National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for natural gase lpg

  1. System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, R.L.; Sinclair, B.W.

    1984-07-31

    A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a wellhead; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas; storing the separated LPG in a storage tank with a vapor space therein; and recirculating a portion of the LPG vapors in the storage tank with the natural gas exiting the wellhead to enhance recovery of LPG. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for refrigerating the compressed gases therefrom; at least one product separator downstream of the refrigerator unit for receiving refrigerated and compressed gases discharged from the refrigerator unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form; and a storage tank for receiving and storing the separated LPG therein, the storage tank having a vapor space therein connected upstream of the gas compressor through a pressure regulator allowing recirculation of some LPG vapors with the natural gases through said system.

  2. System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, R.L.; Snow, N.J. Jr.

    1983-12-06

    A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a well-head; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; and separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for cooling the compressed gases therefrom; and a product separator downstream of the refrigeration unit for receiving cooled and compressed gases discharged from the refrigeration unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form.

  3. Legal nature of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liddell, G.

    1986-08-01

    The commercial exploitation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in New Zealand has occurred without a particular and comprehensive concern for any legal implications. The paper in Part I examines definitional questions, assesses in Part II the ability of courts and quasi-courts to evaluate risks associated with the product, examines in Part III the utility of common law remedies for injuries or associated with or arising from LPG, analyzes in Part IV the statutory regulation of LPG, concentrating particularly on the Dangerous Goods (Class 2 - Gases) Regulations 1980, discusses in Part V recent planning case-law concerning LPG development, and concludes that some reform is necessary to produce a more-coherent and precise regulatory regime that takes into account both the needs of developers and those affected by the development of LPG.

  4. Pressurized release of liquefied fuel gases (LNG and LPG). Topical report, May 1993-February 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atallah, S.; Janardhan, A.

    1996-02-01

    This report is an important contribution to the behavior of pressurized liquefied gases when accidentally released into the atmosphere. LNG vehicle fueling stations and LPG storage facilities operate at elevated pressures. Accidental releases could result in rainout and the formation of an aerosol in the vapor cloud. These factors must be considered when estimating the extent of the hazard zone of the vapor cloud using a heavier-than-air gas dispersion model such as DEGADIS (or its Windows equivalent DEGATEC). The DOS program PREL has been incorporated in the Windows program LFGRISK.

  5. Cryogenic recovery of LPG from natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.L.; McClintock, W.A.

    1984-02-07

    In accordance with the present invention a natural gas stream predominating in methane and containing significant amounts of C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons is cooled in a plurality of cooling stages to a temperature sufficient to produce at least one liquid phase portion predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. Then at least one liquid phase portion predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons is separated from the main gas stream during the course of the cooling. The thus separated liquid phase portion or portions predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/ and C/sub 5/ and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons is further separated into a vapor phase portion predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/, and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons and at least one liquid phase portion predominating in C/sub 5/ and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, at least one second separation step, at least one portion of the at least one vapor phase portion predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/, hydrocarbons is recovered as at least one product of the process and at least one portion of the remaining portion of the at least one phase portion predominating in C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons is recycled to and recombined with the main gas stream as a liquid phase.

  6. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ... 2:52:09 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...

  7. Converting LPG caverns to natural-gas storage permits fast response to market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crossley, N.G.

    1996-02-19

    Deregulation of Canada`s natural-gas industry in the late 1980s led to a very competitive North American natural-gas storage market. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., began looking for method for developing cost-effective storage while at the same time responding to new market-development opportunities and incentives. Conversion of existing LPG-storage salt caverns to natural-gas storage is one method of providing new storage. To supply SaskEnergy Inc., the province`s local distribution company, and Saskatchewan customers, TransGas previously had developed solution-mined salt storage caverns from start to finish. Two Regina North case histories illustrate TransGas` experiences with conversion of LPG salt caverns to gas storage. This paper provides the testing procedures for the various caverns, cross-sectional diagrams of each cavern, and outlines for cavern conversion. It also lists storage capacities of these caverns.

  8. LPG in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, O.

    1986-01-01

    The use of LPG for domestic consumption in Venezuela began in late 1929 when LPG was imported in lots of 500 cylinders. These cylinders were then returned to the U.S. for refilling. Total consumption at that time was some 40M/sup 3/ (250 barrels) per year and by 1937 had grown to some 540M/sup 3/ (3,400 barrels) per year. Local production of LPG from gas began in the mid thirties with a small cooling plant in the Mene Grande Field in the Lake Maracaibo area, the first field to produce oil in Venezuela (1914). This plant produced gasoline for a refinery and some of the first LPG used in Venezuela for domestic consumption. The capacity of this plant was insufficient to satisfy the growing demand for LPG which was supplied from refinery production until the development of the natural gas processing industry. At the present time, Venezuelan refineries are net consumers of LPG.

  9. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, B. )

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the best-case'' results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author's experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  10. Evaluation of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for natural gas and LPG vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, B.

    1992-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aftermarket fuel delivery systems for vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Most of the CNG and LPG vehicles studied were converted to the alternative fuel after purchase. There are wide variations in the quality of the conversion hardware and the installation. This leads to questions about the overall quality of the converted vehicles, in terms of emissions, safety, and performance. There is a considerable body of emissions data for converted light-duty vehicles, and a smaller amount for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. However, very few of these data involve real world conditions, and there is growing concern about in-use emissions. This report also attempts to assess factors that could allow in-use emissions to vary from the ``best-case`` results normally reported. The study also addresses issues of fuel supply, fuel composition, performance, safety, and warranty waivers. The report is based on an extensive literature and product survey and on the author`s experience with fuel delivery systems for light-duty vehicles.

  11. Jet fuel from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Interim report 15 Aug 75-31 Jan 77 (final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallet, D.W.; Wu, K.F.

    1980-04-01

    The thermodynamic properties of several liquefied petroleum gases (with particular emphasis on propane) are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the widely used propane data by Stearns and George are too inconsistent and too inaccurate to be used for mass flow calculations of propane and propane mixtures through safety valves of rail tank cars. Accordingly, the thermodynamic properties of propane, propylene, n-butane, and a mixture of 65% (by mole) propane, 25% propylene, and 10% n-butane are recalculated using equations of states proposed by Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWR) and by Starling. It is shown that Starling's equation results in thermodynamic properties which are more consistent and compare better with measured values than the BWR equation. Thermodynamic data for the four liquefied petroleum gases discussed above are calculated and presented in tabular form. In addition, predictions of pure propane mass flow rates (based upon isentropic), homogeneous equilibrium flow) are given. The influence of the thermodynamic data upon the predicted mass flow rates is demonstrated.

  13. Risks of LNG and LPG. [Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fay, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Since the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) as fuels is likely to increase and will certainly persist for some time to come, assessment of the safety of LNG/LPG systems will continue to draw attention and is quite likely to force continuing review of operating and design standards for LNG/LPG facilities. Scientific investigations to date appear to have identified the major hazards. Except for the dispersive behavior of vapor clouds - a not-insignificant factor in risk evaluation - the consequences of spills are well circumscribed by current analyses. The physically significant effects accompanying nonexplosive combustion of spilled material are fairly well documented; yet, potentially substantial uncertainties remain. Catastrophic spills of 10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ on land or water are possible, given the current size of storage vessels. Almost all experimental spills have used less than 10 m/sup 3/ of liquid. There is thus some uncertainty regarding the accuracy and validity of extrapolation of current empirical information and physical models to spills of catastrophic size. The less-likely but still-possible explosive or fireball combustion modes are not well understood in respect to their inception. The troubling experience with such violent combustion of similar combustible vapors suggests that this possibility will need further definition. Extant LNG and LPG risk analyses illustrate the difficulties of substantiating the numerous event probabilities and the determination of all event sequences that can lead to hazardous consequences. Their disparate results show that significant improvements are needed. Most importantly, a detailed critique of past efforts and a determination of an exhaustive set of criteria for evaluating the adequacy of a risk analysis should precede any further attempts to improve on existing studies. 44 references, 1 table.

  14. Catalytic conversion of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

  15. Spread of natural gas lines in Arkansas hurts LPG marketers anew

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This article discusses the marketing of LP gas in Arkansas. The reaction of natural gas marketers in the state is described. Federal subsidation, through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, of utilities in Arkansas is described.

  16. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  17. LPG in Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors review LPG in Mexico. They attempt to project numbers to the year 2000 using a supply/demand comparison.

  18. Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997 513 491 515 539 557 534 541 579 574 585 558 573 1998 578 536 591 581 517 456 486 486 471 477 457 468 1999 466 438 489 495 499 510 547 557 544 555 541 579 2000 587 539 605 587 615 570 653 629 591 627 609 611 2001 658 591 677 690 718 694 692 679

  19. Make aromatics from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P.C. ); Pujado, P.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

  20. U.S. LPG pipeline begins deliveries to Pemex terminal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenhamer, K.C.

    1997-08-11

    LPG deliveries began this spring to the new Mendez LPG receiving terminal near Juarez, State of Chihuahua, Mexico. Supplying the terminal is the 265-mile, 8-in. Rio Grande Pipeline that includes a reconditioned 217-mile, 8-in. former refined-products pipeline from near Odessa, Texas, and a new 48-mile, 8-in. line beginning in Hudspeth County and crossing the US-Mexico border near San Elizario, Texas. Capacity of the pipeline is 24,000 b/d. The LPG supplied to Mexico is a blend of approximately 85% propane and 15% butane. Before construction and operation of the pipeline, PGPB blended the propane-butane mix at a truck dock during loading. Demand for LPG in northern Mexico is strong. Less than 5% of the homes in Juarez have natural gas, making LPG the predominant energy source for cooking and heating in a city of more than 1 million. LPG also is widely used as a motor fuel.

  1. LPG emergency response training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dix, R.B.; Newton, B.

    1995-12-31

    ROVER (Roll Over Vehicle for Emergency Response) is a specially designed and constructed unit built to allow emergency response personnel and LPG industry employees to get ``up close and personal`` with the type of equipment used for the highway transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This trailer was constructed to simulate an MC 331 LPG trailer. It has all the valves, piping and emergency fittings found on highway tankers. What makes this unit different is that it rolls over and opens up to allow program attendees to climb inside the trailer and see it in a way they have never seen one before. The half-day training session is composed of a classroom portion during which attendees will participate in a discussion of hazardous material safety, cargo tank identification and construction. The specific properties of LPG, and the correct procedures for dealing with an LPG emergency. Attendees will then move outside to ROVER, where they will participate in a walkaround inspection of the rolled over unit. All fittings and piping will be representative of both modern and older equipment. Participants will also be able to climb inside the unit through a specially constructed hatch to view cutaway valves and interior construction. While the possibility of an LPG emergency remains remote, ROVER represents Amoco`s continuing commitment to community, education, and safety.

  2. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,813 3,440 3,591 7,549 6,265 8,763 9,872 18,776 13,652 9,971 1990's 9,981 - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  3. Impact of foreign LPG operations on domestic LPG markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.

    1981-01-01

    During 1978 the federal government passed legislation allowing a major increase in natural gas prices and offering hope that some portion of the supply will be allowed to reach free market levels. The mechanism for decontrol of crude oil was also put into effect. This favorable government action and higher world oil prices have led to a major resurgence in domestic exploration. In addition to the supply effects, there appears to have been a substantial demand response to the latest round of world oil price increases. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these events have affected domestic LPG markets and pricing.

  4. Next generation processes for NGL/LPG recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, R.N.; Hudson, H.M.; Wilkinson, J.D.; Cuellar, K.T.

    1998-12-31

    Up to now, Ortloff`s Gas Subcooled Process (GSP) and OverHead Recycle Process (OHR) have been the state-of-the-art for efficient NGL/LPG recovery from natural gas, particularly for those gases containing significant concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Ortloff has recently developed new NGL recovery processes that advance the start-of-the-art by offering higher recovery levels, improved efficiency, and even better CO{sub 2} tolerance. The simplicity of the new process designs and the significantly lower gas compression requirements of the new processes reduce the investment and operating costs for gas processing plants. For gas streams containing significant amounts of carbon dioxide, the CO{sub 2} removal equipment upstream of the NGL recovery plant can be smaller or eliminated entirely, reducing both the investment cost and the operating cost for gas processing companies. In addition, the new liquids extraction processes can be designed to efficiently recover or reject ethane, allowing the gas processor to respond quickly to changing market conditions. This next generation of NGL/LPG recovery processes is now being applied to natural gas processing here in the US and abroad. Two of the new plants currently under construction provide practical examples of the benefits of the new processes.

  5. Custody transfer measurements for LNG/LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.A.

    1984-04-01

    The buying, selling, and transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) requires the use of sophisticated measurement systems for accurate determination of the total quantity and energy content for custody transfer reporting and safe cargo handling of these cryogenic products. These systems must meet strict safety standards for operation in a hazardous environment and, at the same time, provide accurate, reliable information for the storage, transfer, and data reporting required for both operational and financial accounting purposes. A brief discussion of LNG and LPG characteristics and detailed description of these special measurement techniques are given in this presentation.

  6. LPG fuel shutoff system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, T.; Miyata, K.

    1988-01-26

    An LPG fuel shutoff system for use with a vehicle having an LPG fuel engine and having a solenoid valve to supply and shut off LPG fuel is described including: a relay having a relay contact which is closed when an electric current is fed to a coil of the relay; a pressure switch having a first position and a second position and adapted to be in the first position when engine oil pressure rises above a predetermined level; and an oil lamp adapted to light when the engine oil pressure is below the predetermined level, and wherein a solenoid coil of the solenoid valve is connected at one side to a battery through an ignition switch and a fuel switch. The solenoid coil also is connected, at another side of the solenoid coil, in series to the relay contact and the pressure switch in the second position respectively, the coil of the relay is connected to the solenoid valve side of the ignition switch through a starting switch, the oil lamp is connected between the ignition switch and the pressure switch.

  7. Mounded LPG storage - Experience and developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, D.

    1988-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is stored after production, and for distribution and use, in pressure vessels which vary in size from a few kilogrammes to many thousands of tons. The types of LPG under consideration are commercial butane, commercial propane, or mixtures of the two gases in varying proportions. Mounded storage systems are becoming popular as an alternative to the better-known traditional systems. The most widely used and therefore best-known of the traditional systems are the above-ground pressure-vessel designs. These more commonly comprise factory-made cylinders which are installed horizontally, being supported on saddles at each end of the vessel. When such vessels are installed in an LPG terminal, depot, or filling plant, they are required in multiple units to facilitate the storage of more than one grade of product and to enable regular maintenance and inspection to be carried out. Today's safety regulations require such installations to be divided into sub-groups of six tanks, with all the tanks located at a safe distance from one another, and from other facilities in the immediate area. These safety distances are being increased as a result of experience, which means terminals now require large areas of land.

  8. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  9. Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-12

    Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C{sub 4} and C{sub 5}.

  10. Latest techniques and equipment for the conversion of motor vehicles to LPG/petroleum use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, R.

    1980-01-01

    Liquified petroleum gases (LPG) has been used for transportation in Europe, the United States, Japan and to a much lesser extent in Australia for many years. In most cases, the vehicles have been powered by engines designed for petrol operation and subsequently converted to use LPG. The application of LPG as an automotive fuel in different countries depends heavily on the availability of the fuel and the tax policy of the government. The demand for dual fuel equipment is increasing. Some of the problems facing Australia to convert vehicles to LPG use emphasize the institutional and hardware obstacles. Before LPG can be considered to be a safe, viable alternative fuel to petrol, improvements will have to be made in safety standards, in reduced exhaust emissions, in increased fuel efficiency, and in the involvement of car manufacturers. (SAC)

  11. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.W.; Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.; Chilton, P.D.; Lawson, H.P.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  12. The SONATRACH jumbo LPG plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed Khodja, A.; Bennaceur, A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors aim is to give to the 17 TH world gas conference a general idea on SONATRACH LPG PLANT which is located in the ARZEW area. They develop this communication as follows: general presentation of LPG plant: During the communication, the author's will give the assistance all the information concerning the contractions the erection's date and the LPG PLANT process, start-up of the plant: In this chapter, the authors's will describe the start-up condition, the performance test result, the flexibility test result and the total mechanical achievement of the plant; operation by SONATRACH: After the success that obtained during the mechanical achievement and performance test, the contractor handed over the plant to SONATRACH.

  13. Industrial cooperation in the field of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefano, M.; Trollux, J.; Dune, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The years to come should confirm the availability of LPG worldwide and enable future users in developing countries to satisfy energy requirements which today are only partly covered, if at all. This paper is designed to point the benefits that these new LPG markets could derive from active cooperation with experienced companies operating in mature LPG markets.

  14. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E. )

    1988-10-01

    In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems found were due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. This article's recommendations concern minimizing cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  15. LPG storage vessel cracking experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantwell, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide were found. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. Recommendations are made to minimize cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

  16. Offshore refrigerated LPG loading/unloading terminal using a CALM buoy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonjour, E.L.; Simon, J.M.

    1985-03-01

    In existing Liquefied Petroleum Gases terminals, the transfer of liquefied gases to the tanker is performed via articulated loading arms or flexible hoses, working under quasistatic conditions. The tanker has to be firmly moored alongside a jetty or a process barge in a protected area (such as a harbour in most cases). This paper gives the main results of the development of an offshore refrigerated LPG (-48/sup 0/C) loading/unloading system, using a CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses working under dynamic conditions. The aim of this new concept is to replace the standard harbour structure for loading/unloading refrigerated LPG and to provide a considerable reduction in investments and a greater flexibility regarding the terminal location. The main components of that terminal have been designed so as to enable the loading of a 75 000 cubic meter LPG carrier in 15 hours. The results of static and dynamic low temperature tests on a LPG swivel joint for CALM buoy and LPG floating hoses show that such a SPM terminal is now a realistic solution.

  17. Utilization of LPG for vehicles in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, M.; Makino, M.; Tokunoh, M.

    1988-01-01

    LPG demand for vehicles amounts to 1.8 MM tons annually, equivalent to about 11% of the total LPG consumption in Japan. The feature which dominates the demand of LPG as a vehicle fuel in Japan is the high penetration of LPG powered vehicles into taxi fleets. This has been made possible following the rationalization in the taxi business in the early 1960s. Today, three quarters of LPG vehicles, numbering some 235,000 while representing only about 1% of the total number of vehicles, account for nearly 93% of all taxicabs.

  18. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel

  19. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016"

  20. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  1. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016"

  2. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  3. An analysis of weep holes as a product detection device for underground compensated LPG storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarica, C.; Demir, H.M.; Brill, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    Weep holes have been used widely to detect the presence of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) in brine for underground compensated storage systems. When the brine level drops below the weep hole, LPG product enters the brine production system causing an increase in both tubing head pressure and flow rate. To prevent cavern overfill, a cavern shutdown is initiated upon detection of LPG in the surface brine system by pressure or flow instruments at the tubing head. In this study, we have investigated the multiphase flow characteristics of weep hole LPG detection systems to correctly estimate the operating limits. A simple and easy to use model has been developed to predict the tubing head pressure and flow rate increases. The model can be used to implement safer and more efficient operation procedures for underground compensated LPG storage systems. The model predictions for a typical field case are presented. An analysis of weep holes as product detection devices for LPG storage reservoirs has been carried out. It was found that the increases in pressure and flow rates at the tubing head change as a function of injection flow rate of the product. Therefore, a thorough consideration of cavern operating parameters is necessary to evaluate the use constant pressure and flow rate values to initiate emergency shut down of the cavern.

  4. Dehydrocyclodimerization, converting LPG to aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.A.; Hilder, G.K.

    1984-03-01

    British Petroleum (BP) recognized the potential need for ways of exploiting feedstocks with low opportunity cost and commenced a research program at its Sunbury Research Center to discover and develop a catalyst for the conversion of LPG to a liquid product. The successful outcome of this research program is the Cyclar /SUP SM/ process, a joint development of UOP Process Division and British Petroleum. The Cyclar process offers a single-step conversion of LPG to an aromatic product which has a highvalue, is easily transported and useful both to fuel and petrochemical applications. The LPG producer can invest in a single unit, avoiding the need to identify and develop markets for multiple C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ products. This catalytic process, which employs UOP Continuous Catalyst Regeneration (CCR) technology, can also be applied to refinery light ends to produce a high-quality gasoline. Aromatic and hydrogen yields from propane and butane feeds surpass those obtained from catalytic reforming of Light Arabian naphtha. This paper describes the principles of the Cyclar process and illustrates yields and economics for several interesting applications.

  5. Fire protection considerations for the design and operation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This standard addresses the design, operation, and maintenance of LPG storage facilities from the standpoint of prevention and control of releases, fire-protection design, and fire-control measures, as well as the history of LPG storage facility failure, facility design philosophy, operating and maintenance procedures, and various fire-protection and firefighting approaches and presentations. The storage facilities covered are LPG installations (storage vessels and associated loading/unloading/transfer systems) at marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, petrochemical plants, and tank farms.

  6. New LPG loss-control standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blomquist, D.L. )

    1988-12-01

    API'S (American Petroleum Institute) Committee on Liquified Hydrocarbon Gas and the Committee and Safety and Fire Protection have modified Standard 2510 and added a supplemental Standard 2510A, in response to bad LPG incidents. Requirements have been tightened, with a major objective to prevent LPG releases. Fire protection Standards for the design and operation of LPG facilities are specifically revised. Following important changes are specifically discussed: Versel design, site selection, spacing and impounding; foundations and supports; and piping requirements.

  7. Expansion fractionation capacity of the LPG-ULE plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morin, L.M.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Western Division of PDVSA has among other facilities a NGL Fractionation Complex located onshore in Ul'e. The complex consists of three plants, the first and second older plants, LPG-1 and LPG-2, which fractionate the NGL to produce propane, a butane mix and natural gasoline. The third plant, LPG-3, fractionates the butane mix from the LPG-1 and 2 plants to produce iso and normal butane. Several optimization projects already in progress will increase the NGL production to 12,200 b/d. For this reason it was decided to conduct a study of the existing fractionation facilities and utilities systems to determine their capacities. This evaluation revealed that some of the fractionation towers would have some limitations in the processing of the expected additional production. The study recommended an option to increase the capacity of the fractionation towers by lowering their operating pressure, in order to take advantage of relative volatility increase between the key components, which allows easier separation, as well as reducing the heat duty required. The completed study also determined that this option is more economically convenient than the replacement of the existing fractionation towers.

  8. LPG Electrical, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LPG Electrical, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: ANGWIN Electrical Address: 13833 Wellington Trace Rd. 4 Place: Wellington, Florida Zip: 33414 Sector: Services Product:...

  9. LPG dealers, manufacturers report diverse effects of recession and war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1991-01-01

    The author presents a survey of LPG marketers. The effects of the Persian Gulf War and U.S. recession on the LPG industry are discussed.

  10. End to deficit of LPG. [Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrich, V.

    1980-03-01

    In the Buenos Aires province of Argentina, Gas de Estado is constructing the future heart of the petrochemical complex, Bahia Blanca. The complex contains 2 absorption-refrigeration plants, a gas compressing plant, equipment maintenance shops and an important operations base for the Argentine truck gas pipelines. This will be the largest LPG plant in Latin America. The General Cerri plant, under construction, is located in an area of 40,000 sq m with new installations to extract ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The design optimizes the extraction of hydrocarbons from the natural gas and recovers 76% of the ethane. Selection of the process resulted from an investigation that compared the system with processes that use water cooling and absorption with refrigerated oil.

  11. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-07-15

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  12. Algeria LPG pipeline is build by Bechtel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, C.

    1984-08-01

    The construction of the 313 mile long, 24 in. LPG pipeline from Hassi R'Mel to Arzew, Algeria is described. The pipeline was designed to deliver 6 million tons of LPG annually using one pumping station. Eventually an additional pumping station will be added to raise the system capacity to 9 million tons annually.

  13. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  14. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  15. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  16. Overfilling of cavern blamed for LPG blasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    Three explosions and a fire Apr. 7 at an LPG salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Tex., were triggered when the cavern was overfilled, the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) has reported. This paper reports that a TRC investigation found that LPG escaped to the surface at the Brenham site through brine injection tubing after excessive fill from an LPG line forced the cavern's water level below the brine tubing's bottom. At the surface, LPG was released into a brine storage pit where it turned into a dense, explosive vapor. At 7:08 a.m., the vapor was ignited by an unknown source. The resulting blast killed three persons and injured 19 and brought operations at the site to a halt.

  17. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinor, J E

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  18. LPG odorization with an audit trail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astala, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    In this article I have tried to cover a very broad subject in a very limited time while only touching on a few of the ways you could odorize LPG and have an audit trail. I would recommend that if you are interested in this type of odorizing for LPG, you contact your odorant manufacturer and two or three odorant equipment manufacturers and talk to them about what you would like and get their recommendations. By talking to more then one manufacturer you may want to incorporate the ideals of two or three manufacturers into your odorant system to have a system that meets all your needs and requirements.

  19. New method developed for LPG offshore loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    An innovative concept for refrigerated LPG offshore loading has been developed by TOTAL and Enterprise D'Equipments Mecaniques at Hydrauliques. Known as CHAGAL, the system integrates with the catenary anchor leg mooring offshore loading system commonly used for crude oil. CHAGAL provides a suitable answer to short-term development schemes of LPG trade. It can be adapted for possible extrapolation to cryogenic temperatures of LNG and it opens a new way to the development of offshore liquefaction projects for which the offloading of production is still an unsolved key problem.

  20. New and existing gas wells promise bountiful LPG output in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Michigan remains the leading LP-gas producer in the Northeast quadrant of the U.S. This paper reports that boosted by a number of new natural gas wells and a couple of new gas processing plants, the state is firmly anchored in the butane/propane production business. Since 1981, more than 100 deep gas wells, most in excess of 8000 feet in depth, have been completed as indicated producers in the state. Many of these are yielding LPG-grade stock. So, combined with LPG-grade production from shallower geologic formations, the supply picture in this area looks promising for the rest of the country.

  1. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  2. Product transfer service chosen over LPG flaring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, J.; Powers, M.

    1994-07-01

    Seadrift Pipeline Corp. recently decommissioned its Ella Pipeline, an 108-mile, 8-in. line between the King Ranch and a Union Carbide plant at Seadrift, Texas. The pipeline company opted for the product transfer services of pipeline Dehydrators Inc. to evacuate the ethane-rich LPG mixture from the pipeline instead of flaring the LPG or displacing it with nitrogen at operating pressures into another pipeline. The product transfer system of Pipeline Dehydrators incorporates the use of highly specialized portable compressors, heat exchangers and interconnected piping. The product transfer process of evacuating a pipeline is an economically viable method that safely recovers a very high percentage of the product while maintaining product purity. Using positive-displacement compressors, PLD transferred the LPG from the idled 8-in. Ella line into an adjacent 12-in. ethane pipeline that remained in service at approximately 800 psig. Approximately 4.3 million lb of LPG (97% ethane, 2.7% methane and 0.3% propane) were transferred into the ethane pipeline, lowering the pressure on the Ella Pipeline from 800 psig to 65 psig.

  3. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  4. Alternative fuel information: Facts about CNG and LPG conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, K.

    1994-06-01

    As new environmental and energy related laws begin to take effect, increasing numbers of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) will be required in federal, state, municipal, and private fleets across the country. The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, along with several new state and local laws, will require fleet managers to either purchase original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles, which are produced by automakers, or convert existing vehicles to run on alternative fuels. Because there is a limited availability and selection of OEM vehicles, conversions are seen as a transition to the time when automakers will produce more AFVs for public sale. A converted vehicle is any vehicle that originally was designed to operate on gasoline, and has been altered to run on an alternative fuel such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or propane (liquefied petroleum gas -- LPG), the two most common types of fuel conversions. In the United States, more than 25,000 vehicles already have been converted to COG, and 300,000 have been converted to LPG.

  5. Alvord (3000-ft Strawn) LPG flood: design and performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, G.D.; Todd, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Mitchell Energy Corporation has implemented a LPG-dry gas miscible process in the Alvord (3000 ft Strawn) Unit in Wise County, Texas utilizing the DOE tertiary incentive program. The field had been waterflooded for 14 years and was producing near its economic limit at the time this project was started. This paper presents the results of the reservoir simulation study that was conducted to evaluate pattern configuration and operating alternatives so as to maximize LPG containment and oil recovery performance. Several recommendations resulting from this study were implemented for the project. Based on the model prediction, tertiary oil recovery is expected to be between 100,000 and 130,000 bbls, or about 7 percent of th oil originally in place in the Unit. An evaluation of the project performance to date is presented. In July of 1981 the injection of a 16% HPV slug of propane was completed. Natural gas is being used to drive the propane slug. A peak oil response of 222 BOPD was achieved in August of 1981 and production has since been declining. The observed performance of the flood indicates that the actual tertiary oil recovered will reach the predicted value, although the project life will be longer than expected. The results presented in this paper indicate that, without the DOE incentive program, the economics for this project would still be uncertain at this time.

  6. Risk analysis of an LPG facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daley, H.F.; Chapman, P.D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes methods used to conduct a safety review of an existing LPG loading, processing, and storage facility. An engineering team conducted a Hazard and Operability study of the plant to identify potential problems. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment was also made on the facility where the probability and consequences of worst case accidents were estimated. Stone and Webster recently completed an analysis of an LPG terminal to determine if there were any engineering, design, or operating deficiencies which could jeopardize the operability of the facility or make operation hazardous. The facility includes a dock for off-loading refrigerated propane and butane, transfer piping from the dock to storage, a heating system, pressurized storage, dehydration, product transfer and loading.

  7. Blast rips Texas LPG storage site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-13

    This paper reports that Seminole Pipeline Co. at presstime last week had planned to reopen its 775 mile liquefied petroleum gas pipeline in South Texas by Apr. 12 after a huge explosion devastated the area around a Seminole LPG storage salt dome near Brenham, Tex., forcing the pipeline shutdown. A large fire was still burning at the storage site at presstime last week. The blast - shortly after 7 a.m. Apr. 7 - occurred at a pipeline connecting the main Seminole line with the storage facility and caused shock waves felt 130 miles away. A 5 year old boy who lived in a trailer near Seminole's LPG storage dome was killed, and 20 persons were injured.

  8. Monitoring system tested during LPG tanker unloading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-14

    A specially developed computer-based hazardous-materials monitoring system has been successfully field tested. The test of the portable system occurred during the unloading of 45,000 metric tons of LPG from a 740-ft tanker at the petroleum dock of a plant along the Mississippi River. The function of this system is to detect, report, alarm, and record unacceptable concentrations of hazardous vapors during marine-transfer operations.

  9. The operation of LPG relief valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stannard, J.H. Jr

    1989-11-01

    As stipulated by NFPA 58, all LPG storage containers must be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices. These devices are sized to prevent rupture of a normally charged container when exposed to fire. This paper describes in detail the functioning of the spring-loaded relief valve. The author discusses how the venting of LPGs can produce unacceptable risks and how training is a necessary part of controlling such a situation.

  10. LPG fuel supply system. [Patent for automotive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, W.V.

    1982-09-07

    A fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine operated on gaseous fuels, for example, liquid petroleum gas (Lpg). The system includes a housing having a chamber for vaporizing liquid gas, including means for heating the vaporizing chamber. Also included in the housing is a mixing chamber for mixing the vaporized gas with incoming air for delivery to the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine through a standard carburetor. The fuel supply system includes means for mounting the system on the carburetor, including means for supporting an air filter circumjacent the mixing chamber.

  11. Current and future USA-world seaborne imports at LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bassa, G.

    1980-01-01

    An outline of the current and historical situation of the international LPG trade and comparison between the US and other countries covers methods of marine transportation, including fully refrigerated vessels, semirefrigerated vessels, pressure vessels, and LNG ships fitted for LPG; the temporary abundance of LPG; a comparison of the markets in Japan, Europe, South America, and the US to indicate the potential market in the future, e.g., the need in Japan for LPG as a basic fuel, main use in Europe as a feedstock and as domestic fuel, use as a basic fuel but mainly in the winter months inSouth America, and the volatile spot market in the US; and the conclusion that the capacity to produce LPG will keep pace with demand only as long as adequate prices are paid to offset production costs.

  12. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

  13. Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric

    2009-11-15

    Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

  14. LPG-recovery processes for baseload LNG plants examined

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, C.H.

    1997-11-24

    With demand on the rise, LPG produced from a baseload LNG plant becomes more attractive as a revenue-earning product similar to LNG. Efficient use of gas expanders in baseload LNG plants for LPG production therefore becomes more important. Several process variations for LPG recovery in baseload LNG plants are reviewed here. Exergy analysis (based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics) is applied to three cases to compare energy efficiency resulting from integration with the main liquefaction process. The paper discusses extraction in a baseload plant, extraction requirements, process recovery parameters, extraction process variations, and exergy analysis.

  15. Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

  16. LPG export growth will exceed demand by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1994-08-08

    LPG supplies for international trade will increase sharply through 2000 and begin to outstrip demand by 1997 or 1998. This outlook depends on several production projects proceeding as planned. Leading the way to increased volumes are projects in Algeria, Nigeria, and Australia, among others. Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, projected this trend earlier this year at an international LPG seminar near Houston. Representatives from LPG-supplying countries also presented information to support this view and subsequently supplied more specifics to OGJ in response to questions. This paper discusses this information. Trends in Africa, Australia, North America, and South America are forecast.

  17. FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

    1989-05-29

    Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

  18. Radiological health implications of lead-210 and polonium-210 accumulations in LPG refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summerlin, J. Jr.; Prichard, H.M.

    1985-04-01

    Radon-222, a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, is often a contaminant in natural gas. During fractionation at processing plants, Radon tends to be concentrated in the Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) product stream. Radon-222 decays into a number of radioactive metallic daughters which can plate out on the interior surfaces of plant machinery. The hazards associated with gamma-emitting short-lived radon daughters have been investigated previously. The present work reports an analysis of the hazards associated with the long-lived daughters; Pb-210, Bi-210, and Po-210. These nuclides do not emit appreciable penetrating radiation, and hence do not represent a hazard as long as they remain on the inside surfaces of equipment. However, when equipment that has had prolonged exposure to an LPG stream is disassembled for repair or routine maintenance, opportunities for exposure to radioactive materials can occur. A series of measurements made on an impeller taken from a pump in an LPG facility is reported. Alpha spectroscopy revealed the presence of Po-210, and further measurements showed that the amount on the impeller surface was well above the exempt quantity. Breathing zone measurements made in the course of cleaning the impeller showed that an inhalation exposure equivalent to breathing Po-210 at the Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) for 60 hours could be delivered in less than half an hour. It was concluded that maintenance and repair work on LPG and derivitive product stream equipment must be carried out with the realization that a potential radiological health problem exists.

  19. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), is part of that agency's study of residential LP-gas systems. Another study is currently underway by an NLPGA task force headed by Bob Reid of Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.). It may not be finished until the end of next year. Recently, the Propane Gas Association of Canada completed a study of odorant fade with the conclusion that much more study is needed on the subject. In addition to the cylinder surface problem, the CPSC study indicated that ambient temperatures might also affect the presence of odorant in product. This article reviews some of the results.

  20. Carbon adsorption system protects LPG storage sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gothenquist, C.A.; Rooker, K.M.

    1996-07-01

    Chevron U.S.A. Products Co. installed a carbon adsorption system to protect an LPG storage sphere at its refinery in Richmond, Calif. Vessel damage can result when amine contamination leads to emulsion formation and consequent amine carry-over, thus promoting wet-H{sub 2}S cracking. In Chevron`s No. 5 H{sub 2}S recovery plant, a mixture of butane and propane containing H{sub 2}S is contacted with diethanolamine (DEA) in a liquid-liquid absorber. The absorber is a countercurrent contactor with three packed beds. Because the sweetening system did not include a carbon adsorption unit for amine purification, contaminants were building up in the DEA. The contaminants comprised: treatment chemicals, hydrocarbons, foam inhibitors, and amine degradation products. The paper describes the solution to this problem.

  1. Accurate LPG analysis begins with sampling procedures, equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, C.M. )

    1990-11-05

    Proper equipment and procedures are essential for obtaining representative samples from an LPG stream. This paper discusses how sampling of light liquid hydrocarbons generally involves one of two methods: flow- proportional composite sampling by a mechanical device or physical transfer of hydrocarbon fluids from a flowing pipeline or other source into a suitable portable sample container. If sampling by proper techniques and equipment supports careful chromatographic analysis, full advantage of accurate mass measurement of LPG can be realized.

  2. River resort owners find LPG a power behind their success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a restaurant and resort which runs entirely on LPG. It has two generators converted to LPG that supply the power for the complex. Energy supplied from the propane is used in the kitchens, to drive the water pump and provide electricity for lighting and other power needs, and to heat the swimming pool. Far more importantly for the owners has been the fuel cost savings of at least 60%.

  3. World`s LPG supply picture will change by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1995-11-06

    Middle East LPG producers will continue to dominate world export markets in 1996. Led by Saudi Arabia, the Middle East will produce nearly 26 million metric tons of LPG in million metric tons of LPG in 1996, more than 54% of the world`s almost 48 million metric tons of export LPG. In 2000, however, with world exports of LPG expanding to 58.9 million metric tons, Middle East suppliers; share will have remained flat, making up 31.7 million metric tons, or 53.9%. Saudi Arabia`s contribution will exceed 15 million metric tons, reflecting essentially no growth since 1995. These and other patterns, from data compiled by Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, and published earlier this year, show other suppliers of LPG, especially African (Algeria/Nigeria), North Sea, and Latin American (Venezuela/Argentina), picking up larger shares in the last 5 years of this decade. This scenario assumes completion of several major supply projects that are either panned, under construction, or nearing start up in most of these areas. The paper discusses the global picture, the supply situation in the Middle East, Africa, the North Sea, and South America.

  4. Indonesia's Arun LPG plant production is unique in Far East markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naklie, M.M.; Penick, D.P.; Denton, L.A.; Kartiyoso, I.

    1987-08-03

    Entry of the Arun (Indonesia) LNG plant into the LPG Far East markets is significant because its supplies for those markets are not tied to gas being extracted in association with crude oil. Arun LPG products are extracted from gas that is processed into and marketed as LNG. This article on the Arun LNG plant analyzes its LPG process and the significance of the LPG project on the plant's markets. Particular attention is paid to: 1.) LPG recovery; 2.) LPG fractionation; and 3.) Far East trade.

  5. Rio Grande pipeline introduces LPG to Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    Rio Grande Pipeline, a joint venture between Mid-America Pipeline Co., Amoco Pipeline Co. and Navajo Pipeline Co., has broken new ground in the energy industry as the first LPG pipeline to cross the US-Mexico border. Plans for the project were announced in November 1995 and first deliveries started three months ago on March 21, 1997. The 8-inch, 265-mile pipeline originates near Odessa, TX, where it receives an 85-15 propane-butane mix via a connection to Mid-America Pipeline. From Odessa, product moves west through the Texas desert and crosses the Rio Grande River about 15 miles south of El Paso near Clint, TX and extends 20 miles into Mexico. Capacity of the line is 24,000 bpd and it has been averaging about 22,000 bpd since line-fill. All in all, it sounded like a reasonably feasible, routine project. But perceptions can be deceiving, or at least misleading. In other words, the project can be summarized as follows: one river, two cultures and a world of difference. The official border crossing for pipeline construction took place on Dec. 2, 1996, with a directional drill under the Rio Grande River, but in actuality, the joint venture partners were continually bridging differences in language, laws, customs and norms with Pemex and contracted workers from Mexico.

  6. Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj, P.K.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

    1996-09-01

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has initiated the development of `Design Guidelines for Bus Transit Systems Using Alternative Fuels.` This report provides design guidelines for the safe uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It forms a part of the series of individual monographs being published by the FTA on (the guidelines for the safe use of) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes for the subject fuel the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

  7. The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

  8. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  9. Determination of usage patterns and emissions for propane/LPG in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, M.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine California usage patterns of Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), and to estimate propane emissions resulting from LPG transfer operations statewide, and by county and air basin. The study is the first attempt to quantify LPG transfer emissions for California. This was accomplished by analyzing data from a telephone survey of California businesses that use LPG, by extracting information from existing databases.

  10. Cascaded'' pilot regulators help reduce LPG loss in hot weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-08

    Fina Oil and Chemical Co. and Fisher Controls International used engineering resourcefulness to overcome heat-induced product loss from LPG storage bullets at Fina's Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. Fina had installed Fisher's Easy Joe 399A-6365, a pilot-operated, back-pressure-type regulator, on its LPG storage facility in 1991 as part of a fuel products modernization project. The regulators helped control the accumulation of noncondensible vapors, which collect in the storage bullets above the LPG. But summer heat extremes and surges in the tanks and lines made it possible for the operating pressure to increase so that the safety relief valve was activated before the pilot regulator was able to stabilize the pressure. The installation of pilot-type regulators, in cascaded, or series, formation, reduced product venting through relief valves.

  11. Demand for petrochem feedstock to buoy world LPG industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-18

    This paper reports that use of liquefied petroleum gas as petrochemical feedstock will increase worldwide, providing major growth opportunities for LPG producers. World exports of liquefied petroleum gas will increase more slowly than production as producers choose to use LPG locally as chemical feedstock and export in value added forms such as polyethylene. So predicts Poten and Partners Inc., New York. Poten forecasts LPG production in exporting countries will jump to 95 million tons in 2010 from 45 million tons in 1990. However, local and regional demand will climb to 60 million tons/year from 23 million tons/year during the same period. So supplies available for export will rise to 35 million tons in 2010 from 22 million tons in 1990.

  12. Low temperature type new TMCP steel plate for LPG carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Bessyo, Kiyoshi; Arimochi, Kazushige; Yajima, Hiroshi; Tada, Masuo; Sakai, Daisuke

    1994-12-31

    New Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate for LPG carriers of completely liquefied type was developed with non-nickel chemistry. The new steel plate has a capability to arrest a long running brittle crack at {minus}46 C (which is the design temperature of the liquefied LPG tanks). A high heat-input one-pass welding can be applied to this steel despite its nickel-less chemistry. These capabilities were enabled by microalloying technology with low aluminum-medium nitrogen-boron, as well as by the advanced Thermo-Mechanical Control Process. This paper describes the new concept of utilizing the trace elements and the evaluation test results as the steel plate for the LPG tank and hull, especially from the standpoints of the fracture safe reliability at high heat input welding and from that of the shop workability.

  13. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

  14. Experience with Bi-Fuel LPG Pickups in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, P.

    1999-05-12

    The State of Texas requires state agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In 1996, Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) representatives added about 400 bi-fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pickup trucks to their fleet. The fleet managers were willing to share information about their fleets and the operation of these vehicles, so a study was launched to collect operations, maintenance, and cost data for selected LPG and gasoline vehicles (as controls) throughout 18 months of vehicle operation. This case study presents the results of that data collection and its subsequent analysis.

  15. Carbon Bearing Trace Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Bearing Trace Gases A critical scientific and policy oriented question is what are the present day sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the natural environment and...

  16. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  17. Design considerations for sweetening LPG`s with amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullin, J.A.; Polasek, J.; Rogers, J.

    1995-11-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in sweetening LPG with amines. However, limited data and design information are available in the literature. In the present paper, the design considerations and alternatives including static mixers, jet educator mixers and columns with structured packing, random packing and sieve trays are compared based on plant operating data.

  18. Control and extinguishment of LPG fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Approximately 100 fire control and fire extinguishment tests were run on free-burning LPG pool fires from 25 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. The LPG was contained in concrete pits, and the pit floors were allowed to cool before the fires were ignited so that the burning rates were not influenced by boiloff from the warm floor. High expansion foam was used for fire control. The foam was applied from fixed generators located on the upwind side of the pit. Fires were controlled after foam application of less than a minute to about 10 minutes, depending on the application rate. Fires were extinguished with dry chemical agents applied through fixed piping systems with tankside nozzles and by manual application using hoselines and portable extinguishers. Fires could readily be extinguished in times ranging from a few seconds to about half a minute, depending on the application rate, system design, and ambient conditions. Additional tests were conducted in 1-ft/sup 2/ and 5-ft/sup 2/ pits to determine the boiloff rates for LPG spilled on concrete, a sand/soil mix, and polyurethane foam substrates. Burning rates for free-burning LPG pool fires from 1 ft/sup 2/ to 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area are also reported.

  19. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-09-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2) However , in highly heterogeneous media such as fractured rock and fault zones, local flow paths within which the gas containment criterion is not satisfied could be formed. To eliminate such zones, treatments such as pre/post grouting or an additional installment of water-curtain boreholes are essential. (3) Along highly conductive features such as faults, even partially saturated zones possess certain effects that can retard or prevent gas leakage, while a fully unsaturated fault connected to the storage cavern can quickly cause a gas blowout. This possibility strongly suggests that ensuring water saturation of the rock surrounding the cavern is a very important requirement. (4) Even if an accident should suddenly impair the water curtain, the gas plume does not quickly penetrate the ground surface. In these simulations, the plume takes several months to reach the ground surface.

  20. Upgrading Fischer-Tropsch LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with the Cyclar process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregor, J.H.; Gosling, C.D.; Fullerton, H.E.

    1989-04-28

    The use of the UOP/BP Cyclar{reg sign} process for upgrading Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied at UOP{reg sign}. The Cyclar process converts LPG into aromatics. The LPG derived from F-T is highly olefinic. Two routes for upgrading F-T LPG were investigated. In one route, olefinic LPG was fed directly to a Cyclar unit (Direct Cyclar). The alternative flow scheme used the Huels CSP process to saturate LPG olefins upstream of the Cyclar unit (Indirect Cyclar). An 18-run pilot plant study verified that each route is technically feasible. An economic evaluation procedure was designed to choose between the Direct and Indirect Cyclar options for upgrading LPG. Four situations involving three different F-T reactor technologies were defined. The main distinction between the cases was the degree of olefinicity, which ranged between 32 and 84 wt % of the fresh feed. 8 refs., 80 figs., 44 tabs.

  1. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Referring Pages: Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from ...

  2. "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.4;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal" ...

  3. Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) Molecules in Lipid Bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LAST, JULIE A.; HUBER, TINA; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; SALVATORE, BRIAN; TURCO, SALVATORE J.

    2003-03-01

    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is a lypopolysaccharide found on the surface of the parasite Leishmania donovani that is thought to play an essential role in the infection of humans with leishamniasis. LPG acts as an adhesion point for the parasite to the gut of the sand fly, whose bite is responsible for transmitting the disease. In addition, LPG acts to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) in the human macrophage, possibly by structural changes in the membrane. The Ca{sup 2+} ion is believed to play a role in the infection cycle, acting both as a crosslinker between LPG molecules and by playing a part in modulating PKC activity. To gain insight into the structure of LPG within a supported lipid membrane and into the structural changes that occur due to Ca{sup 2+} ions, we have employed the atomic force microscope (AFM). We have observed that the LPG molecules inhibit bilayer fusion, resulting in bilayer islands on the mica surface. One experiment suggests that the LPG molecules are parallel to the mica surface and that the structure of the LPG changes upon addition of Ca{sup 2+}, with an increase in the height of the LPG molecules from the bilayer surface and an almost complete coverage of LPG on the bilayer island.

  4. Microsoft Word - 0615DOE-LPG-wd6.doc

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    EXECUTIVE COURT REPORTERS, INC. [301] 565-0064 1 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER LPG PUBLIC MEETING FRIDAY, JUNE 15, 2007 U.S. Department of Energy Forrestal Building Main Auditorium 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, D.C. 20585 EXECUTIVE COURT REPORTERS, INC. [301] 565-0064 2 PARTICIPANTS DOE: Kathy Binder, Facilitator Warren Belmar, Panel Member Lawrence Oliver, Panel Member Industry: Steven Winn, NRG Energy, Inc. Robert Temple, C P S Energy John

  5. New construction era reflected in East Texas LPG pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittler, T.J. )

    1990-04-02

    Installation of 240 miles of 6, 10, and 12-in. LPG pipelines from Mont Belvieu to Tyler, Tex., has provided greater feedstock-supply flexibility to a petrochemical plant in Longview, Tex. The project, which took place over 18 months, included tie-ins with metering at four Mont Belvieu suppliers. The new 10 and 12-in. pipelines now transport propane while the new and existing parts of a 6-in. pipeline transport propylene.

  6. Successful operation of a large LPG plant. [Kuwait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shtayieh, S.; Durr, C.A.; McMillan, J.C.; Collins, C.

    1982-03-01

    The LPG plant located at Mina-Al Ahmadi, Kuwait, is the heart of Kuwait Oil Co.'s massive Gas Project to use the associated gas from Kuwait's oil production. Operation of this three-train plant has been very successful. A description is given of the three process trains consisting of four basic units: extraction, fractionation, product treating, and refrigeration. Initial problems relating to extraction, fractionation, product treating and, refrigeration are discussed. 1 ref.

  7. LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 to 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

  8. LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.

    1981-09-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 through 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

  9. Far East LPG sales will grow faster than in West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-30

    LPG sales through 2010 in regions east of the Suez Canal (East of Suez) will grow at more than twice those in regions west of the canal. East-of-Suez sales will grow at more than 4.0%/year, compared to slightly less than 2.0%/year growth in sales West of Suez. East-of-Suez sales will reach 92 million tons/year (tpy) by 2010, accounting for 39% of the worldwide total. This share was 31% in1995 and only 27% in 1990. LPG sales worldwide will reach 192 million tons in 2000 and 243 million tpy by 2010. In 1995, they were 163 million tons. These are some of the major conclusions of a recent study by Frank R. Spadine, Christine Kozar, and Rudy Clark of New York City-based consultant Poten and Partners Inc. Details of the study are in the fall report ``World Trade in LPG 1990--2010``. This paper discusses demand segments, seaborne balance, Western sources, largest trading region, North American supplies, and other supplies.

  10. Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMPCO Technologies

    1998-10-28

    This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

  11. LPG in Latin America: An overall view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villaronga, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Latin America is about 2.2 times the size of the United States and, in population, it exceeds the U.S. by 165 million people. A relatively high population growth rate, together with its vast underdeveloped natural resources, gives Latin America a tremendous potential for progress. The desire of governments to advance economically, together with the proper stimuli to education and to the managerial resources, should translate this potential in reality. This is evident in a number of regions.

  12. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  13. Cause not found for Texas LPG site blast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that National Transportation Safety Board investigators completed the first phase of tests at Seminole Pipeline Co.'s liquid petroleum gas storage dome near Brenham, Tex., without finding the cause of an explosion there Apr. 7. But in a week of investigation, NTSB determined that a release of brine and product occurred at the 350,000 bbl LPG storage dome, about 45 miles northwest of Houston, just before the blast. The explosion sent shock waves felt as far as 130 miles away. Three persons have died from injuries suffered in the accident. Another 18 were injured.

  14. Dynamic load measurement on an LPG carrier during voyage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamoi, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Kiso, Takashi; Kada, Kazuo; Motoi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Shinichi

    1994-12-31

    There are few actual ship measurement data showing the propriety of the design loads given by classification societies rules or other relevant rules. Therefore, the authors measured acceleration of ship motion and fluctuating loads on tank supports and chocks of a 75,000 m{sup 3} LPG carrier during her voyage. This paper introduces the subject ship and typical measurement results over about 1.3 years. From the analysis of these data, the authors have made clear the amount of frequency of fluctuating loads during actual navigation and ascertained the propriety of the ship`s design base.

  15. New pemex agency, smog checks greet Mexican LPG vehicle users

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that the relaxation of prohibitions on the use of propane as a motor fuel has spurred sizeable business activity in carburetion and higher demand for LPG throughout Mexico and particularly in Mexico City. However, a number of unforeseen problems have developed that required tough, immediate solutions. After the alternative fuels project began at city hall in Mexico City, publicity spread nationwide, reportedly spurring conversion activity in many other cities. That led to additional demand for fuel of a magnitude that few people had anticipated. In order to assume control of the situation, the national oil company, Pemex, established an official LPG Motor Fuel Department on June 1. Operating in conjunction with the Ministry of Industry, the new department has been busy registering every major propane-powered fleet in the country. Most important, the rate of conversion work must now be pegged to the availability of fuel. It is believed that conversion activity has become more evenly paced since the new Pemex agency took over.over.

  16. Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools 25, 100, 400, and 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. A Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes; the maximum effective flux emitted at the flame surface was about 50,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/. A few tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

  17. Novel coiled tubing application controls large LPG storage well fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gebhardt, F.; Eby, D.; Barnett, D.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional well control techniques for normal oil and gas wells are widely known and have been presented on numerous occasions. However, LPG storage (or cavern) wells rarely blow out and/or catch on fire. As a result, little information has been presented on the topic of well control for these types of wells. This article chronicles a case history of a high-volume liquid propane storage well fire. Because conventional wellhead removal methods could not be applied in this case, the capping/kill plan called for use of coiled tubing in a novel manner to cut the tubing downhole and install an inflatable packer to shut off propane flow. The plan was successfully executed, saving the operator millions of dollars in LPC product loss and cost of control.

  18. Australian liquids-handling system cuts surges to LPG plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, G.; Stenner, T.D. )

    1990-08-06

    This paper reports how a pipeline liquids-handling facility recently commissioned allows gas production to be quickly ramped up to meet customer demand. Its design eliminates trouble-some liquid surges which had hampered plant operations. The pipeline-loop system, located at the Wallumbilla LPG processing plant, Queensland, was built for 60 of the cost of an equivalently sized conventional slug catcher. Its control system enables automatic, unattended handling of liquid surges and pigging slugs from the 102-km Silver Springs to Wallumbilla two-phase pipeline. Because of this system's simple hydraulics, normal slug-catcher piping design problems are eliminated. Safety is improved because the potentially hazardous condensate liquid is contained in a buried pipeline.

  19. Evaluation of aftermarket LPG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, E.A.

    1993-06-01

    SwRI was contracted by NREL to evaluate three LPG conversion kits on a Chevrolet Lumina. The objective of the project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of these kits, and compare their performance to gasoline-fueled operation and to each other. Varying LPG fuel blends allowed a preliminary look at the potential for fuel system disturbance. The project required kit installation and adjustment according to manufacturer`s instructions. A limited amount of trouble diagnosis was also performed on the fuel systems. A simultaneous contract from the Texas Railroad Commission, in cooperation with NREL, provided funds for additional testing with market fuels (HD5 propane and industry average gasoline) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions speciation to determine the ozone-forming potential of LPG HC emissions. This report documents the procurement, installation, and testing of these LPG conversion kits.

  20. Influence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on LPG fuel performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Muhammad Saad Ahmed, Iqbal Mutalib, Mohammad Ibrahim bin Abdul Nadeem, Saad Ali, Shahid

    2014-10-24

    The objective of this mode of combustion is to insertion of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) combustion on spark plug ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen peroxide may probably decrease the formation of NO{sub x}, CO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbons. Hypothetically, Studies have shown that addition of hydrogen peroxide to examine the performance of LPG/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture in numerous volumetric compositions starting from lean LPG until obtaining a better composition can reduce the LPG fuel consumption. The theory behind this idea is that, the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can cover the lean operation limit, increase the lean burn ability, diminution the burn duration along with controlling the exhaust emission by significantly reducing the greenhouse gaseous.

  1. Century-Midas steps slowly into the RV (recreational vehicles) LPG conversion market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kincaid, J.

    1980-02-01

    Midas International will obtain LPG carburetion equipment from Century for installation in up to 20,000 RV. The market for gasoline-powered RV has been depressed since the surge in gasoline prices, and the installation of Century's equipment represents an attempt to attract customers by reducing RV operating costs. According to J. Kincaid (Midas Inst.), propane, besides being cheaper than gasoline, is also cheaper than diesel fuel, despite the better mileage obtained with diesel fuel, because the use of diesel fuel requires the installation of a diesel engine, which is far more expensive than installation of LPG carburetion. Although most of the LPG carburetion manufacturers, with a backlog of orders, did not evince interest in Midas' search for conversion equipment for RV, Century responded, at least partly because Midas also manufactures fleet delivery trucks, which represent a potentially much larger market for LPG conversion and use.

  2. Retraying and revamp double big LPG fractionators's capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasson, R. , Friendswood, TX ); Pate, R. )

    1993-08-02

    Enterprise operates two LPG fractionation units at Mont Belvieu: the Seminole unit and the West Texas unit. In 1985, Nye Engineering Inc., Friendswood, Texas, designed improvements to expand the Seminole plant from 60,000 b/d of C[sub 2] + feed to 90,000 b/d. The primary modifications made to increase the West Texas plant's capacity and reduce fuel consumption were the following: retraying the deethanizer and depropanizer columns with new High Capacity Nye Trays. Lowering the pressure in the de-ethanizer and depropanizer to improve the separating efficiency of the columns. Replacing the debutanizer with a high-pressure column that rejects its condensing heat as reboil for the de-ethanizer. Adjusting the feed temperature to balance the load in the top and bottom of the depropanizer column to prevent premature flooding in one section of the tower. Installing convection heaters to recover existing stack gas heat into the process. In conjunction with the capacity expansion, there was a strong incentive to improve the fuel efficiency of the unit. The modifications are described.

  3. Synthesis gas conversion to LPG over molybdenum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murchison, C.B.; Murdick, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    By using a new Dow Chemical Co. carbon-supported molybdenum oxide catalyst promoted with 4.4% K/sub 2/O or Na/sub 2/O, 90%+ conversions of synthesis gas at space velocities of 500-600/hr were achieved with 60-75% selectivities for C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ paraffins, including 33 and 27% for ethane and propane, respectively, and no liquid products formed. This LPG product is an excellent ethylene cracking feedstock. The catalyst, which can be used in both oxide and sulfided forms, has demonstrated stable performance with feeds containing up to 20 ppm sulfur (H/sub 2/S + COS) and had no coking problems for up to 2000 hr on stream. Excessive sulfur exposure can be reversed by regeneration with hydrogen. Because of the catalyst's low coking rate, high temperatures, i.e., 350/sup 0/-500/sup 0/C, and near-stoichiometric H/sub 2//CO feed ratios can be used.

  4. A simple correlation to predict the hydrate quadruple point temperature for LPG mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousif, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    A simple correlation to predict the hydrate upper quadruple point temperature, T{sub Q2B} for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) mixtures was developed. It was developed for use as a part of a modeling and control system for a LPG pipeline in Russia. For performance reasons, a simple hydrate prediction correlation was required that could be incorporated into the real-time and predictive pipeline simulation models. The operating company required both real time and predictive simulation tools be developed to assist in preventing hydrate blockages while minimizing the use of methanol. In this particular pipeline, LPG fluid moves through the pipeline as a single phase liquid above its bubble point pressure. Because of the very low flow rates, the trace amount of water present in the LPG drops out and creates water pools at low points in the pipeline. The pipeline pressure and seasonal temperatures are conducive for hydrate formation in these pools. Methanol and monoethylene glycol (MEG) are injected in the pipeline to help prevent hydrate formation. The newly developed correlation predicts the hydrate quadruple point temperature using only the composition and the molecular weight of the LPG mixture while retaining an accuracy comparable to the statistical thermodynamic models throughout the range of normal operating conditions.

  5. Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels - part 1. LPG and CNG combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. Speciation data showed greater than 87 percent of all LPG and greater than 95 percent of all CNG hydrocarbon exhaust constituents to be composed of C{sub 1} to C{sub 3} compounds. In addition, toxic emissions from the combustion of CNG and LPG were as low as 10 percent of those generated by combustion of gasoline. A comparison of ozone forming potential of the three fuels was made based on the Maximum Incremental Reactivity scale used by the California Air Resources Board. Post-catalyst results from stoichiometric operation indicated that LPG and CNG produced 63 percent and 88 percent less potential ozone than reformulated gasoline, respectively. On average over all equivalence ratios, CNG and LPG exhaust constituents were approximately 65 percent less reactive than those from reformulated gasoline. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Ageing effect in spray pyrolysed B:SnO{sub 2} thin films for LPG sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skariah, Benoy E-mail: dr.boben1@gmail.com; Thomas, Boben E-mail: dr.boben1@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    For LPG sensing, boron doped (0.2 to 0.8 wt. %) polycrystalline tin oxide thin films are deposited by spray pyrolysis in the temperature range 325 - 430 C. Sensor response of 56 % is achieved for 1000 ppm of LPG, at an operating temperature of 350 C. The effects of ageing under ambient conditions on the sensor response are investigated for a storage period of six years. Ageing increases the film resistance but the gas response is lowered. XRD, SEM, FESEM, FTIR and XPS are utilized for structural, morphological and compositional charaterisations.

  7. "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,,"Distillate" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural ...

  8. Conception and construction of an LPG tank using a composite membrane technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuvel, P.; Claude, J.

    1985-03-01

    TECHNIGAZ and TOTAL C.F.P. have developed a new LPG storage technology derived from the membrane concept used for LNG storage and transportation. This technology called GMS uses a composite membrane as primary barrier. A 2 000 m/sup 3/ storage pilot unit, based on that concept, is under construction in TOTAL's refinery at DUNKIRK (France) since September 1983.

  9. Local government energy management: liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a motor vehicle fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.

    1983-10-01

    The retrofit or conversion of automotive engines to operate on liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or propane fuel is one of many potentially cost-effective strategies for reducing a local government's annual fleet operating and maintenance costs. The cost effectiveness of an LPG conversion decision is highly dependent on the initial conversion cost, vehicle type, current and projected fuel costs, vehicle fuel economy (miles per gallon), and yearly average mileage. A series of plots have been developed which indicate simple paybacks for the conversion of several vehicle types (passenger car, small and standard pickups, and two and three ton trucks) over a wide range of fuel economies and annual usage patterns. A simple payback of less than three years can be achieved for vehicles with poor fuel economy and high annual use. The figures provided in this report may be used by fleet management personnel as a screening tool to identify those passenger cars, small or standard pickups, or light duty trucks which are candidates for LPG conversion. In addition to examining the benefits of an LPG conversion, local governments should also consider the competing energy management strategies of downsizing, and the acquisition of fuel efficient, diesel powered vehicles.

  10. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moussavi, M.; Al-Turk, M. . Civil Engineering Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such as average fuel efficiency in kilometers per liter, average fuel cost per kilometer, average oil consumption, and average operation and maintenance cost for alternatively fueled vehicles were calculated and compared with similar performance measures of gasoline powered vehicles. The results of the study showed that the average fuel efficiency of gasoline is greater than those of LPG and NG, and the average fuel costs (dollars per kilometer) for LPG and NG are smaller than those for gasoline for most of the vehicles under this study.

  11. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  12. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  13. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  14. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  15. Analysis of natural gases, AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, IA, KY, LA, MD, MI, MS, MO, NJ, NY, NC, OH, PA, TN, VA, and WV; 1951-1991 (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines diskette contains analysis and related source data for 2,357 natural gas samples collected from miscellaneous states, which include the following states: Alabama, Arkansas (except Arkoma Basin), Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. All samples were obtained and analyzed as part of the Bureau's investigations of occurrences of helium in natural gases of countries with free market economies. The survey has been conducted since 1917. The analysis contained on the diskette contain the full range of component analysis data. Five files are on the diskette: READ.ME, MISC.TXT, MISC.DBF, USHEANAL.DBF, and BASINCDE.TXT.

  16. LPG buses in southern California leave the competition at the curb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports that after the first year of a landmark experiment in which LPG has been competing against methanol and CNG in city buses, propane appears to be pulling out in front of the pack. According to Efren Medellin, superintendent of vehicle maintenance at the Orange County Transit Authority, two LPG buses had registered a total of 31,000 moles with relatively little, if any, downtime. The two methanol buses had run a total of 30,000 miles while the two CNG buses had traveled only 5000 miles. Furthermore the methanol and CNG buses have had their share of downtime for new parts and other problems. The propane-powered buses appear to be running consistently well without mechanical difficulties. The only problem that occurred was occasional backfiring. As a result, the electronic controls were replaced and no subsequent complaints were heard.

  17. Alvord (3,000-ft strawn) LPG flood - design and performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, G.D.; Todd, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Mitchell Energy Corporation has implemented a LPG-dry gas miscible process in the Alvord (3000' Strawn) Unit in Wise County, Texas utilizing the DOE tertiary incentive program. The field had been waterflooded for 14 years and was producing near its economic limit at the time this project was started. This paper presents the results of the reservoir simulation study that was conducted to evaluate pattern configuration and operating alternatives so as to maximize LPG containment and oil recovery performance. Several recommendations resulting from this study were implemented for the project. Based on the model predictions, tertiary oil recovery is expected to be between 100,000 and 130,000 bbls, or about 7 percent of the oil originally in place in the Unit. 12 refs.

  18. N/sub 2/-driven LPG achieves miscibitity at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, L.; Crawford, P.B.; Montes, M. Jr.; Reeves, S.

    1982-11-01

    Shows that miscibility can be achieved at very low pressures above the critical temperature of propane. One can calculate the critical pressure and temperature for a variety of fluids of practical interest in achieving miscibility between the miscible slug and driving gas when applying enhanced oil recovery programs. A study of the critical properties of normally available reservoir fluids indicates that one method of achieving miscibility at lower pressures, even at high reservoir temperatures, might be to use LPG slugs pushed by nitrogen. Table gives the oil recovery for different LPG slug sizes when operating at a reservoir pressure of 2,000 psig and a reservoir temperature of 250F. Diagram shows the approximate critical temperature loci for ternary systems made up of 3 components from the group nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane. By finding the desired reservoir temperature and then estimating the critical pressure required, one may select compositions and operating pressures required to achieve critical slug-driving gas mixtures for use in enhanced oil recovery programs. When using CO/sub 2/ for miscibility, the miscibility pressure increases with temperature. Use of LPG slugs results in a substantial reduction in the pressure required for miscibility.

  19. Greenhouse Gases into Gold

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turning Greenhouse Gases into Gold Greenhouse Gases into Gold NERSC simulations reveal reaction mechanism behind CO₂ conversion into carbon-neutral fuels and chemicals November 6, 2013 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Environmentalists have long lamented the destructive effects of greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide (CO2) often accused of being the primary instigator of global climate change. As a result, numerous efforts are under way to find ways to prevent,

  20. Green House Gases | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Green House Gases Did You Know? If it were not for naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the Earth would be too cold to support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect, the average temperature of the Earth would be about -2°F rather than the 57°F we currently experience. However, levels of several important greenhouse gases have increased by about 40% since industrialization began around 150 years ago. During the past 20 years, about three-quarters of human-caused (anthropogenic)

  1. LPG--a direct source of C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Berg, R.C.; Vora, B.V.

    1983-03-28

    This article describes the selective production of olefins by the catalytic dehydrogenation of the corresponding paraffins by means of UOP's Oleflex process. In this process, propylene can be obtained at about 85 mol % selectivity by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane. Isobutylene can be obtained at selectivities in excess of 90 mol % from isobutane, and n-butenes (1-butene plus 2-butene) at about 80 mol % from n-butane. The availability of this technology, coupled with an abundant supply of LPG (C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ paraffins), opens new avenues for the selective production of propylene and butylenes.

  2. Determination of combustion products from alternative fuels. Part I. LPG and CNG combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.; Bailey, B.K.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes efforts underway to identify volatile organic exhaust species generated by a light-duty vehicle operating over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) on CNG and LPG, and to compare them to exhaust constituents generated from the same vehicle operating on a fuel blended to meet California Phase 2 specifications. The exhaust species from this vehicle were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 nominally, and were analyzed with and without the vehicle`s catalytic converter in place to determine the influence of the vehicle`s catalyst on species formation. 4 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Planning and care mark repair of 14-year old leak in Kuwait Oil Co. LPG tank 95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shtayieh, S.

    1983-01-10

    This paper points out that the leak, which had been present for such a long time, completely saturated the perlite insulation with hydrocarbons, thus rendering the entire operation of inspection, repair, and maintenance of the inner tank a hazardous operation. It emphasizes the safety aspects, which were complicated by the saturated perlite as well as by the fact that the tank is situated in the middle of the LPG storage area with LPG tanks on either side. Tank design, making preparations, inspection, and repair are discussed. The fact that the leaking flanges were originally installed damaged, indicated the future need of tighter company quality control of all contractors work.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT LPG fleet conversion. Volume 1. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euritt, M.A.; Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-10-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a propane vehicle program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $24.3 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower-priced LPG and differentials between propane and gasoline/diesel in infrastructure costs for a fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $308, or about 2.5 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Sensitivity analyses are performed on the discount rate, price of propane, maintenance savings, vehicle utilization, diesel vehicles, extended vehicle life, original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles, and operating and infrastructure costs. The best results are obtained when not converting diesel vehicles, converting only large fleets, and extending the period the vehicle is kept in service. Combining these factors yields results that are most cost-effective for TxDOT. This is volume one of two volumes.

  5. Six years' operating experience at Ardjuna field helps prove out LPG SBS system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smulders, L.H.

    1983-02-21

    The permanent yoke mooring system and the two-product flexpipe riser of the Arjuna Sakti LPG storage barge have completely lived up to their expectations. The LPG offtake system, the terminaling function of the storage unit, has also performed extremely well. Experience gained at Ardjuna provides confidence for future openocean mooring of large methanol or LNG plants. Mooring systems of these future units will likely have a different configuration, such as the single anchor leg storage (SALS) mooring. However, the basic system components have been used, both at Ardjuna and in comparable situations elsewhere in the world. Engineers who are working on floating, large scale, gas processing plants for mooring in the open ocean could profitably join their efforts in a team comprised of process specialists, naval architects, and mooring experts. Specific areas of consideration should be: length-to-beam and lengthto-depth ratios and shape of bow. This could result in a storage/process barge design with better motion characteristics and lower mooring forces than proposed at present.

  6. Investigation on effects of surface morphologies on response of LPG sensor based on nanostructured copper ferrite system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Satyendra; Yadav, B.C.; Gupta, V.D.; Dwivedi, Prabhat K.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Figure shows the variations in resistance with time for copper ferrite system synthesized in various molar ratio. A maximum variation in resistance was observed for copper ferrite prepared in 1:1 molar ratio. Highlights: ? Evaluation of structural, optical and surface morphologies. ? Significant variation in LPG sensing properties. ? Surface modification of ferric oxide pellet by copper ferrite. ? CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} pellets for LPG sensing at room temperature. -- Abstract: Synthesis of a copper ferrite system (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) via chemical co-precipitation method is characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface morphology (scanning electron microscope) and optical absorption spectroscopy. These characteristics show their dependence on the relative compositions of the two subsystems. They are further confirmed by the variation in the band gap. A study of gas sensing properties shows the spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized in 1:1 molar ratio exhibit best response to LPG adsorption/resistance measurement. Thus resistance based LPG sensor is found robust, cheap and may be applied for kitchens and industrial applications.

  7. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6-2016 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Pennsylvania NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Texas NA NA NA NA NA

  8. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6-2016 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2016 Kansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Louisiana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Montana NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 New Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 North Dakota NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Pennsylvania NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 Texas NA NA NA NA NA

  9. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Mexico 33,997 40,191 39,333 38,358 42,117 45,927 1980-2014 North Dakota 6,244 7,448 10,271 6,762 7,221 7,008 1984-2014 Ohio 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2014 Oklahoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996-2014 ...

  10. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    721,507 836,698 867,922 768,598 368,469 400,600 1973-2014 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996-2014 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2014 California 2,879 3,019 2,624 0 NA NA 1980-2014 California Onshore 2,879 3,019 2,624 NA NA NA 1992-2014 California State Offshore 0 0 0 NA NA NA 2003-2014 Federal Offshore California NA NA 2003-2014 Colorado 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980-2014 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2014 Kansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002-2014 Louisiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996-2014 Louisiana Onshore NA NA NA NA NA NA

  11. Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools and a Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes. Tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

  12. LPG recovery from refinery flare by waste heat powered absorption refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, D.C.; Kelly, F.

    1998-07-01

    A waste heat powered ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) has commenced operation at the Colorado Refining Company in Commerce City, Colorado. The ARU provides 85 tons of refrigeration at 30 F to refrigerate the net gas/treat gas stream, thereby recovering 65,000 barrels per year of LPG which formerly was flared or burned as fuel. The ARU is powered by the 290 F waste heat content of the reform reactor effluent. An additional 180 tons of refrigeration is available at the ARU to debottleneck the FCC plant wet gas compressors by cooling their inlet vapor. The ARU is directly integrated into the refinery processes, and uses enhanced, highly compact heat and mass exchange components. The refinery's investment will pay back in less than two years from increased recovery of salable product, and CO{sub 2} emissions are decreased by 10,000 tons per year in the Denver area.

  13. Oxidation catalyst systems for emission control of LPG-powered forklift trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majewski, W.A.; Martin, E.P.; Pietrasz, E.

    1994-10-01

    An oxidation catalyst was installed on an industrial LPG-powered forklift truck. For high conversion efficiency in an oxidation system on a rich burning engine a secondary air supply to the catalyst is necessary. Two simple and cost-effective ways of secondary air supply were tested: an air valve and a venturi type injector. The amount of secondary air supplied by both devices was measured under a variety of conditions - different engine speed, load and exhaust system pressure. Carbon monoxide emissions and the catalyst performance were measured and evaluated in terms of the secondary air flow. Advantages and drawbacks of the air valve and venturi injector systems are discussed and compared. 1 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. ); Wuebbles, D. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel carbon-conversion-fig-1.jpg Key Challenges: An important strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for...

  16. Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat...

  17. PV based systems, with wind, diesel or LPG genset backup, supplying small TV rebroadcast stations in Portugal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos, H.F.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the implementation of a program intended to introduce PV based hybrid power systems to supply electrical power to small size TV rebroadcast stations in Portugal. Reliability is a major concern to this type of application, as well as economical and social constraints, so wind or diesel/LPG genset backup are used. This paper includes a description of the systems behavior, comparison among these topologies and economical viability data from a users viewpoint.

  18. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT LPG fleet conversion. Volume 2. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euritt, M.A.; Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-11-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), commonly called propane. Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a propane vehicle program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $24.3 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower-priced propane and differentials between propane and gasoline/diesel in infrastructure costs, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $308, or about 2.5 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Based on the cost-effectiveness analysis and assumptions, there are currently no TxDOT locations that can be converted to propane without additional financial outlays. This is volume two of two volumes.

  20. ARM - What are Greenhouse Gases?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What are Greenhouse Gases? Carbon Dioxide Methane Gas Oxides of Nitrogen Halocarbons Ozone Water Vapor Greenhouse gases are atmospheric gases that trap infrared radiation emitted from the earth, lower atmosphere, or clouds or aerosols and, as

  1. Investigating and Using Biomass Gases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigating and Using Biomass Gases Grades: 9-12 Topic: Biomass Authors: Eric Benson and Melissa Highfill Owner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory This educational material is...

  2. Where Greenhouse Gases Come From | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Where Greenhouse Gases Come From In the United States, greenhouse gas emissions come primarily from the burning of fossil fuels in energy use. Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. In 2013, 82% of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions were carbon dioxide emissions, resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, solid waste, trees, wood, and other chemical reactions. Methane and Other Gases Another greenhouse gas, methane, comes from landfills, coal mines, oil and natural gas

  3. EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ‹ Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses

  4. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  5. Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Natural Gas Liquids

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History...

  6. Regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, F.J.; Overton, J.H.; Kimbell, J.S.; Russell, M.L.

    1992-06-29

    Highly reactive gases present unique problems due to the number of factors which must be taken into account to determine regional respiratory tract uptake. The authors reviewed some of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect dose and that must be understood to interpret toxicological data, to evaluate experimental dosimetry studies, and to develop dosimetry models. Selected dosimetry experiments involving laboratory animals and humans were discussed, showing the variability and uptake according to animal species and respiratory tract region for various reactive gases. New experimental dosimetry approaches, such as those involving isotope ratio mass spectroscopy and cyclotron generation reactive gases, were discussed that offer great promise for improving the ability to study regional respiratory tract absorption of reactive gases. Various dosimetry modeling applications were discussed which demonstrate: the importance of airflow patterns for site-specific dosimetry in the upper respiratory tract, the influence of the anatomical model used to make inter- and intraspecies dosimetric comparisons, the influence of tracheobronchial path length on predicted dose curves, and the implications of ventilatory unit structure and volume on dosimetry and response. Collectively, these examples illustrate important aspects of regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases. Given the complex nature of extent and pattern of injury in the respiratory tract from exposure to reactive gases, understanding interspecies differences in the absorption of reactive gases will continue to be an important area for study.

  7. Zn-doped and undoped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles: A comparative structural, optical and LPG sensing properties study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, R.K.; Sahay, P.P.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirm that all the materials prepared are polycrystalline SnO{sub 2} possessing tetragonal rutile structure. On Zn-doping, the crystallite size has been found to decrease from 25 nm (undoped sample) to 13 nm (1 at% Zn-doped sample). Display Omitted Highlights: ? Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles show smaller crystallite size (1117 nm). ? Optical band gap in SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles increases on Zn-doping. ? 2 at% Zn-doped sample show minimum room temperature resistivity. ? LPG response of the Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles increases considerably. ? 1 at% Zn-doped sample shows maximum response (87%) at 300 C to 1 vol% concentration. -- Abstract: SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method with SnCl{sub 4}5H{sub 2}O as the starting material and Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}2H{sub 2}O as the source of dopant. All the materials prepared have been found to be polycrystalline SnO{sub 2} possessing tetragonal rutile structure with crystallite sizes in the range 1125 nm. Optical analyses reveal that for the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles, both undoped and Zn-doped, direct transition occurs with the bandgap energies in the range 3.053.41 eV. Variation in the room temperature resistivity of the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles as a function of dopant concentration has been explained on the basis of two competitive processes: (i) replacement of Sn{sup 4+} ion by an added Zn{sup 2+} ion, and (ii) ionic compensation of Zn{sup 2+} by the formation of oxygen vacancies. Among all the samples examined for LPG sensing, the 1 at% Zn-doped sample exhibits fast and maximum response (?87%) at 300 C for 1 vol% concentration of LPG in air.

  8. Investigating and Using Biomass Gases

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will be introduced to biomass gasification and will generate their own biomass gases. Students generate these everyday on their own and find it quite amusing, but this time they’ll do it by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They will collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students will also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best according to their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

  9. Safety issues relating to the liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petru, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Railroad Commission of Texas, LP-Gas Division, is statutorily responsible for the safety aspects of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) most commonly known as LP-gas or propane, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). This presentation will address the safety issues relating to their use as alternative fuels. The paper discusses the safety of pressure vessels used for storage of the fuels at refueling facilities and the containers mounted in vehicles. Other topics include the lack of odorants in LNG, the use of protective clothing when handling cryogenic fluids, and where to obtain a copy of the safety regulations for handling these three fuels.

  10. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coordination. Gases are stored either in the racks between buildings 6 and 7; toxic and corrosive gases are stored in Building 6, room 6C across the walkway from beamline...

  11. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the...

  12. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Greenhouse Gases Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program ***THE VOLUNTARY REPORTING OF GREENHOUSE GASES ("1605(b)") PROGRAM HAS BEEN SUSPENDED.*** This affects ...

  13. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What are...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    What are Greenhouse Gases? Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program What are Greenhouse Gases? Many chemical compounds found in the Earth's atmosphere act as "greenhouse ...

  14. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study, Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-09-01

    Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

  15. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage facility study Fort Gordon, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-09-01

    Fort Gordon currently purchases natural gas from Atlanta Gas Light Company under a rate schedule for Large Commercial Interruptible Service. This offers a very favorable rate for `interruptible` gas service, however, Fort Gordon must maintain a base level of `firm gas`, purchased at a significantly higher cost, to assure adequate natural gas supplies during periods of curtailment to support family housing requirements and other single fuel users. It is desirable to provide a standby fuel source to meet the needs of family housing and other single fuel users and eliminate the extra costs for the firm gas commitment to Atlanta Gas Light Company. Therefore, a propane-air standby fuel system is proposed to be installed at Fort Gordon.

  16. APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-08-12

    A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

  17. The best news for LPG in Denmark is diesel conversion breakthrough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Throughout Scandanavia, taxes seem to drive the marketplace. Governments do not want to encourage consumption of alcoholic beverages, so they tax them heavily, thereby actually discouraging their use. Using the same means, they dictate the fate of the various fuels. Taxes have depressed propane's use to a large extent; today it is priced at three times natural gas, with the result that it accounts for only 0.5%-0.7% of total energy consumption. But, this paper reports on a potential new star that has appeared on the horizon, as participants in the People-to-People sojourn to Scandanavia last August learned. It's a program of converting diesel buses to propane, and officials of the company that is marketing it, Skibby Motor A/S, are so confident of its success that they have already begun a campaign of introducing it to the U.S.

  18. Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 135,990 140,186 115,157 107,991 120,436 122,014 114,344 125,757 144,134 159,113 1990's 155,631 173,399 180,003 184,258 196,463 200,233 238,897 263,397 296,412 282,462 2000's 270,436 247,750 279,912 286,253 355,165 388,305 409,276 254,337 241,626 240,533 2010's 279,981 284,557 183,118 166,328 176,085

  19. Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 9,329 15,086 15,219 13,810 10,592 8,883 6,116 6,205 5,177 3,343 2010's 1,573 778 0

  20. West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  1. North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 18 12 17 15 21 64 67 60 36 32 9 8 1997 6 6 8 6 5 5 10 24 47 13 28 5 1998 5 4 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 5 1999 5 6 7 7 7 8 6 8 6 6 5 5 2000 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 8 8 8 9 2001 9 7 7 6 7 6 9 8 8 8 7 7 2002 9 10 15 14 12 13 14 13 9 10 10 10 2003 11 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 9 10 9 9 2004 10 10 12 12 18 13 14 11 7 8 5 6 2005 6 6 7 6 7 8 9 8 8 8 7 7 2006 8 5 5 5 3 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 2007 6 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 2008 567 495 642 623 697 761 801 818 853 935

  2. Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  3. Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 35 22 31 35 20 19 20 16 19 19 16 14 1997 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 12 14 13 14 1998 13 11 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 1999 12 12 20 19 19 19 18 13 15 21 22 23 2000 20 17 17 16 17 15 15 16 16 18 16 15 2001 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0

  4. Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 646 1995 696 4,590 4,767 4,382 4,389 4,603 4,932 5,137 1996 5,088 4,788 2,269 2,009 2,564 1,687 1,695 1,724 1,229 1,255 1,547 1,422 1997 2,411 2,381 1,594 942 490 1,391 1,344 1,185 1,114 1,130 1,058 1,750 1998 909 697 700 689 1,194 1,161 2,299 2,625 2,235 2,226 2,258 2,373 1999 1,462 1,480 993 1,254 1,131 1,316 904 776 1,291 1,249 894 1,084 2000 158 65 69 100 91 626 87 119 185 220 123 99 2001 129 98 83 55 49 47 79 274 242 254 469 68 2002

  5. West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 124 118 238 109 127 130 143 148 143

  6. Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 5,712 5,109 6,529 6,408 6,948 6,430 7,035 7,792 7,475 7,837 7,649 7,930 1992 7,430 7,009 7,475 7,039 5,797 7,809 8,770 8,218 7,442 7,505 7,662 7,580 1993 10,674 10,789 10,568 10,480 11,572 12,350 10,996 8,163 9,912 10,526 9,870 10,463 1994 11,590 11,569 11,181 10,129 9,324 10,365 10,174 10,394 10,578 10,635 10,629 10,155 1995 13,046 11,867 11,628 12,102 14,419 12,911 12,917 10,472 12,302 12,592 11,896 12,569 1996 13,000 12,042 12,951

  7. Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 106,431 100,309 111,016 108,119 109,053 109,003 115,881 112,222 110,834 115,159 103,949 104,875 1992 107,337 100,925 110,629 104,777 110,071 107,851 109,535 110,282 111,779 113,481 108,583 106,506 1993 111,597 102,386 115,201 111,341 114,588 111,458 115,308 116,160 111,320 114,969 108,006 110,034 1994 106,720 96,991 109,067 105,076 105,339 105,518 109,079 109,278 106,428 107,691 102,744 104,196 1995 101,465 93,314 105,025 101,321 103,325

  8. California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 349 371 540 437 95 127 5 3 832 1,103 1990's 849 788 1,142 1,130 1,126 920 932 239 726 208 2000's 263 246 3,136 3,478 3,287 3,153 3,365 3,178 3,119 2,879 2010's 3,019 2,624 0

  9. Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5,106 3,468 2,353 2,103 1,248 1,045 879 822 757 790 1990's 681 531 682 721 762 642 700 793 751 769 2000's 788 736 431 387 402 337 304 222 306 32 2010's 1,529 2,004 0

  10. Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  11. Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  12. Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  13. Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  14. Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  15. Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 4,713 4,103 4,177 3,429 3,291 3,200 3,548 3,901 3,708 4,067 3,907 3,971 1992 3,944 3,653 3,861 3,656 3,806 4,011 4,105 4,107 2,254 4,223 4,138 4,015 1993 4,031 3,622 3,992 3,857 4,043 4,213 4,447 4,201 4,173 4,150 3,845 3,441 1994 3,468 3,196 3,665 3,492 3,683 3,619 3,903 3,999 3,578 4,030 3,792 3,920 1995 810 747 857 816 861 846 912 935 836 942 886 916 1996 829 744 786 751 808 750 776 725 326 427 693 701 1997 718 631 684 659

  16. Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  17. Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 134 102 102 102 24 20 27 7 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  18. Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  19. Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  20. New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 8,529 7,949 8,687 8,339 8,740 8,289 7,875 7,987 7,677 7,773 7,824 8,089 1997 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 1998 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 1999 12,787 11,548 12,722 12,443 12,412 12,599 12,654 12,926 12,327 12,927 12,633 11,671 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0

  1. California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 349 371 540 437 95 127 5 3 832 1,103 1990's 849 788 1,142 1,130 1,126 920 932 239 726 208 2000's ...

  2. Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 40,233 40,090 47,185 22,252 20,220 19,882 18,893 18,697 20,262 22,131 1990's 20,792 20,146 26,719 25,320 26,980 26,580 27,006 27,205 26,612 23,956 2000's 22,618 21,374 19,060 19,092 19,092 17,715 16,097 16,529 17,394 16,658 2010's 14,418 18,972 0

  3. Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 1,825 1,776 1,759 1,668 1,765 1,492 1,869 1,541 2,011 857 1,610 1,972 1992 2,247 1,940 1,988 2,248 2,249 2,233 2,381 2,259 2,222 2,290 2,277 2,387 1993 2,340 1,872 2,111 1,945 1,407 1,747 2,269 2,331 2,270 2,338 2,232 2,457 1994 2,473 2,025 2,223 2,147 1,562 1,554 2,551 2,616 2,287 2,375 2,593 2,575 1995 2,412 2,008 2,181 2,136 1,597 1,475 2,496 2,591 2,213 2,314 2,581 2,576 1996 2,211 2,030 2,287 2,270 2,346 2,216 2,232 2,297 2,257 2,293

  4. Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  5. Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  6. Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  7. Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  8. California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 71 76 80 78 78 76 80 79 77 79 78 80 1997 20 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 1998 62 56 62 60 62 60 62 62 60 62 60 62 1999 18 16 18 17 18 17 18 18 17 18 17 18 2000 22 20 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 2001 21 19 21 20 21 20 21 21 20 21 20 21 2002 224 203 227 211 219 217 217 410 274 304 330 299 2003 309 277 304 289 307 293 298 285 279 281 276 281 2004 284 260 273 270 278 269 278 275 270 279 272 277 2005 104 250 276 272 280 267 282

  9. Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 51 49 45 45 48 50 81 65 68 63 66 69 1997 69 66 79 72 70 58 67 65 67 59 57 64 1998 62 56 60 62 66 55 65 69 58 61 69 67 1999 67 58 64 59 55 51 65 74 68 68 73 65 2000 64 62 73 64 69 61 68 68 68 66 58 66 2001 59 51 56 64 57 61 71 68 63 90 49 46 2002 44 33 50 38 38 37 34 31 32 31 27 35 2003 30 26 30 27 27 36 35 30 35 38 34 37 2004 37 25 35 36 34 36 42 35 13 33 37 40 2005 43 31 37 33 36 27 12 19 26 26 25 23 2006 21 20 24 23 24 26 30 29 29 39 24

  10. Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  11. Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  12. Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  13. New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0...

  14. New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,695 2,047 1,599 1,884 2,016 40 38 2,430 1,408 1,942 1990's 1,772 1,876 2,751 2,753 3,164 3,282 97,759 145,594 134,122 149,650 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28,962 32,444 33,997 2010's 40,191 39,333 38,358 42,117 45,927

  15. North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6,238 6,656 9,004 6,708 5,800 5,102 1990's 5,393 4,447 508 532 358 93 358 161 57 78 2000's 73 89 139 123 126 87 53 42 9,044 6,244 2010's 7,448 10,271 6,762 7,221 7,008

  16. Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  17. Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 924 554 265 166 152 214 2000's 198 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  18. New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,695 2,047 1,599 1,884 2,016 40 38 2,430 1,408 1,942 1990's 1,772 1,876 2,751 2,753 3,164 3,282...

  19. Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  20. Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  1. Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  2. Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  3. Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 10,408 30,133 34,898 35,038 33,707 36,076 45,494 59,053 68,667 62,619 1990's 66,087 46,013 45,772 48,017 44,344 10,364 8,316 8,166 8,520 6,703 2000's 16,992 20,045 25,193 18,193 101,095 122,598 138,451 188,827 239,321 253,817 2010's 315,775 348,482 389,072 0 0

  4. Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 NA NA 2010's NA NA NA 0 0

  5. Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 518 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NA NA NA 2010's NA NA 0

  6. Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  7. Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  8. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 112 77 78 91 100 89 100 106 97 121 155 102 1997 173 188 180 168 228 187 188 102 189 192 185 199 1998 92 166 98 92 98 115 222 83 82 92 95 10 1999 70 71 70 65 68 66 66 66 63 67 65 64 2000 67 64 68 65 68 66 67 68 65 69 69 70 2001 77 69 75 71 73 74 73 78 76 79 78 83 2002 83 75 84 79 79 77 79 80 72 80 72 75 2003 96 86 95 92 95 92 94 96 94 98 95 90 2004 99 89 98 94 98 95 97 99 97 101 98 93 2005 103 94 103 99 103 99 102 104 102 106 102 98 2006

  9. Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  10. Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  11. Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 1,788 1,684 1,571 1,593 1,807 1,690 2,042 1,781 1,437 1,867 1,649 1,505 1992 1,707 1,639 1,564 1,775 1,752 2,153 1,623 1,737 1,907 1,568 1,595 1,518 1993 1,588 1,460 1,500 1,708 1,614 1,590 1,778 1,711 2,014 1,500 1,482 1,636 1994 1,597 1,468 1,509 1,717 1,623 1,599 1,788 1,720 2,025 1,509 1,490 1,645 1995 1,519 1,396 1,435 1,633 1,544 1,521 1,701 1,636 1,926 1,435 1,418 1,565 1996 1,545 1,443 1,514 1,471 1,528 1,939 2,042 2,033 1,985

  12. Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 3 0 0 16 1992 4 4 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 1993 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 1994 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 1995 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1996 2 15 21 9 11 11 11 6 10 22 6 11 1997 2 13 18 8 10 10 9 5 9 20 5 9 1998 5 4 3 4 5 7 6 6 5 6 5 6 1999 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2000 3 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2001 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2002 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 4 2003 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 7 7 8 2004 3 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 0 0 3 3 2005 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

  13. Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 1997 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 1998 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 1999 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2000 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2001 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2002 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2003 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 277 2004 277 277 277 277

  14. Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 217 199 223 219 237 234 239 235 213 224 218 220 1997 214 202 214 209 221 223 218 242 235 258 250 256 1998 250 222 245 225 233 220 238 232 235 234 227 236 1999 230 217 247 232 239 233 234 231 226 223 214 219 2000 205 161 204 193 213 198 210 214 205 223 216 235 2001 236 216 234 241 248 236 265 266 242 260 251 267 2002 259 299 266 255 266 262 267 274 276 280 267 298 2003 293 261 282 277 284 285 244 304 306 323 305 337 2004 319 321 331 325

  15. Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 1992 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 3 1993 2 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 1994 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1995 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 3 3 1996 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 3 3 11 1997 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  16. Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 32 38 34 40 43 27 63 59 60 71 67 62 1997 67 60 71 62 66 83 72 92 47 118 186 195 1998 189 147 159 177 107 76 155 129 136 0 0 0 1999 47 54 50 52 56 58 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 43 39 41 44 49 44 44 36 36 39 43 28 2001 36 32 40 35 36 36 35 33 34 32 28 27 2002 30 25 27 31 31 30 28 32 30 29 28 27 2003 34 28 30 33 34 36 32 32 29 30 43 43 2004 49 41 37 81 85 91 97 125 135 150 125 55 2005 42 36 52 46 57 57 60 55 52 56 51 66 2006 74 75 73 86 111 99 94 87

  17. Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 48 48 55 56 60 57 58 53 53 55 53 60 1992 61 56 61 56 65 61 61 56 54 55 52 53 1993 62 52 60 61 63 62 64 66 63 60 56 55 1994 63 61 70 65 71 69 68 71 66 66 65 69 1995 63 56 59 59 60 57 57 56 54 51 55 55 1996 51 48 49 49 48 46 46 46 42 42 42 40 1997 39 37 41 38 39 39 42 40 45 55 55 54 1998 57 55 47 44 42 36 36 37 33 33 30 31 1999 31 26 29 30 31 30 30 31 26 32 30 31 2000 31 30 28 30 31 29 27 31 28 29 27 27 2001 27 26 28 25 26 25 29 29 26 27 26

  18. Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 3 3 5 6 6 5 5 4 4 5 4 3 1992 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1993 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1994 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1995 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1996 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1997 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1998 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1999 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2000 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2001 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2002 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2003 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2005 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  19. North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 232 193 232 176 230 258 269 324 298 334 213 199 1997 229 264 293 280 303 313 258 301 327 330 321 315 1998 308 301 334 380 418 459 435 425 310 328 345 330 1999 231 194 245 204 202 206 231 307 232 227 202 212 2000 225 218 226 237 257 271 292 327 293 333 311 300 2001 269 246 276 255 245 263 289 283 250 260 281 249 2002 231 221 210 235 250 238 258 245 257 222 210 214 2003 196 167 193 174 167 161 158 171 164 181 168 170 2004 197 157 166 150

  20. Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  1. Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  2. Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 13,942 13,557 14,940 12,971 14,588 14,028 14,816 14,906 15,187 15,171 14,489 14,803 1992 15,418 14,446 14,043 15,744 15,716 14,929 15,203 15,313 14,243 15,567 14,513 14,868 1993 15,307 13,813 15,250 14,590 15,480 14,914 15,983 16,468 14,486 15,673 15,868 16,426 1994 16,557 15,133 16,303 16,449 16,781 16,234 14,410 15,490 16,853 17,348 17,080 17,827 1995 16,874 15,423 16,615 16,765 17,103 16,545 14,686 15,787 17,177 17,681 17,408 18,169

  3. Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,469 2,143 3,169 44,683 33,893 131,894 138,322 143,787 204,371 99,686 1990's 28,188 28,631 22,793 151,239 138,056 145,724 144,194 146,414 142,739 144,756 2000's 177,553 149,240 151,566 148,987 155,825 161,732 149,561 154,157 161,952 155,366 2010's 164,221 152,421 151,288 152,803 171,580

  4. Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0...

  5. Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 730 790 769 1,205 963 766 715 704 861 583 478 765 2001 852 765 1,053 957 1,104 1,086 1,925 1,935 1,418 1,469 1,570 951 2002 1,221 1,265 1,334 1,269 1,197 1,224 1,354 1,285 1,259 1,525 1,172 1,115 2003 1,184 1,146 1,278 1,218 1,081 1,186 1,205 1,134 1,181 1,070 1,091 1,036 2004 991 932 942 895 880 864 744 961 883 886 823 790

  6. West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  7. Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 2,374 2,117 2,567 2,440 2,313 2,308 2,342 2,478 2,317 2,472 2,521 2,381 1992 2,015 1,452 1,893 1,823 1,717 1,841 2,042 2,024 1,919 2,008 2,039 2,020 1993 13,055 11,433 13,119 12,645 13,201 6,119 12,956 13,525 13,301 13,884 14,076 13,925 1994 12,654 11,498 12,761 12,155 10,841 6,002 12,042 12,022 11,700 12,648 11,857 11,877 1995 13,054 11,340 12,181 12,297 12,586 12,154 12,287 10,493 12,228 12,613 12,100 12,391 1996 12,895 12,028 13,010

  8. Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0...

  9. Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0...

  10. Landi-Hartog U. S. A. adjusts to the U. S. market. [Marketing of LPG carburetor systems for using propane as an automotive fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Landi-Hartog U.S.A. has adjusted to the U.S. market in providing LPG carburetor systems for passenger cars. Landi-Hartog (LH) had to completely redesign the components on the system to be compatible with U.S. 300-525 cu in. engines. The company has California Air Resources Board approval for 300 cu in. engines and above in dual-fuel service. However, the U.S. market will remain severely restricted unless basic distribution (and the political) changes are made. The U.S. is st

  11. Method of concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Mark A; Meike, Annemarie; Anderson, Brian L

    2015-04-28

    A system for concurrently filtering particles and collecting gases. Materials are be added (e.g., via coating the ceramic substrate, use of loose powder(s), or other means) to a HEPA filter (ceramic, metal, or otherwise) to collect gases (e.g., radioactive gases such as iodine). The gases could be radioactive, hazardous, or valuable gases.

  12. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  13. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  14. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  15. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  16. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - About the...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Greenhouse Gases Program About the 1605(b) Program History Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases ...

  17. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Under Constructi...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Greenhouse Gases Program This Page is Currently Under Construction Please check back at a later time For more information on the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases ...

  18. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program -Data and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data and Reports Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Data and Reports The first reporting cycle under the revised Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program closed ...

  19. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Getting...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Getting Started Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Getting Started Form ... The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program suggests that prospective reporters ...

  20. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Contact

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Contact Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Contact For more information on the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, contact us via e-mail, phone, fax, or ...

  1. Method and apparatus for separating mixtures of gases using an...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method and apparatus for separating mixtures of gases using an acoustic wave Title: Method and apparatus for separating mixtures of gases using an acoustic wave A thermoacoustic ...

  2. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  3. FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of escaping gases increased the pressure due to resistance to fluid flow by the obstacle. ... and Volatile Solids. N F P A 325, 60 Battery march St., Boston 10, Mass., 1960, 126 pp. ...

  4. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  5. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  6. Process for LPG recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Sh. A.; Haliburton, J.

    1985-03-26

    An improved process is described for the separation and recovery of substantially all the propane and heavier hydrocarbon components in a hydrocarbon gaseous feedstream. In this process, the vapor stream from a deethanizer is cooled to liquefaction and contacted with a vapor phase from the hydrocarbon gaseous feedstream. The contact takes place within a direct heat exchanger, and the resulting vapor fraction, which is essentially ethane and methane, is the gaseous product of the process.

  7. Process for LPG recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, S.A.; Haliburton, J.

    1990-10-30

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for separating propane and heavier hydrocarbons from a gaseous feedstream containing hydrocarbon components of different boiling points wherein the feedstream is cooled and separated into a first vapor fraction and a first liquid fraction and the first liquid fraction is distilled in a deethanizer to form a second vapor fraction and a second liquid fraction. The improvement comprises expanding and transferring the first vapor fraction to the lower portion of a direct heat exchanger, cooling {ital at least a portion of} the second vapor fraction {ital by passing it through an indirect heat exchanger} to form a substantially liquefied stream, {ital partially flashing at least a portion of the liquefied stream and transferring it} to the upper portion of the direct heat exchanger whereby the liquefied stream contacts the first vapor fraction to form a third vapor fraction and a third liquid fraction, {ital transferring} the third liquid fraction to the deethanizer, and removing the third vapor fraction from the direct heat exchanger {ital and passing the third vapor fraction through the indirect heat exchanger}.

  8. LPG in Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calcagno, O.

    1986-01-01

    The GNP for Argentina in 1985 was of about 70 billion dollars ( a little over 2200 dollars/capita), the same as 1970 in real terms; foreign debt being over 40 billion. After several years of negative GNP growth, it will probably show a moderate increase in 1986. Industry represents 21 percent of the GNP, agriculture 16 percent. Total exports 12-14 percent. Imports are 8-9 percent. Historical investment of the energy sector was about 3.4 percent. The State, the Public Sector, plays an important role in every aspect, concentrating about 50 percent of the economy. For example, the Central Government sets official prices for most of the forms of energy. Normally, these prices do not relate to international price levels. The country has to catch up with the developed world and it is striving to increase productivity. There is a need to get its products to the external market as well as to attract foreign investment. The government has apparently become fully aware of that, being now a matter of how those goals are accomplished. It may take some time and reeducation of people at all levels to do so.

  9. The future of energy gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, D.G.

    1995-04-01

    Natural gas, mainly methane, produces lower CO {sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, SO {sub 2} and particulate emissions than either oil or coal; thus further substitutions of methane for these fuels could help mitigate air pollution. Methane is, however, a potent greenhouse gas and the domestication of ruminants, cultivation of rice, mining of coal, drilling for oil, and transportation of natural gas have all contributed to a doubling of the amount of atmospheric methane since 1800. Today nearly 300,000 wells yearly produce each 21 trillion cubic feet of methane. Known reserves suggest about a 10 year supply at the above rates of recovery; and the potential for undiscovered resources is obscured by uncertainty involving price, new technologies, and environmental restrictions stemming from the need to drill an enormous number of wells, many in ecologically sensitive areas. The atomic simplicity of methane, composed of one carbon and four hydrogen atoms, may mask the complexity of this, the most basic of organic molecules. Within the Earth, methane is produced through thermochemical alteration of organic materials, and by biochemical reactions mediated by metabolic processes of archaebacteria; some methane may even be primordial, a residue of planetary accretion. Methane is known to exist in the mantle and lower crust. Near the Earth`s surface, methane occurs in enormous oil and/or gas reservoirs in rock, and is absorbed in coal, dissolved in water, and trapped in a latticework of ice-like material called gas hydrate. Methane also occurs in smaller volumes in landfills, rice paddies, termite complexes, ruminants, and even many humans. As an energy source, methane accounts for roughly 25 percent of current U.S. consumption, but its full energy potential is controversial. Methane is touted by some as a viable bridge to future energy systems, fueled by the sun and uranium and carried by electricity and hydrogen.

  10. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  11. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  12. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, Wilfred M; Venterea, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

  13. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  14. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  15. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  16. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  17. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab

  18. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  19. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  20. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  1. EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The data can be converted to carbon equivalent units by multiplying by 1244. Data on ozone-depleting gases with high global warming potentials (high-GWP gases) are obtained ...

  2. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  3. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  4. Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refinery Yield (Percent) Product: Liquefied Refinery Gases Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes

  5. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E.; Kenyon, Brian E.

    2001-05-15

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  6. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D.; Koo, Jackson C.; Rosencwaig, Allan

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

  7. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  8. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.; Koo, J.C.; Rosencwaig, A.

    A method is described for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500..mu.. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4/sub ..mu../) and thick walls (5 to 20/sub ..mu../) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, D, H/sub 2/, DT, He, N/sub 2/, Ne, CO/sub 2/, etc., in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-form-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace.

  9. TEXAS LPG FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT Full-Text - Submission contains both citation data and full-text of the journal article. Full-text can be either a pre-print or post-print, but not the copyrighted article.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SOUTHWEST RESEARCH LABORATORY SUBMITTED BY SUBCONTRACTOR, RAILROAD COMMISSION OF TEXAS

    2004-07-26

    The State Energy Conservation Office has executed its first Fuel Cell Project which was awarded under a Department of Energy competitive grant process. The Texas LPG Fuel Processor Development and Fuel Cell Demonstration Program is a broad-based public/private partnership led by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO). Partners include the Alternative Fuels Research and Education Division (AFRED) of the Railroad Commission of Texas; Plug Power, Inc., Latham, NY, UOP/HyRadix, Des Plaines, IL; Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), San Antonio, TX; the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). The team proposes to mount a development and demonstration program to field-test and evaluate markets for HyRadix?s LPG fuel processor system integrated into Plug Power?s residential-scale GenSys 5C (5 kW) PEM fuel cell system in a variety of building types and conditions of service. The program?s primary goal is to develop, test, and install a prototype propane-fueled residential fuel cell power system supplied by Plug Power and HyRadix in Texas. The propane industry is currently funding development of an optimized propane fuel processor by project partner UOP/HyRadix through its national checkoff program, the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC). Following integration and independent verification of performance by Southwest Research Institute, Plug Power and HyRadix will produce a production-ready prototype unit for use in a field demonstration. The demonstration unit produced during this task will be delivered and installed at the Texas Department of Transportation?s TransGuide headquarters in San Antonio, Texas. Simultaneously, the team will undertake a market study aimed at identifying and quantifying early-entry customers, technical and regulatory requirements, and other challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed in planning commercialization of the units. For further information please contact Mary-Jo Rowan at mary-jo.rowan@cpa.state.tx.us

  10. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, Samuel M.; Maier, II, William B.; Holland, Redus F.; Beattie, Willard H.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (.about.2 ppm) present in commercial Xe and ppm levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  11. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  12. Traveling dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim

    2011-04-15

    Families of dark solitons exist in superfluid Fermi gases. The energy-velocity dispersion and number of depleted particles completely determine the dynamics of dark solitons on a slowly varying background density. For the unitary Fermi gas, we determine these relations from general scaling arguments and conservation of local particle number. We find solitons to oscillate sinusoidally at the trap frequency reduced by a factor of 1/{radical}(3). Numerical integration of the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation determines spatial profiles and soliton-dispersion relations across the BEC-BCS crossover, and proves consistent with the scaling relations at unitarity.

  13. Study of electron transport in hydrocarbon gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, H.; Date, H.

    2015-04-07

    The drift velocity and the effective ionization coefficient of electrons in the organic gases, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}, have been measured over relatively wide ranges of density-reduced electric fields (E/N) at room temperature (around 300?K). The drift velocity was measured, based on the arrival-time spectra of electrons by using a double-shutter drift tube over the E/N range from 300 to 2800 Td, and the effective ionization coefficient (?????) was determined by the steady-state Townsend method from 150 to 3000 Td. Whenever possible, these parameters were compared with those available in the literature. It has been shown that the swarm parameters for these gases have specific tendencies, depending on their molecular configurations.

  14. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  15. Effect of Noble Gases on Sonoluminescence Temperatures during Multibubble

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cavitation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effect of Noble Gases on Sonoluminescence Temperatures during Multibubble Cavitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Noble Gases on Sonoluminescence Temperatures during Multibubble Cavitation Sonoluminescence spectra were collected from Cr(CO){sub 6} solutions in octanol and dodecane saturated with various noble gases. The emission from excited-state metal atoms serves as an internal thermometer of cavitation. The intensity

  16. Deviation from the Knudsen law on quantum gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babac, Gulru

    2014-12-09

    Gas flow in micro/nano scale systems has been generally studied for the Maxwell gases. In the limits of very low temperature and very confined domains, the Maxwellian approximation can break down and the quantum character of the gases becomes important. In these cases, Knudsen law, which is one of the important equations to analyze rarefied gas flows is invalid and should be reanalyzed for quantum gases. In this work, the availability of quantum gas conditions in the high Knudsen number cases is discussed and Knudsen law is analyzed for quantum gases.

  17. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Schedule Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Revised Launch Schedule EIA will begin accepting both Start Year and Reporting Year reports using the Workbook Form on ...

  18. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Section...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Section 1605 Text Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Section 1605 Text Energy ... national aggregate emissions of each greenhouse gas for each calendar year of the ...

  19. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Original 1605(b) Program Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 established the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse ...

  20. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Emission...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Emission Factors Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Emission Factors and Global Warming Potentials The greenhouse gas emission factors and global warming potentials ...

  1. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Greenhouse Gases Program Original 1605(b) Program Calculation Tools The workbooks below were developed to assist participants in the original Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse ...

  2. Test Results For Physical Separation Of Tritium From Noble Gases...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Test Results For Physical Separation Of Tritium From Noble Gases And It's Implications For Sensitivity And Accuracy In Air And Stack Monitoring Test Results For Physical Separation ...

  3. BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) Place: Taipei, Taiwan Sector: Solar Product: BOCLH is a joint venture between the Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation and the BOC Group in the United...

  4. Removal of mercury from waste gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muster, U.; Marr, R.; Pichler, G.; Kremshofer, S.; Wilferl, R.; Draxler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Waste and process gases from thermal power, incineration and metallurgical plants or those from cement and alkali chloride industries contain metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Widespread processes to remove the major amount of mercury are absorption and adsorption. Caused by the lowering of the emission limit from 200 to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] by national and European legislators, considerable efforts were made to enhance the efficiency of the main separation units of flue gas cleaning plants. Specially impregnated ceramic carriers can be used for the selective separation of metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Using the ceramic reactor removal rates lower than 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] of gaseous mercury and its compounds can be achieved. The ceramic reactor is active, regenerable and stable for a long term operation. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  6. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Lyon, David K.; Miller, Warren K.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  7. Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.

    2015-05-15

    An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Greens function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.

  8. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.; Herman, Harold

    1989-01-01

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases absorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel.

  9. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

    1988-05-05

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

  10. Glass surface deactivants for sulfur-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Gluck, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    In gas chromatographic technique for measuring reduced sulfur-containing gases in biogenic air fluxes, the major problem seemed to be the irreversible adsorption of the polar sulfur compounds on the glass surfaces of the cryogenic sampling traps. This article discusses the comparative degrees of Pyrex glass surface passivation for over 25 chemical deactivants and their related pretreatment procedures. Since H/sub 2/S was discovered to be the sulfur compound with a consistently lower recovery efficiency than COS, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH, CS/sub 2/ or CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, the percent recovery for H/sub 2/S was employed as the indicator of effectiveness for the various deactivation treatments. Tables are presented summarizing the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for chlorosilane deactivants and for the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for different pyrex surface pretreatments with an octadecyltrialkoxysilane deactivation. The general conclusion of this investigation is that the relative degree of passivation for glass surfaces by present deactivation techniques is dependent on the types of analyzed compounds and the nature of the glass surface.

  11. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  12. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  13. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  14. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  15. Carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis in natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, F.; Caribotti, P.; Garofalo, N.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide may naturally occur in high H/sub 2/S - CO/sub 2/ content sour natural gases. Furthermore part of the H/sub 2/S present in natural gases may be converted into COS if molecular sieves are used as H/sub 2/S removal substances in natural gas desulphurization plants. Carbonyl sulfide might then hydrolize to H/sub 2/S in the gas storage fields and transmission lines. This paper illustrates experimental data relevant to the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reaction between carbonyl sulfide and water both at gas and gas/liquid phases. Results may suggest whether carbonyl sulfide should be included in natural gas quality specifications.

  16. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Why Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Why Report What Is the Purpose of Form EIA-1605? Form EIA-1605 provides the means for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, ...

  17. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  18. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, Claude R.; Ernstberger, Harold G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  19. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  20. Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)...

  1. METHOD FOR PUMPING GASES AT LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-01

    A method is given for pumping overpressure "pulses" or "bursts" of gases without a significant rise in base pressure within a "gettering-type" vacuum pump having surfaces within the pumping cavity coated with or comprising clean gettering metal, e.g., Mo or Ta. The cavity is first pumped down by any convenient means to an equilibrium base pressure in the range desired, generally below 10/sup -6/ mm Hg. At this pressure, the metal immediately adsorbs overpressures or "bursts" of gases striking same with thermal motion without raising the base pressure significantiy. Desorption takes place at an equilibrium rate which, of course, is dependent upon the equilibrium pressure, and such desorbed gases are continuously removed by diffuaion pump or other pumping, whereby said overpressures or "bursts" of gases are removed without a rise in the equilibrium pressure and/or back diffusion of the gaseous pulse from the pumping cavity. (AEC)

  2. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air ... to the U.S. schedule mandated in the Clean Air Act, 2010 was a target year to end ...

  3. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudge, Lyle K.; Brown, Michael D.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Baker, Eddie G.

    1989-01-01

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  4. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  5. New model more accurately tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detection Model tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion detection New model more accurately tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion detection Scientists have developed a new, more thorough method for detecting underground nuclear explosions by coupling two fundamental elements-seismic models with gas-flow models. December 17, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and

  6. Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rings and Other Defects (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex Rings and Other Defects « Prev Next » Title: Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex Rings and Other Defects Authors: Scherpelz, Peter ; Padavić, Karmela ; Rançon, Adam ; Glatz, Andreas ; Aranson, Igor S. ; Levin, K. Publication Date: 2014-09-16 OSTI Identifier: 1180434 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical

  7. Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rings and Other Defects (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex Rings and Other Defects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase Imprinting in Equilibrating Fermi Gases: The Transience of Vortex Rings and Other Defects Authors: Scherpelz, Peter ; Padavić, Karmela ; Rançon, Adam ; Glatz, Andreas ; Aranson, Igor S. ; Levin, K. Publication Date: 2014-09-16 OSTI Identifier: 1180434 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

  8. Raman Scattering Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Amines and Acid Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uibel, Rory; Smith, Lee

    2010-05-20

    Sulfur and CO2 removal from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents are a major problem. The sulfur is normally in the form of H2S. These two acid gases are scrubbed using aqueous amine solutions that are difficult to control with conventional technology. Process Instruments Inc. developed Raman scattering technology for on-line, real-time monitoring of amine streams to improve their efficiency in scrubbing H2S and CO2 from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents. Improved control of amine and acid gas concentrations will allow refineries, natural gas processes and power plants to more efficiently scrub Sulfur and CO2, saving energy, time and financial resources.

  9. Process for removal of carbonyl sulfide in liquified hydrocarbon gases with absorption of acid gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavon, D.K.; Mackles, M.

    1980-11-11

    Liquified hydrocarbon gases containing at least carbonyl sulfide as an impurity are purified by intimately mixing the liquified hydrocarbon gas with an aqueous absorbent for hydrogen sulfide in a hydrolysis zone maintained at a temperature and a pressure sufficient to maintain the liquified hydrocarbon gas in the liquid state and hydrolyze the carbonyl sulfide to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The liquified hydrocarbon gas containing at least a portion of the formed carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide is separated from the liquid absorbent and passed to an absorption zone where it is contacted with a liquid hydrogen sulfide absorbent where at least the formed hydrogen sulfide is separated from the liquified petroleum gas. A stage of absorption of at least hydrogen sulfide may proceed mixing of the liquified hydrocarbon gas with the absorbent in the hydrolysis reaction zone. The absorbent employed does not combine irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, and preferably is an aqueous solution of diethanolamine.

  10. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Markun, Francis; Zawadzki, Mary T.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

  11. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

    1998-04-28

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

  12. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  13. "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.5;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel ...

  14. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett; Zielke, Clyde W.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  15. Hard probes of strongly-interacting atomic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Yusuke

    2012-06-18

    We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

  16. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  17. Radiolytic and thermal generation of gases from Hanford grout samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisel, D.; Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Mulac, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    Gamma irradiation of WHC-supplied samples of grouted Tank 102-AP simulated nonradioactive waste has been carried out at three dose rates, 0.25, 0.63, and 130 krad/hr. The low dose rate corresponds to that in the actual grout vaults; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to more than 40 years in the grout vault were achieved. An average G(H{sub 2}) = 0.047 molecules/100 eV was found, independent of dose rate. The rate of H2 production decreases above 80 Mrad. For other gases, G(N{sub 2}) = 0.12, G(O{sub 2}) = 0.026, G(N{sub 2}O) = 0.011 and G(CO) = 0.0042 at 130 krad/hr were determined. At lower dose rates, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could not be measured because of interference by trapped air. The value of G(H{sub 2}) is higher than expected, suggesting segregation of water from nitrate and nitrite salts in the grout. The total pressure generated by the radiolysis at 130 krad/h has been independently measured, and total amounts of gases generated were calculated from this measurement. Good agreement between this measurement and the sum of all the gases that were independently determined was obtained. Therefore, the individual gas measurements account for most of the major components that are generated by the radiolysis. At 90 {degree}C, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were generated at a rate that could be described by exponential formation of each of the gases. Gases measured at the lower temperatures were probably residual trapped gases. An as yet unknown product interfered with oxygen determinations at temperatures above ambient. The thermal results do not affect the radiolytic findings.

  18. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I.

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  19. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  20. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  1. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  2. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.; Liu, Jun; Huo, Qisheng

    2012-04-17

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  3. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  4. Unconventional states and geometric effects in mesoscopic systems of ultra-cold atomic Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolech, C. J.

    2014-10-15

    During the last decade, experiments all over the world started to test the superconducting state of matter using a newly developed mesoscopic tunable system: trapped ultra-cold atomic gases. Theorists and experimentalists hand-in-hand are now able to advance our understanding of the superconducting state by asking new questions that probe further into the physical mechanisms underlying the phenomenon and the door is open to the exploration of exotic unconventional superconducting states. In particular, a series of experiments on systems of trapped cold atomic gases were aimed at studying the effects of polarization on superconducting pairing. Two different experimental groups encountered surprising qualitative and quantitative discrepancies which seemed to be a function of the confining geometry and the cooling protocol. Our numerical studies demonstrate a tendency towards metastability and suggest an explanation for the observed discrepancy. From our calculations, the most likely solution which is consistent with the experiments supports a state strikingly similar to the so called FFLO state (after Ferrell, Fulde, Larkin and Ovchinnikov), which had been theorized long ago but eluded detection so far. Moreover, the three-dimensional scenario described above is reminiscent of predictions for one-dimensional systems of dilute polarized attractive gases and another set of ultra-cold-atom experiments incorporates optical lattices to study this reduced-dimensionality setting. The measurements are in quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations (using a wide array of numerical and analytic techniques) in which a partially polarized phase is found to be the one-dimensional analogue of the FFLO state. Moreover, exploring the dimensional-crossover regime, our latest findings indicate that the mesoscopic nature of these quasi-one-dimensional systems favors the appearance of a new type of Mott phase transition involving an emergent pair-superfluid of equal-spin fermions.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences.

  6. U.S. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 18,000 16,000 17,000 16,000 17,000 16,000 17,000 17,000 17,000 15,000 17,000 18,000 1981 20,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 19,000 20,000 18,000 18,000

  7. New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  8. New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  9. U.S. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980's 199,063 221,878 208,492 221,937 224,118 326,497 336,851 376,033 459,883 362,457 1990's 289,374 275,831 280,370 413,971 412,178 388,392 518,425 598,691 616,715 615,014 2000's 505,472 462,738 502,176 498,724 654,124 711,095 730,946 661,168 718,674 721,507 2010's 836,698 867,922 768,598 368,469 400,600

  10. Fuel Cell System Challenges Utilizing Natural Gas and Methanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    low cost, long life & high efficiency NGLPG systems require low ppb sulfur levels for ... contaminants in commercial MeOH and NG LPG in N. America Development of liquid phase ...

  11. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, E. Jr.; Vernet, J.E. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    DOE is developing guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and their reductions, under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The establishment of this voluntary program should encourage the reduction of greenhouse gases while providing the opportunity to share innovative approaches to achieving such reductions. This social learning aspect is an important element of the program. In addition to greenhouse gas reductions achieved during a given year, reporters are encouraged to also report their actual emissions of such gases for 1987 through 1990. Due to the voluntary nature of this program, and the myriad differences among the potential reporting entities and possible uses for the data reported, the guidelines will need to be structured so as to maximize participation without compromising the usefulness of the data collected. Through a broad notice of inquiry, published in the Federal Register on July 27, 1993, the Department began seeking input into development of the guidelines. Subsequently, to gain a better understanding of the various sectors of the economy, six public workshops were held during the 1993. One workshop addressed institutional issues of potential interest to all sectors of the economy, with the other five workshops focusing more on matters of concern to specific sectors. These meetings were structured so as to provide broad representation from potential reporting entities along with public interest organizations. It is clear that there are significant variations among those reporting greenhouse information. Presently voluntary, the program will need flexibility to encourage broad participation.

  12. Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation fuel-cyl

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-06-20

    The GREET model estimates the full fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with various transportation fuels and advanced vehile technologies applied to motor vehicles. GREET 1.5 includes the following cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, conventional diesel, reformulated diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; corn, woody biomass, andmore » herbaceous biomass to ethanol; soybeans to biodiesel; flared gas to methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and dimethyl ether; and landfill gases to methanol. For a given fuel/transportation technology combination, GREET 1.5 calculates (1) the fuel-cycle consumption of total energy (all energy sources), fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), and petroleum; (2) the fuel-cycle emissions of GHGs -- primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20); and (3) the fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (C0), nitrogen oxides (N0x), sulfur oxides (S0x), and particulate matter with a diameter measuring 10 micrometers or less (PM10). The model is designed to readily allow researchers to input their own assumptions and generate fuel-cycle energy and emission results for specified fuel/technology combinations.« less

  13. Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation fuel-cyl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Michael

    2000-06-20

    The GREET model estimates the full fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with various transportation fuels and advanced vehile technologies applied to motor vehicles. GREET 1.5 includes the following cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, conventional diesel, reformulated diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; soybeans to biodiesel; flared gas to methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and dimethyl ether; and landfill gases to methanol. For a given fuel/transportation technology combination, GREET 1.5 calculates (1) the fuel-cycle consumption of total energy (all energy sources), fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), and petroleum; (2) the fuel-cycle emissions of GHGs -- primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20); and (3) the fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (C0), nitrogen oxides (N0x), sulfur oxides (S0x), and particulate matter with a diameter measuring 10 micrometers or less (PM10). The model is designed to readily allow researchers to input their own assumptions and generate fuel-cycle energy and emission results for specified fuel/technology combinations.

  14. Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System This tip sheet discusses ... PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET 9 PDF icon Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired ...

  15. Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus Nitrogen Oxide Emission Standards, Model Years 2017-2025 Fact 825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus Nitrogen ...

  16. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  17. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  18. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, M.

    1995-02-07

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

  19. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Michael

    1995-01-01

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

  20. Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

  1. Nanostructured carbon materials for adsorption of methane and other gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stadie, Nicholas P.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Murialdo, Maxwell

    2015-06-30

    Provided are methods for storing gases on porous adsorbents, methods for optimizing the storage of gases on porous adsorbents, methods of making porous adsorbents, and methods of gas storage of optimized compositions, as in systems containing porous adsorbents and gas adsorbed on the surface of the porous adsorbent. The disclosed methods and systems feature a constant or increasing isosteric enthalpy of adsorption as a function of uptake of the gas onto the exposed surface of a porous adsorbent. Adsorbents with a porous geometry and surface dimensions suited to a particular adsorbate are exposed to the gas at elevated pressures in the specific regime where n/V (density) is larger than predicted by the ideal gas law by more than several percent.

  2. Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leon, Albert M.

    1982-01-01

    Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

  3. Flash pyrolysis of biomass with reactive and nonreactive gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1982-10-01

    Studies were done on the flash pyrolysis of Douglas fir wood in the presence of reactive and nonreactive gases including hydrogen, methane, and helium. Pyrolysis and gasification of the wood particles was done in one step, without catalysts. Almost complete (98%) gasification of the carbon in Douglas fir wood was achieved at 1000/sup 0/C and 500-psi hydrogen pressure. The reaction products were methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide, BTX, and water. Flash hydropyrolysis produced a large yield of hydrocarbon gases (up to 78% C) comprising methane and ethane. High yields of ethylene (up to 21% C) and BTX (up to 12% C) were obtained via methane pyrolysis of fir wood; a free-radical mechanism is proposed to explain the enhanced yield of ethylene in a methane atmosphere.

  4. System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, John S.; Ognibene, Ted J.; Bench, Graham S.; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2009-11-03

    A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

  5. MOFs Can Tune the Critical Point of Gases | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome MOFs Can Tune the Critical Point of Gases

  6. Extraction of uranium from spent fuels using liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi

    2007-07-01

    For reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a novel method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. As a fundamental study, the nitrate conversion with liquefied nitrogen dioxide and the nitrate extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide were demonstrated by using uranium dioxide powder, uranyl nitrate and tri-n-butylphosphate complex in the present study. (authors)

  7. Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes (FLASK) Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes (FLASK) Handbook S Biraud March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not

  8. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  9. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  10. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  11. Two-band description of resonant superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Lianyi; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji

    2015-02-23

    Fermionic superfluidity in atomic Fermi gases across a Feshbach resonance is normally described by the atom-molecule theory, which treats the closed channel as a noninteracting point boson. In this work we present a theoretical description of the resonant superfluidity in analogy to the two-band superconductors. We employ the underlying two-channel scattering model of Feshbach resonance where the closed channel is treated as a composite boson with binding energy ε0 and the resonance is triggered by the microscopic interchannel coupling U12. The binding energy ε0 naturally serves as an energy scale of the system, which has been sent to infinity inmore » the atom-molecule theory. We show that the atom-molecule theory can be viewed as a leading-order low-energy effective theory of the underlying fermionic theory in the limit ε0→∞ and U12→0, while keeping the phenomenological atom-molecule coupling finite. The resulting two-band description of the superfluid state is in analogy to the BCS theory of two-band superconductors. In the dilute limit ε0→∞, the two-band description recovers precisely the atom-molecule theory. The two-band theory provides a natural approach to study the corrections because of a finite binding energy ε0 in realistic experimental systems. For broad and moderate resonances, the correction is not important for current experimental densities. However, for extremely narrow resonance, we find that the correction becomes significant. Lastly, the finite binding energy correction could be important for the stability of homogeneous polarized superfluid against phase separation in imbalanced Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance.« less

  12. Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... Analysis of Technology and Policy Tradeoffs, Energy Policy, ...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    75.1 degrees, respectively. Storage Table More Storage Data Other Market Trends EPA Issues Final Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule The U.S. Environmental Protection...

  14. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) A group of hydrocarbon-based ... aviation gasoline, special naphthas, wax, petroleum ... It is used in steam-powered vessels in government service ...

  15. Solubilities of heavy fossil fuels in compressed gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monge, A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Design of processes for upgrading heavy fossil fuels such as coal-derived liquids, heavy petroleum fractions, tar sands, and shale oil, requires quantitative information for equilibrium properties of the fossil fuel in the presence of compressed light gases at elevated temperatures. Presented here are methods to predict and measure solubilities of heavy fossil fuels in compressed gases in the region ambient to 100 bar and 600 K. A molecular-thermodynamic model is used to predict heavy fossil-fuel solubilities. The heavy fuel is fractionated ina spinning-band column at low pressure and high reflux; each fraction is considered to be a pseudo-component. Each fraction is characterized by one vapor-pressure datum (obtained during fractionation), elemental analysis, and proton-NMR spectra (to determine aromaticity). Liquid-phase properties are obtained from the SWAP equation for vapor pressure and from a density correlation. Vapor-phase properties are obtained using the virial equation of state with virial coefficients from Kaul's correlation. The molecular-thermodynamic model has been used to establish a design-oriented computer program for calculating heavy, fossil-fuel solubility for general application in process design and, in particular, for isobaric condensation as a function of temperature as required for design of a continuous-flow heat exchanger. A total-vaporization technique is used to measure the solubilities of narrow-boiling, heavy fossil-fuel fractions in compressed gases. The solubility of a heavy fraction is determined from the volume of gas required to vaporize completely a small, measured mass of fossil-fuel sample. To test the molecular-thermodynamic model, the total-vaporization technique has been used to measure the solubilities of two Lurgi coal-tar fractions in compressed methane. Predicted and experimental solubilities agree well.

  16. PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon dioxide. PPPL reduced leaks of SF6 by 65 percent over three years - reducing overall greenhouse gas

  17. Liquefaction and storage of thermal treatment off-gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, D.M. . Rocky Flats Plant); Golden, J.O. )

    1992-09-08

    A fluidized bed catalytic oxidation unit is being developed for use in the destruction of mixed waste at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cyclones, filters, in situ neutralization of acid gases, and a catalytic converter are used to meet emission standards. Because there is concern by the public that these measures may not be adequate, two off-gas capture systems were evaluated. Both systems involve liquefaction of carbon dioxide produced in the oxidation process. The carbon dioxide would be released only after analysis proved that all appropriate emission standards are met.

  18. Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

  19. MAGNETIC METHOD FOR PRODUCING HIGH VELOCITY SHOCK WAVES IN GASES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josephson, V.

    1960-01-26

    A device is described for producing high-energy plasmas comprising a tapered shock tube of dielectric material and having a closed small end, an exceedingly low-inductance coll supported about and axially aligned with the small end of the tapered tube. an elongated multiturn coil supported upon the remninder of the exterior wall of the shock tube. a potential source and switch connected in series with the low-inductance coil, a potential source and switch connected in series with the elongated coil, means for hermetically sealing the large end of the tube, means for purging the tube of gases, and means for admitting a selected gas into the shock tube.

  20. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, Raymond J.; Kurek, Paul R.

    1988-01-01

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  1. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

    1988-07-19

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  2. Nonperturbative Predictions for Cold Atom Bose Gases with Tunable Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Fred; Chien, Chih-Chun; Mihaila, Bogdan; Timmermans, Eddy; Dawson, John F.

    2010-12-10

    We derive a theoretical description for dilute Bose gases as a loop expansion in terms of composite-field propagators by rewriting the Lagrangian in terms of auxiliary fields related to the normal and anomalous densities. We demonstrate that already in leading order this nonperturbative approach describes a large interval of coupling-constant values, satisfies Goldstone's theorem, yields a Bose-Einstein transition that is second order, and is consistent with the critical temperature predicted in the weak-coupling limit by the next-to-leading-order large-N expansion.

  3. U.S. Natural Gas Plant Field Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Liquids 757,019 808,865 881,306 951,057 1,100,298 1,194,630 1981-2015 Pentanes Plus 101,155 106,284 116,002 126,809 143,831 156,568 1981-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ...

  4. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji

    2015-08-14

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show thatmore » the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2D. We find aB ≃ 0.56a2D, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.« less

  5. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  6. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P.; Lynn, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  7. Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Donald J.; Berman, Samuel M.

    1988-01-01

    A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

  8. Hydrocarbon processing symposium - 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnoni, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium which investigated the processes and equipment used in the petroleum and natural gas industries. Topics considered at the symposium included recirculation is centrifugal pumps, safety and security audits of LNG/LPG export facilities, flames in prestressed concrete LNG storage tanks, refrigerated liquefied gas storage, hydrogen-assisted failure in petroleum equipment, refinery off-gases, cryogenics, refrigerants, computer-aided plant design, and pipe vibration reducers.

  9. Detection And Discrimination Of Pure Gases And Binary Mixtures Using A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Single Microcantilever (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Detection And Discrimination Of Pure Gases And Binary Mixtures Using A Single Microcantilever Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detection And Discrimination Of Pure Gases And Binary Mixtures Using A Single Microcantilever A new method for detecting and discriminating pure gases and binary mixtures has been investigated. This approach combines two distinct physical mechanisms within a single piezoresistive microcantilever:

  10. Ultracold Bose gases in time-dependent one-dimensional superlattices:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Response and quasimomentum structure (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ultracold Bose gases in time-dependent one-dimensional superlattices: Response and quasimomentum structure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultracold Bose gases in time-dependent one-dimensional superlattices: Response and quasimomentum structure The response of ultracold atomic Bose gases in time-dependent optical lattices is discussed based on direct simulations of the time-evolution of the many-body state

  11. Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schnacke, Arthur W. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

  12. Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schnacke, A.W.

    1983-10-12

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

  13. Noble gases and cosmogenic radionuclides in the Eltanin Pacific meteorite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogard, D D; Garrison, D H; Caffee, M W; Kyte, F; Nishiizumi, K

    2000-01-14

    A 1.5 cm long, 1.2 g specimen of the Eltanin meteorite was found at 10.97 m depth in Polarstern piston core PS2704-1. The early studies indicated that the small fragments of the Eltanin meteorite was debris from a km-sized asteroid which impacted into the deep-ocean basin. In this study, the authors measured {sup 39}Ar-{sup 40}Ar age, noble gases, and cosmogenic radionuclides in splits of specimen as a part of consortium studies of Eltanin meteorite. They concluded that the specimen was about 3 m deep from the asteroid surface. The exposure age of the Eltanin asteroid was about 20 Myr.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with hyper-polarized noble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, D.M.; George, J.S.; Penttila, S.I.; Caprihan, A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclei of noble gases can be hyper polarized through a laser-driven spin exchange to a degree many orders of magnitude larger than that attainable by thermal polarization without requiring a strong magnetic field. The increased polarization from the laser pumping enables a good nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal from a gas. The main goal of this project was to demonstrate diffusion-weighted imaging of such hyper-polarized noble gas with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Possible applications include characterizing porosity of materials and dynamically imaging pressure distributions in biological or acoustical systems.

  15. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borghero, F.; Demontis, F.; Pennisi, S.

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  16. Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H.

    2011-12-15

    We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.

  17. Catalytic process for removing toxic gases from gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baglio, J.A.; Gaudet, G.G.; Palilla, F.C.

    1983-02-22

    A multi-stage process for reducing the content of sulfurcontaining gases-notably hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide-in waste gas streams is provided. In the first stage, the gas stream is passed through a reaction zone at a temperature between about 150 and 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a pretreated novel catalyst of the formula xLn/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in which Ln is yttrium or a rare earth element and T is cobalt, iron or nickel, and each of x and y is independently a number from 0 to 3, said catalyst being substantially non-crystalline and having a surface area of from about 10 m/sup 2//g to about 40 m/sup 2//g. The preferred catalyst is one in which Ln is lanthanum, T is cobalt, and x and y range from 1 to 3, including non-integers. The first stage yields a product stream having a reduced content of sulfur-containing gases, including specifically, substantial reduction of carbonyl sulfide and virtual elimination of carbon disulfide. An intermediate stage is a claus reaction, which may take place in one or more reaction zones, at temperatures less than about 130/sup 0/ C, in the presence of known catalysts such as bauxite, alumina or cobalt molybdates. The final stage is the air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide at a temperature between about 150 and 300/sup 0/ C in the presence of a catalyst usable in first stage.

  18. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residual Distillate LPG and Economic Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Natural Gas(c) ... Residual Distillate LPG and Economic Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Natural Gas(c) ...

  19. CO.sub.2 separation from low-temperature flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmore, Robert; Allen, Douglas; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila

    2010-11-30

    Two methods are provide for the separation of carbon dioxide from the flue gases. The first method utilizes a phase-separating moiety dissolved in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The second method utilizes a phase-separating moiety as a suspended solid in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The first method takes advantage of the surface-independent nature of the CO.sub.2 absorption reactions in a homogeneous aqueous system. The second method also provides permanent sequestration of the carbon dioxide. Both methods incorporate the kinetic rate enhancements of amine-based scrubbing while eliminating the need to heat the entire amine solution (80% water) in order to regenerate and release CO.sub.2. Both methods also take advantage of the low-regeneration temperatures of CO.sub.2-bearing mineral systems such as Na.sub.2CO.sub.3/NaHCO.sub.3 and K.sub.2CO.sub.3/KHCO.sub.3.

  20. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Stoichiometric combustion, Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Advanced Three Way Catalyst ... (operate with non- std gases: landfill gas and other renewables) Non-std gases ...

  1. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hylton, James O.; Remenyik, Carl J.

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel.

  2. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hylton, J.O.; Remenyik, C.J.

    1994-08-09

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure is disclosed. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel. 5 figs.

  3. On flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisazadeh-Far, Kian; Metghalchi, Hameed [Northeastern University, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Parsinejad, Farzan [Chevron Oronite Company LLC, Richmond, CA 94801 (United States); Keck, James C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments have been carried out at constant pressure and temperature in a constant volume vessel located in a high speed shadowgraph system. The formation and propagation of the hot plasma kernel has been simulated for inert gas mixtures using a thermodynamic model. The effects of various parameters including the discharge energy, radiation losses, initial temperature and initial volume of the plasma have been studied in detail. The experiments have been extended to flame kernel formation and propagation of methane/air mixtures. The effect of energy terms including spark energy, chemical energy and energy losses on flame kernel formation and propagation have been investigated. The inputs for this model are the initial conditions of the mixture and experimental data for flame radii. It is concluded that these are the most important parameters effecting plasma kernel growth. The results of laminar burning speeds have been compared with previously published results and are in good agreement. (author)

  4. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H.; Stegen, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  5. Helium Isotopes in Geothermal and Volcanic Gases of the Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are also occurring, although near-surface, pH-related CO2HCO3 equilibria obscure the nature of this effect.Substantial changes in View the MathML source ratios were observed in...

  6. Process boasts 95% selectivity for LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkmeyer, F.M.; Drehman, L.E.; Olbrich, M.E.; Rohr, D.F.

    1983-03-28

    This article describes a new Phillips catalytic process for the dehydrogenation and/or the dehydrocyclization of paraffinic feedstocks, steam active reforming (STAR), which produces no structural isomerization. Light paraffins such as propane, isobutane, and normal butane can be dehydrogenated to their respective mono-olefins with selectivities as high as 95%. The process offers such advantages as: it will accept a wide range of feedstocks; selectivity to desired products is high; there is a minimum of structural isomerization which permits the production of specific products from particular feedstocks with high purity; it works well with paraffinic and olefinic materials which make poor feeds in conventional reforming processes; and the catalyst has moderate tolerance for sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

  7. Periodic review enhances LPG metering performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Orsdol, F.G.

    1988-01-25

    Because of the loss of experienced personnel throughout the industry, the author says one must start over teaching the basics of liquid measurement. Warren Petroleum Co., a division of Chevron U.S.A. Inc., has developed a checklist review method for its metering systems, complete with enough explanation to allow the reviewer to understand why each item is important. Simultaneously, it continues with more in-depth and theoretical training in training course. This article describes the review process.

  8. Dehydrogenation links LPG to more octanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gussow, S.; Spence, D.C.; White, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Air Products and Chemicals Inc.'s Houdry Catofin process, a new application of well-known Houdry catalytic dehydrogenation technology, is an adiabatic, fixed-bed, multireactor catalytic process which produces propylene, isobutylene, and mixed n-butylenes by dehydrogenation of the corresponding saturates. The process is very flexible in that propylene, isobutylene, and mixed n-butylenes can be produced either separately or simultaneously from the corresponding saturates. The process will be used to prepare purity propylene at a Morelos, Mex., plant, which is now in the engineering stage. Five variations of the procedure for producing propylene; methyl tert.-butyl ether; propylene and alkylate; methyl tert.-butyl ether and alkylate; and methyl tert.-butyl ether, alkylate, and 1-butylene are compared with respect to typical product yields, costs and values for process economics, the dehydrogenation route to the three products, manufacturing costs, the sensitivity of return on investment to feedstock costs, and the return on investment, which varies from a low of 11.5% for the third case to a high of 14.4% for the fourth case. The Catofin process is discussed.

  9. Production of LPG olefins by catalytic dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.

    1984-09-01

    Catalytic dehydrogenation allows for the production of specific olefins thus avoiding the large capital and operating expenses associated with the recovery and processing of the many by-products from pyrolysis units. The chemistry of the process is discussed along with the process economics.

  10. Injection of LPG into TCC unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, T.S.

    1987-02-03

    A process is described for catalytically cracking hydrocarbon feed in a bed of catalyst effective to crack the hydrocarbon feed, comprising contacting the feed under catalytic cracking conditions, with the catalyst in a first portion of the bed, to produce cracked product. Another portion of that bed of catalyst is sealed by introducing into another portion of that bed a seal selected from the group consisting of ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, isobutylene and mixtures thereof whereby feed and cracked product are prevented from surging into another portion; whereby contact of the seal with catalyst in another portion of the bed results in conversion of the seal to the higher molecular weight adducts thereof, the condition in another portion of the bed being effective to provide the conversion.

  11. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  12. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  13. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  14. Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Analysis with the GREET Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Petroleum: Conventional Oil Sands Gasoline Diesel LPG Naphtha Residual oil Natural Gas: NA Non-NA CNG LNG LPG Methanol Dimethyl Ether FT Diesel and Naphtha Hydrogen Nuclear Energy ...

  15. Novel Material for Efficient and Low-Cost Separation of Gases for Fuels and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plastics | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Novel Material for Efficient and Low-Cost Separation of Gases for Fuels and Plastics

  16. Method and apparatus for separating mixtures of gases using an acoustic wave

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geller, Drew A.; Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2004-05-11

    A thermoacoustic device separates a mixture of gases. An elongated duct is provided with first and second ends and has a length that is greater than the wavelength of sound in the mixture of gases at a selected frequency, and a diameter that is greater than a thermal penetration depth in the mixture of gases. A first acoustic source is located at the first end of the duct to generate acoustic power at the selected frequency. A plurality of side branch acoustic sources are spaced along the length of the duct and are configured to introduce acoustic power into the mixture of gases so that a first gas is concentrated at the first end of the duct and a second gas is concentrated at the second end of the duct.

  17. Natural Gas and the Environment - Energy Explained, Your Guide To

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Understanding Energy - Energy Information Administration Gas > Natural Gas & the Environment Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the

  18. Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways In this paper, we discuss the results of 2000-2100 simulations with a chemistry-climate model, focusing on

  19. Radon and helium in soil gases in the Phlegraean Fields, central Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, S. ); Reimer, G.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The distribution and migration of radon and helium soil-gas concentrations in the Phlegraean Fields, Italy, are controlled by the tectonic features of the area. Radon is supplied from surficial sources and helium has both surficial and deep origins. There is no direct correlation between the two noble gases on a point-to-point basis but the areal distribution of both gases is similar, suggesting that the distribution is controlled primarily by fractures and movement of geothermal fluids.

  20. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  1. Detection And Discrimination Of Pure Gases And Binary Mixtures Using A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Single Microcantilever (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Detection And Discrimination Of Pure Gases And Binary Mixtures Using A Single Microcantilever Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detection And Discrimination Of Pure Gases And Binary Mixtures Using A Single Microcantilever × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public

  2. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

  3. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1992-11-17

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

  4. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  5. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    natural gas demand, thereby contributing to larger net injections of natural gas into storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases The Natural Gas Annual 2006: The Energy...

  8. Importance of Low Permeability Natural Gas Reservoirs (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Production from low-permeability reservoirs, including shale gas and tight gas, has become a major source of domestic natural gas supply. In 2008, low-permeability reservoirs accounted for about 40% of natural gas production and about 35% of natural gas consumption in the United States. Permeability is a measure of the rate at which liquids and gases can move through rock. Low-permeability natural gas reservoirs encompass the shale, sandstone, and carbonate formations whose natural permeability is roughly 0.1 millidarcies or below. (Permeability is measured in darcies.)

  9. Ceramic membrane reactor with two reactant gases at different pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Mieville, Rodney L.

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a ceramic membrane reactor for syngas production having a reaction chamber, an inlet in the reactor for natural gas intake, a plurality of oxygen permeating ceramic slabs inside the reaction chamber with each slab having a plurality of passages paralleling the gas flow for transporting air through the reaction chamber, a manifold affixed to one end of the reaction chamber for intake of air connected to the slabs, a second manifold affixed to the reactor for removing the oxygen depleted air, and an outlet in the reaction chamber for removing syngas.

  10. Natural Gas Regulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Natural Gas Act of 1938, as amended, requires any person who wishes to import and/or export natural gas, (including liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, compressed gas liquids, etc.)...

  11. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  12. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL Clean Cities

    2010-04-01

    Fact sheet answers questions about natural gas production and use in transportation. Natural gas vehicles are also described.

  13. Steam-reforming of fossil fuels and wastes to produce energy and chemicals without greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Worldwide concern has demanded a re-examination of the energy- and chemical-producing plants that use fossil fuel sources and release large quantities of greenhouse gases. Plant retrofits with steam-reformer/gasifiers will increase plant efficiencies, improve economics and avoid releasing troublesome amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. In this paper, the authors describe and illustrate the several new steam-reforming/gasification plants that are processing waste streams and fossil fuels. These plants range in size from 1 ton/day to 2,000 tons/day. They are commercial and economically successful. These new concepts can be used to both upgrade fossil plants for improved economics while eliminating the release of greenhouse gases. By aggressively retrofitting old coal plants and sequestering CO{sub 2}, a 15% reduction in 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions can be met by the US by 2010.

  14. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  15. Emission of biogenic sulfur gases from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Yang [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China); Li Kong [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China)

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic sulfur gases emitted from terrestrial ecosystem may play in important role in global sulfur cycle and have a profound influence on global climate change. But very little is known concerning emissions from paddy soil and rice plant, which are abundant in many parts of the world. As a big agricultural country, this is about 33 million hectare rice planted in China. With laboratory incubation and closed chamber method in the field, the biogenic sulfur gases emitted from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant were detected in both conditions: hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), methyl mercaptan (MSH), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Among which, DMS was predominant part of sulfur emission. Emission of sulfur gases from different paddy field exhibit high spatial and temporal variability. The application of fertilizer and organic manure, total sulfur content in wetland, air temperature were positively correlated to the emission of volatile sulfur gases from paddy soil. Diurnal and seasonal variation of total volatile sulfur gases and DMS indicate that their emissions were greatly influenced by the activity of the rice plant. The annual emission of total volatile sulfur gases, from Nanjing paddy field is ranged from 4.0 to 9.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}, that of DMS is ranged from 3.1 to 6.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}. Rice plant could absorb COS gas, that may be one of the sinks of COS.

  16. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

  17. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

  18. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  19. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E.; Jalan, Vinod M.

    1984-01-01

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  20. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  1. EIA's Energy in Brief: What are greenhouse gases and how much are emitted

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by the United States? greenhouse gases and how much are emitted by the United States? Last Updated: January 20, 2016 Greenhouse gases trap heat from the sun and warm the planet's surface. Most U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are related to energy production and consumption. Most of those emissions are carbon dioxide (CO2) from the burning of fossil fuels. From 1990 to 2014, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in the United States increased on average by about 0.3% per year. Because

  2. Three-body Recombination in Bose Gases with Large Scattering Length

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Three-body Recombination in Bose Gases with Large Scattering Length Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Three-body Recombination in Bose Gases with Large Scattering Length An effective field theory for the three-body system with large scattering length is applied to three-body recombination to a weakly bound s -wave state in a Bose gas. Our model independent analysis demonstrates that the three-body recombination constant {alpha} is not universal,

  3. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of LPG dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.D.; Penick, J.E.; Socha, R.F.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing distillates of lubes from paraffins, which comprise: (a) a dehydrogenation reactor including means for passing a paraffinic feedstock stream into a dehydrogenation zone at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert the paraffins to an olefin rich effluent stream comprising at least one of the group consisting of propylene and butylene; (b) a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the olefin rich effluent stream in a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert olefins to a first reactor effluent stream rich in liquid olefinic gasoline range hydrocarbons; (c) a first means for separating the first reactor effluent stream to form a substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream and a C/sub 4/- rich stream; (d) means for passing the C/sub 5/+ rich stream to a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone; (e) a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream in the high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of temperature and pressure selected to produce a second reactor effluent stream which is rich in distillate; (f) second means for separating the second reactor effluent stream to recover an olefinic gasoline stream and a distillate stream; and (g) a hydrotreating reactor including means for contacting the distillate stream with hydrogen in a hydrotreating unit to produce a hydrotreated distillate stream comprising lube range hydrocarbons.

  4. Conversion of lpg hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of lpg dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C. D.; Penick, J. E.; Socha, R. F.

    1985-09-17

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for producing distillate and/or lubes which employ integrating catalytic (or thermal) dehydrogenation of paraffins with MOGDL. The process feeds the product from a low temperature propane and/or butane dehydrogenation zone into a first catalytic reactor zone, which operates at low pressure and contains zeolite oligomerization catalysts, where the low molecular weight olefins are reacted to primarily gasoline range materials. These gasoline range materials can then be pressurized to the pressure required for reacting to distillate in a second catalytic reactor zone operating at high pressure and containing a zeolite oligomerization catalyst. The distillate is subsequently sent to a hydrotreating unit and product separation zone to form lubes and other finished products.

  5. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons into distillate fuels using an integral LPG dehydrogenation-MOGD process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, H.; Zahner, J.C.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a process for converting lower paraffinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising propane and/or butane into heavier hydrocarbons comprising gasoline and distillate, comprising the steps of: feeding the paraffinic feedstock to a dehydrogenation zone under conversion conditions for dehydrogenating at least a portion of the feedstock; recovering a first dehydrogenation gaseous effluent stream comprising propene and/or butene; contacting the first gaseous effluent steam with a liquid lean oil sorbent stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ hydrocarbons under sorption conditions to produce a C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream and a light gas stream; sequentially pressurizing, heating and passing the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream to an oligomerization reactor zone at elevated temperature and pressure; contacting the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich stream with oligomerization catalyst in the oligomerization reactor zone for conversion of at least a portion of lower olefins to heavier hydrocarbons under oligomerization reaction conditions to provide a second reactor effluent stream comprising gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons; flash separating the second reactor effluent stream into a separator vapor stream comprising a major portion of the hydrocarbons which later form the lean oil stream, and a major portion of the C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a separator liquid stream comprising the gasoline and distillate boiling range materials produced in the oligomerization reactor zone; fractionating the separator liquid stream in a first product debutanizer tower into a first debutanizer overhead vapor stream comprising C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a product debutanizer liquid bottoms stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons.

  6. Natural Gas Modernization Clearinghouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Natural Gas Modernization Clearinghouse provides information about the implications of natural gas infrastructure modernization, including strategies and technologies that increase public safety, improve environmental performance and enhance natural gas deliverability.

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    cooling demand for natural gas. Meanwhile, it became increasingly clear that Hurricane Frances likely would not pose a significant threat to natural gas production in the Gulf of...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas vehicles. The Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy reports that there were 841 compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel stations and 41...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Release: Thursday, April 28, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, April 20, 2011) Natural...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Release: Thursday, August 26, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, August 18, 2010) Natural...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2008 Next Release: November 6, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the week ending Wednesday, October 29) Natural gas...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9, 2008 Next Release: June 26, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 11, natural gas spot prices...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Report. The sample change occurred over a transition period that began with the release of the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR)...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    wide array of affiliates in all sectors of the energy market. Along with the changing nature of the energy affiliates, the changing nature of the transmission providers themselves...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5, 2009 Next Release: July 2, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 24, 2009) Natural gas...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Release: Thursday, May 19, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, May 11, 2011) Natural...

  17. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  18. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  19. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  20. Natural Gas Applications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas Applications. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Applications...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, 2009 Next Release: August 13, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, August 5, 2009) Natural...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    , 2008 Next Release: July 10, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 25, natural gas spot prices...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas...

  4. Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare an inventory of aggregate U.S. national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987-1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report documents the methodology for the seventeenth annual inventory, covering national emissions over the period 1990-2008.

  5. Table 1. U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential, 1990-2009" " (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent)" " Greenhouse Gas",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009 "Carbon

  6. Evolution of Some Particle Detectors Based On the Discharge in Gases

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Charpak, G.

    1969-11-19

    Summary of the properties of some of the detectors that are commonly used in counter experiments to localize charged particles, and which are based on discharge in gases under the influence of electric fields and some basic facts of gaseous amplification in homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields.

  7. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calabro, Paolo S.

    2009-07-15

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  8. Adsorption and Separation of Light Gases on an Amino-Functionalized MetalOrganic Framework: An Adsorption and In Situ XRD Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couck S.; Stavitski E.; Gobehiya, E.; Kirschhock, C.E.A.; Serra-Crespo, P.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Martinez Joaristi, A.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Baron, G. V.; Denayer J.F.M.

    2012-02-29

    The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) metal-organic framework was studied for its use in the separation of CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} mixtures. Isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were measured. The atypical shape of these isotherms is attributed to the breathing properties of the material, in which a transition from a very narrow pore form to a narrow pore form and from a narrow pore form to a large pore form occurs, depending on the total pressure and the nature of the adsorbate, as demonstrated by in-situ XRD patterns measured during adsorption. Apart from CO{sub 2}, all tested gases interacted weakly with the adsorbent. As a result, they are excluded from adsorption in the narrow pore form of the material at low pressure. CO{sub 2} interacted much more strongly and was adsorbed in significant amounts at low pressure. This gives the material excellent properties to separate CO{sub 2} from other gases. The separation of CO{sub 2} from methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, or a combination of these gases has been demonstrated by breakthrough experiments using pellets of NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al). The effect of total pressure (1-30 bar), gas composition, temperature (303-403 K) and contact time has been examined. In all cases, CO{sub 2} was selectively adsorbed, whereas methane, nitrogen, and hydrogen nearly did not adsorb at all. Regeneration of the adsorbent by thermal treatment, inert purge gas stripping, and pressure swing has been demonstrated. The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) pellets retained their selectivity and capacity for more than two years.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    (B20 and above) CNG Compressed Natural Gas E85 Ethanol (E85) ELEC Electric HY Hydrogen LNG Liquefied Natural Gas LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Propane) stationname Type:...

  10. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-07-20

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

  11. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

  12. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-08-25

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 1779–1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (50–1800 cm-1), the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist largemore » or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer)+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer). Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart) were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.« less

  13. Utilization of low-quality natural gas: A current assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acheson, W.P.; Hackworth, J.H.; Kasper, S.; McIlvried, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the low quality natural gas (LQNG) resource base, current utilization of LQNG, and environmental issues relative to its use, to review processes for upgrading LQNG to pipeline quality, and to make recommendations of research needs to improve the potential for LQNG utilization. LQNG is gas from any reservoir which contains amounts of nonhydrocarbon gases sufficient to lower the heating value or other properties of the gas below commercial, pipeline standards. For the purposes of this study, LQNG is defined as natural gas that contains more than 2% carbon dioxide, more than 4% nitrogen, or more than 4% combined CO{sub 2} plus N{sub 2}. The other contaminant of concern is hydrogen sulfide. A minor contaminant in some natural gases is helium, but this inert gas usually presents no problems.

  14. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Transmission...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Transmission Path Diagram About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Transmission Path Natural ...

  15. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damon, D.A.; Siwajek, L.A.; Klint, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of CO{sub 2}, and any amount of H{sub 2}S. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% CO{sub 2} for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any amount of H{sub 2}S. The process is well suited for handling a variety of trace contaminants usually associated with low quality natural gas and Claus sulfur recovery. The integrated process can produce high pressure carbon dioxide at purities required by end use markets, including food grade CO{sub 2}. The ability to economically co-produce high pressure CO{sub 2} as a commodity with significant revenue potential frees process economic viability from total reliance on pipeline gas, and extends the range of process applicability to low quality gases with relatively low methane content. Gases with high acid gas content and high CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S ratios can be economically processed by the CFZ/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes. The large energy requirements for regeneration make chemical solvent processing prohibitive. The cost of Selexol physical solvent processing of the LaBarge gas is significantly greater than the CNG/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes.

  16. Improved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Elemental Composition Detection System: A device to measure subsurface gases, liquids, and solids at subsurface conditions

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2016-02-23

    This device can measure subsurface gases, liquids, and solids at subsurface conditions. Atomic identification and concentration measurements can be made on solids, liquids, and gases at down hole pressure and temperature conditions....

  17. Asian natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klass, D.L. ); Ohashi, T. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the present status and future development in Asia of domestic and export markets for natural gas and to describes gas utilization technologies that will help these markets grow. A perspective of natural gas transmission, transport, distribution, and utilization is presented. The papers in this book are organized under several topics. The topics are : Asian natural gas markets, Technology of natural gas export projects, Technology of domestic natural gas projects, and Natural gas utilization in power generation, air conditioning, and other applications.

  18. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2012-10-02

    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  19. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  20. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

  1. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

    1998-01-13

    Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

  2. Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mollot, Darren J.; Bonk, Donald L.; Dowdy, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

  3. Methane activation using noble gases in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Hoon Lee, Dae; Seok Kang, Woo; Song, Young-Hoon

    2013-08-15

    The conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gasesHe, Ne, and Aras additives. The empirical results obtained clearly indicate that methane activation is considerably affected by thy type of noble gas used. Through 0-D calculations, the discharge parameters inside the reactor, i.e., electron temperature and electron density, are estimated using experiment results. A comparison of the discharge characteristics and experimental results shows that the electron temperature is an important factor in achieving high methane activation and the mixture with Ar gas shows the highest methane conversion. These results are constructed using the mechanisms of energy and charge transfer from excited and ionized noble gas atoms to methane molecules, considering the number density of active atoms of noble gases. Finally, electron temperatures obtained for gas mixtures having different reactant compositions and concentrations are analyzed to estimate methane activation.

  4. A comprehensive study of different gases in inductively coupled plasma torch operating at one atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punjabi, Sangeeta B.; Joshi, N. K.; Mangalvedekar, H. A.; Lande, B. K.; Das, A. K.; Kothari, D. C.

    2012-01-15

    A numerical study is done to understand the possible operating regimes of RF-ICP torch (3 MHz, 50 kW) using different gases for plasma formation at atmospheric pressure. A two dimensional numerical simulation of RF-ICP torch using argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and air as plasma gas has been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software fluent{sup (c)}. The operating parameters varied here are central gas flow, sheath gas flow, RF-power dissipated in plasma, and plasma gas. The temperature contours, flow field, axial, and radial velocity profiles were investigated under different operating conditions. The plasma resistance, inductance of the torch, and the heat distribution for various plasma gases have also been investigated. The plasma impedance of ICP torch varies with different operating parameters and plays an important role for RF oscillator design and power coupling. These studies will be useful to decide the design criteria for ICP torches required for different material processing applications.

  5. Flash pyrolysis of biomass with reactive and non-reactive gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1982-06-01

    The rapid or flash pyrolysis of wood biomass is being studied in a 1'' downflow entrained tubular reactor with a capacity of approximately 1 lb/hr of wood. The process chemistry data is being obtained with the view of building a data base and ascertaining the value of producing synthetic fuels and chemical feedstocks by the flash pyrolysis method. Data is being obtained on the effect of non-reactive pyrolyzing gases and the effect of reactive gases, hydrogen for the flash hydropyrolysis of wood and methane for flash methanolysis of wood. Preliminary process design and analysis has been made. The yield of ethylene and benzene is especially attractive for the production of chemical feedstocks from the reaction of methane and wood in a flash methanolysis process.

  6. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

    1982-09-03

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  7. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson; MacKenzie, Patricia D.

    1985-01-01

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  8. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  9. Nonlinear spectroscopic effects in quantum gases induced by atom-atom interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safonov, A. I. Safonova, I. I.; Yasnikov, I. S.

    2013-05-15

    We consider nonlinear spectroscopic effects-interaction-enhanced double resonance and spectrum instability-that appear in ultracold quantum gases owing to collisional frequency shift of atomic transitions and, consequently, due to the dependence of the frequencies on the population of various internal states of the particles. Special emphasis is put to two simplest cases, (a) the gas of two-level atoms and (b) double resonance in a gas of three-level bosons, in which the probe transition frequency remains constant.

  10. Observations and Modeling of GoAmazon Particulate Matter and Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON): Particulate Matter and Gases Final Campaign Summary RHM Godoi RAF Souza CGG Barbosa SL Paralovo P Kurzlop IPS Carneiro March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heating-related demand for natural gas that limited the size of the net addition to storage. The economic incentives for storing natural gas for next winter are considerably...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The report provides an overview of U.S. international trade in 2008 as well as historical data on natural gas imports and exports. Net natural gas imports accounted for only 13...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    next heating season. Net injections reported in today's release of EIA's Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report brought natural gas storage supplies to 2,163 Bcf as of Friday, June 1,...

  14. ,"Texas Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas Prices",8,"Monthly","2... 6:46:23 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas Natural Gas Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050TX3"...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    a high degree of price volatility seems inherent in natural gas markets because of the nature of the commodity. However, the annual volatility during 1994 and 2006 does not exhibit...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas into storage. However, shut-in natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico reduced available current supplies, and so limited net injections during the report...

  17. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ..."N3035PA3","N3045PA3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Pennsylvania (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Pennsylvania Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers ...

  18. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...OK3","N3035OK3","N3045OK3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Oklahoma (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Oklahoma Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers (Dollars ...

  19. ,"Iowa Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...20IA3","N3035IA3","N3045IA3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Iowa (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Iowa Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers (Dollars ...

  20. ,"Illinois Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...IL3","N3035IL3","N3045IL3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Illinois (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Illinois Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers (Dollars ...