fired steam superheaters, and a back-pressure steam turbine system. Clean waste wood chips would be used as an auxiliary fuel in the fluidized-bed incinerators. It is recommended that the ash produced by the proposed facility be beneficially used, potentially as a raw material in the manufacture of cement and/or as an interim barrier layer in landfills.

Handcock, D.J. [Clough, Harbour and Associates, Albany, NY (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Chapter 6 - Coal Combustion in Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The performance of two different burner designs, single central orifice (SCO) and single annular orifice (SAO), was examined under oxycoal conditions in a downfired oxycoal pilot plant. Based on detailed in-flame measurements combined with CFD predictions, the main parameters influencing the stability of an O 2 / CO 2 pulverised coal swirl flame were identified and investigated. The oxycoal flame was experimentally stabilised at the burner quarl by: increasing O 2 concentration above 34 vol% without changes to the air-firing burner design and by modification of the burner geometry thus changing the aerodynamics. The modification of the burner allowed a decrease of the O 2 concentrations to 23 vol% for the SCO burner and to less than 19 vol% for the SAO burner. Comprehensive experimental data for axial and tangential velocity, flue gas temperature, oxygen and NO concentrations, and particle temperature for stable oxyfiring at 21 vol% O 2 is presented. Scaling up to 100 kW of the SAO burner was carried out and experimental tests confirmed flame stabilisation at the burner quarl under oxycoal conditions with 21 vol% O 2 in the O 2 / CO 2 mixture. Furthermore, the burner was successfully tested in both oxycoal conditions using RFG (wet recycling) and in conventional air combustion. The tests demonstrated the ability of the burner to form a stable swirl flame and to provide good burnout in all three combustion modes, namely in air, in O 2 / CO 2 , and in O 2 / RFG .

Dobrin D. Toporov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect

One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).

Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Particulate emissions from combustion of biomass in conventional combustion (air) and oxy-combustion conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oxy-fuel combustion is a viable technology for new and existing coal-fired power plants, as it facilitates carbon capture and thereby, can reduce carbon dioxide emissions.… (more)

Ruscio, Amanda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Changing Prospects for Natural Gas in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...doubling ofoil life to 4000 hours...application of gas-fired combined-cycle...gas-fueled combustion turbine combined with...generation from the gas turbine part ofa facility...38, 39) and life cycle cost advantages...Steam-injected gas turbines represent a...

W. M. BURNET; T S. D. BAN

1989-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

436

Review and recent developments of laser ignition for internal combustion engines applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance of future ignition system for internal combustion engines should be reliable and efficient to enhance and sustain combustion stability, since ignition not only initiates combustion but also influences subsequent combustion. Lean burn systems have been regarded as an advanced combustion approach that could improve thermal efficiency while reducing exhaust gas emissions. However, current engines cannot be operated sufficiently lean due to ignition related problems such as the sluggish flame initiation and propagation along with potential misfiring. A high exhaust gas recirculation engines also has similar potential for emissions improvement, but could also experience similar ignition problems, particularly at idle operation. Similarly, ignition is an important design factor in gas turbine and rocket combustor. Recently, non-conventional ignition techniques such as laser-induced ignition methods have become an attractive field of research in order to replace the conventional spark ignition systems. The fundamentals of conventional laser-induced spark ignition have been previously reviewed. Therefore, the objective of this article is to review progress on the use of such innovative techniques of laser-induced ignition including laser-induced cavity ignition and laser-induced multi-point ignition. In addition, emphasis is given to recent work to explore the feasibility of this interesting technology for practical applications concerning internal combustion engines.

Mohamed H. Morsy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Topping PCFB combustion plant with supercritical steam pressure  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted to develop a new type of coal fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a second generation or topping pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion (topping PCFB) plant, offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 46 percent (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized coal fired plants with scrubbers. The topping PCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustor (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer fuel gas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2,300 F and higher. After completing pilot plant tests of a carbonizer, a PCFB, and a gas turbine topping combustor, all being developed for this new plant, the authors calculated a higher heating value efficiency of 46.2 percent for the plant. In that analysis, the plant operated with a conventional 2,400 psig steam cycle with 1,000 F superheat and reheat steam and a 2.5 inch mercury condenser back pressure. This paper identifies the efficiency gains that this plant will achieve by using supercritical pressure steam conditions.

Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); White, J. [Parsons Power Group Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

An analytical investigation of primary zone combustion temperatures and NOx production for turbulent jet flames using low-BTU fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the production of low-BTU gas from a coal gasification reactor for combustion before introduction to the topping cycle gas turbine (Minchener, 1990). Most low-BTU gases are heavily loaded with sulfur-containing compounds which appear to be a major problem... with direct combustion of coal and low-BTU gases (Caraway, 1995). Environmental standards require the removal of these compounds which can be expensive and hazardous when removed from coal in post-combustion processes. However, gasification of coal results...

Carney, Christopher Mark

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

439

Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Clean, in-cylinder combustion...

440

Low-Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion | Department of...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

in Low Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion Systems Mixture Formation in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "natural-draft gas combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Control | netl.doe.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Combustion Oxy-Combustion Chemical Looping Combustion Program Plan Project Portfolio Project Information POSTED January 27, 2015 - Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA-...

442

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SUBMICRON PARTICULATES FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. , Trace Element Chemistry of Coal during Combustion andthe Emissions from Coal-Fired Plants. Prog. Energy Combust.Combustion of Pulverized Coal, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Pennucci, J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency...

444

Experimental Investigation of the Combustion of Bituminous Coal in Air and O2/CO2 Mixtures: 1. Particle Imaging of the Combustion of Coal and Char  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental Investigation of the Combustion of Bituminous Coal in Air and O2/CO2 Mixtures: 1. Particle Imaging of the Combustion of Coal and Char ... (1, 2) Extensive studies in both pilot-plant and lab scales have pointed out the pronounced influence of gas composition (air versus O2/CO2) on coal combustion performance. ... By augmenting a companion paper on ash formation in air versus O2/CO2,(17) this study aims to provide further evidence to promote the understanding on the role of CO2 on the combustion of bituminous coal and hence shed new lights into the retrofitting of existing power generation plants with oxy-firing technology. ...

Lian Zhang; Eleanor Binner; Luguang Chen; Yu Qiao; Chun-Zhu Li; Sankar Bhattacharya; Yoshihiko Ninomiya

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

445

Gas Cylinder Storage and Handling Serious accidents can result from the misuse, abuse, or mishandling of compressed gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Cylinder Storage and Handling Serious accidents can result from the misuse, abuse, or mishandling of compressed gas cylinders. Safe procedures for their use are as follows: · All compressed gas combustible material. · Keep cylinders out of the direct sun and do not allow them to be overheated. · Gas

de Lijser, Peter

446

The Effects of Ethanol/Gasoline Blends on Advanced Combustion Strategies in Internal Combustion Engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation presents the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline on advanced combustion strategies in internal combustion engines. The unique chemical, physical and thermal properties… (more)

Fatouraie, Mohammad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Experimental investigation of wood combustion in a fixed bed with hot air  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Upward combustion is a new combustion concept with ignition by hot primary air. • Upward combustion has three stages: short drying, rapid devolatilization and char combustion. • Variation of fuel moisture and inert content have little influence on the combustion. • Experimental comparison between conventional and upward combustion is presented. - Abstract: Waste combustion on a grate with energy recovery is an important pillar of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the Netherlands. In MSW incinerators fresh waste stacked on a grate enters the combustion chamber, heats up by radiation from the flame above the layer and ignition occurs. Typically, the reaction zone starts at the top of the waste layer and propagates downwards, producing heat for drying and devolatilization of the fresh waste below it until the ignition front reaches the grate. The control of this process is mainly based on empiricism. MSW is a highly inhomogeneous fuel with continuous fluctuating moisture content, heating value and chemical composition. The resulting process fluctuations may cause process control difficulties, fouling and corrosion issues, extra maintenance, and unplanned stops. In the new concept the fuel layer is ignited by means of preheated air (T > 220 °C) from below without any external ignition source. As a result a combustion front will be formed close to the grate and will propagate upwards. That is why this approach is denoted by upward combustion. Experimental research has been carried out in a batch reactor with height of 4.55 m, an inner diameter of 200 mm and a fuel layer height up to 1 m. Due to a high quality two-layer insulation adiabatic conditions can be assumed. The primary air can be preheated up to 350 °C, and the secondary air is distributed via nozzles above the waste layer. During the experiments, temperatures along the height of the reactor, gas composition and total weight decrease are continuously monitored. The influence of the primary air speed, fuel moisture and inert content on the combustion characteristics (ignition rate, combustion rate, ignition front speed and temperature of the reaction zone) is evaluated. The upward combustion concept decouples the drying, devolatilization and burnout phase. In this way the moisture and inert content of the waste have almost no influence on the combustion process. In this paper an experimental comparison between conventional and reversed combustion is presented.

Markovic, Miladin, E-mail: m.markovic@utwente.nl; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

450

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

451

Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report  

SciTech Connect

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Technology for Retrofitting Coal-Fired Boilers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost effeCtive Cost effeCtive oxy-Combustion teChnology for retrofitting Coal-fireD boilers Background Electric power generation from fossil fuels represents one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, not just in the United States, but throughout the world. Various technologies and concepts are being investigated as means to mitigate carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The concept of pulverized coal (PC) oxy-combustion is one potential economical solution, whereby coal is combusted in an enriched oxygen environment using pure oxygen diluted with recycled flue gas. In this manner, the flue gas is composed primarily of CO 2 and H 2 O, so that a concentrated stream of CO 2 is produced by simply condensing the water in the exhaust stream. An advantage of

453

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Hybrid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004787 Gas Technology Institute is partnering with PoroGen Corporation and Aker Process Systems in a three-year effort to develop a hybrid technology for CO2 capture from flue gases based on a combination of solvent absorption and hollow fiber membrane technologies. The technology could also apply to removal of numerous other gas pollutants such as NOx and SOx, separation of CO2 from hydrogen in refinery streams, and separation of CO2 from natural gas (natural gas sweetening). The technology increases interfacial gas/liquid area by a factor of ten over conventional packed or tray columns, thus increasing mass transfer. The selectivity is controlled by the chemical affinity of CO2 with a hindered amine. The process results in lower steam regeneration energy, and the CO2 is generated at pressure, reducing compression costs. The project includes bench-scale testing on a 25 kWe-equivalent slipstream at Midwest Generation's Joliet Power Station.

454

Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

gas properties (higher ) from composition change - Lower temperature results in reduced heat loss and further improvements to the working gas properties (higher ) - EGR reduces...

455

Alternative fuels for industrial gas turbines (AFTUR)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmentally friendly, gas turbine driven co-generation plants can be located close to energy consumption sites, which can produce their own fuel such as waste process gas or biomass derived fuels. Since gas turbines are available in a large power range, they are well suited for this application. Current gas turbine systems that are capable of burning such fuels are normally developed for a single specific fuel (such as natural gas or domestic fuel oil) and use conventional diffusion flame technology with relatively high levels of \\{NOx\\} and partially unburned species emissions. Recently, great progress has been made in the clean combustion of natural gas and other fossil fuels through the use of dry low emission technologies based on lean premixed combustion, particularly with respect of \\{NOx\\} emissions. The objective of the AFTUR project is to extend this capability to a wider range of potentially commercial fuel types, including those of lower calorific value produced by gasification of biomass (LHV gas in line with the European Union targets) and hydrogen enriched fuels. The paper reports preliminary progress in the selection and characterisation of potential, liquid and gas, alternative fuels for industrial gas turbines. The combustion and emission characteristics of the selected fuels will be assessed, in the later phases of the project, both in laboratory and industrial combustion chambers.

Iskender Gökalp; Etienne Lebas

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

HCCI Combustion: Analysis and Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work. On analysis, we have developed two powerful tools: a single zone model and a multi-zone model. The single zone model has proven very successful in predicting start of combustion and providing reasonable estimates for peak cylinder pressure, indicated efficiency and NOX emissions. This model is being applied to develop detailed engine performance maps and control strategies, and to analyze the problem of engine startability. The multi-zone model is capable of very accurate predictions of the combustion process, including HC and CO emissions. The multi-zone model h as applicability to the optimization of combustion chamber geometry and operating conditions to achieve controlled combustion at high efficiency and low emissions. On experimental work, we have done a thorough evaluation of operating conditions in a 4-cylinder Volkswagen TDI engine. The engine has been operated over a wide range of conditions by adjusting the intake temperature and the fuel flow rate. Satisfactory operation has been obtained over a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder-to-cylinder variations play an important role in limiting maximum power, and should be controlled to achieve satisfactory performance.

Salvador M. Aceves; Daniel L. Flowers; Joel Martinez-Frias; J. Ray Smith; Robert Dibble; Michael Au; James Girard

2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

457

Quantification of OH and HO2 radicals during the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons by Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in optical access engines to image OH radical concentrations...present in gasoline and diesel fuels. The goal...gas mixture (in general, the ambient atmosphere...compression-ignition engines—understanding the...low-temperature diesel engine combustion . Combust...

Marion Blocquet; Coralie Schoemaecker; Damien Amedro; Olivier Herbinet; Frédérique Battin-Leclerc; Christa Fittschen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Microsoft Word - 40913_SWPC_GT Reheat Insitu Combustion_Factsheet_Rev01_00-00-03.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0913_SWPC_GT REHEAT INSITU COMBUSTION_FACTSHEET_REV01_00-00-03.DOC 0913_SWPC_GT REHEAT INSITU COMBUSTION_FACTSHEET_REV01_00-00-03.DOC Gas Turbine Reheat Using In-Situ Combustion FACT SHEET I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS A. Prime Participant: Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. B. Sub-Award Participant: Texas A&M University II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objectives: The overall objective of this project is to develop a novel gas reheat concept for gas turbine engines, in which fuel is injected directly into the turbine through one or more stages of vanes and/or blades. The key research goals involved in concept selection are to understand the combustion kinetics (burnout, emissions), blade performance and effects on turbine power output and efficiency. The concept is being evaluated for maximum energy efficiency (full reheat) and as a means to achieve power boost

459

Study of ash deposition during coal combustion under oxyfuel conditions  

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This paper presents a comparative study on ash deposition of two selected coals, Russian coal and lignite, under oxyfuel (O2/CO2) and air combustion conditions. The comparison is based on experimental results and subsequent evaluation of the data and observed trends. Deposited as well as remaining filter ash (fine ash) samples were subjected to XRD and ICP analyses in order to study the chemical composition and mineral transformations undergone in the ash under the combustion conditions. The experimental results show higher deposition propensities under oxyfuel conditions; the possible reasons for this are investigated by analyzing the parameters affecting the ash deposition phenomena. Particle size seems to be larger for the Russian coal oxy-fired ash, leading to increased impaction on the deposition surfaces. The chemical and mineralogical compositions do not seem to differ significantly between air and oxyfuel conditions. The differences in the physical properties of the flue gas between air combustion and oxyfuel combustion, e.g. density, viscosity, molar heat capacity, lead to changes in the flow field (velocities, particle trajectory and temperature) that together with the ash particle size shift seem to play a role in the observed ash deposition phenomena.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Glazer; C. Bertrand; M. Cieplik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Cavity resonances in engine combustion chambers and some applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cavity resonances in engine cylinders are caused by combustion events such as the rapid rate of pressure rise that occurs during compression ignition in diesels or from knock in gasoline engines. These resonances generally occur at frequencies greater than 4 to 5 kHz where the engine structure is not an efficient acoustical radiator. However when they occur at lower frequencies such as in engines with a large bore or in indirect injection diesels they can be important in the noise generation process. They are also important for knock detection in gasoline engines. Current knock detection systems are tuned to the frequency band of the lowest cavity resonance in the combustion chamber. It is shown in the paper t