Sample records for natural gas-fired generation

  1. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vs. AEO 2001 Price Forecast Natural Gas Price (nominal $/if forwards forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (ifs reference case forecast of natural gas prices delivered to

  2. Elevated Temperature Materials for Power Generation and Propulsion The energy industry is designing higher-efficiency land-based turbines for natural gas-fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Elevated Temperature Materials for Power Generation and Propulsion The energy industry is designing higher-efficiency land-based turbines for natural gas-fired power generation systems. The high inlet materials for these aggressive environments. For example, Ni-base superalloys are used to fabricate blades

  3. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e.g., futures, swaps, and fixed-price physical supply contracts) to contemporaneous forecasts of spot natural gas prices, with the purpose of identifying any systematic differences between the two. Although our data set is quite limited, we find that over the past three years, forward gas prices for durations of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most natural gas spot price forecasts, including the reference case forecasts developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This difference is striking, and implies that resource planning and modeling exercises based on these forecasts over the past three years have yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation (again, presuming that long-term stability is desirable). As discussed later, these findings have important ramifications for resource planners, energy modelers, and policy-makers.

  4. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable to gas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Profiles of Renewable and Natural Gas Electricity Contracts:Price Risk: Using Forward Natural Gas Prices Instead of Gas2001). “Which way the natural gas price: an attempt to

  5. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Associates, citing NYMEX natural gas bid-offer spreadAnalysis of the Market for Natural Gas Futures. ” The Energyas a Physical Hedge Against Natural Gas Price Movements. ”

  6. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Associates, citing NYMEX natural gas bid-offer spreadAnalysis of the Market for Natural Gas Futures. ” The EnergyProfiles of Renewable and Natural Gas Electricity Contracts:

  7. Comparative Assessment of Coal-and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparative Assessment of Coal- and Natural Gas-fired Power Plants under a CO2 Emission Performance standard (EPS) for pulverized coal (PC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants; · Evaluate · Coal-fired Power Plant: Supercritical pulverized coal (SC PC) Illinois #6 Coal Capacity Factor 75

  8. Advanced natural gas-fired turbine system utilizing thermochemical recuperation and/or partial oxidation for electricity generation, greenfield and repowering applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance, economics and technical feasibility of heavy duty combustion turbine power systems incorporating two advanced power generation schemes have been estimated to assess the potential merits of these advanced technologies. The advanced technologies considered were: Thermochemical Recuperation (TCR), and Partial Oxidation (PO). The performance and economics of these advanced cycles are compared to conventional combustion turbine Simple-Cycles and Combined-Cycles. The objectives of the Westinghouse evaluation were to: (1) simulate TCR and PO power plant cycles, (2) evaluate TCR and PO cycle options and assess their performance potential and cost potential compared to conventional technologies, (3) identify the required modifications to the combustion turbine and the conventional power cycle components to utilize the TCR and PO technologies, (4) assess the technical feasibility of the TCR and PO cycles, (5) identify what development activities are required to bring the TCR and PO technologies to commercial readiness. Both advanced technologies involve the preprocessing of the turbine fuel to generate a low-thermal-value fuel gas, and neither technology requires advances in basic turbine technologies (e.g., combustion, airfoil materials, airfoil cooling). In TCR, the turbine fuel is reformed to a hydrogen-rich fuel gas by catalytic contact with steam, or with flue gas (steam and carbon dioxide), and the turbine exhaust gas provides the indirect energy required to conduct the endothermic reforming reactions. This reforming process improves the recuperative energy recovery of the cycle, and the delivery of the low-thermal-value fuel gas to the combustors potentially reduces the NO{sub x} emission and increases the combustor stability.

  9. advanced natural gas-fired: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drum Dryer for Food Processing Applications is the final report 8 A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and Politics Environmental Sciences...

  10. The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power, Pennsylvania Presentation to the Natural Gas CCS Forum Washington, DC November 4, 2011 E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon MotivationMotivation · Electric utilities again looking to natural gas combined cycle (NGCC

  11. The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    regulations for coal plants New concerns about nuclear power after Fukushima · Recent studies also show emissions · Most CCS cost studies have focused on coal-based power plants; relatively few on NGCC with CCS1 The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power

  12. The Modeling of a Laboratory Natural GasFired Furnace with a HigherOrder Projection Method for Unsteady Combustion \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    method for axisymmetric, unsteady, low­ Mach number combustion is used to model a natural gas flame fromThe Modeling of a Laboratory Natural Gas­Fired Furnace with a Higher­Order Projection Method of Pember et al. [1] by using it to simulate a natural gas flame from a 300kW IFRF burner in the Burner

  13. Estimated size and performance of a natural gas fired duplex Stirling for domestic refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berchowitz, D.M. (Sunpower, Inc., Athens, OH (United States)); Shonder, J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calibrated calculations are used to size an integrated Stirling cooler and engine (Duplex configuration). Fuel for the engine is natural gas and the working fluid is helium. The potential exists for long life and low noise. Performance is shown to be very competitive when compared to standard vapor compression systems. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Advanced Turbine Systems Program conceptual design and product development. Task 3.0, Selection of natural gas-fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results of Task 3 of the Westinghouse ATS Phase II program. Objective of Task 3 was to analyze and evaluate different cycles for the natural gas-fired Advanced Turbine Systems in order to select one that would achieve all ATS program goals. About 50 cycles (5 main types) were evaluated on basis of plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity, reliability-availability-maintainability (RAM), and program schedule requirements. The advanced combined cycle was selected for the ATS plant; it will incorporate an advanced gas turbine engine as well as improvements in the bottoming cycle and generator. Cost and RAM analyses were carried out on 6 selected cycle configurations and compared to the baseline plant. Issues critical to the Advanced Combined Cycle are discussed; achievement of plant efficiency and cost of electricity goals will require higher firing temperatures and minimized cooling of hot end components, necessitating new aloys/materials/coatings. Studies will be required in combustion, aerodynamic design, cooling design, leakage control, etc.

  15. Comparative Performance Analysis of IADR Operating in Natural Gas-Fired and Waste-Heat CHP Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Sand, James R [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel utilization can be dramatically improved through effective recycle of 'waste' heat produced as a by-product of on-site or near-site power generation technologies. Development of modular compact cooling, heating, and power (CHP) systems for end-use applications in commercial and institutional buildings is a key part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) energy policy. To effectively use the thermal energy from a wide variety of sources which is normally discarded to the ambient, many components such as heat exchangers, boilers, absorption chillers, and desiccant dehumidification systems must be further developed. Recently a compact, cost-effective, and energy-efficient integrated active-desiccant vapor-compression hybrid rooftop (IADR) unit has been introduced in the market. It combines the advantages of an advanced direct-expansion cooling system with the dehumidification capability of an active desiccant wheel. The aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of the IADR operation in baseline mode, when desiccant wheel regeneration is driven by a natural gas burner, and in CHP mode, when the waste heat recovered from microturbine exhaust gas is used for desiccant regeneration. Comparative analysis shows an excellent potential for more efficient use of the desiccant dehumidification as part of a CHP system and the importance of proper sizing of the CHP components. The most crucial factor in exploiting the efficiency of this application is the maximum use of thermal energy recovered for heating of regeneration air.

  16. Residential gas-fired sorption heat Test and technology evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps Test and technology evaluation Energiforskningsprogram EFP05 Journal nr: 33031-0054 December 2008 #12;Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps Test.............................................................................................................................................5 1 Residential gas-fired thermally driven heat pumps

  17. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable togas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then--contrary to common practice--any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000-2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation.

  18. Independent Validation and Verification of Process Design and Optimization Technology Diagnostic and Control of Natural Gas Fired Furnaces via Flame Image Analysis Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program has invested in emerging Process Design and Optimizations Technologies (PDOT) to encourage the development of new initiatives that might result in energy savings in industrial processes. Gas fired furnaces present a harsh environment, often making accurate determination of correct air/fuel ratios a challenge. Operation with the correct air/fuel ratio and especially with balanced burners in multi-burner combustion equipment can result in improved system efficiency, yielding lower operating costs and reduced emissions. Flame Image Analysis offers a way to improve individual burner performance by identifying and correcting fuel-rich burners. The anticipated benefit of this technology is improved furnace thermal efficiency, and lower NOx emissions. Independent validation and verification (V&V) testing of the FIA technology was performed at Missouri Forge, Inc., in Doniphan, Missouri by Environ International Corporation (V&V contractor) and Enterprise Energy and Research (EE&R), the developer of the technology. The test site was selected by the technology developer and accepted by Environ after a meeting held at Missouri Forge. As stated in the solicitation for the V&V contractor, 'The objective of this activity is to provide independent verification and validation of the performance of this new technology when demonstrated in industrial applications. A primary goal for the V&V process will be to independently evaluate if this technology, when demonstrated in an industrial application, can be utilized to save a significant amount of the operating energy cost. The Seller will also independently evaluate the other benefits of the demonstrated technology that were previously identified by the developer, including those related to product quality, productivity, environmental impact, etc'. A test plan was provided by the technology developer and is included as an appendix to the summary report submitted by Environ (Appendix A). That plan required the V&V contractor to: (1) Establish the as-found furnace operating conditions; (2) Tune the furnace using currently available technology to establish baseline conditions; (3) Tune the furnace using the FIA technology; and (4) Document the improved performance that resulted from application of the FIA technology. It is important to note that the testing was not designed to be a competition or comparison between two different methodologies that could be used for furnace tuning. Rather, the intent was to quantify improvements in furnace performance that could not be achieved with existing technology. Therefore, the measure of success is improvement beyond the furnace efficiency obtainable using existing furnace optimization methods rather than improvement from the as found condition.

  19. Stirling engines for gas fired micro-cogen and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, N.W.; Beale, W.T. [Sunpower, Inc., Athens, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design and performance of free-piston Stirling engine-alternators particularly suited for use as natural gas fired micro-cogen and cooling devices. Stirling based cogen systems offer significant potential advantages over internal combustion engines in efficiency, to maintain higher efficiencies at lower power levels than than combustion engines significantly expands the potential for micro-cogen. System cost reduction and electric prices higher than the U.S. national average will have a far greater effect on commercial success than any further increase in Stirling engine efficiency. There exist niche markets where Stirling engine efficiency. There exist niche markets where Stirling based cogen systems are competitive. Machines of this design are being considered for production in the near future as gas-fired units for combined heat and power in sufficiently large quantities to assure competitive prices for the final unit.

  20. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable to gas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EIA) (2000). Annual Energy Outlook 2001. DOE/EIA- 0383(DC. _______________ (2001). Annual Energy Outlook 2002. DOE/DC. _______________ (2003). Annual Energy Outlook 2003. DOE/

  1. Economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired fuel cell. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The final report provides a summary of results of the Cost of Ownership Model and the circumstances under which a distributed fuel cell is economically viable. The analysis is based on a series of micro computer models estimate the capital and operations cost of a fuel cell central utility plant configuration. Using a survey of thermal and electrical demand profiles, the study defines a series of energy user classes. The energy user class demand requirements are entered into the central utility plant model to define the required size the fuel cell capacity and all supporting equipment. The central plant model includes provisions that enables the analyst to select optional plant features that are most appropriate to a fuel cell application, and that are cost effective. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. Other applications are also practical; however, such applications have a higher relative demand for thermal energy, a characteristic that is well-suited to a fuel cell application with its free source of hot water or steam. The analysis combines the capital and operation from the preceding models into a Cost of Ownership Model to compute the plant capital and operating costs as a function of capacity and principal features and compares these estimates to the estimated operating cost of the same central plant configuration without a fuel cell.

  2. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial Gas the simulation of an experimental natural gas­fired furnace are shown. \\Lambda This work was performed under

  3. Understanding the use of natural gas storage for generators of electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckman, K.L. [International Gas Consulting, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground natural gas storage is aggressively used by a handful of utility electric generators in the United States. While storage facilities are often utilized by the natural gas pipeline industry and the local distribution companies (LDCs), regional electric generators have taken advantgage of abundant storage and pipeline capacity to develop very cost efficient gas fired electric generating capacity, especially for peaking demand. Most types of natural gas storage facilities are located underground, with a few based above-ground. These facilities have served two basic types of natural gas storage service requirements: seasonal baseload and needle peakshaving. Baseload services are typically developed in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and aquifers while mined caverns and LNG facilities (also Propane-air facilities) typically provide needle peakshaving services. Reengineering of the natural gas infrastructure will alter the historical use patterns, and will provide the electric industry with new gas supply management tools. Electric generators, as consumers of natural gas, were among the first open access shippers and, as a result of FERC Order 636, are now attempting to reposition themselves in the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} gas industry. Stated in terms of historical consumption, the five largest gas burning utilities consume 40% of all the gas burned for electric generation, and the top twenty accounted for approximately 70%. Slightly more than 100 utilities, including municipals, have any gas fired generating capacity, a rather limited number. These five are all active consumers of storage services.

  4. Gas-Fired Reciprocating Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The reciprocating, or piston-driven, engine is a widespread and well-known technology. Also called internal combustion engines, reciprocating engines require fuel, air, compression, and a combustion source to function. Depending on the ignition source, they generally fall into two categories: (1) spark-ignited engines, typically fueled by gasoline or natural gas, and (2) compression-ignited engines, typically fueled by diesel oil fuel.

  5. Gas fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; White, D.J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the first phase of the Advanced Gas Turbine System (ATS) program was the concept definition of an advanced engine system that meets efficiency and emission goals far exceeding those that can be provided with today`s equipment. The thermal efficiency goal for such an advanced industrial engine was set at 50% some 15 percentage points higher than current equipment levels. Exhaust emissions goals for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UH) were fixed at 8 parts per million by volume (ppmv), 20 ppmv, and 20 ppmv respectively, corrected to 15% oxygen (O{sub 2}) levels. Other goals had to be addressed; these involved reducing the cost of power produced by 10 percent and improving or maintaining the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) at current levels. This advanced gas turbine was to be fueled with natural gas, and it had to embody features that would allow it bum coal or coal derived fuels.

  6. A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and Politics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Norwegian pollution laws. But the Labour Party and other opposition politicians insisted that regulations contended the gas-fired plants would slow Norway's dependence on imported electricity from Denmark, which is generated from even more carbon-intensive coal-fired plants. Over Bondevik objections, the parliament voted

  7. Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, L.; Hedman, B.; Knowles, D.; Freedman, S. I.; Woods, R.; Schweizer, T.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is directing substantial programs in the development and encouragement of new energy technologies. Among them are renewable energy and distributed energy resource technologies. As part of its ongoing effort to document the status and potential of these technologies, DOE EERE directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to lead an effort to develop and publish Distributed Energy Technology Characterizations (TCs) that would provide both the department and energy community with a consistent and objective set of cost and performance data in prospective electric-power generation applications in the United States. Toward that goal, DOE/EERE - joined by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - published the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations in December 1997.As a follow-up, DOE EERE - joined by the Gas Research Institute - is now publishing this document, Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations.

  8. A Gas-Fired Heat Pipe Zone Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar...

  9. A Gas-Fired Heat Pipe Zone Heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar...

  10. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EIA). 1996a. Annual Energy Outlook 1996. DOE/EIA- 0383(DC. _______________. 1996b. Annual Energy Outlook 1997. DOE/DC. _______________. 1997. Annual Energy Outlook 1998. DOE/

  11. Linguistic Alignment in Natural Language Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halberg, Gabrielle Manya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that are instantiated at generation time. . . . . . . . .that are instantiated at generation time. . Illustration ofin Natural Language Generation by Gabrielle Halberg

  12. Direct Gas Fired Air Heating For 40 to 50% Fuel Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Searcy, J. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between direct and indirect gas fired unit heaters show why there is a minimum of 40% fuel savings. The application of direct gas-fired make-up heaters for industrial space heating as well as the safety of the direct gas fired systems, a simple...

  13. An economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired fuel cell: a model of a central utility plant.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This central utilities plant model details the major elements of a central utilities plant for several classes of users. The model enables the analyst to select optional, cost effective, plant features that are appropriate to a fuel cell application. These features permit the future plant owner to exploit all of the energy produced by the fuel cell, thereby reducing the total cost of ownership. The model further affords the analyst an opportunity to identify avoided costs of the fuel cell-based power plant. This definition establishes the performance and capacity information, appropriate to the class of user, to support the capital cost model and the feasibility analysis. It is detailed only to the depth required to identify the major elements of a fuel cell-based system. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. The user may also select large office buildings that are characterized by 12 to 16 hours per day of operation or industrial users with a steady demand for thermal and electrical energy around the clock.

  14. Statkraft is Europe's largest generator of renewable energy and is the leading power company in Norway. The company owns, produces and develops hydropower, wind power, gas-fired power and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morik, Katharina

    Statkraft is Europe's largest generator of renewable energy and is the leading power company countries. For our office in Düsseldorf we are currently looking to hire a System Manager Renewable Energy. Share our passion for renewable energy and be a part of tomorrow's energy world. Your department

  15. Utilization of coal mine ventilation exhaust as combustion air in gas-fired turbines for electric and/or mechanical power generation. Semi-annual topical report, June 1995--August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane emitted during underground coal mining operations is a hazard that is dealt with by diluting the methane with fresh air and exhausting the contaminated air to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this waste stream may contain more than 60% of the methane resource from the coal, and in the atmosphere the methane acts as a greenhouse gas with an effect about 24.5 times greater than CO{sub 2}. Though the waste stream is too dilute for normal recovery processes, it can be used as combustion air for a turbine-generator, thereby reducing the turbine fuel requirements while reducing emissions. Preliminary analysis indicates that such a system, built using standard equipment, is economically and environmentally attractive, and has potential for worldwide application.

  16. The Future of Combustion Turbine Technology for Industrial and Utility Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, A. D.; Simbeck, D. R.

    Low capital cost and ample low-cost natural gas supplies will make natural gas-fired combustion turbine systems the power generation technology of choice over the next decade. Against the background of earlier use by electric utilities, this paper...

  17. Results of gas-fired flash-smelting tests. Phase 1-3. Topical technical report, November 1987-April 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pusateri, J.F.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A natural gas-fired burner for the HRD FLAME REACTOR Process was designed and successfully tested on over 450 tons of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust, and over a wide range of operating conditions. The coal/coke-fired FLAME REACTOR Process has already been demonstrated as an efficient and economic means of recovering zinc from EAF dust as a salable oxide product, and a salable nonhazardous, iron-rich slag product. The results of the work indicate that the natural gas-fired process has a higher zinc capacity for a given reactor size, with zinc recoveries 5-10 percentage points higher than coal/coke processing at high throughputs. Gas-fired capital costs are about 15% less than coal for a 20,000 STPY EAF dust plant. Smaller plants show even higher break-even costs. Net processing costs are about $100/ton of EAF dust, which is extremely competitive with land-filling and other recycling options.

  18. Application of advanced Stirling engine technology to a commercial size gas-fired heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, L.; Agno, J.; Wurm, J.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gas Research Institute sponsored work on the kinematic Stirling engine-driven heat pump, which offers practical improvements in the use of natural gas. Results from the first phase of the program led to the selection of a method of introducing low pressure natural gas into the V160 engine's combustor and testing of the ejector system. Further engine modifications will be needed as well as demonstrations of the performance and reliability of the units. The first phase found all developmental needs to be achievable, making the concept technically feasible. Computer projections based on the system performance of components indicate the gas-fired pump will work better than electric models and be economically feasible as well. 5 figures, 1 table.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

    2002-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

  20. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    journals related to natural gas combustion and air pollutionemitted from natural gas combustion are predominately lessNatural Gas- fired Appliances," Proceedings: How Significant Are Residential Combustion

  1. Natural fourth generation of leptons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Antipin; Matti Heikinheimo; Kimmo Tuominen

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider implications of a fourth generation of leptons, allowing for the most general mass patterns for the fourth generation neutrino. We determine the constraints due to the precision electroweak measurements and outline the signatures to search for at the LHC experiments. As a concrete framework to apply these results we consider the minimal walking technicolor (MWTC) model where the matter content, regarding the electroweak quantum numbers, corresponds to a fourth generation.

  2. REQUEST BY WESTINGHOUSE POWER GENERATION, A FORMER DIVISION OF...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    selection and optimization to develop the next generation of gas-fired advanced turbine systems (ATS's) for green field and repowered electricity generation applications....

  3. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    related to natural gas combustion and air pollution wereemitted from natural gas combustion are predominately lessGas- fired Appliances," Proceedings: How Significant Are Residential Combustion

  4. Poland - Economic and Financial Benefits of Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Distributed Generation Small-Scale, Gas-Fired CHP AgencyCompany Organization Argonne National Laboratory Sector Energy Topics Background analysis Website http:...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  6. ESTIMATING RISK TO CALIFORNIA ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE FROM PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    infrastructure includes the state’s natural gas-fired power generation facilities, electricinfrastructure includes the state’s natural gas-fired power generation facilities, electric

  7. Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

  8. Measurement and analysis of heating of paper with gas-fired infrared burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husain, Abdullah Nadir

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Gas-fired IR heaters produce combustion on the burner surface by ignition of a pre-mixed air and fuel streams. The combustion raises the surface temperature to ranges of 800-1,100°C to emit radiation, mainly in the medium IR range, which has a...

  9. Comparison of AEO 2009 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX Futures Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 17, 2008, the reference-case projections from Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO 2009) were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have, in the past, compared the EIA's reference-case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables can play in mitigating such risk. As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO reference-case gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. Note that this memo pertains only to natural gas fuel price risk (i.e., the risk that natural gas prices might differ over the life of a gas-fired generation asset from what was expected when the decision to build the gas-fired unit was made). We do not take into consideration any of the other distinct attributes of gas-fired and renewable generation, such as dispatchability (or lack thereof), differences in capital costs and O&M expenses, or environmental externalities. A comprehensive comparison of different resource types--which is well beyond the scope of this memo--would need to account for differences in all such attributes, including fuel price risk. Furthermore, our analysis focuses solely on natural-gas-fired generation (as opposed to coal-fired or nuclear generation, for example), for several reasons: (1) price volatility has been more of a concern for natural gas than for other fuels used to generate power; (2) for environmental and other reasons, natural gas has, in recent years, been the fuel of choice among power plant developers; and (3) natural gas-fired generators often set the market clearing price in competitive wholesale power markets throughout the United States. That said, a more-complete analysis of how renewables mitigate fuel price risk would also need to consider coal, uranium, and other fuel prices. Finally, we caution readers about drawing inferences or conclusions based solely on this memo in isolation: to place the information contained herein within its proper context, we strongly encourage readers interested in this issue to read through our previous, more-detailed studies, available at http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf.

  10. Comparison of AEO 2008 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX Futures Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 12, 2007, the reference-case projections from Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO 2008) were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have, in the past, compared the EIA's reference-case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables can play in mitigating such risk. As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO reference-case gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. Note that this memo pertains only to natural gas fuel price risk (i.e., the risk that natural gas prices might differ over the life of a gas-fired generation asset from what was expected when the decision to build the gas-fired unit was made). We do not take into consideration any of the other distinct attributes of gas-fired and renewable generation, such as dispatchability (or lack thereof) or environmental externalities. A comprehensive comparison of different resource types--which is well beyond the scope of this memo--would need to account for differences in all such attributes, including fuel price risk. Furthermore, our analysis focuses solely on natural-gas-fired generation (as opposed to coal-fired generation, for example), for several reasons: (1) price volatility has been more of a concern for natural gas than for other fuels used to generate power; (2) for environmental and other reasons, natural gas has, in recent years, been the fuel of choice among power plant developers (though its appeal has diminished somewhat as prices have increased); and (3) natural gas-fired generators often set the market clearing price in competitive wholesale power markets throughout the United States. That said, a more-complete analysis of how renewables mitigate fuel price risk would also need to consider coal and other fuel prices. Finally, we caution readers about drawing inferences or conclusions based solely on this memo in isolation: to place the information contained herein within its proper context, we strongly encourage readers interested in this issue to read through our previous, more-detailed studies, available at http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf.

  11. Economic Development from New Generation and Transmission in Wyoming and Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, D.; Lantz, E.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the potential economic impacts in Colorado and Wyoming of a 225 MW natural gas fired electricity generation facility and a 900 MW wind farm constructed in Wyoming as well as a 180 mile, 345 kV transmission line that runs from Wyoming to Colorado. This report and analysis is not a forecast, but rather an estimate of economic activity associated with a hypothetical scenario.

  12. Economic Development from New Generation and Transmission in Wyoming and Colorado (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the potential economic impacts in Colorado and Wyoming of a 225 MW natural gas fired electricity generation facility and a 900 MW wind farm constructed in Wyoming as well as a 180 mile, 345 kV transmission line that runs from Wyoming to Colorado. This report and analysis is not a forecast, but rather an estimate of economic activity associated with a hypothetical scenario.

  13. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

  14. Study of the Heating Load of a Manufactured Space with a Gas-fired Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, X.; Dong, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal balance mathematics model of a manufactured space with a gas-fired radiant heating system is established to calculate the heating load. Computer programs are used to solve the model. Envelope internal surface temperatures under different...

  15. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  16. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development task 5 -- market study of the gas fired ATS. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), in partnership with the Department of Energy, will develop a family of advanced gas turbine-based power systems (ATS) for widespread commercialization within the domestic and international industrial marketplace, and to the rapidly changing electric power generation industry. The objective of the jointly-funded Program is to introduce an ATS with high efficiency, and markedly reduced emissions levels, in high numbers as rapidly as possible following introduction. This Topical Report is submitted in response to the requirements outlined in Task 5 of the Department of Energy METC Contract on Advanced Combustion Systems, Contract No, DE AC21-93MC30246 (Contract), for a Market Study of the Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System. It presents a market study for the ATS proposed by Solar, and will examine both the economic and siting constraints of the ATS compared with competing systems in the various candidate markets. Also contained within this report is an examination and analysis of Solar`s ATS and its ability to compete in future utility and industrial markets, as well as factors affecting the marketability of the ATS.

  17. Rates and rites of passage: The use of natural gas in power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, D.I. [Mayer, Brown & Platt, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many advantages to the use of natural gas in new or repowered electric generating facilities. These include lower capital costs, positive environmental impacts, the use of proven technology, and an adequate resource base with a highly reliable and flexible transportation system. However, it is also clear that FERC`s regulation of pipeline rates and operating practices has a direct impact on the bottom line of electric generators. a sober understanding of these rules, a careful integration of the rules into project documents, and a more commercial approach to transportation contracts will enhance the revenues and control the risks of the financially successful gas-fired electric generators.

  18. Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Activity: Natural Gas Engine and Vehicle Research & Development (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the status of the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) activity, including goals, R&D progress, NGV implementation, and the transition to hydrogen.

  19. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #844: Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

  20. Natural Language Generation for the Semantic Web: Unsupervised template extraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duma, Daniel

    2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    I propose an architecture for a Natural Language Generation system that automatically learns sentence templates, together with statistical document planning, from parallel RDF data and text. To this end, I design, build and test a proof...

  1. Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) Program Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describing U. S. DOE and NREL's development of next generation natural gas vehicles (NGVs) as a key element in its strategy to reduce oil import and vehicle pollutants.

  2. Numerical Simulation of a Natural Circulation Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WeinmĂĽller, Ewa B.

    Numerical Simulation of a Natural Circulation Steam Generator W. Linzer \\Lambda , K. Ponweiser circulation steam generator. We focus on a model with a simple geometry consisting of two vertical pipes properties of water and steam. We present a numerical algorithm based on an explicit upwind discretization

  3. EIS-0349: Cherry Point Co-generation Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to support BP West Coast Products, LLC proposal to construct and operate a 720-megawatt, natural-gas-fired, combined-cycle cogeneration facility on land adjacent to its BP Cherry Point Refinery.

  4. Duplex Stirling gas-fired heat pump. Phase 2. Breadboard demonstration. Final report, May 1981-November 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gedeon, D.; Penswick, B.; Beale, W.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program represents the first attempt to design, fabricate, and test a breadboard gas-fired duplex Stirling heat pump in a heating only mode. The system was designed to obtain a COP of 1.5 at an ambient temperature of 17F and have an output sufficient for an average residential home. The design methodology, detailed system description and test results for sub components and the entire system are discussed. Technical problems encountered in the program, and recommendations for further efforts are detailed.

  5. DIRECT USE OF NATURAL GAS: ANALYSIS AND POLICY OPTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 DIRECT USE OF NATURAL GAS: ANALYSIS AND POLICY OPTIONS Northwest Power Planning Council Issue Paper 94-41 August 11, 1994 Introduction Lower natural gas prices, apparently adequate gas supplies Power Plan, both natural gas-fired cogeneration and the use of combustion turbines as a means of backing

  6. Operation Synopsis of Gas-Fired Double-Effect Absorption Chillers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for an absorption refrigeration system was issued in 1860. Absorption systems can use many different heat sources to produce the refrigeration effect: natural gas, steam, solar, and oil. While absorption systems were popular in the U.S. in the early part of the 20th...

  7. Apples with apples: accounting for fuel price risk in comparisons of gas-fired and renewable generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2001 and 2002,forecast contained in Annual Energy Outlook 2003 a seven-forecast contained in Annual Energy Outlook 2003. the six-

  8. Creating a Cognitive Agent in a Virtual World: Planning, Navigation, and Natural Language Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewlett, William

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Language Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Language Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  9. Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    11/17/2014 1 Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Utility Scale Solar PV Steven doing recently around two key supply-side resource technologies 1. Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine #12;11/17/2014 4 Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Background Primary Components Gas-fired combustion

  10. Natural Language Generation for Nature Conservation: Automating Feedback to help Volunteers identify

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddharthan, Advaith

    Language Generation, Educational Application, Bumblebee Conser- vation, Citizen Science, Generating, including the use of websites and social media, to increase participation in "citizen science", which Science, University of Aberdeen, U.K. (2) Aberdeen Centre for Environmental Sustainability (ACES

  11. Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants?

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement ofConverDyn NOPRNancyNationalNatural GasImports3

  12. What's New with the NGNGV Program? Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program Newsletter, June 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A newsletter about what's new with the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program (NGNGV). This June 2002 update includes Phase II RFPs, Phase I update, and near-term engine development projects.

  13. Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell the anode field of fuel cell stack is considered. The first reactor that generates the majority in the fuel cell anode and (ii) the temperature of the catalytic partial oxidation reactor during transient

  14. --No Title--

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    divestitures, nonutilities own and operate a broad mix of nuclear, coal, natural- gas and renewable generation facilities that supply wholesale markets. Natural-gas-fired...

  15. Magnetic Field Generation in Planets and Satellites by Natural Nuclear Fission Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Marvin Herndon

    2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most fundamental problems in physics has been to understand the nature of the mechanism that generates the geomagnetic field and the magnetic fields of other planets and satellites. For decades, the dynamo mechanism, thought to be responsible for generating the geomagnetic field and other planetary magnetic fields, has been ascribed to convection in each planet's iron-alloy core. Recently, I described the problems inherent in Earth-core convection and proposed instead that the geomagnetic field is produced by a dynamo mechanism involving convection, not in the fluid core, but in the electrically conductive, fluid, fission-product sub-shell of a natural nuclear fission reactor at the center of the Earth, called the georeactor. Here I set forth in detail the commonality in the Solar System of the matter like that of the inside of the Earth, which is my basis for generalizing the concept of planetary magnetic field generation by natural planetocentric nuclear fission reactors.

  16. Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

  17. Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

  18. Betting on the Future: The authors compare natural gas forecaststo futures buys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 12, 2005, the reference case projections from Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO 2006) were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have in the past compared the EIA's reference case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market. The goal is better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables play in mitigating such risk. As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. Below is a discussion of our findings. As a refresher, our past work in this area has found that over the past five years, forward natural gas contracts (with prices that can be locked in--.g., gas futures, swaps, and physical supply) have traded at a premium relative to contemporaneous long-term reference case gas price forecasts from the EIA. As such, we have concluded that, over the past five years at least, levelized cost comparisons of fixed-price renewable generation with variable price gas-fired generation have yielded results that are ''biased'' in favor of gas-fired generation, presuming that long-term price stability is valued. In this article we update our past analysis to include the latest long-term gas price forecast from the EIA, as contained in AEO 2006. For the sake of brevity, we do not rehash information (on methodology, potential explanations for the premiums, etc.) contained in our earlier reports on this topic. As was the case in the past five AEO releases (AEO 2001-AEO 2005), we once again find that the AEO 2006 reference case gas price forecast falls well below where NYMEX natural gas futures contracts were trading at the time the EIA finalized its gas price forecast. In fact, the NYMEX-AEO 2006 reference case comparison yields by far the largest premium--$2.3/MMBtu levelized over five years--that we have seen over the last six years. In other words, on average, one would have had to pay $2.3/MMBtu more than the AEO 2006 reference case natural gas price forecast in order to lock in natural gas prices over the coming five years. Fixed-price generation (like certain forms of renewable generation) obviously need not bear this added cost, and moreover can provide price stability for terms well in excess of five years

  19. Attack Generation for NIDS Testing Using Natural Deduction Shai Rubin, Somesh Jha and Barton P. Miller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Barton P.

    Attack Generation for NIDS Testing Using Natural Deduction Shai Rubin, Somesh Jha and Barton P. Miller January 23, 2004 Abstract A common way to elude a signature-based NIDS is to transform an attack matching between the attack payload and the NIDS signature, attackers split the payload into several TCP

  20. Attack Generation for NIDS Testing Using Natural Deduction Shai Rubin, Somesh Jha and Barton P. Miller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    Attack Generation for NIDS Testing Using Natural Deduction Shai Rubin, Somesh Jha and Barton P. Miller January 23, 2004 Abstract A common way to elude a signature­based NIDS is to transform an attack matching between the attack payload and the NIDS signature, attackers split the payload into several TCP

  1. Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Maribu, Karl

    2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The ongoing deregulation of electricity industries worldwide is providing incentives for microgrids to use small-scale distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) applications via heat exchangers (HXs) to meet local energy loads. Although the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that of central-station production, relatively high tariff rates and the potential for CHP applications increase the attraction of on-site generation. Nevertheless, a microgrid contemplatingthe installation of gas-fired DG has to be aware of the uncertainty in the natural gas price. Treatment of uncertainty via real options increases the value of the investment opportunity, which then delays the adoption decision as the opportunity cost of exercising the investment option increases as well. In this paper, we take the perspective of a microgrid that can proceed in a sequential manner with DG capacity and HX investment in order to reduce its exposure to risk from natural gas price volatility. In particular, with the availability of the HX, the microgrid faces a tradeoff between reducing its exposure to the natural gas price and maximising its cost savings. By varying the volatility parameter, we find that the microgrid prefers a direct investment strategy for low levels of volatility and a sequential one for higher levels of volatility.

  2. Variance Analysis of Wind and Natural Gas Generation under Different Market Structures: Some Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, B.; Jenkin, T.; Lipowicz, D.; Arent, D. J.; Cooke, R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Does large scale penetration of renewable generation such as wind and solar power pose economic and operational burdens on the electricity system? A number of studies have pointed to the potential benefits of renewable generation as a hedge against the volatility and potential escalation of fossil fuel prices. Research also suggests that the lack of correlation of renewable energy costs with fossil fuel prices means that adding large amounts of wind or solar generation may also reduce the volatility of system-wide electricity costs. Such variance reduction of system costs may be of significant value to consumers due to risk aversion. The analysis in this report recognizes that the potential value of risk mitigation associated with wind generation and natural gas generation may depend on whether one considers the consumer's perspective or the investor's perspective and whether the market is regulated or deregulated. We analyze the risk and return trade-offs for wind and natural gas generation for deregulated markets based on hourly prices and load over a 10-year period using historical data in the PJM Interconnection (PJM) from 1999 to 2008. Similar analysis is then simulated and evaluated for regulated markets under certain assumptions.

  3. advanced combined cycle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Background Primary Components Gas-fired combustion turbine (s) Heat recovery steam generator (s) - HRSG with or without duct firing Natural gas...

  4. STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor DATE: March 25, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TO: Interested Parties FROM: Craig Hoffman, Compliance Project Manager SUBJECT: GILROY COGENERATION a revised petition with the California Energy Commission requesting to modify the Gilroy Cogeneration the district. The Gilroy Cogeneration Project is a 115-megawatt, natural gas-fired power plant located

  5. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  6. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation: 50% of electricity from central grid natural gas plantsgeneration: 100% of electricity from central grid natural gas plantselectricity comes from central station natural-gas- fired combined cycle generation, and the other half comes from natural-gas-fired single cycle plants. •

  7. The DOE/NREL Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program - An Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Walkowicz; Denny Stephens; Kevin Stork

    2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NG-NGV) Program that is led by the U.S. Department Of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of this program is to develop and implement one Class 3-6 compressed natural gas (CNG) prototype vehicle and one Class 7-8 liquefied natural gas (LNG) prototype vehicle in the 2004 to 2007 timeframe. OHVT intends for these vehicles to have 0.5 g/bhp-hr or lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by 2004 and 0.2 g/bhp-hr or lower NOx by 2007. These vehicles will also have particulate matter (PM) emissions of 0.01 g/bhp-hr or lower by 2004. In addition to ambitious emissions goals, these vehicles will target life-cycle economics that are compatible with their conventionally fueled counterparts.

  8. Decoding the `Nature Encoded' Messages for Distributed Energy Generation Control in Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Shuping; Lai, Lifeng; Qiu, Robert C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The communication for the control of distributed energy generation (DEG) in microgrid is discussed. Due to the requirement of realtime transmission, weak or no explicit channel coding is used for the message of system state. To protect the reliability of the uncoded or weakly encoded messages, the system dynamics are considered as a `nature encoding' similar to convolution code, due to its redundancy in time. For systems with or without explicit channel coding, two decoding procedures based on Kalman filtering and Pearl's Belief Propagation, in a similar manner to Turbo processing in traditional data communication systems, are proposed. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the validity of the schemes, using a linear model of electric generator dynamic system.

  9. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  10. Performance of solar electric generating systems on the utility grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roland, J.R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first year of performance of the Solar Electric Generating System I (SEGS I), which has been operating on the Southern California Edison (SCE) grid since December 1984 is discussed. The solar field, comprised of 71,680 m/sup 2/ of Luz parabolic trough line-focus solar collectors, supplies thermal energy at approx. 585/sup 0/F to the thermal storage tank. This energy is then used to generate saturated steam at 550 psia and 477/sup 0/F which passes through an independent natural gas-fired superheater and is brought to 780/sup 0/F superheat. The solar collector assembly (SCA) is the primary building block of this modular system. A single SCA consists of a row of eight parabolic trough collectors, a single drive motor, and a local microprocessor control unit. The basic components of the parabolic trough collector are a mirrored glass reflector, a unique and highly efficient heat collection element, and a tracking/positioning system. The heat collector element contains a stainless steel absorber tube coated with black chrome selective surface and is contained within an evacuated cylindrical glass envelope. The plant has reached the design capacity of 14.7 MW and, on a continuous basis, provides approx. 13.8 MW of net power during the utility's on-peak periods (nominally 12:00 noon to 6:00 p.m. during the summer weekdays and 5:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. during the winter weekdays).

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter, including for the first time particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers ({micro}m) referred to as PM2.5. PM2.5 in the atmosphere also contributes to reduced atmospheric visibility, which is the subject of existing rules for siting emission sources near Class 1 areas and new Regional Haze rules. There are few existing data regarding emissions and characteristics of fine aerosols from oil, gas and power generation industry combustion sources, and the information that is available is generally outdated and incomplete. Traditional stationary source air emission sampling methods tend to underestimate or overestimate the contribution of the source to ambient aerosols because they do not properly account for primary aerosol formation, which occurs after the gases leave the stack. Primary aerosol includes both filterable particles that are solid or liquid aerosols at stack temperature plus those that form as the stack gases cool through mixing and dilution processes in the plume downwind of the source. These deficiencies in the current methods can have significant impacts on regulatory decision-making. PM2.5 measurement issues were extensively reviewed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) (England et al., 1998), and it was concluded that dilution sampling techniques are more appropriate for obtaining a representative particulate matter sample from combustion systems for determining PM2.5 emission rate and chemical speciation. Dilution sampling is intended to collect aerosols including those that condense and/or react to form solid or liquid aerosols as the exhaust plume mixes and cools to near-ambient temperature immediately after the stack discharge. These techniques have been widely used in recent research studies. For example, Hildemann et al. (1994) and McDonald et al. (1998) used filtered ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

  12. Development of a hydrogen generator based on the partial oxidation of natural gas integrated with PEFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recupero, V.; Pino, L.; Di Leonardo, R.; Lagana, M. [Inst. CNR-TAE, Messina (Italy)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As is well known, the most acknowledged process for generation of hydrogen for fuel cells is based upon the steam reforming of methane or natural gas. A valid alternative could be a process based on partial oxidation of methane, since the process is mildly exothermic and therefore not energy intensive. Consequently, great interest is expected from conversion of methane into syngas, if an autothermal, low energy intensive, compact and reliable process could be developed. This paper covers the activities, performed by CNR Institute Transformation and Storage of Energy, Messina, Italy, on theoretical and experimental studies for a compact hydrogen generator, via catalytic selective partial oxidation of methane, integrated with a PEFC (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell). In particular, the project focuses the attention on methane partial oxidation via heterogeneous selective catalysts, in order to: demonstrate the basic Catalytic Selective Partial Oxidation of Methane (CSPOM) technology in a subscale prototype, equivalent to a nominal output of 5 kWe; develop the CSPOM technology for its application in electric energy production by means of fuel cells; assess, by a balance of plant analysis, and a techno-economic evaluation, the potential benefits of the CSPOM for different categories of fuel cells.

  13. Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

  14. Comparison of AEO 2007 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX FuturesPrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2006-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 5, 2006, the reference case projections from 'Annual Energy Outlook 2007' (AEO 2007) were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have, in the past, compared the EIA's reference case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables play in mitigating such risk (see, for example, http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf). As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. As a refresher, our past work in this area has found that over the past six years, forward natural gas contracts (with prices that can be locked in--e.g., gas futures, swaps, and physical supply) have traded at a premium relative to contemporaneous long-term reference case gas price forecasts from the EIA. As such, we have concluded that, over the past six years at least, levelized cost comparisons of fixed-price renewable generation with variable-price gas-fired generation that have been based on AEO natural gas price forecasts (rather than forward prices) have yielded results that are 'biased' in favor of gas-fired generation, presuming that long-term price stability is valued. In this memo we simply update our past analysis to include the latest long-term gas price forecast from the EIA, as contained in AEO 2007. For the sake of brevity, we do not rehash information (on methodology, potential explanations for the premiums, etc.) contained in our earlier reports on this topic; readers interested in such information are encouraged to download that work from http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf. As was the case in the past six AEO releases (AEO 2001-AEO 2006), we once again find that the AEO 2007 reference case gas price forecast falls well below where NYMEX natural gas futures contracts were trading at the time the EIA finalized its gas price forecast. Specifically, the NYMEX-AEO 2007 premium is $0.73/MMBtu levelized over five years. In other words, on average, one would have had to pay $0.73/MMBtu more than the AEO 2007 reference case natural gas price forecast in order to lock in natural gas prices over the coming five years and thereby replicate the price stability provided intrinsically by fixed-price renewable generation (or other forms of generation whose costs are not tied to the price of natural gas). Fixed-price generation (like certain forms of renewable generation) obviously need not bear this added cost, and moreover can provide price stability for terms well in excess of five years.

  15. Comparison of AEO 2006 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX FuturesPrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 12, 2005, the reference case projections from ''Annual Energy Outlook 2006'' (AEO 2006) were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have in the past compared the EIA's reference case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables play in mitigating such risk (see, for example, http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf). As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. As a refresher, our past work in this area has found that over the past five years, forward natural gas contracts (with prices that can be locked in--e.g., gas futures, swaps, and physical supply) have traded at a premium relative to contemporaneous long-term reference case gas price forecasts from the EIA. As such, we have concluded that, over the past five years at least, levelized cost comparisons of fixed-price renewable generation with variable price gas-fired generation that have been based on AEO natural gas price forecasts (rather than forward prices) have yielded results that are ''biased'' in favor of gas-fired generation, presuming that long-term price stability is valued. In this memo we simply update our past analysis to include the latest long-term gas price forecast from the EIA, as contained in AEO 2006. For the sake of brevity, we do not rehash information (on methodology, potential explanations for the premiums, etc.) contained in our earlier reports on this topic; readers interested in such information are encouraged to download that work from http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf. As was the case in the past five AEO releases (AEO 2001-AEO 2005), we once again find that the AEO 2006 reference case gas price forecast falls well below where NYMEX natural gas futures contracts were trading at the time the EIA finalized its gas price forecast. In fact, the NYMEX-AEO 2006 reference case comparison yields by far the largest premium--$2.3/MMBtu levelized over five years--that we have seen over the last six years. In other words, on average, one would have had to pay $2.3/MMBtu more than the AEO 2006 reference case natural gas price forecast in order to lock in natural gas prices over the coming five years and thereby replicate the price stability provided intrinsically by fixed-price renewable generation (or other forms of generation whose costs are not tied to the price of natural gas). Fixed-price generation (like certain forms of renewable generation) obviously need not bear this added cost, and moreover can provide price stability for terms well in excess of five years.

  16. Abstract The natural gas price surged in 2004. As a result, the marginal cost of some generators burning gas also rose sharply.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Abstract ­ The natural gas price surged in 2004. As a result, the marginal cost of some generators marginal cost, which is closely related to the natural gas price. Since gas units are usually the marginal the sensitivity of Var benefit with respect to generation cost. The U.S. natural gas industry has been

  17. Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genereux, D.; Hemond, H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Mulholland, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach.

  18. Climate Change, the Clean Air Act, and Industrial Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaswan, Alice

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    largely from coal and natural gas fired power plants. ENVIL.switching from coal to natural gas). 62. See infra note 110equivalent, and that natural gas generates much smaller co-

  19. Genetic engineering of hematopoietic stem cells to generate invariant natural killer T cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    development, leaving HSC engineering the sole approach toGenetic engineering of hematopoietic stem cells to generateT-cell receptor (TCR) gene engineering of hematopoietic stem

  20. Phase 1-supplemental development of a kinematic Stirling/Rankine commercial gas-fired heat-pump system. Final report, January 1989-June 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monahan, R.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinematic Stirling/Rankine gas heat pump concept is based on the application of a Stirling engine that has been under development for over a decade. The engine has been converted to natural gas and is characterized with many thousand hours of operating experience. The goal of the project is to develop a commercial size Stirling engine-driven gas heat pump with a cooling capacity of 10 tons, a COP (heating) of 1.8 and a COP (cooling) of 1.1. The project is a multi-phase development with commercialization planned for the mid-1990's. In previous phases, an HVAC-systems manufacturer (York International) had been working with SPS to develop a prototype gas-heat-pump system. To date, two generations of prototype GHP systems have been built and tested and have demonstrated significant operating cost savings over the conventional electric heat pump. Under the program, a number of design and manufacturing process changes were made to the engine to reduce costs and improve endurance and shaft efficiency and are described. The adaptation and operation of a computer optimization code was accomplished under the program and is reported herein.

  1. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Steps being taken to resolve questions on natural gas use for power generation in the New England region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulick, C. [Boston Gas Company, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Steps being taken to resolve questions on natural gas use for power generation in the New England Region are outlined. The following topics are discussed: bridging the gap, gas/electric discussion group, energy consumption by fuel, NEPOOL energy mix forecast, the players and their needs, pipelines serving New England, evaluation of pipeline reliability, industry survey, summary of survey conclusions, communications, operational differences, recommended red alert information sequence, handling a crisis, and major accomplishments to date.

  3. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Comparison of AEO 2005 natural gas price forecast to NYMEX futures prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 9, the reference case projections from ''Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005)'' were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. As some of you may be aware, we at LBNL have in the past compared the EIA's reference case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables play in mitigating such risk. As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. As a refresher, our past work in this area has found that over the past four years, forward natural gas contracts (e.g., gas futures, swaps, and physical supply) have traded at a premium relative to contemporaneous long-term reference case gas price forecasts from the EIA. As such, we have concluded that, over the past four years at least, levelized cost comparisons of fixed-price renewable generation with variable price gas-fired generation that have been based on AEO natural gas price forecasts (rather than forward prices) have yielded results that are ''biased'' in favor of gas-fired generation (presuming that long-term price stability is valued). In this memo we simply update our past analysis to include the latest long-term gas price forecast from the EIA, as contained in AEO 2005. For the sake of brevity, we do not rehash information (on methodology, potential explanations for the premiums, etc.) contained in our earlier reports on this topic; readers interested in such information are encouraged to download that work from http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or, more recently (and briefly), http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf. As was the case in the past four AEO releases (AEO 2001-AE0 2004), we once again find that the AEO 2005 reference case gas price forecast falls well below where NYMEX natural gas futures contracts were trading at the time the EIA finalized its gas price forecast. In fact, the NYMEXAEO 2005 reference case comparison yields by far the largest premium--$1.11/MMBtu levelized over six years--that we have seen over the last five years. In other words, on average, one would have to pay $1.11/MMBtu more than the AEO 2005 reference case natural gas price forecast in order to lock in natural gas prices over the coming six years and thereby replicate the price stability provided intrinsically by fixed-price renewable generation. Fixed-price renewables obviously need not bear this added cost, and moreover can provide price stability for terms well in excess of six years.

  5. Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

    2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Advocates of energy efficiency and renewable energy have long argued that such technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments--made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001--have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that these sources provide. In evaluating this benefit, it is important to recognize that alternative price hedging instruments are available--in particular, gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps) and physical, fixed-price gas contracts. Whether energy efficiency and renewable energy can provide price stability at lower cost than these alternative means is therefore a key question for resource acquisition planners. In this paper we evaluate the cost of hedging gas price risk through financial hedging instruments. To do this, we compare the price of a 10-year natural gas swap (i.e., what it costs to lock in prices over the next 10 years) to a 10-year natural gas price forecast (i.e., what the market is expecting spot natural gas prices to be over the next 10 years). We find that over the past two years natural gas users have had to pay a premium as high as $0.76/mmBtu (0.53/242/kWh at an aggressive 7,000 Btu/kWh heat rate) over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost to hedge gas price risk exposure is potentially large enough - particularly if incorporated by policymakers and regulators into decision-making practices - to tip the scales away from new investments in variable-price, natural gas-fired generation and in favor of fixed-price investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  6. Assessing the Potential of Natural Microbial Communities to Improve a Second-Generation Biofuels Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammett, Amy Jo Macbey

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring microbial communities from high-salt and/or high-temperature environments were collected from sites across the United States and Puerto Rico and screened for their efficacy in the MixAlco biofuel production platform. The Mix...

  7. PV output smoothing using a battery and natural gas engine-generator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi [Shimizu Corporation; Morino, Kimio [Shimizu Corporation; Shinji, Takao [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.; Ogata, Takao [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.; Tadokoro, Masayuki [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In some situations involving weak grids or high penetration scenarios, the variability of photovoltaic systems can affect the local electrical grid. In order to mitigate destabilizing effects of power fluctuations, an energy storage device or other controllable generation or load can be used. This paper describes the development of a controller for coordinated operation of a small gas engine-generator set (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output. There are a number of benefits derived from using a traditional generation resource in combination with the battery; the variability of the photovoltaic system can be reduced to a specific level with a smaller battery and Power Conditioning System (PCS) and the lifetime of the battery can be extended. The controller was designed specifically for a PV/energy storage project (Prosperity) and a gas engine-generator (Mesa Del Sol) currently operating on the same feeder in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A number of smoothing simulations of the Prosperity PV were conducted using power data collected from the site. By adjusting the control parameters, tradeoffs between battery use and ramp rates could be tuned. A cost function was created to optimize the control in order to balance, in this example, the need to have low ramp rates with reducing battery size and operation. Simulations were performed for cases with only a genset or battery, and with and without coordinated control between the genset and battery, e.g., without the communication link between sites or during a communication failure. The degree of smoothing without coordinated control did not change significantly because the battery dominated the smoothing response. It is anticipated that this work will be followed by a field demonstration in the near future.

  8. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  9. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  10. A Path to the Formulation of New Generations of Synthetic Jet Fuel Derived from Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Nuaimi, Ibrahim Awni Omar Hassan

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    United States n- normal-paraffins iso- iso-paraffins cyclo- cyclo-paraffins Tcf Trillion cubic foot Mta Million tons per annum LNG Liquefied Natural Gas QP Qatar Petroleum FT Fischer-Tropsch GHG?s Greenhouse Gases GC Gas... compositions in jet fuel type Mix Jet fuels mixture V Volumetric composition in jet fuel type. NP normal-paraffins IP iso-paraffins CP cyclo-paraffins Mw Average molecular weight D Average density NP_IP normal- and iso-paraffins mixture...

  11. Limited Electricity Generation Supply and Limited Natural Gas Supply Cases (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of U.S. energy resources and the permitting and construction of large energy facilities have become increasingly difficult over the past 20 years, and they could become even more difficult in the future. Growing public concern about global warming and CO2 emissions also casts doubt on future consumption of fossil fuels -- particularly coal, which releases the largest amount of CO2 per unit of energy produced. Even without regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, the investment community may already be limiting the future use of some energy options. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty about the future availability of, and access to, both domestic and foreign natural gas resources.

  12. Proceedings of the 8th International Natural Language Generation Conference, pages 1115, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19-21 June 2014. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the domain knowledge. For in- stance, the work on summarising the gas turbine time series (Yu et al., 2007Proceedings of the 8th International Natural Language Generation Conference, pages 11 knowledge in data-to- text systems. A use case of the proposed method is presented for text generation

  13. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    types of generators. Gas-fired combined-cycle units tend to be more efficient than coal-fired steam units. The second tab shows coal and natural gas prices on an equivalent...

  14. Neural Network Technology as a Pollution Prevention Tool in the Electric Utility Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, M. L.

    This paper documents efforts by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) to pilot test the use of neural network technology as a pollution prevention tool for reducing stack emissions from a natural gas-fired power generating facility. The project...

  15. EIS-0343: EPA Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    COB Energy Facility, Proposes to Construct a 1,160-megawatt (MW) Natural Gas-Fired and Combined- Cycle Electric Generating Plant, Right- of-Way Permit across Federal Land under the Jurisdiction of BLM, Klamath Basin, Klamath County, OR

  16. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power, and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  17. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  18. Phase I-B development of kinematic Stirling/Rankine commercial gas-fired heat-pump system. Final report, September 1983-December 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monahan, R.E.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kinematic Stirling/Rankine gas heat pump concept is based on the application of a Stirling engine that has been under development for over a decade. The engine has been converted to natural gas and is characterized with many thousand hours of operating experience. The goal of the project is to develop a commercial-size Stirling engine-driven gas heat pump with a cooling capacity of 10-ton, and a COP (heating) of 1.8 and COP (cooling) of 1.1. The project is a multi-phase development with commercialization planned for 1989. In this phase, an HVAC systems manufacturer (Borg-Warner) is working with SPS to develop a prototype gas-heat-pump system. To date, a piston-type open-shaft refrigeration compressor was selected as the best match for the engine. Both the engine and compressor have been tested and characterized by performance maps, and the experimental heat-pump systems designed, built, and preliminary testing performed. Close agreement with computer model output has been achieved. SPS has continued to focus on improving the Stirling-engine performance and reliability for the gas-heat-pump application.

  19. The development of a solar thermal water purification, heating, and power generation system: A case study.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    implemented in several desalination systems through the use of coal or gas-fired boilers. To date, however

  20. Constructal multi-scale package of vertical channels with natural convection and maximal heat transfer density. CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN: THE GENERATION OF MULTI-SCALE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kihm, IconKenneth David

    transfer density. CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN: THE GENERATION OF MULTI-SCALE HEAT AND FLUID FLOW STRUCTURES-scale structures in natural convection with the objective of maximizing the heat transfer density, or the heat transfer rate per unit of volume§ . The flow volume is filled with vertical equidistant heated blades

  1. Comparative Life-cycle Air Emissions of Coal, Domestic Natural Gas, LNG, and SNG for Electricity Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    1 Comparative Life-cycle Air Emissions of Coal, Domestic Natural Gas, LNG, and SNG for Electricity from the LNG life-cycle. Notice that local distribution of natural gas falls outside our analysis boundary. Figure 1S: Domestic Natural Gas Life-cycle. Figure 2S: LNG Life-cycle. Processing Transmission

  2. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion required...

  3. Electric and Gas Fired Radiant Tubes 'ERT' 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, E. K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper covers a unique development by the Surface Division of Midland Ross of a radiant tube heating element which will heat an industrial furnace with either gas or electric without any down time or physical conversion required...

  4. Revised June 13, 2013 Advanced Workshop in Regulation and Competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Implications Catherine Elder: Fracking ­ The Sequel Cliff Rochlin: Gas-fired Electric Generation's Aversion

  5. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  6. Generation of acoustic-gravity waves in ionospheric HF heating experiments : simulating large-scale natural heat sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradipta, Rezy

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we investigate the potential role played by large-scale anomalous heat sources (e.g. prolonged heat wave events) in generating acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) that might trigger widespread plasma turbulence ...

  7. A dynamic process model of a natural gas combined cycle -- Model development with startup and shutdown simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, Eric [U.S. DOE; Zitney, Stephen E. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in dynamic process simulation for integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) with carbon capture has been ongoing at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), culminating in a full operator training simulator (OTS) and immersive training simulator (ITS) for use in both operator training and research. A derivative work of the IGCC dynamic simulator has been a modification of the combined cycle section to more closely represent a typical natural gas fired combined cycle (NGCC). This paper describes the NGCC dynamic process model and highlights some of the simulator’s current capabilities through a particular startup and shutdown scenario.

  8. Conceptual design and system analysis of a poly-generation system for power and olefin production from natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yinlun

    -production system based on coal and natural gas for the production of electric- ity and Dimethyl ether (DME) and electricity being more thermodynamically efficient and economically viable than single purpose power resources and environmental considerations. In some senses, energy shortages and environmental pollution

  9. Phases I-C, I-D and I-E development of Kinematic Stirling/Rankine commercial gas-fired heat pump system. Final report, January 1986-September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monahan, R.E.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kinematic Stirling/Rankine gas-heat-pump concept is based on the application of a Stirling engine under development for over a decade. The engine was converted to natural gas and is characterized with many thousand hours of operating experience. The goal of the project is to develop a commercial-size Stirling engine-driven gas heat pump with a cooling capacity of 10-tons, a COP (heating) of 1.8 and a COP (cooling) of 1.1. The project is a multi-phase development with commercialization planned for 1990. In these phases, an HVAC systems manufacturer (York International) has been working with SPS to develop a prototype gas-heat-pump system. To date, two generations of prototype GHP systems have been built and tested and have demonstrated significant operating cost savings over the conventional electric heat pump. Data are presented for environmental laboratory testing of both prototype gas heat pumps as well as durability, reliability, performance, and emission testing of the V160 Stirling engine. A number of design and manufacturing process changes were made to the engine to reduce costs and improve endurance and shaft efficiency and are described.

  10. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, AUGUST 2009 1523 Security-Constrained Unit Commitment With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    for the commitment and dispatch of gas-fired generating units. If any natural gas transmission violations arise and dispatch of generating units with natural gas transmission constraints. Index Terms--Benders decomposition consumption of compressor. Startup fuel. Gas delivery amount. Gas load. Pressure of node. Natural gas flow

  11. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Quarterly progress report No. 7, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concept for an advanced coal-fired combined-cycle power generating system is currently being developed. The first phase of this three-phase program consists of conducting the necessary research and development to define the system, evaluating the economic and technical feasibility of the concept, and preparing an R&D plan to develop the concept further. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) is leading a team of companies involved in this effort. The power generating system being developed in this project will be an improvement over current coal-fired systems. Goals have been specified that relate to the efficiency, emissions, costs, and general operation of the system. The system proposed to meet these goals is a combined-cycle system where air for a gas turbine is indirectly heated to approximately 1800{degrees}F in furnaces fired with coal-derived fuels and then directly heated in a natural-gas-fired combustor to about 2400{degrees}F. The system is based on a pyrolyzing process that converts the coal into a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The fuel gas is relatively clean, and it is fired to heat tube surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion and problems from ash deposition. In particular, the high-temperature air heater tubes, which will need to be a ceramic material, will be located in a separate furnace or region of a furnace that is exposed to combustion products from the low-Btu fuel gas only. A simplified process flow diagram is shown in Figure 1.

  12. National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    'LR[LQV IURP SRZHU GLVWULFW KHDWLQJ DQG FRPELQHG KHDW DQG SRZHU SODQWV 2.1 Coal-fired plants 13 2.2 Oil for electricity and heat generation 13 2.3 Natural gas-fired plants 14 2.4 Orimulsion for electricity and heat generation 14 2.5 Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) for electricity and heat generation 14 2

  13. Using Backup Generators: Choosing the Right Backup Generator...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Choose the generator's fuel source-Backup generators are typically powered by either diesel fuel or natural gas, and both have associated advantages and disadvantages. Speak with...

  14. CFD study of natural convection mixing in a steam generator mock-up: Comparison between full geometry and porous media approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehbi, A.; Badreddine, H. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5234 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In CFD simulations of flow mixing in a steam generator (SG) during natural circulation, one is faced with the problem of representing the thousands of SG U-tubes. Typically simplifications are made to render the problem computationally tractable. In particular, one or a number of tubes are lumped in one volume which is treated as a single porous medium. This approach dramatically reduces the computational size of the problem and hence simulation time. In this work, we endeavor to investigate the adequacy of this approach by performing two separate simulations of flow in a mock-up with 262 U-tubes, i.e. one in which the porous media model is used for the tube bundle, and another in which the full geometry is represented. In both simulations, the Reynolds Stress (RMS) model of turbulence is used. We show that in steady state conditions, the porous media treatment yields results which are comparable to those of the full geometry representation (temperature distribution, recirculation ratio, hot plume spread, etc). Hence, the porous media approach can be extended with a good degree of confidence to the full scale SG. (authors)

  15. Cascading of Fluctuations in Interdependent Energy Infrastructures: Gas-Grid Coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chertkov, Michael; Backhaus, Scott

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The revolution of hydraulic fracturing has dramatically increased the supply and lowered the cost of natural gas in the United States driving an expansion of natural gas-fired generation capacity in many electrical grids. Unrelated to the natural gas expansion, lower capital costs and renewable portfolio standards are driving an expansion of intermittent renewable generation capacity such as wind and photovoltaic generation. These two changes may potentially combine to create new threats to the reliability of these interdependent energy infrastructures. Natural gas-fired generators are often used to balance the fluctuating output of wind generation. However, the time-varying output of these generators results in time-varying natural gas burn rates that impact the pressure in interstate transmission pipelines. Fluctuating pressure impacts the reliability of natural gas deliveries to those same generators and the safety of pipeline operations. We adopt a partial differential equation model of natural gas pipeli...

  16. Infrastructure Assurance Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NGReal-time lets analysts see real-time utilization rates of natural-gas-fired electric power plants, natural gas processing plants, and other industrial customers, along with the changes in the utilization rates as disruptive events progress (Figure 2). The model also generates reports and graphics to help

  17. California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Peterman, Carla Joy; Wolfram, Catherine D

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    peak demand are natural gas fired combustion turbines. Thesenatural gas plants to “follow load” as the more nimble, combustion

  18. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a review of how regional generating resource installed capacity and energy availability have changed over the same time period. Since 1995, about 16,600 megawatts of new installed capacity has been added from natural gas-fired generators. During the same period, about 870 megawatts of installed capacity

  19. Subsurface Sequestration of CO2 in the U.S: Is it Money Best Spent?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    with an average gas-fired powerplant would avoid today 7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 1.2 million tonnes the main sink for the gigantic CO2 volume generated each year by electric powerplants. Currently, EOR could in the U.S. in the year 2008. Note that natural gas generated about 45% of electricity, but only 17% of CO2

  20. STAFF PAPER THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF GASFIRED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..................................................................... 6 List of Tables Page Table 1: California Natural GasFired Heat Rates for 2001 ­ 2010 (Btu 5: Heat Rates for California's Natural GasFired Power Plants (Btu/kWh) ...................... 8 per kilowatt hour (Btu/kWh) from 2001 to 2010. Table 1: California Natural Gas-Fired Heat Rates

  1. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carnall, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a recently proposed water heater standard. The resultspurchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximizeefficiency standard for water heaters. 1.2 Overview of the

  2. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  3. Naturalness redux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Fabbrichesi; Alfredo Urbano

    2015-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of naturalness, as originally conceived, refers only to the finite renormalization of the Higgs boson mass induced by the introduction of heavier states. In this respect, naturalness is still a powerful heuristic principle in model building beyond the standard model whenever new massive states are coupled to the Higgs field. The most compelling case is provided by the generation of neutrino masses. In this paper we confront this problem from a new perspective. The right-handed sector responsible for the seesaw mechanism---which introduces a large energy threshold above the electroweak scale---is made supersymmetric to comply with naturalness while the standard model is left unchanged and non-supersymmetric. Cancellations necessary to the naturalness requirement break down only at two loops, thus offering the possibility to increase the right-handed neutrino mass scale up to one order of magnitude above the usual values allowed by naturalness. If also the weak boson sector of the standard model is made supersymmetric, cancellations break down at three loops and the scale of new physics can be further raised. In the type-I seesaw, this implementation provides right-handed neutrino masses that are natural and at the same time large enough to give rise to baryogenesis (via leptogenesis). The model contains a dark matter candidate and distinctive new physics in the leptonic sector.

  4. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost of Natural Gas Generation, p Figure 6. Normalised NetCost of Natural Gas Generation, p Figure 7. Wait InvestCost of Natural Gas Generation (US$/kWh e ), C Figure 8.

  5. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which could supply both heat and peaking power (Block 2 engine); (2) Repowering of an older coal-fired plant (Block 2 engine); (3) Gas-fired HAT cycle (Block 1 and 2 engines); (4) Integrated gasification HAT (Block 1 and 2 engines). Also under Phase I of the NGT Program, a conceptual design of the combustion system has been completed. An integrated approach to cycle optimization for improved combustor turndown capability has been employed. The configuration selected has the potential for achieving single digit NO{sub x}/CO emissions between 40 percent and 100 percent load conditions. A technology maturation plan for the combustion system has been proposed. Also, as a result of Phase I, ceramic vane technology will be incorporated into NGT designs and will require less cooling flow than conventional metallic vanes, thereby improving engine efficiency. A common 50 Hz and 60 Hz power turbine was selected due to the cost savings from eliminating a gearbox. A list of ceramic vane technologies has been identified for which the funding comes from DOE, NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and P&W.

  6. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of the CO{sub 2} in the original process as converted to methane. The process could under another option avoid emissions following the conversion to SNG through an adjunct algae conversion process. The algae would then be converted to fuels or other products. An additional application of the algae process at the end use natural gas fired plant could further reduce emissions. The APS team fully recognizes the competition facing the process from natural gas and imported liquid natural gas. While we expect those resources to set the price for methane in the near-term, the team's work to date indicates that the AHP process can be commercially competitive, with the added benefit of assuring long-term energy supplies from North American resources. Conversion of coal to a more readily transportable fuel that can be employed near load centers with an overall reduction of greenhouses gases is edging closer to reality.

  7. CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION 16 NINTH STREET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    units (i.e., natural gas fired combustion turbines equipped with dry Low NOx combustors and heat Electric Frame 7EA combustion turbines and heat recovery steam generators (HRSG). Each HRSG was designed to deliver 450,000 lbs/hr steam at 80% quality to the surrounding oil field for thermal enhanced oil recovery

  8. Biennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Interim Report on Electric Price Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    because natural gas fired electric generating plants are on the margin much of the time in Western marketsBiennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Interim Report on Electric Price Forecasts Electricity prices in the Council's Power Plan are forecast using the AURORATM Electricity Market Model of the entire

  9. QuarterlyCouncilNorthwest Power and Conservation Council > Spring 2013 STRIKING A BALANCE BETWEEN ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and federal agency, and energy groups together to discuss the challenges surrounding this key planning issue on recommendations from state and federal fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes in the Northwest,but anyone of natural gas-fired generation, as well as an emphasis on energy efficiency and development of renewable

  10. EIS-0415: Deer Creek Station Energy Facility Project, South Dakota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes WAPA's decision to approve the interconnection request made by Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin Electric) with the USDA Rural Utilities Service (RUS) proposing to provide financial assistance, for the Deer Creek Station Project, a proposed 300-megawatt (MW) natural gas-fired generation facility.

  11. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    growth in demand · Impacts on utility business model Greenhouse gas emissions · Market and industry and NarrativesII. Situation Scan and Narratives III. Energy Efficiency Achievements and Issues IV. Renewable Resources V. Natural Gas-Fired Generating Resources VI. Resource Adequacy VII. Updates to Key forecasts

  12. EIS-0201: Coyote Springs Cogeneration Project Morrow Count, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This environmental impact statement analyzes the protential impacts of the Coyote Springs Cogeneration Project, a proposed natural gas-fired cogeneration power plant near Boardman, Oregon. The proposed power plant would be built on a 22-acre site in the Port of Morrow Industrial Park. The plant would have two combustion turbines that would generate 440 average megawatts of energy when completed.

  13. STATE OF CALIFORNIA THE RESOURCES AGENCY ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER, Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    combustors and heat recovery steam generators) be permitted to operate either in simple-cycle mode existing cogeneration units (i.e., natural gas fired combustion turbines equipped with dry Low NOx, or in cogeneration mode. This request is due to (1) a decline in steam demand from the adjacent oilfield, and (2

  14. Microsoft Word - Northern Pass Amended Application - FINAL

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    67 4.7 Railroad ROW 69 4.8 New England-Based Renewable Energy Projects 71 4.9 Demand-Side Management and Energy Efficiency 73 4.10 Natural Gas-Fired Generation 75 4.11...

  15. Use of Slip Ring Induction Generator for Wind Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K Y Patil; D S Chavan

    Wind energy is now firmly established as a mature technology for electricity generation. There are different types of generators that can be used for wind energy generation, among which Slip ring Induction generator proves to be more advantageous. To analyse application of Slip ring Induction generator for wind power generation, an experimental model is developed and results are studied. As power generation from natural sources is the need today and variable speed wind energy is ample in amount in India, it is necessary to study more beneficial options for wind energy generating techniques. From this need a model is developed by using Slip ring Induction generator which is a type of Asynchronous generator.

  16. Active Humidity Control Through Gas-Fired Desiccant Humidity Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High equipment first cost and high operating costs, if electricity is used to drive such a system, have prohibited the application of active humidity control equipment in comfort conditioning in the past. Instead, passive techniques have been...

  17. Active Humidity Control Through Gas-Fired Desiccant Humidity Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applied. A comparison of passive capacity control methods to control humidity shows that only the combined face and bypass and variable air volume system shows improved performance with respect to space humidity control, dew point depression, and response...

  18. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino, Undersecretary11-161-LNGGary M. Mignogna -GasA

  19. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOE FY 2011Talley,GENII Code GENII CodeDepartment

  20. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown Fact 844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...

  1. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    option on natural gas generation, which increases in valueL ABORATORY Distributed Generation Investment by a MicrogridORMMES’06 Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid

  2. Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Maureen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation by 18%. Natural gas combustion turbine capacitycycle natural gas plants, combustion turbine natural gasnuclear plants, combustion turbine natural gas plants, and

  3. on man, nature & air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on man, nature & air pollution About three decades ago, itand episodes of air pollution the following summer. Wetthe increase in air pollution. This hypothesis generated

  4. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    utility electricity and natural gas purchases, amortized capital and maintenance costs for distributed generation (

  5. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Furnace (2) Heater (35) Water Heater (32) ~ Space u.. c:Emissionsfrom Gas-fired Water Heaters, Report No. 1507,gas furnaces and water heaters," JAPCA 31:1268 (1981). Table

  6. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air FLUE Excess Air Natural Gas Combustion Air Figure 3:4 The natural gas flame in the combustion chamber usedair streams. The combustion of natural gas generates CO 2

  7. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J. (Woodward)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETL’s Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

  8. A Framework for Environmental Assessment of CO2 Capture and Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathre, Roger

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy than natural gas combustion, coal-fired plantsnatural gas combined cycle power plant with post-combustioncoal- and natural gas- fired plants. Since coal combustion

  9. International Natural Gas Prices for Electricity Generation ...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - Gross Calorific Value2 Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Argentina NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Austria 368.5 379.3 590.6 686.2 729.6 785.0 936.5 1,024.3...

  10. International Natural Gas Prices for Electricity Generation ...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    323.8 NA NA NA NA NA Spain 176.0 165.5 204.0 215.6 254.2 354.9 380.3 486.6 433.8 390.4 Sweden NA NA NA NA NA NA 609.3 776.5 585.4 662.7 Switzerland 296.4 279.2 320.3 352.4 402.6...

  11. Generating Resources Advisory Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generating Resources Advisory Committee February 27, 2014 Steven Simmons and Gillian Charles Upcoming Symposium 9:15 am Natural Gas Peaking Technologies Technology Trends Proposed reference plant Costing, Economies of Scale, Normalizations Reference Plants 12:30 pm Discussion of Next GRAC Meetings

  12. Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Maureen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation by 18%. Natural gas combustion turbine capacitycombined cycle natural gas plants, combustion turbinenuclear plants, combustion turbine natural gas plants, and

  13. Waste Heat Recovery Power Generation with WOWGen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero, M.

    applications of heat recovery power generation can be found in Industry (e.g. steel, glass, cement, lime, pulp and paper, refining and petrochemicals), Power Generation (CHP, biomass, biofuel, traditional fuels, gasifiers, diesel engines) and Natural Gas...

  14. Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Maureen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of about 80 GW of coal-based generation technologyand reduces coal-based electricity generation by 18%.to offset coal- and natural gas-based electricity generation

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Kelner; T.E. Owen; D.L. George; A. Minachi; M.G. Nored; C.J. Schwartz

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} began a multi-year project co-funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy. The project goal is to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype retrofit natural gas energy flow meter in 2000-2001 included: (1) evaluation of the inferential gas energy analysis algorithm using supplemental gas databases and anticipated worst-case gas mixtures; (2) identification and feasibility review of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen diluent content; (3) experimental performance evaluation of infrared absorption sensors for carbon dioxide diluent content; and (4) procurement of a custom ultrasonic transducer and redesign of the ultrasonic pulse reflection correlation sensor for precision speed-of-sound measurements. A prototype energy meter module containing improved carbon dioxide and speed-of-sound sensors was constructed and tested in the GRI Metering Research Facility at SwRI. Performance of this module using transmission-quality natural gas and gas containing supplemental carbon dioxide up to 9 mol% resulted in gas energy determinations well within the inferential algorithm worst-case tolerance of {+-}2.4 Btu/scf (nitrogen diluent gas measured by gas chromatograph). A two-week field test was performed at a gas-fired power plant to evaluate the inferential algorithm and the data acquisition requirements needed to adapt the prototype energy meter module to practical field site conditions.

  16. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  17. Advanced Analytics | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oil field production. Power Generation - Combinations of hardware and software that boost wind turbine and gas-fired power plant output and efficiency. Rail - Cloud-based software...

  18. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A primary justification for the establishment of energy efficiency standards for home appliances is the existence of information deficiencies and externalities in the market for appliances. For example, when a long-term homeowner purchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximize the value of her purchase by comparing the life-cycle cost of ownership of available units, including both total installed cost - purchase price plus installation costs - and operating cost in the calculus. Choice of the appliance with the lowest life-cycle costs leads to the most economically efficient balance between capital cost and fuel cost. However, if the purchaser's expected period of ownership is shorter than the useful life of the appliance, or the purchaser does not pay for the fuel used by the appliance, as is often the case with rental property, fuel cost will be external to her costs, biasing her decision toward spending less on fuel efficiency and resulting in the purchase of an appliance with greater than optimal fuel usage. By imposing an efficiency standard on appliances, less efficient appliances are made unavailable, precluding less efficient purchases and reducing fuel usage. The reduction in fuel demanded by residential users affects the total demand for such fuels as natural gas, for example. Reduced demand implies that residential customers are willing to purchase less gas at each price level. That is, the demand curve, labeled D{sub 0} in Figure 1, shifts to the left to D{sub 1}. If there is no change in the supply function, the supply curve will intersect the demand curve at a lower price. Residential demand is only one component of the total demand for natural gas. It is possible that total demand will decline very little if demand in other sectors increases substantially in response to a decline in the price. If demand does decrease, modeling studies generally confirm the intuition that reductions in demand for natural gas will result in reductions in its price as seen at the wellhead (Wiser 2007). The magnitude of the effect on price relative to the demand reduction, and the mechanism through which it occurs, is less well established. This report attempts to quantify the potential effects of reduced demand for natural gas in the residential sector, in response to the implementation of an energy efficiency standard for water heaters.

  19. Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas electricity contracts: A summary of the California Department of Water Resources contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachrach, Devra; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Golove, William

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas-fired power plants, which will increase California'spower plants, which will presumably increase California'sin California is PG&E's Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant,

  20. Reliability Evaluation of Electric Power Generation Systems with Solar Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samadi, Saeed

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional power generators are fueled by natural gas, steam, or water flow. These generators can respond to fluctuating load by varying the fuel input that is done by a valve control. Renewable power generators such as wind or solar, however...

  1. A partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy and Solar Turbines Incorporated to develop and commercialize the premier power source for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilken, L.S.; Brent, R. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Turbines Incorporated, a San Diego based subsidiary of Caterpillar, Inc., entered into a funded Cooperative Agreement on September 15, 1995 with the U.S. Department of Energy for a multi-phase cost share development and commercialization program focused on natural gas-fired industrial gas turbine generation systems. The Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program and Solar Turbine`s proposal are summarized below. 4 figs.

  2. Thermoelectric Generators 1. Thermoelectric generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ho Sung

    1 Thermoelectric Generators HoSung Lee 1. Thermoelectric generator 1.1 Basic Equations In 1821 effects are called the thermoelectric effects. The mechanisms of thermoelectricity were not understood. Cold Hot I - -- - - - - -- Figure 1 Electron concentration in a thermoelectric material. #12;2 A large

  3. Hyperbolic Graph Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Networks representing many complex systems in nature and society share some common structural properties like heterogeneous degree distributions and strong clustering. Recent research on network geometry has shown that those real networks can be adequately modeled as random geometric graphs in hyperbolic spaces. In this paper, we present a computer program to generate such graphs. Besides real-world-like networks, the program can generate random graphs from other well-known graph ensembles, such as the soft configuration model, random geometric graphs on a circle, or Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi random graphs. The simulations show a good match between the expected values of different network structural properties and the corresponding empirical values measured in generated graphs, confirming the accurate behavior of the program.

  4. Texas' Natural Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Texas A&M?s Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, said the summary report synthesizes the ?state of knowl- edge? about the geography, hydrology, ecology and environmental impacts affecting Caddo Lake and Big Cypress Creek. At the second...; and heavy metals, including mercury found in the lignite coal used to power electricity-generating plants, are accumulating in fish tissues. Texas? Natural Lake tx H2O | pg. 2 Research to help restore environmental flows to Caddo Lake Scientists...

  5. How regulators should use natural gas price forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costello, Ken

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas prices are critical to a range of regulatory decisions covering both electric and gas utilities. Natural gas prices are often a crucial variable in electric generation capacity planning and in the benefit-cost relationship for energy-efficiency programs. High natural gas prices can make coal generation the most economical new source, while low prices can make natural gas generation the most economical. (author)

  6. Mimicking Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into lakes and rivers, and the impact different water management decisions could have. ?We?re trying to mimic nature,? said Dr. Jeff Arnold, research leader and agricultural engineer for the Grassland Soil and Water Research Laboratory in Temple, part..., director of Texas A&M University?s Spatial Sciences Laboratory and professor in the Departments of Ecosystem Science and MIMICKING NATURE Computer model helps manage nation?s, world?s waters #2; Management, and Biological and Agricultural Engineering...

  7. An assessment of natural history representation in Texas state parks and natural areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Glen Robert

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and inspiration of present and future generations. This study examines the representation of natural heritage in Texas state parks. A system of natural history themes developed by the National Park Service is modified to be more applicable to Texas. Texas state... The National Natural Landmarks Program State Studies Texas Studies 13 15 17 23 24 I I I METHODOLOGY Development of Texas Natural History Themes Park Descriptions System Description 26 28 29 IV RESULTS: TEXAS NATURAL HISTORY THEMES 32 Landforms...

  8. Natural Predator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 10 Natural Predator Story by Kathy Wythe Natural Predator Foreign beetle shows promise for controlling saltcedar In the northern part of the Texas Panhandle andalong the West Texas banks of the Colorado andPecos rivers, Texas... scientists are successfully intro- ducing a foreign beetle to help control an invasive and exotic water-thirsty plant. Saltcedar, or Tamarix, was introduced to the western United States in the 1800s from central Asia as an ornamental tree and planted...

  9. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Yin, Hongxi [Southeast University, Nanjing, China

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  10. New wave generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercier, Matthieu J; Mathur, Manikandan; Gostiaux, Louis; Peacock, Thomas; Dauxois, Thierry

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a combined experimental and numerical study of the generation of internal waves using the novel internal wave generator design of Gostiaux et al. (2007). This mechanism, which involves a tunable source comprised of oscillating plates, has so far been used for a few fundamental studies of internal waves, but its full potential has yet to be realized. Our studies reveal that this approach is capable of producing a wide variety of two-dimensional wave fields, including plane waves, wave beams and discrete vertical modes in finite-depth stratifications. The effects of discretization by a finite number of plates, forcing amplitude and angle of propagation are investigated, and it is found that the method is remarkably efficient at generating a complete wave field despite forcing only one velocity component in a controllable manner. We furthermore find that the nature of the radiated wave field is well predicted using Fourier transforms of the spatial structure of the wave generator.

  11. Generating Synthetic Pitch Contours Using Prosodic Structure. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Robert A J

    This thesis addresses the problem of generating a range of natural sounding pitch contours for speech synthesis to convey the specific meanings of different intonation patterns. Where other models can synthesise intonation ...

  12. STATE OF CALIFORNIA -NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    all four of the combustion gas turbines units in an extended start-up period for the purpose of tuning Pollutant emissions from each combustion turbine shall not exceed the following limits except during times of startup.l 9f-shutdown or tuning startup periods as defined in Condition AQ-17: Gas Fired Case

  13. STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Program 2014 Large Storage Water Heaters Test Laboratory Application Note: Completed Sample Test Report-mail (Address) Company Website (URL) Appliance Type(s): Gas-fired Large Storage Water Heaters Oil-fired Large Storage Water Heater Electric Large Storage Water Heater Test method(s): ANSI Z21.10.3­2011, Exhibits G1

  14. STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Program 2013 Large Storage Water Heaters Test Laboratory Application Note: Completed Sample Test Report-mail (Address) Company Website (URL) Appliance Type(s): Gas-fired Large Storage Water Heaters Oil-fired Large Storage Water Heater Electric Large Storage Water Heater Test method(s): ANSI Z21.10.3­1998, §2.9 and 2

  15. Power generation method including membrane separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  16. Jobs and Economic Development from New Transmission and Generation...

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    from New Transmission and Generation in Wyoming Introduction Wyoming is a significant energy exporter, producing nearly 40% of the nation's coal and 10% of the nation's natural...

  17. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    utility. Using the real options approach, we find naturalDistributed Generation; Real Options; Optimal Investment. 1.based microgrid via the real options approach to determine

  18. Generation Planning (pbl/generation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFundingGene ControlsCounselGeneral User Generation

  19. Development of an efficient, low cost, small-scale natural gas fuel reformer for residential scale electric power generation. Final report for the period October 1, 1998 - December 31, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreutz, Thomas G.; Ogden, Joan M.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the final report, we present results from a technical and economic assessment of residential scale PEM fuel cell power systems. The objectives of our study are to conceptually design an inexpensive, small-scale PEMFC-based stationary power system that converts natural gas to both electricity and heat, and then to analyze the prospective performance and economics of various system configurations. We developed computer models for residential scale PEMFC cogeneration systems to compare various system designs (e.g., steam reforming vs. partial oxidation, compressed vs. atmospheric pressure, etc.) and determine the most technically and economically attractive system configurations at various scales (e.g., single family, residential, multi-dwelling, neighborhood).

  20. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    placed on any one forecast of future natural gas prices, andreference case forecast of spot natural gas prices deliveredPrice Forecasts to Compare Renewable to Natural Gas- Fired

  1. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pdf/E-20.pdf, May 2008. PG&E natural gas tariffs. http://pdf/G-NT.pdf, May 2008. PG&E natural gas tariffs. http://than less expensive natural gas fired reciprocating engine

  2. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Energy-Efficient Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PSNC offers rebates to customers who purchase energy-efficient natural gas water heaters or natural gas furnaces. The rebate is available only when existing natural gas-fired water heating or...

  3. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  4. Dubuque generation station, Dubuque, Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Alliant Energy's Dubuque generation station is a fine example of why small does not mean insignificant in the power generation industry. This winner of the EUCG best performer award in the small plant category shows that its operating excellence towers over that of many larger and much newer coal-fired power plants. The plant has three operating units with boilers originally designed for Illinois basin coal but now Powder River Basin coal makes up 75% of the coal consumed. The boilers can also burn natural gas. 4 photos.

  5. Economics of natural gas upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source in meeting some of the market demand presently met by liquid products from crude oil. This study was initiated to analyze three energy markets to determine if greater use could be made of natural gas or natural gas derived products and if those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The three markets targeted for possible increases in gas use were motor fuels, power generation, and the chemical feedstocks market. The economics of processes to convert natural gas to transportation fuels, chemical products, and power were analyzed. The economic analysis was accomplished by drawing on a variety of detailed economic studies, updating them and bringing the results to a common basis. The processes analyzed included production of methanol, MTBE, higher alcohols, gasoline, CNG, and LNG for the transportation market. Production and use of methanol and ammonia in the chemical feedstock market and use of natural gas for power generation were also assessed. Use of both high and low quality gas as a process feed stream was evaluated. The analysis also explored the impact of various gas price growth rates and process facility locations, including remote gas areas. In assessing the transportation fuels market the analysis examined production and use of both conventional and new alternative motor fuels.

  6. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  8. Dealing with natural gas uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, J.; Graeber, D. (J.R. Clements and Associates (US))

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel of choice for generating new power is and will continue over the next two decades to be natural gas. It is the fuel of choice because it is plentiful, environmentally acceptable, and relatively inexpensive. This paper reports that gas reserves on the North American continent continue to be discovered in amounts that may keep the gas bubble inflated far longer than currently estimated. New gas transportation capacity is actively being developed to overcome the capacity bottlenecks and deliverability shortfalls. Natural gas prices will probably remain stable (with expected CPI-related increases) for the short run (2-4 years), and probably will be higher than CPI increases thereafter.

  9. Fractal Nature of Solar Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koushik Ghosh; Probhas Raychaudhuri

    2006-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractal method has been studied to understand the irregular and chaotic nature of any physical structure. Conventionally it is suggested that the solar interior is rigid in nature. Since solar neutrino flux is the indicator of the interior solar structure it is natural to study the solar neutrino flux source to find if the nuclear energy generation inside the sun is fractal in nature or not. At present there exist five solar neutrino experiments to detect neutrinos from the sun which can suggest which type of nuclear energy generation occurs inside the sun. Since we know that the solar atmosphere is irregular in nature many authors have studied this irregular nature by fractal analysis. In this regard we have studied solar neutrino flux data from 1) Homestake detector during the period from March, 1970 to April, 1994; 2) SAGE detector during the period from 1st January, 1990 to 31st December, 2000; 3) SAGE detector during the period from April, 1998 to December, 2001; 4) GALLEX detector during the period from May, 1991 to January, 1997; 5) GNO detector during the period from May, 1998 to December, 2001; 6) GALLEX-GNO detector (combined data) from May, 1991 to December, 2001; 7) average of the data from GNO and SAGE detectors during the period from May, 1998 to December, 2001; 8) 5-day-long samples from Super-Kamiokande-I detector during the period from June, 1996 to July,2001; 9) 10-day-long samples from Super-Kamiokande-I detector during the period from June,1996 to July,2001 and 10) 45-day-long samples from Super-Kamiokande-I detector during the period from June,1996 to July,2001 by fractal analysis and we have arrived at the conclusion that the solar neutrino flux data are fractal in nature.

  10. An experimental study of gas-fired infrared drying of paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Jefferson

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as the exposure time increased. The final investigation focused on the effects of varying emitter parameters. Flame temperature, sample mass, and internal temperature measurements were made for various air/fuel ratios and overall fuel consumption rates. Peak flame...

  11. Performance of Gas-fired Water Heaters in a 10-home Field Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

  12. An experimental study of gas-fired infrared drying of paper 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Jefferson

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exchanger assembly with top plate removed. . . 39 40 14 Schematic of TAPPI 159 mm diameter handsheet machine (Asensio, 1992) 47 15 Barrel of TAPPI handsheet machine in the closed position with the agitator shown on the right and couch roll on the left...

  13. Improving Gas-Fired Heat Pump Capacity and Performance by Adding a Desiccant Dehumidification Subsystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, B. K.; Pesaran, A. A.; Bharathan, D.; Shelpuk, B. C.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of absorption and desiccant solar cooling systems." Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley La- boratory. Kinast, J. A,; Wurm. J.; Zawacki, T. S.: and . Macriss, R. A. 1982. SOLAR-MEC~ development program report. COO-4495-53. Chicago, IL: Institute of Gas...

  14. Understanding and Managing Generation Y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Kevin

    2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    There are four generations in the workplace today; they consist of the Silent Generation, Baby Boom Generation, Generation X, and Generation Y. Generation Y, being the newest generation, is the least understood generation although marketers...

  15. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas-fired units account for nearly 90% of the total generating capacity added in the U.S. between 1999 and 2005 (EIA 2006b), bringing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation to 19%. Looking ahead over the next decade, the EIA expects this trend to continue, increasing the market share of gas-fired generation to 22% by 2015 (EIA 2007a). Though these numbers are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in many other countries as well. A large percentage of the total cost of gas-fired generation is attributable to fuel costs--i.e., natural gas prices. For example, at current spot prices of around $7/MMBtu, fuel costs account for more than 75% of the levelized cost of energy from a new combined cycle gas turbine, and more than 90% of its operating costs (EIA 2007a). Furthermore, given that gas-fired plants are often the marginal supply units that set the market-clearing price for all generators in a competitive wholesale market, there is a direct link between natural gas prices and wholesale electricity prices. In this light, the dramatic increase in natural gas prices since the 1990s should be a cause for ratepayer concern. Figure 1 shows the daily price history of the 'first-nearby' (i.e., closest to expiration) NYMEX natural gas futures contract (black line) at Henry Hub, along with the futures strip (i.e., the full series of futures contracts) from August 22, 2007 (red line). First, nearby prices, which closely track spot prices, have recently been trading within a $7-9/MMBtu range in the United States and, as shown by the futures strip, are expected to remain there through 2012. These price levels are $6/MMBtu higher than the $1-3/MMBtu range seen throughout most of the 1990s, demonstrating significant price escalation for natural gas in the United States over a relatively brief period. Perhaps of most concern is that this dramatic price increase was largely unforeseen. Figure 2 compares the EIA's natural gas wellhead price forecast from each year's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) going back to 1985 against the average US wellhead price that actually transpired. As shown, our forecasting abilities have proven rather dismal over time, as over-forecasts made in the late 1980's eventually yielded to under-forecasts that have persisted to this day. This historical experience demonstrates that little weight should be placed on any one forecast of future natural gas prices, and that a broad range of future price conditions ought to be considered in planning and investment decisions. Against this backdrop of high, volatile, and unpredictable natural gas prices, increasing the market penetration of renewable generation such as wind, solar, and geothermal power may provide economic benefits to ratepayers by displacing gas-fired generation. These benefits may manifest themselves in several ways. First, the displacement of natural gas-fired generation by increased renewable generation reduces ratepayer exposure to natural gas price risk--i.e., the risk that future gas prices (and by extension future electricity prices) may end up markedly different than expected. Second, this displacement reduces demand for natural gas among gas-fired generators, which, all else equal, will put downward pressure on natural gas prices. Lower natural gas prices in turn benefit both electric ratepayers and other end-users of natural gas. Using analytic approaches that build upon, yet differ from, the past work of others, including Awerbuch (1993, 1994, 2003), Kahn and Stoft (1993), and Humphreys and McClain (1998), this chapter explores each of these two potential 'hedging' benefits of renewable electricity. Though we do not seek to judge whether these two specific benefits outweigh any incremental cost of renewable energy (relative to conventional fuels), we do seek to quantify the magnitude of these two individual benefit

  16. Design and development of Stirling Engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 hp range. Subtask 1A report: state-of-the-art conceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first portion of the Conceptual Design Study of Stirling Engines for Stationary Power Application in the 500 to 3000 hp range which was aimed at state-of-the-art stationary Stirling engines for a 1985 hardware demonstration is summarized. The main goals of this effort were to obtain reliable cost data for a stationary Stirling engine capable of meeting future needs for total energy/cogeneration sysems and to establish a pragmatic and conservative base design for a first generation hardware. Starting with an extensive screening effort, 4 engine types, i.e., V-type crank engine, radial engine, swashplate engine, and rhombic drive engine, and 3 heat transport systems, i.e., heat pipe, pressurized gas heat transport loop, and direct gas fired system, were selected. After a preliminary layout cycle, the rhombic drive engine was eliminated due to intolerable maintenance difficulties on the push rod seals. V, radial and swashplate engines were taken through a detailed design/layout cycle, to establish all important design features and reliable engine weights. After comparing engine layouts and analyzing qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria, the V-crank engine was chosen as the candidate for a 1985 hardware demonstration.

  17. Leadership in Low NOx/ Lochinvar Corporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheko, D.; Boston, S.; Moore, J.

    , Texas Nashville, Tennessee On April 19, 2000, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission adopted statewide NOx emission limits for all natural gas-fired water heaters, boilers and process heaters with input rates of 2 million Btu/hr or less... for the purposes of generating efficient boilers, and process heaters having a BTU rating of up and environmentally friendly hot water production. to 2,000,000 BTU/hour within the state of Texas. Some readers of this paper may already be aware It's not everyday...

  18. ESTIMATING RISK TO CALIFORNIA ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE FROM PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    loss to natural gas-fired simple-cycle combustion turbine (of natural gas power plants: (1) simple-cycle combustionnatural gas power plants are considered: simple- cycle combustion

  19. Published: December 28, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 724 dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr2003272 |Chem. Rev. 2012, 112, 724781

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is at stationary point sources, such as coal- and natural gas-fired power plants. In the United States, 41 of coal, oil, and natural gas (ca. 80% of CO2 emissions worldwide),1 are pro- jected to continue

  20. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas emissions from conven- tional power sources like coal.total emissions from coal- or natural gas-fired power plantsemissions, the lifecycle for natural gas power production is more complicated than that of coal.

  1. Naturalness and supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agashe, K [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, the author argues that the supersymmetric Standard Model, while avoiding the fine tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking, requires unnaturalness/fine tuning in some (other) sector of the theory. For example, Baryon and Lepton number violating operators are allowed which lead to proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. He studies some of the constraints from the latter in this thesis. He has to impose an R-parity for the theory to be both natural and viable. In the absence of flavor symmetries, the supersymmetry breaking masses for the squarks and sleptons lead to too large flavor changing neutral currents. He shows that two of the solutions to this problem, gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking and making the scalars of the first two generations heavier than a few TeV, reintroduce fine tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking. He also constructs a model of low energy gauge mediation with a non-minimal messenger sector which improves the fine tuning and also generates required Higgs mass terms. He shows that this model can be derived from a Grand Unified Theory despite the non-minimal spectrum.

  2. Last Updated: 05.30.2013 Part I: California Uses for Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Last Updated: 05.30.2013 Part I: California Uses for Natural Gas Natural gas is the second most shares of natural gas consumed by end-use sectors and in-state electricity generation. Table 1: Natural and Energy Reports. * Does not include out-of-state natural gas used to produce electricity that is imported

  3. Model Order Reduction Techniques Problem Set 5 Parabolic Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and hot water for industrial process and elec- trical energy generation. They transmit heat by combustion. It is a dual fuel (oil/gas) fired unit used for heating and generating electric power. The plant has 4 inputs

  4. EIS-0354: Ivanpah Energy Center, NV

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ivanpah Energy Center, L.P., a Diamond Generating Corporation Company, a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Corporation proposes to construct and operate a 500 Megawatt (MW) gas-fired electric power generating station in southern Clark County, Nevada.

  5. Generation gaps in engineering?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, David J. (David Jinwoo)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is much enthusiastic debate on the topic of generation gaps in the workplace today; what the generational differences are, how to address the apparent challenges, and if the generations themselves are even real. ...

  6. Small Generator Aggregation (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section establishes requirements for electricity providers to purchase electricity from small generators, with the goal of ensuring that small electricity generators (those with a nameplate...

  7. SBVR Business Rules Generation from Natural Language Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Mark

    structure or control behaviour of a business process. In modern business modelling, one of the important constrained business aspects in a typical business modelling. 1. Introduction A robust business model is always based on a set of business rules. The actual role of the business rules in business modelling

  8. Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants? |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T en Y ear R enewable E nergy P

  9. Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants? |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartment of EnergyofPROTECTINGof November 12-13,VehiclesOils -

  10. Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Permitting Energy Generation Projects |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planning methodologiesVenkataraya Fibres2072286°,Open Energy

  11. Regulation of natural monopolies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and empirical literature on the regulation of natural monopolies. It covers alternative definitions of natural monopoly, regulatory goals, alternative ...

  12. Natural Gas Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue...

  13. Borrowing Nature's Polymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Borrowing Nature's Polymers 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:January 2015 All Issues submit Borrowing Nature's Polymers Los Alamos scientists are...

  14. Natural Resources Districts (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes Natural Resources District, encompassing all of the area of the state, to conserve, protect, develop, and manage Nebraska's natural resources. These districts replace and...

  15. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  16. Natural Gas Rules (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Natural Resources administers the rules that govern natural gas exploration and extraction in the state. DNR works with the Louisiana Department of Environmental...

  17. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  18. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  19. Harnessing Hydropower: The Earth's Natural Resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a layman's overview of hydroelectric power. It includes information on: History of Hydropower; Nature’s Water Cycle; Hydropower Plants; Turbines and Generators; Transmission Systems; power dispatching centers; and Substations. It goes on to discuss The Power Grid, Hydropower in the 21st Century; Energy and the Environment; and how hydropower is useful for Meeting Peak Demands. It briefly addresses how Western Area Power Administration is Responding to Environmental Concerns.

  20. Abstract--South America has emerged in recent years as one of the most dynamic regions for natural gas and electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    for natural gas and electricity development. The continent boasts natural gas reserves and high- growth energy countries to promote the use of natural gas, especially for power generation. On the other hand, challenges-country natural gas agreements, competition between natural gas and other resources for power generation

  1. Natural Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    . Exploration and extraction of natural gas from the Marcellus shale is a potentially valuable economic stimulus for landowners. You might be wondering how the nation's economic situation is affecting the market for naturalNatural Gas Exploration: A Landowners Guide to Financial Management Natural Gas Exploration

  2. Research Highlights Nature Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Markus

    © 2009 APS Research Highlights Nature Nanotechnology Published online: 17 July 2009 | doi:10 perfect fluid. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 025301 (2009). | Article |1. Nature Nanotechnology ISSN 1748 : Nature Nanotechnology http://www.nature.com/nnano/reshigh/2009/0709/full/nnano.2009.222.html 1 of 1 18

  3. Generation to Generation: The Heart of Family Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Robin O

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ageism in the Workplace. Generations Spring, 5. Westman,of caring for multiple generations simultaneously. StronglyGeneration to Generation: The Heart of Family Medicine

  4. Gamma ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  5. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Trade and Resource Policy with Overlapping Generations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    Trade and Resource Policy with Overlapping Generations Larry Karp Armon Rezai July 23, 2013 Abstract Trade changes incentives to protect an open-access natural resource. In an OLG setting autarchy. Trade reverses these incentives. In a dynamic political economy, resource policies in both

  7. Trade and Resource Sustainability with Overlapping Generations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    Trade and Resource Sustainability with Overlapping Generations Larry Karp Armon Rezai March 28, 2014 Abstract Trade changes incentives to protect an open-access natural resource. In an OLG setting autarchy. Trade reverses these incentives. In a dynamic political economy, agents without bequest motives

  8. Nature of eclipsing pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Khechinashvili; George Melikidze; Janusz Gil

    2000-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model for pulsar radio eclipses in some binary systems, and test this model for PSRs B1957+20 and J2051-0827. We suggest that in these binaries the companion stars are degenerate dwarfs with strong surface magnetic fields. The magnetospheres of these stars are permanently infused by the relativistic particles of the pulsar wind. We argue that the radio waves emitted by the pulsar split into the eigenmodes of the electron-positron plasma as they enter the companion's magnetosphere and are then strongly damped due to cyclotron resonance with the ambient plasma particles. Our model explains in a natural way the anomalous duration and behavior of radio eclipses observed in such systems. In particular, it provides stable, continuous, and frequency-dependent eclipses, in agreement with the observations. We predict a significant variation of linear polarization both at eclipse ingress and egress. In this paper we also suggest several possible mechanisms of generation of the optical and $X$-ray emission observed from these binary systems.

  9. Super-Natural MSSM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Guangle; Nanopoulos, D V; Raza, Shabbar

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We point out that the electroweak fine-tuning problem in the supersymmetric Standard Models (SSMs) is mainly due to the high energy definition of the fine-tuning measure. We propose super-natural supersymmetry which has an order one high energy fine-tuning measure automatically. The key point is that all the mass parameters in the SSMs arise from a single supersymmetry breaking parameter. In this paper, we show that there is no supersymmetry electroweak fine-tuning problem explicitly in the Minimal SSM (MSSM) with no-scale supergravity and Giudice-Masiero (GM) mechanism. We demonstrate that the $Z$-boson mass, the supersymmteric Higgs mixing parameter $\\mu$ at the unification scale, and the sparticle spectrum can be given as functions of the universal gaugino mass $M_{1/2}$. Because the light stau is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) in the no-scale MSSM, to preserve $R$ parity, we introduce a non-thermally generated axino as the LSP dark matter candidate. We estimate the lifetime of the light stau b...

  10. Nature of eclipsing pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khechinashvili, D; Gil, J; Khechinashvili, David; Melikidze, George; Gil, Janusz

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model for pulsar radio eclipses in some binary systems, and test this model for PSRs B1957+20 and J2051-0827. We suggest that in these binaries the companion stars are degenerate dwarfs with strong surface magnetic fields. The magnetospheres of these stars are permanently infused by the relativistic particles of the pulsar wind. We argue that the radio waves emitted by the pulsar split into the eigenmodes of the electron-positron plasma as they enter the companion's magnetosphere and are then strongly damped due to cyclotron resonance with the ambient plasma particles. Our model explains in a natural way the anomalous duration and behavior of radio eclipses observed in such systems. In particular, it provides stable, continuous, and frequency-dependent eclipses, in agreement with the observations. We predict a significant variation of linear polarization both at eclipse ingress and egress. In this paper we also suggest several possible mechanisms of generation of the optical and $X$-ray emission ...

  11. Naturalness and the neutrino matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayre, J. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wiesenfeldt, S. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Institut fur Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The observed pattern of neutrino mass splittings and mixing angles indicates that their family structure is significantly different from that of the charged fermions. We investigate the implications of these data for the fermion mass matrices in grand-unified theories with a type-I seesaw mechanism. We show that, with simple assumptions, naturalness leads to a strongly hierarchical Majorana mass matrix for heavy right-handed neutrinos and a partially cascade form for the Dirac neutrino matrix. We consider various model building scenarios which could alter this conclusion, and discuss their consequences for the construction of a natural model. We find that including partially lopsided matrices can aid us in generating a satisfying model.

  12. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  13. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  14. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  15. Condensate Water Collection for an Institutional Building in Doha, Qatar: An Opportunity for Water Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryant, J. A.; Ahmed, T.

    . Currently, the predominant means of water production is through the desalination of seawater as a by-product of energy production. As of summer of 2008, there are approximately 7,000 MW of natural gas fired electrical generating plants in Qatar (EIA...://www.arabianbusiness.com/514775-qatar-power-and-water-project-awarded ASHRAE. 2001. ASHRAE fundamentals handbook. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. EIA, 2007, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Qatar/pdf.pdf Frechette...

  16. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  17. Repowering of the Midland Nuclear Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gatlin, C. E. Jr.; Vellender, G. C.; Mooney, J. A.

    natural gas-fired cx:rnbined~cle plant ~~on utilized the original Midland Unit 1 steam turb~ am 12 gas t:w:bine heat recovery trains to prov de 1,165 MW of generatin;J capacity. 'Ihi.s ~ on included a staged approach to stagger availability of the ad... the largest cogeneration facility in the United States. The paper describes the project and the converted facility. 'Ibe Midland Cogeneration Plant started as a 2-unit nuclear-powered electric generating station supplyin;J cogenerated steam to an adjacent...

  18. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid UnderUncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines a California-based microgrid s decision to invest in a distributed generation (DG) unit that operates on natural gas. While the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity at a fixed retail rate from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find natural gas generating cost thresholds that trigger DG investment. Furthermore, the consideration of operational flexibility by the microgrid accelerates DG investment, while the option to disconnect entirely from the utility is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold boundary and find that high electricity price volatility relative to that of natural gas generating cost delays investment while simultaneously increasing the value of the investment. We conclude by using this result to find the implicit option value of the DG unit.

  19. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines a California-based microgrid?s decision to invest in a distributed generation (DG) unit fuelled by natural gas. While the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity at a fixed retail rate from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find a natural gas generation cost threshold that triggers DG investment. Furthermore, the consideration of operational flexibility by the microgrid increases DG investment, while the option to disconnect from the utility is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold boundary and find that high electricity price volatility relative to that of natural gas generation cost delays investment while simultaneously increasing the value of the investment. We conclude by using this result to find the implicit option value of the DG unit when two sources of uncertainty exist.

  20. Global Installed Capacity of Coal Fired Power Generation to Reach...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Installed Capacity of Coal Fired Power Generation to Reach 2,057.6 GW by 2019 Home > Groups > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency John55364's picture Submitted by...

  1. Economic Development from New Generation and Transmission in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3,937,831 over the age of 16 (Census 2011b). 3 2 Project Scenario This analysis considers potential new wind and natural gas electricity generation capacity in Wyoming as well as...

  2. A Flexible Integrated Architecture For Generating Poetic Texts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manurung, Hisar; Ritchie, Graeme; Thompson, Henry

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we describe a flexible approach to natural language generation that employs a stochastic hillclimbing search algorithm and an integrated architecture. We then discuss the benefits of this approach over existing, informative, goal...

  3. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, Vi H.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    roll-out study for gas fired water heaters, NBSIR 88-3724.Fired Furnaces And Water Heaters, Technical Report 96/0266.an Orphaned Natural Draft Water Heater Converted to a Stand-

  4. Option valuation of flexible investments : the case of a coal gasifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbelot, Olivier

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the use of contingent claim analysis to evaluate the option of retrofitting a coal gasifier on an existing gas-fired power plant in order to take advantage of changes in the relative prices of natural ...

  5. Repowering of the Midland Nuclear Station 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gatlin, C. E. Jr.; Vellender, G. C.; Mooney, J. A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of the Midland Nuclear Station to a combined cycle power facility is the first of its kind. The existing nuclear steam turbine, combined with new, natural-gas-fired gas turbines, will create the largest cogeneration facility...

  6. CX-011121: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ThermoLift - The Natural Gas Fired Air Conditioner & Heat Pump CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08/28/2013 Location(s): New York Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  7. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cleary Builders and Jacobs Engineering Group, installed a 45 MW high-efficiency, natural gas-fired CHP system consisting of a 34 MW combustion turbine, a 210,000-pound-per-hour...

  8. chemeng_lic.enl Page 1 Ahlstrm, A. F. "Katalysatorer Fr Frbrnning Av Dieselsot." 1989.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bernstad, Anna. "Environmental Evaluation of Solid Household Waste Management - the Augustenborg Ecocity Processes." 1994. Christensson, Rolf. "Aspects on Decentralized Natural Gas Fired Liquid Heating." 1991. "Nox Modelling of a Complete Diesel Engine/Scr System." 2007. Eriksson, Katarina. "Absorption Heat

  9. Solar-powered aroma generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spector, D.

    1986-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In combination with a switch-controlled electric light bulb having a threaded plug and a threaded socket disposed in a room which is also subject to natural ambient light, a switchless aroma generator is installed in the room which is automatically activated only when the electric light bulb is switched on. The activated generator functions to discharge an air current into the room which conveys an aromatic vapor to modify the atmosphere. The generator described in this patent consists of: A.) an air-permeable cartridge containing an aroma supply which is exuded into the atmosphere at a relatively rapid rate as an air current is forced through the cartridge; B.) a fan driven by a low-voltage, direct-current motor having predetermined power requirements, the fan being arranged to force an air current through the cartridge; C.) a housing incorporating the cartridge and the motordriven fan, the housing containing an apparatus for mounting it on a wall in the room; and D.) a solar cell assembly producing a direct-current output placed in close proximity to the bulb in the room and irradiated when the bulb is switched on. The assembly is connected to the motor to supply power, the electrical relationship of the assembly to the motor being such that the cell output is sufficient to power the motor only when the bulb is switched on to irradiate the assembly, and is insufficient when the bulb is switched off. The cell output then depends on ambient light in the room, and the operation of the generator is coordinated with that of the bulb despite the absence of a wired connection between and an aroma is generated only when the bulb is switched on.

  10. Next Generation Short-Term Forecasting of Wind Power Overview of the ANEMOS Project.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of difficulties to the power system operation. This is due to the fluctuating nature of wind generation to the management of wind generation. Accurate and reliable forecasting systems of the wind production are widely

  11. Demonstration of a Low-NOx Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle engine research project: A Caterpillar C-12 natural gas engine with Clean Air Power Dual-Fuel technology and exhaust gas recirculation demonstrated low NOx and PM emissions.

  12. New wave generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercier, Matthieu J.

    We present the results of a combined experimental and numerical study of the generation of internal waves using the novel internal wave generator design of Gostiaux et al. (Exp. Fluids, vol. 42, 2007, pp. 123–130). This ...

  13. adsorbed natural gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SNG for Electricity below, show the life-cycle stages on natural gas used by electric power generators, including the stages from the LNG life-cycle. Notice that local...

  14. Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Global Coal Fired Power Generation Market Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog...

  15. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  16. Nature/Culture/Seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helmreich, Stefan

    This essay considers seawater as a substance and symbol in anthropological and social theory. Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place with respect to anthropological categories of nature and culture. Seawater as nature ...

  17. Supervisory Natural Gas Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energys Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply (FE) is responsible for regulating natural gas imports and exports...

  18. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  19. Natural Resources Research Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    /Loll ThermoWood Hybrid Poplars Peat A boost for the peat industry Value in Minnesota peat deposits Natural che

  20. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  1. Northwest public utilities, BPA top five-year energy savings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    less than the cost of power from a new gas-fired plant. So without energy efficiency, the region would need to generate enough additional electricity to power 3.6 million Northwest...

  2. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Project Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electricity/emergency generators, lead acid batteries/UPS system, and gas-fired furnaces System and Manufacturer Primary power to four rotary UPS units provided by four UTC Power PC25C phosphoric acid fuel cells

  3. Motor/generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  4. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Interstate Pipelines Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Thirty Largest U.S. Interstate Natural...

  5. Natural Supersymmetry without Light Higgsinos

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cohen, T.; Kearney, J.; Luty, M. A.

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a mechanism that allows a large Higgsino mass without large fine-tuning. The Higgs is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (PNGB) of the global symmetry breaking pattern $SO(5) \\to SO(4)$. Because of the PNGB nature of the light Higgs, the $SO(5)$ invariant Higgsino mass does not directly contribute to the Higgs mass. Large couplings in the Higgs sector that spontaneously breaks $SO(5)$ minimize the tuning, and are also motivated by the requirements of generating a sufficiently large Higgs quartic coupling and of maintaining a natural approximate global $SO(5)$ symmetry. When these conditions are imposed, theories of this type predict heavymore »Higgsinos. This construction differs from composite Higgs models in that no new particles are introduced to form complete $SO(5)$ multiplets involving the top quark---the stop is the only top partner. Compatibility with Higgs coupling measurements requires cancelations among contributions to the Higgs mass squared parameter at the 10% level. An important implication of this construction is that the compressed region of stop and sbottom searches can still be natural.« less

  6. Natural Supersymmetry without Light Higgsinos

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cohen, T. [Princeton Univ., Princeton NJ, (United States); Kearney, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL, (United States); Luty, M. A. [University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a mechanism that allows a large Higgsino mass without large fine-tuning. The Higgs is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (PNGB) of the global symmetry breaking pattern $SO(5) \\to SO(4)$. Because of the PNGB nature of the light Higgs, the $SO(5)$ invariant Higgsino mass does not directly contribute to the Higgs mass. Large couplings in the Higgs sector that spontaneously breaks $SO(5)$ minimize the tuning, and are also motivated by the requirements of generating a sufficiently large Higgs quartic coupling and of maintaining a natural approximate global $SO(5)$ symmetry. When these conditions are imposed, theories of this type predict heavy Higgsinos. This construction differs from composite Higgs models in that no new particles are introduced to form complete $SO(5)$ multiplets involving the top quark---the stop is the only top partner. Compatibility with Higgs coupling measurements requires cancelations among contributions to the Higgs mass squared parameter at the 10% level. An important implication of this construction is that the compressed region of stop and sbottom searches can still be natural.

  7. 2 nature physics | VOL 2 | JANUARY 2006 | www.nature.com/naturephysics A high-power laser fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    -rich `blanket', to release heat to drive a steam turbine power plant and to generate tritium for a subsequentCOMMENTARY 2 nature physics | VOL 2 | JANUARY 2006 | www.nature.com/naturephysics A high-power opportunities for performing fundamental and applied research will be missed. A dedicated civilian high-power

  8. Method of grid generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnette, Daniel W. (Veguita, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  9. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  10. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  11. Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas -BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas University began operating with natural gas, instead of the coal-fired generators of the coal that had been stockpiled, the Plant is running completely on natural gas

  12. Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.

  13. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Supply Basins...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corridors About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Major Natural...

  14. Talkin’ Bout Wind Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The amount of electricity generated by the wind industry started to grow back around 1999, and since 2007 has been increasing at a rapid pace.

  15. SNE TRAFIC GENERATOR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003027MLTPL00 Network Traffic Generator for Low-rate Small Network Equipment Software  http://eln.lbl.gov/sne_traffic_gen.html 

  16. Hydrogen Generation for Refineries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single Cycle Shown for ATB SteamCarbon 3 * ATB reforming * Steamcarbon 3 * Syngas generated during reforming * 70% H 2 * 20% CO * Syngas composition agrees with...

  17. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  18. Next-generation transcriptome assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies - the next generation. Nat Rev Genet 11, 31-algorithms for next-generation sequencing data. Genomicsassembly from next- generation sequencing data. Genome Res

  19. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. David A. Petti

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a demonstration of the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology for the production of process heat, electricity, and hydrogen. This nuclear- based technology can provide high-temperature process heat (up to 950°C) that can be used as a substitute for the burning of fossil fuels for a wide range of commercial applications (see Figure 1). The substitution of the HTGR for burning fossil fuels conserves these hydrocarbon resources for other uses, reduces uncertainty in the cost and supply of natural gas and oil, and eliminates the emissions of greenhouse gases attendant with the burning of these fuels. The HTGR is a passively safe nuclear reactor concept with an easily understood safety basis that permits substantially reduced emergency planning requirements and improved siting flexibility compared to other nuclear technologies.

  20. Warner College of Natural Resources Warner College of Natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    , and scientific investigation of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources. Programs include the study of everyWarner College of Natural Resources Warner College of Natural Resources Office in Natural Resources, and Conservation Biology Forestry Geology Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism Natural Resources Management

  1. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  2. Liquefied Natural Gas (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document adopts the standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association as rules for the transportation, storage, handling, and use of liquefied natural gas. The NFPA standards...

  3. Natural Heritage Program (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Natural Heritage Reviews are conducted by the Missouri Department of Conservation on request in order to assess proposed project sites and adjacent lands. Reviews determine whether potential...

  4. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  5. Solar Energy Generation in Three Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernardi, Marco; Wan, Jin H; Villalon, Rachelle; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimizing the conversion of solar energy to electricity is central to the World's future energy economy. Flat photovoltaic panels are commonly deployed in residential and commercial rooftop installations without sun tracking systems and using simple installation guidelines to optimize solar energy collection. Large-scale solar energy generation plants use bulky and expensive sun trackers to avoid cosine losses from photovoltaic panels or to concentrate sunlight with mirrors onto heating fluids.[1,2] However, none of these systems take advantage of the three-dimensional nature of our biosphere, so that solar energy collection largely occurs on flat structures in contrast with what is commonly observed in Nature.[3,4] Here we formulate, solve computationally and study experimentally the problem of collecting solar energy in three-dimensions.[5] We demonstrate that absorbers and reflectors can be combined in the absence of sun tracking to build three-dimensional photovoltaic (3DPV) structures that can generate ...

  6. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  8. Honors 222c Natural Science Energy and Environment --Humans and Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Nature? How has the sudden globalization of economies and information affected our own neural networks rhines@uw.edu This course explores the global environment and energy resources. It has a `science core of environment and economy: for example, the siting of a biomass burning plant in a small town to generate

  9. Second generation PFB for advanced power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, A.; Van Hook, J.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is being conducted under a United States Department of Energy (USDOE) contract to develop a new type of coal-fueled plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant-called an advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (APFBC) plant-offers the promise of 45-percent efficiency (HHV), with emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. This paper summarizes the pilot plant R&D work being conducted to develop this new type of plant. Although pilot plant testing is still underway, preliminary estimates indicate the commercial plant Will perform better than originally envisioned. Efficiencies greater than 46 percent are now being predicted.

  10. Contracting for wind generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newbery, David

    The UK Government proposes offering long-term Feed-in-Tariffs (FiTs) to low-carbon generation to reduce risk and encourage new entrants. Their preference is for a Contract-for-Difference (CfD) or a premium FiT (pFiT) for all generation regardless...

  11. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  12. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  13. The fifth generation computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moto-Oka, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The leader of Japan's Fifth Generation computer project, known as the 'Apollo' project, and a young computer scientist elucidate in this book the process of how the idea came about, international reactions, the basic technology, prospects for realization, and the abilities of the Fifth Generation computer. Topics considered included forecasting, research programs, planning, and technology impacts.

  14. Natural Intrinsic Geometrical Symmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haesen, Stefan; 10.3842/SIGMA.2009.086

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposal is made for what could well be the most natural symmetrical Riemannian spaces which are homogeneous but not isotropic, i.e. of what could well be the most natural class of symmetrical spaces beyond the spaces of constant Riemannian curvature, that is, beyond the spaces which are homogeneous and isotropic, or, still, the spaces which satisfy the axiom of free mobility.

  15. Compact neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  16. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  17. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA) [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H. (Castro Valley, CA) [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  18. Graph Generator Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lothian, Josh [ORNL; Powers, Sarah S [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Baker, Matthew B [ORNL; Schrock, Jonathan [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of dierent application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

  19. Photovoltaic Power Generation in the Stellar Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. E. Girish; S. Aranya

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we have studied the problem of photovoltaic power generation near selected stars in the solar neighborhood. The nature of the optical radiation from a star will depend on its luminosity,HR classification and spectral characteristics. The solar celloperation in the habitable zones of the stars is similar to AM1.0 operation near earth.Thecurrent space solar cell technology can be adopted for power generation near G,K and Mtype stars. Silicon solar cells with good near IR response are particularly suitable in theenvironments of M type stars which are most abundant in the universe. . Photovoltaicpower generation near binary stars like Sirius and Alpha Centauri is also discussed.

  20. Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Maureen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Price Reduction Offsetting demand for natural gas in the electricity sector by increasing wind energy’price reductions, and water savings. Index Terms—power system modeling, wind energywind energy to offset coal- and natural gas-based electricity generation analyzed here include decreased natural gas prices,

  1. Generating electricity from viruses

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab's Seung-Wuk Lee discusses "Generating electricity from viruses" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas.

  2. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James M. (Livermore, CA); Leighton, James F. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  3. Vector generator scan converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  4. Energy and Mass Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Modifications in the energy momentum dispersion laws due to a noncommutative geometry, have been considered in recent years. We examine the oscillations of extended objects in this perspective and find that there is now a "generation" of energy.

  5. Local entropy generation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drost, M.K.; White, M.D.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second law analysis techniques have been widely used to evaluate the sources of irreversibility in components and systems of components but the evaluation of local sources of irreversibility in thermal processes has received little attention. While analytical procedures for evaluating local entropy generation have been developed, applications have been limited to fluid flows with analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature fields. The analysis of local entropy generation can be used to evaluate more complicated flows by including entropy generation calculations in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The research documented in this report consists of incorporating local entropy generation calculations in an existing CFD code and then using the code to evaluate the distribution of thermodynamic losses in two applications: an impinging jet and a magnetic heat pump. 22 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Generating electricity from viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab's Seung-Wuk Lee discusses "Generating electricity from viruses" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas.

  7. Monte Carlo event generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frixione, Stefano [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2005-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    I review recent progress in the physics of parton shower Monte Carlos, emphasizing the ideas which allow the inclusion of higher-order matrix elements into the framework of event generators.

  8. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  9. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  10. 47 Natural Gas Market Trends NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    47 Natural Gas Market Trends Chapter 5 NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS INTRODUCTION Natural gas discusses current natural gas market conditions in California and the rest of North America, followed on the outlook for demand, supply, and price of natural gas for the forecasted 20-year horizon. It also addresses

  11. Tenneco upgrades natural gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Gorman, E.K.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tenneco Oil Co. recently completed a natural gasoline upgrading project at its LaPorte, Tex., facility. The project was started in October 1985. The purpose was to fractionate natural gasoline and isomerize the n-pentane component. Three factors made this a particularly attractive project for the LaPorte complex: 1. The phase down of lead in gasoline made further processing of natural gasoline desirable. 2. Idle equipment and trained personnel were available at the plant as a result of a switch of Tenneco's natural gas liquids (NGL) fractionation to its Mont Belvieu, Tex., facility. 3. The plant interconnects with Houston's local markets. It has pipelines to Mont Belvieu, Texas City, and plants along the Houston Ship Channel, as well as truck, tank car, and barge-loading facilities. Here are the details on the operation of the facilities, the changes which were required to enable the plant to operate successfully, and how this conversion was completed in a timely fashion.

  12. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  13. NATURAL MARINE HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    affects ocean chemistry (Dando and Hovland, 1992) and provides a natural source of petroleum pollution the water column above submarine vents, plumes of hydrocarbon gas bubbles act as acoustic scattering targets

  14. Natural Resource Specialist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position will serve as a Natural Resource Specialist responsible for participating in the development and implementation of short-term and long-term regional (multi...

  15. Natural Gas Regulations (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kentucky Administrative Regulation title 805 promulgates the rules and regulations pertaining to natural gas production in Kentucky. In addition to KAR title 405, chapter 30, which pertains to any...

  16. Future of Natural Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts *...

  17. Using Genetic Algorithms to Improve the Visual Quality of Fractal Plants Generated with CSGPLSystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Using Genetic Algorithms to Improve the Visual Quality of Fractal Plants Generated with CSG­system, that generates a desired plant. Especially the tuning of the parameter values is time consuming and demands a lot genetic algorithms to find PL­systems that generate natural looking plants of a desired species. PL

  18. Combining Language Generation and Belief Modelling into a Flexible Hypertext System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bontcheva, Kalina

    Combining Language Generation and Belief Modelling into a Flexible Hypertext System Kalina the required flexibility. Since these problems also fall in the domain of natural language generation (nlg how we can combine these two systems into a flexible hypertext generation environment. 2 Hypertext

  19. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectricity is produced by applying a temperature differential to dissimilar electrically conducting or semiconducting materials, thereby producing a voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference. Thermoelectric generators use this effect to directly convert heat into electricity; however, presently-known generators have low efficiencies due to the production of high currents which in turn cause large resistive heating losses. Some thermoelectric generators operate at efficiencies between 4% and 7% in the 800{degrees} to 1200{degrees}C range. According to its major aspects and bradly stated, the present invention is an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. In particular, the invention is a thermoelectric generator that juxtaposes a superconducting material and a semiconducting material - so that the superconducting and the semiconducting materials touch - to convert heat energy into electrical energy without resistive losses in the temperature range below the critical temperature of the superconducting material. Preferably, an array of superconducting material is encased in one of several possible configurations within a second material having a high thermal conductivity, preferably a semiconductor, to form a thermoelectric generator.

  20. MCNP LWR Core Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Noah A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactor core input generator allows for MCNP input files to be tailored to design specifications and generated in seconds. Full reactor models can now easily be created by specifying a small set of parameters and generating an MCNP input for a full reactor core. Axial zoning of the core will allow for density variation in the fuel and moderator, with pin-by-pin fidelity, so that BWR cores can more accurately be modeled. LWR core work in progress: (1) Reflectivity option for specifying 1/4, 1/2, or full core simulation; (2) Axial zoning for moderator densities that vary with height; (3) Generating multiple types of assemblies for different fuel enrichments; and (4) Parameters for specifying BWR box walls. Fuel pin work in progress: (1) Radial and azimuthal zoning for generating further unique materials in fuel rods; (2) Options for specifying different types of fuel for MOX or multiple burn assemblies; (3) Additional options for replacing fuel rods with burnable poison rods; and (4) Control rod/blade modeling.

  1. MHD Generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL); Pierson, Edward S. (Chicago, IL); Schreiner, Felix (Mokena, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.

  2. STATE OF CALIFORNIA --NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (RNS), and is based on the amount of current electric generation from renewable resources) that is generated from renewable generation resources instead of the capacity (megawatt ­ MW) of these facilitiesSTATE OF CALIFORNIA -- NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY

  3. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  4. Spherical neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.

  5. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  6. Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.

  7. Generating Resourcesg Assessment Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fixed Cost (annual basis) Fuel Price Forecasts Natural gas, coal, oil Transmission, Integration Costs, cooling (wet vs. dry), specifications Price Year The intage of the technolog o ernight capital cost in the PNW; used in the Power Plan as possible new resource options Price Year ­ The vintage

  8. The Generation Effect and Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosner, Zachary Alexander

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. A. (2007). The generation effect: A meta- analyticBjork, R. A. (1988). The generation effect: Support for aE. J. (2012). The next generation: The value of reminding.

  9. Options for Generating Steam Efficiently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

  10. Natural SUSY and the Higgs boson

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Peisi [Dept. of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) solves the hierarchy problem by introducing a super partner to each Standard Model(SM) particle. SUSY must be broken in nature, which means the fine-tuning is reintroduced to some level. Natural SUSY models enjoy low fine-tuning by featuring a small super potential parameter ? ~ 125 GeV, while the third generation squarks have mass less than 1.5 TeV. First and second generation sfermions can be at the multi-TeV level which yields a decoupling solution to the SUSY flavor and CP problem. However, models of Natural SUSY have difficulties in predicting a m{sub h} at 125 GeV, because the third generation is too light to give large radiative correction to the Higgs mass. The models of Radiative Natural SUSY (RNS) address this problem by allowing for high scale soft SUSY breaking Higgs mass m{sub Hu} > m{sub 0}, which leads to automatic cancellation by the Renormalization Group (RG) running effect. Coupled with the large mixing in the stop sector, RNS allows low fine-tuning at 3-10 % level and a 125 GeV SM-like Higgs. RNS can be reached at the LHC, and a linear collider. If the strong CP problem is solved by the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, then RNS accommodates mixed axion-Higgsino cold dark matter, where the Higgsino-like WIMPs, which in this case make up only a fraction of the relic abundance, can be detectable at future WIMP detectors.

  11. Cummins Power Generation SECA Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Vesely

    2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) SECA Phase 1 SOFC development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) contract DE-FC26-01NT41244. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner research development leading to successful demonstration of the SECA Phase 1 objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant Phase 1 Milestones: (1) Demonstrated: (a) Operation meeting Phase 1 requirements on commercial natural gas. (b) LPG and Natural Gas CPOX fuel reformers. (c) SOFC systems on dry CPOX reformate. (c) Steam reformed Natural Gas operation. (d) Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC system without inert gas purge. (e) Utility of stack simulators as a tool for developing balance of plant systems. (2) Developed: (a) Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. (b) Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. (c) Demonstrated high efficiency SOFC output power conditioning. (d) Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods. The Phase 1 performance test was carried out at the Cummins Power Generation facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota starting on October 2, 2006. Performance testing was successfully completed on January 4, 2007 including the necessary steady-state, transient, efficiency, and peak power operation tests.

  12. Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine's helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

  13. Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  15. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the convective, viscous, and radiative heat transport terms in the mixed cells, while a finite element [20] which accounts for species diffusion, convective and radiative heat transfer, viscous transportAn Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial Gas

  16. Generating X-ray lines from annihilating dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emilian Dudas; Lucien Heurtier; Yann Mambrini

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose different scenarios where a keV dark matter annihilates to produce a monochromatic signal. The process is generated through the exchange of a light scalar of mass of order 300 keV - 50 MeV coupling to photon through loops or higher dimensional operators. For natural values of the couplings and scales, the model can generate a gamma-ray line which can fit with the recently identified 3.5 keV X-ray line.

  17. Natural Gas | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fossil Natural Gas Natural Gas September 15, 2014 NETL Releases Hydraulic Fracturing Study The National Energy Technology Laboratory has released a technical report on the...

  18. Historical Natural Gas Annual 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1999 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  19. Nuclear Power Generating Facilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first subchapter of the statute concerning Nuclear Power Generating Facilities provides for direct citizen participation in the decision to construct any nuclear power generating facility in...

  20. Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies Print Monday, 06 February 2012 15:48 Organic solar cells based on the polymerfullerene bulk...

  1. Generating Resources Advisory Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generating Resources Advisory Committee May 28, 2014 Steve Simmons Gillian Charles #12;2 9:30 AM plants 10:45 AM Break 11:00 AM Peaking Technologies Continued... 11:30 AM Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine and Utility Scale Solar PV Reference plant updates Levelized cost of energy 12:00 PM Lunch

  2. CONSULTANT REPORT DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an independent cost analysis to interconnect and integrate increased penetration levels of renewable distributed costs. The Energy Commission considers this study a first step toward the 2012 Integrated Energy Policy Generation Integration Cost Study: Analytical Framework. California Energy Commission. CEC2002013007. i

  3. Energy generation in stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Vasiliev

    2001-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a current opinion that thermonuclear fusion is the main source of the star activity. It is shown below that this source is not unique. There is another electrostatic mechanism of the energy generation which accompanies thermonuclear fusion. Probably, this approach can solve the solar neutrino problem.

  4. Natural warm inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visinelli, Luca, E-mail: u0583682@utah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the requirements that a generic axion-like field has to satisfy in order to play the role of the inflaton field in the warm inflation scenario. Compared to the parameter space in ordinary Natural Inflation models, we find that the parameter space in our model is enlarged. In particular, we avoid the problem of having an axion decay constant f that relates to the Planck scale, which is instead present in the ordinary Natural Inflation models; in fact, our model can easily accommodate values of the axion decay constant that lie well below the Planck scale.

  5. Absolute proof that hydrogen-antihydrogen oscillations occur in nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Van Hooydonk

    2005-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Detecting H-antiH oscillations is intimately connected with the existence of natural antiH. We detect natural H-antiH oscillations, generated by a classical spin-free Coulomb quantum gap, which we calculate analytically without any parameter. Oscillation times are much smaller than those predicted with the Standard Model. These unprecedented results also remove the so-called problem with matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe.

  6. Natural semidirect gauge mediation and D-branes at singularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argurio, Riccardo [Physique Theorique et Mathematique and International Solvay Institutes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Bertolini, Matteo [SISSA and INFN-Sezione di Trieste Via Beirut 2, I 34014 Trieste (Italy); Ferretti, Gabriele [Department of Fundamental Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Mariotti, Alberto [Theoretische Natuurkunde and International Solvay Institutes, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking where the messengers are composite fields and their supersymmetric mass is naturally generated through quartic superpotential couplings. We show that such composite messenger models can be easily embedded in quiver gauge theories arising from D-branes at Calabi-Yau singularities, and argue that semidirect gauge mediation is in fact a very natural option for supersymmetry breaking in D-brane models. We provide several explicit examples and discuss their salient phenomenological properties.

  7. Go Abroad in Natural ResourcesNatural Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    Go Abroad in Natural ResourcesNatural Resources Program Contact: Connie Patterson Program.edu/ international The Natural Resources degree is ideally suited for students who wish to study abroad! The sustainable management of natural resources is a fundamental issue, both locally and globally. Scientists

  8. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual resource sites. Absolute costs at a given site will be determined by the specifics of a given pr

  9. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  10. Innovative Self- Generating Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam Driven Cooling Water Pump Blast Furnace Coke Plant Flares Boilers Steam Header Electric Cooling Water Pump (Back-up) Process Steam (Main Plant) Coal Hot Mill Reheat Furnace COG Bunker Oil ESL-IE-13-05-06 Proceedings... Driven Cooling Pump (New Back-up) Blast Furnace Coke Plant Flares Boilers Parastic Loads Natural Gas Turbine Steam Header Electric Cooling Water Pump (with Power Meter) Net ElectricityG Process Steam (Main Plant) Coal Hot Mill Reheat...

  11. Giving expression to the potential harmony of man-nature : a habitable space designed with nature in the city of Boston, Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Anthony Si-Lai

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human beings are part of the ecosystem. They are interrelated with nature. But in the past few generations, the environment has lost its intrinsic fitness for ecosystems, organisms, and land uses; partially due to the fact ...

  12. Natural Gas Purchasing Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, G.

    As a result of economic and regulatory changes, the natural gas marketplace now offers multiple options for purchasers. The purpose of this panel is to discuss short-term purchasing options and how to take advantage of these options both to lower...

  13. Saving Natural Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djuna Croon; Veronica Sanz

    2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Slow-roll inflation requires the inflaton field to have an exceptionally flat potential, which combined with measurements of the scale of inflation demands some degree of fine-tuning. Alternatively, the flatness of the potential could be due to the inflaton's origin as a pseudo-Goldstone boson, as in Natural Inflation. Alas, consistency with Planck data places the original proposal of Natural Inflation in a tight spot, as it requires a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton. Although one can still tune the renormalizable potential to sub-Planckian values, higher order corrections from quantum gravity or sources of breaking of the Goldstone symmetry would ruin the predictivity of the model. In this paper we show how in more realistic models of Natural Inflation one could achieve inflation without a trans-Planckian excursion of the field. We show how a variant of Extra-natural inflation with bulk fermions can achieve the desired goal and discuss its four-dimensional duals. We also present a new type of four dimensional models inspired in Little Higgs and Composite Higgs models which can lead to sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field.

  14. Natural Gas Purchasing Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, G.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of economic and regulatory changes, the natural gas marketplace now offers multiple options for purchasers. The purpose of this panel is to discuss short-term purchasing options and how to take advantage of these options both to lower...

  15. STEWARDSHIP MAINTAINING NATURAL RICHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, James

    ;Outstanding Results 5 Energy Conservation: Saved 240 Million KWH over last fifteen years. Green BuildingLAND STEWARDSHIP MAINTAINING NATURAL RICHES TRANSPORTATION GOING THE EXTRA MILE GREEN BUILDING SHOWCASING INNOVATION WATER CONSERVING PRESCIOUS RESOURCES ENERGY MOVING TO A BRIGHTER FUTURE WASTE REDUCING

  16. Fuel cell generator energy dissipator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veyo, Stephen Emery (Murrysville, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey Todd (Valencia, PA); Gordon, John Thomas (Ambridge, PA); Shockling, Larry Anthony (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a fuel cell generator when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated. During a generator shut down condition, electrically resistive elements are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel

  17. Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption, the following facilities are exempt from the replacement tax:

  18. warnell school Forestry & Natural Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Daniel

    #12;#12;warnell school Forestry & Natural Resources 2009 Annual Report o #12;VisionTo be recognized as one of the top five forestry and natural resource programs in the United States. Mission's renewable natural resources; and to place latest ideas and technology in forestry and natural resource

  19. Nature Conservancy University of Ottawa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    . Natural Area Conservation Planning. 5. Natural Area Plan for the Frontenac Arch. 6. Management Planning is enough? Less than 10% of Canada's natural lands are in protected status. #12; Conservation of Private. The Conservancy is a non- advocacy, non- confrontational, private lands organization. Natural Area Property

  20. Why do Particle Clouds Generate Electric Charges?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Pähtz; H. J. Herrmann; T. Shinbrot

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

  1. Generation of energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalina, Alexander I. (12214 Clear Fork, Houston, TX 77077)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of generating energy which comprises utilizing relatively lower temperature available heat to effect partial distillation of at least portion of a multicomponent working fluid stream at an intermediate pressure to generate working fluid fractions of differing compositions. The fractions are used to produce at least one main rich solution which is relatively enriched with respect to the lower boiling component, and to produce at least one lean solution which is relatively improverished with respect to the lower boiling component. The pressure of the main rich solution is increased whereafter it is evaporated to produce a charged gaseous main working fluid. The main working fluid is expanded to a low pressure level to release energy. The spent low pressure level working fluid is condensed in a main absorption stage by dissolving with cooling in the lean solution to regenerate an initial working fluid for reuse.

  2. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  3. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  4. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Galvin, James (2 Commodore #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  5. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  6. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  7. Milliwatt Generator Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latimer, T.W.; Rinehart, G.H.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers progress on the Milliwatt Generator Project from April 1986 through March 1988. Activities included fuel processing and characterization, production of heat sources, fabrication of pressure-burst test units, compatibility studies, impact testing, and examination of surveillance units. The major task of the Los Alamos Milliwatt Generator Project is to fabricate MC2893A heat sources (4.0 W) for MC2730A radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGS) and MC3599 heat sources (4.5 W) for MC3500 RTGs. The MWG Project interfaces with the following contractors: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (designer); E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. (Inc.), Savannah River Plant (fuel); Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility (metal hardware); and General Electric Company, Neutron Devices Department (RTGs). In addition to MWG fabrication activities, Los Alamos is involved in (1) fabrication of pressure-burst test units, (2) compatibility testing and evaluation, (3) examination of surveillance units, and (4) impact testing and subsequent examination of compatibility and surveillance units.

  8. Optical harmonic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Eimerl, David (Pleasanton, CA); Boyd, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The "extraordinary" or "e" directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90.degree.). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude "o" and "e" components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has "o" and "e" components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 ("o":"e" reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10.degree.. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axes ("o").

  9. Optical harmonic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, M.A.; Eimerl, D.; Boyd, R.D.

    1982-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The extraordinary or e directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90/sup 0/). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude o and e components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has o and e components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 (o:e reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10/sup 0/. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axeses (o).

  10. Geoff Brumfiel NATURE | NEWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), which is responsible for maintaining the US nuclear arsenal, a more central role in determining the NIF's priorities. The NNSA is planning to emphasize experiments programmes at the NNSA. But a new programme for generating net energy will take a slower, more methodical

  11. Renewable Energy: Distributed Generation Policies and Programs...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Policies & Programs Renewable Energy: Distributed Generation Policies and Programs Renewable Energy: Distributed Generation Policies and Programs Distributed generation...

  12. Power Generation Subprogram status report, 1988-1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of individual contracts are described for projects within GRI's Power Generation Subprogram. The funding rationale, goals and objectives, accomplishments, and strategy are described for projects in cogeneration and power systems, prime mover and component development, and natural gas vehicles research. These project areas cut across the residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors.

  13. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty++++ Afzal Siddiqui

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    , CA 94720-8163, USA, c_marnay@lbl.gov ABSTRACT. This paper examines a California-based microgrid-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold

  14. The Smart Grid's Data Generating Potentials Marco Aiello

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiello, Marco

    The Smart Grid's Data Generating Potentials Marco Aiello Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics, The Netherlands Email: g.a.pagani@rug.nl Abstract--The Smart Grid is the vision underlying the evo- lution of such data put the smart grid in the category of Big Data applications, followed by the natural question

  15. Sizing Storage and Wind Generation Capacities in Remote Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Sizing Storage and Wind Generation Capacities in Remote Power Systems by Andy Gassner B Capacities in Remote Power Systems by Andy Gassner B.Sc., University of Wisconsin ­ Madison, 2003 Supervisory and small power systems. However, the variability due to the stochastic nature of the wind resource

  16. Implications of Disruption to Natural Gas Deliverability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Science Applications International

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was sponsored by Department of Energy/Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. The primary purpose of the project was to analyze the capability of the natural gas production, transmission and supply systems to continue to provide service in the event of a major disruption in capacity of one or more natural gas transmission pipelines. The project was specifically designed to detail the ability of natural gas market to absorb facility losses and efficiently reallocate gas supplies during a significant pipeline capacity disruption in terms that allowed federal and state agencies and interests to develop effective policies and action plans to prioritize natural gas deliveries from a regional and national perspective. The analyses for each regional study were based on four primary considerations: (1) operating conditions (pipeline capacity, storage capacity, local production, power dispatch decision making and end user options); (2) weather; (3) magnitude and location of the disruption; and, (4) normal versus emergency situation. The detailed information contained in the region reports as generated from this project are Unclassified Controlled Information; and as such are subject to disclosure in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act. Therefore, this report defines the regions that were analyzed and the basic methodologies and assumptions used to completing the analysis.

  17. Natural gas product and strategic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne, A.W.; Duda, J.R.; Zammerilli, A.M.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Product and strategic analysis at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) crosscuts all sectors of the natural gas industry. This includes the supply, transportation, and end-use sectors of the natural-gas market. Projects in the Natural Gas Resource and Extraction supply program have been integrated into a new product focus. Product development facilitates commercialization and technology transfer through DOE/industry cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD&D). Four products under the Resource and Extraction program include Resource and Reserves; Low Permeability Formations; Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation: and Natural Gas Upgrading. Engineering process analyses have been performed for the Slant Hole Completion Test project. These analyses focused on evaluation of horizontal-well recovery potential and applications of slant-hole technology. Figures 2 and 3 depict slant-well in situ stress conditions and hydraulic fracture configurations. Figure 4 presents Paludal Formation coal-gas production curves used to optimize the hydraulic fracture design for the slant well. Economic analyses have utilized data generated from vertical test wells to evaluate the profitability of horizontal technology for low-permeability formations in Yuma County, Colorado, and Maverick County, Texas.

  18. Innovative Self- Generating Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    furnaces ? Flat rolled and tubular steel ESL-IE-13-05-06 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 ? 2013 CLEAResult ? All rights reserved. By-Product Gas Flow COG = Coke Oven Gas BFG...-Product Gas Heat Content Heat Content Compared to Natural Gas Amount available (mmBTU/hr) Coke Oven Gas 475 BTU/scf 55% lower 40.4 Blast Furnace Gas 83 BTU/scf 91% lower 43.2 ESL-IE-13-05-06 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology...

  19. Natural Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Scott; Ali Frolop

    2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It is now well accepted that both Dark Matter and Dark Energy are required in any successful cosmological model. Although there is ample evidence that both Dark components are necessary, the conventional theories make no prediction for the contributions from each of them. Moreover, there is usually no intrinsic relationship between the two components, and no understanding of the nature of the mysteries of the Dark Sector. Here we suggest that if the Dark Side is so seductive then we should not be restricted to just 2 components. We further suggest that the most natural model has 5 distinct forms of Dark Energy in addition to the usual Dark Matter, each contributing precisely equally to the cosmic energy density budget.

  20. Natural gas repowering experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bautista, P.J.; Fay, J.M. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Gerber, F.B. [BENTEK Energy Research, DeSoto, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Research Institute has led a variety of projects in the past two years with respect to repowering with natural gas. These activities, including workshops, technology evaluations, and market assessments, have indicated that a significant opportunity for repowering exists. It is obvious that the electric power industry`s restructuring and the actual implementation of environmental regulations from the Clean Air Act Amendments will have significant impact on repowering with respect to timing and ultimate size of the market. This paper summarizes the results and implications of these activities in repowering with natural gas. It first addresses the size of the potential market and discusses some of the significant issues with respect to this market potential. It then provides a perspective on technical options for repowering which are likely to be competitive in the current environment. Finally, it addresses possible actions by the gas industry and GRI to facilitate development of the repowering market.

  1. Natural Cooling Retrofit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure V). Tower Water Injection Natural Cool ing consists of crossover piping between the chillers, condenser and chiller water piping, switching valves, con trols, a strainer and/or a filtration system, and a water treatment system, in addition..., if not impera tive, to utilize a combination of strainers, filters, and/or sophisticated water treatment to ensure that the thermal efficiency of the chilled water system is not degraded due to scal ing, corro sion, and microbial growth. A routine water...

  2. Nature's Greatest Puzzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a pleasure to be part of the SLAC Summer Institute again, not simply because it is one of the great traditions in our field, but because this is a moment of great promise for particle physics. I look forward to exploring many opportunities with you over the course of our two weeks together. My first task in talking about Nature's Greatest Puzzles, the title of this year's Summer Institute, is to deconstruct the premise a little bit.

  3. Chlorophylls - natural solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jantschi, Lorentz; Balan, Mugur C; Sestras, Radu E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molecular modeling study was conducted on a series of six natural occurring chlorophylls. Quantum chemistry calculated orbital energies were used to estimate frequency of transitions between occupied molecular orbital and unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels of chlorophyll molecules in vivo conditions in standard (ASTMG173) environmental conditions. Obtained results are in good agreement with energies necessary to fix the Magnesium atom by chlorophyll molecules and with occurrence of chlorophylls in living vegetal organisms.

  4. Computer generated holographic microtags

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A microlithographic tag comprising an array of individual computer generated holographic patches having feature sizes between 250 and 75 nanometers is disclosed. The tag is a composite hologram made up of the individual holographic patches and contains identifying information when read out with a laser of the proper wavelength and at the proper angles of probing and reading. The patches are fabricated in a steep angle Littrow readout geometry to maximize returns in the -1 diffracted order. The tags are useful as anti-counterfeiting markers because of the extreme difficulty in reproducing them. 5 figs.

  5. Spin Seebeck power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahaya, Adam B.; Tretiakov, O. A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Bauer, Gerrit E. W. [Institute for Materials Research and WPI-AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kavli Institute of NanoScience, TU Delft Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive expressions for the efficiency and figure of merit of two spin caloritronic devices based on the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), i.e., the generation of spin currents by a temperature gradient. The inverse spin Hall effect is conventionally used to detect the SSE and offers advantages for large area applications. We also propose a device that converts spin current into electric one by means of a spin-valve detector, which scales favorably to small sizes and approaches a figure of merit of 0.5 at room temperature.

  6. Highly stable aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

    1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

  7. Hermetic turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meacher, John S. (Ballston Lake, NY); Ruscitto, David E. (Ballston Spa, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Rankine cycle turbine drives an electric generator and a feed pump, all on a single shaft, and all enclosed within a hermetically sealed case. The shaft is vertically oriented with the turbine exhaust directed downward and the shaft is supported on hydrodynamic fluid film bearings using the process fluid as lubricant and coolant. The selection of process fluid, type of turbine, operating speed, system power rating, and cycle state points are uniquely coordinated to achieve high turbine efficiency at the temperature levels imposed by the recovery of waste heat from the more prevalent industrial processes.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Tsunami Generation by Subaerial Landslides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Gyeongbo 1978-

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Tsunamis are one of the most catastrophic natural events impacting coastal regions often generated by undersea earthquakes. Nevertheless, in enclosed basins, i.e., fjords, reservoirs and lakes, subaerial or submarine landslides can initiate...

  9. The effects of hazardous waste taxes on generation and disposal of chlorinated solvent waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigman, Hilary

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1989, 30 states levied taxes on e generation or management of hazardous waste. These taxes constitute one of the broadest applications of an emissions tax in U.S. environmental policy and provide a natural experiment ...

  10. The software architecture for the First Challenge on Generating Instructions in Virtual Environments. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koller, Alexander; Byron, Donna; Cassell, Justine; Dale, Robert; Striegnitz, Kristina; Moore, Johanna D.; Oberlander, Jon

    2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The GIVE Challenge is a new Internet-based evaluation effort for natural language generation systems. In this paper, we motivate and describe the software infrastructure that we developed to support this challenge.

  11. Gas production response to price signals: Implications for electric power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, M.L.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas production response to price signals is outlined. The following topics are discussed: Structural changes in the U.S. gas exploration and production industry, industry outlook, industry response to price signals, and implications for electric power generators.

  12. Energy Generation by State and Technology (2009) - Energy Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Generation by Fuel ... Download Energy Generation by Fuel Source and State, 2009 URL: http:en.openei.orgdatasetsdataset03f65dc9-ddc9-41ce-806f-edafad486a1fresource...

  13. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology section of future revisions of the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c).

  14. Artificial nature : water infrastructure and its experience as natural space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirta?, Fatma Asl?han, 1970-

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is about water infrastructure and its experience as urban and natural space. It deals with the concepts of nature/geography, technology, and the integral experiential space by analyzing water dams and reservoirs ...

  15. Title: Ontario Wind Power Allocation Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Ontario Wind Power Allocation Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Ontario Ministry of Natural/A Updates: N/A Abstract: This data consists of a polygon shapefile, Wind Power Allocation Block. A Wind Power Allocation Block is an area that could be allocated for the exploration of wind power generation

  16. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Type curve analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs (infinite-acting reservoir case): a new approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angel Restrepo, Juan Alejandro

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The objectives of this work are as follows: First, we generated new type curves for the analysis of pressure drawdown and buildup tests performed in naturally fractured reservoirs. Next, we develop a systematic approach for the analysis and interpretation...

  18. Regulating electricity and natural gas in Peru : solutions for a sustainable energy sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breckel, Alex Cade

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peru is one of the fastest growing countries in Latin America, thanks in part to industry fueled by generous endowments of hydro power capacity and natural gas reserves. However, investment in electricity generation capacity ...

  19. An Investigation of Using Isochoric Data Points in the Development of Natural Gas Equation of State 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khazndar, Aoubai M

    2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels, natural gas is the cleanest, most available, and most useful of the energy sources. It finds extensive use in residential, commercial, electric power generation and industrial applications. Moreover, the international energy outlook report...

  20. The competition between coal and natural gas : the importance of sunk costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the seeming paradox between the predominant choice of natural gas for capacity additions to generate electricity in the United States and the continuing large share of coal in meeting incremental ...

  1. Development and validation of a hurricane nature run using the joint OSSE nature run and the WRF model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, David S.

    model David S. Nolan,1 Robert Atlas,2 Kieran T. Bhatia,1 and Lisa R. Bucci3 Received 6 March 2013 model (WRF), embedded within the Joint OSSE global nature run previously generated by the European observations. These include the pressure-wind relationship, the kinematic and thermodynamic structure

  2. Energy Generation Project Permitting (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vermont Energy Generation Siting Policy Commission is mandated to survey best practices for siting approval of electric generation projects (all facilities except for net- and group-net-metered...

  3. Biofuels: Microbially Generated Methane and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Biofuels: Microbially Generated Methane and Hydrogen Michael J McAnulty, Pennsylvania State, Thomas K; and Ferry, James G (March 2013) Biofuels: Microbially Generated Methane and Hydrogen. In: e

  4. Transition-fault test generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobb, Bradley Douglas

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    . One way to detect these timing defects is to apply test patterns to the integrated circuit that are generated using the transition-fault model. Unfortunately, industry's current transition-fault test generation schemes produce test sets that are too...

  5. Steam generator tube rupture study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free, Scott Thomas

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

  6. EIA - Natural Gas Publications

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469DecadeOrigin State Glossary HomeCapacityNatural Gas

  7. Natural Gas Transportation Resiliency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement ofConverDyn NOPRNancyNationalNatural GasImports byTransportation

  8. Sandia Energy - Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear PressLaboratory Fellows Jerry SimmonsModels &Natural

  9. Natural Gas Processed

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400,Information Administration22)MayŁ661.DataNov-14LiquidsNatural

  10. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  11. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  12. Self-assembling software generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchard, Ann M. (Albuquerque, NM); Osbourn, Gordon C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique to generate an executable task includes inspecting a task specification data structure to determine what software entities are to be generated to create the executable task, inspecting the task specification data structure to determine how the software entities will be linked after generating the software entities, inspecting the task specification data structure to determine logic to be executed by the software entities, and generating the software entities to create the executable task.

  13. Thermoacoustic generation in anisotropic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, John A

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    John Hildebrand: A. Thermoacoustic generation anisotropicsubstantial variation thermoacoustic in gen- erationisstress-strain relationfor thermoacoustic genera- tion and,if

  14. GENERATING EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS BY HOMEOMORPHISMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemens, John D.

    GENERATING EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS BY HOMEOMORPHISMS JOHN D. CLEMENS Abstract. We give a construction of a single homeomorphism of 2N which generates the equivalence relation E0. We then consider ways of generating this equivalence relation using homeomorphisms with nicer structural properties, and show

  15. Generation of strongly chaotic beats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Sliwa; P. Szlachetka; K. Grygiel

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The letter proposes a procedure for generation of strongly chaotic beats that have been hardly obtainable hitherto. The beats are generated in a nonlinear optical system governing second-harmonic generation of light. The proposition is based on the concept of an optical coupler but can be easily adopted to other nonlinear systems and Chua's circuits.

  16. Electricity Generation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,6). Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA are two DMRB capable of electricity generationElectricity Generation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris DX-1 D E F E N G X I N G , , Y I Z U O manuscript received March 20, 2008. Accepted March 25, 2008. Bacteria able to generate electricity

  17. ransmission, rather than generation, is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to expand transmission capacity adequately: Over 40 years, the amount of electricity generated in the United's power plants to its customers. It was never designed for getting power from any generator to anyT ransmission, rather than generation, is generally the con- straint preventing cus- tomers from

  18. Generational Policy Laurence J. Kotlikoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    Generational Policy by Laurence J. Kotlikoff Boston University The National Bureau of Economic;1 Abstract Generational policy is a fundamental aspect of a nation's fiscal affairs. The policy involves generational policy works, how it's measured, and how much it matters to virtual as well as real economies

  19. Second Harmonic Generation From Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botti, Silvana

    Second Harmonic Generation From Surfaces Nicolas Tancogne-Dejean, Valérie Véniard Condensed Matter/DSM European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility #12;2 Outline Nonlinear optic and second harmonic generation;4 Second harmonic generation First nonlinear term Centrosymmetric material : (2) = 0 (3)First nonlinear

  20. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Natural gas monthly, July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents information pertaining to the natural gas industry. Data are included on production, consumption, distribution, and pipeline activities.

  2. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Natural gas monthly, October 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Natural gas monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Natural gas monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural Resource Management Plan Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    wood industry, some farming in area of Solar Farm 3 #12;History of Natural Resource Management Formal

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  13. Natural gas monthly, June 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Tailpulse signal generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John (Walnut Creek, CA); Archer, Daniel E. (Knoxville, TN); Luke, Stanley John (Pleasanton, CA); Decman, Daniel J. (Livermore, CA); White, Gregory K. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A tailpulse signal generating/simulating apparatus, system, and method designed to produce electronic pulses which simulate tailpulses produced by a gamma radiation detector, including the pileup effect caused by the characteristic exponential decay of the detector pulses, and the random Poisson distribution pulse timing for radioactive materials. A digital signal process (DSP) is programmed and configured to produce digital values corresponding to pseudo-randomly selected pulse amplitudes and pseudo-randomly selected Poisson timing intervals of the tailpulses. Pulse amplitude values are exponentially decayed while outputting the digital value to a digital to analog converter (DAC). And pulse amplitudes of new pulses are added to decaying pulses to simulate the pileup effect for enhanced realism in the simulation.

  15. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat is disclosed. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device. 4 figs.

  16. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, John D. (Eaton's Neck, NY); El-Genk, Mohamed S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  17. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  18. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  19. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregory, Danny L. (Corrales, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smallwood, David O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  20. MHD Generation Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a MHD code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  1. Fourth Generation Parity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hye-Sung [William and Mary College, BNL, JLAB; Soni, Amarjit [William and Mary College

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a very simple 4th-generation (4G) model with an Abelian gauge interaction under which only the 4G fermions have nonzero charge. The U(1) gauge symmetry can have a Z_2 residual discrete symmetry (4G-parity), which can stabilize the lightest 4G particle (L4P). When the 4G neutrino is the L4P, it would be a neutral and stable particle and the other 4G fermions would decay into the L4P leaving the trace of missing energy plus the standard model fermions. Because of the new symmetry, the 4G particle creation and decay modes are different from those of the sequential 4G model, and the 4G particles can be appreciably lighter than typical experimental bounds.

  2. warnell school Forestry & Natural Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Daniel

    warnell school Forestry & Natural Resources 2010 Annual Report o #12;VisionTo be recognized as one of the top five forestry and natural resource programs in the United States. MissionTo prepare resources; and to place latest ideas and technology in forestry and natural resource management into real

  3. wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation Investment WindEEE Dome at Advanced Manufacturing Park $31million Insurance Research Lab for Better Homes $8million Advanced Facility for Avian Research $9million #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation

  4. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Annual Report 2004 #12;2 NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY · www.mnh.si.edu The revitalization of the National Museum of Natural History proceeded at a rapid pace, innovation and solid groundwork for future growth. The Museum's agenda is an active one. As with any

  8. Field Museum of Natural History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Bruce D.

    Field Museum of Natural History Financial Statements as of and for the Years Ended December 31' Report #12;FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INDEPENDENT AUDITORS' REPORT 1 AUDITORS' REPORT To the Board of Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History: We have audited

  9. Field Museum of Natural History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Bruce D.

    Field Museum of Natural History Financial Statements as of and for the Years Ended December 31 Auditors' Report #12;FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INDEPENDENT AUDITORS' REPORT 1 Expenditures 22­23 #12;INDEPENDENT AUDITORS' REPORT To the Board of Trustees of Field Museum of Natural History

  10. Neural network technology as a pollution prevention tool in the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.L.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents efforts by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) to pilot test the use of neural network technology as a pollution prevention tool for reducing stack emissions from a natural gas-fired power generating facility. The project was funded in part by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VI. combustion control is quickly becoming an emerging alternative for reducing utility plant emissions without installing costly end of pipe controls. The LCRA estimates that the technology has the potential to improve the thermal efficiency of a large utility boiler by more than 1 percent. preliminary calculations indicate that a 1% improvement in thermal efficiency at the 430 MW gas-fired utility boiler could results in an estimated energy savings of 142, 140 mmBtus and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions of 8,774 tons per year. This paper describes the process that were undertaken to identify and implement the pilot project at LCRA's Thomas C. Ferguson Power Plant, located in Marble Falls, Texas, Activities performed and documented include lessons learned, equipment selection, data acquisition, model evaluation and projected emission reductions.

  11. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    both electricity and natural gas usage. Cooling electricitypurchases of natural gas for direct end usage. Hence, unlikeamount of natural gas purchased for direct end usage. As a

  12. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

  14. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  20. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural convection can provide adequate heat distribution in many situtations that arise in buildings. This is appropriate, for example, in passive solar buildings where some rooms tend to be more strongly solar heated than others or to reduce the number of heating units required in a building. Natural airflow and heat transport through doorways and other internal building apertures is predictable and can be accounted for in the design. The nature of natural convection is described, and a design chart is presented appropriate to a simple, single-doorway situation. Natural convective loops that can occur in buildings are described and a few design guidelines are presented.

  4. Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes finite-difference time-domain simulations are carried out to elucidate the nature of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and localized surface plasmon polaritons (LSPs) generated by nanoscale holes in thin

  5. Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid Water Microjets Andrew M. Duffin and Richard J. Saykally,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    of natural gas. These thermal methods are relatively cheap, but they do not mitigate difficulties associatedElectrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid Water Microjets Andrew M. Duffin and Richard J, 2007; In Final Form: May 31, 2007 We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from

  6. letters to nature 152 NATURE |VOL 415 |10 JANUARY 2002 |www.nature.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Joseph

    . Recent developments in magnetic refrigeration. Mater. Sci. Forum 315± 317, 69±76 (1999). 4. Zimm, C. et al. Description and performance of a near-room temperature magnetic refrigerator. Adv. Cryogen. Engletters to nature 152 NATURE |VOL 415 |10 JANUARY 2002 |www.nature.com magnetization process can

  7. letters to nature NATURE |VOL 404 |2 MARCH 2000 |www.nature.com 69

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Kristine

    and the effects nonprecipitating clouds have on aerosol size distribution. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 14443±14459 (1994 determining their size distribution. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21315±21328 (1997). 8. Hoppel, W. A., Frick, G. Mletters to nature NATURE |VOL 404 |2 MARCH 2000 |www.nature.com 69 subsequent self-coagulation

  8. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  9. Comments on US LMFBR steam generator base technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, W.R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of steam generators for the LMFBR was recognized from the onset by the AEC, now DOE, as a difficult, challenging, and high-priority task. The highly reactive nature of sodium with water/steam requires that the sodium-water/steam boundaries of LMFBR steam generators possess a degree of leak-tightness reliability not normally attempted on a commercial scale. In addition, the LMFBR steam generator is subjected to high fluid temperatures and severe thermal transients. These requirements place great demand on materials, fabrication processes, and inspection methods; and even greater demands on the designer to provide steam generators that can meet these demanding requirements, be fabricated without unreasonable shop requirements, and tolerate off-normal effects.

  10. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  11. Stochastic Generator of Chemical Structure. 3. Reaction Network Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FAULON,JEAN-LOUP; SAULT,ALLEN G.

    2000-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method to generate chemical reaction network is proposed. The particularity of the method is that network generation and mechanism reduction are performed simultaneously using sampling techniques. Our method is tested for hydrocarbon thermal cracking. Results and theoretical arguments demonstrate that our method scales in polynomial time while other deterministic network generator scale in exponential time. This finding offers the possibility to investigate complex reacting systems such as those studied in petroleum refining and combustion.

  12. Nonlinear power flow control applications to conventional generator swing equations subject to variable generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the swing equations for renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generator system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. In particular, this approach extends the work done by developing a formulation which applies to a larger set of Hamiltonian Systems that has Nearly Hamiltonian Systems as a subset. The results of this research include the determination of the required performance of a proposed Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)/storage device to enable the maximum power output of a wind turbine while meeting the power system constraints on frequency and phase. The FACTS/storage device is required to operate as both a generator and load (energy storage) on the power system in this design. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generator system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate, and entropy rate.

  13. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A., E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Sivapalan, Subarna, E-mail: subarna-sivapalan@petronas.com.my [Department of Management and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  14. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  15. Further Rationalization for Piping Natural Gas to the Avalon to Meet Domestic Energy Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Steve

    of that talk were: · Assessment of options for Island's non-hydro electric power. · Rationalization of natural gas as the optimal choice. · The source of this gas was identified in broad terms. · The means ·· Power generationPower generation = 400,= 400, Operating = 15 + FuelOperating = 15 + Fuel From Previous

  16. Cogeneration Plant is Designed for Total Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howell, H. D.; Vera, R. L.

    ,000 1b/hr of 250-psig steam and 95,000 1b/hr of 300-psig steam to the ch10rine caustic process. The combined cycle plant configur ation shown in Figure 1 comprises: 1. Two.Genera1 Electric natural gas fired gas turbine-generators (GTG), with a size... having a HP section producing 485,000 1b/hr of steam at 1550 psig and 950?F, and a LP section pro ducing 15,000 lb/hr of saturated steam at 50-175 psig. The HP section supplies steam to the steam turbine generator, and the LP steam is used for a...

  17. Correlations in thermal comfort and natural wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Ki-Nam; Song, Doosam; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chaotic ?uctuation in natural wind and its application toof natural and mechanical wind in built environment usingcharacteristics of natural wind. Refrigeration 71 (821),

  18. Natural Gas Reforming | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Reforming Natural Gas Reforming Photo of Petroleum Refinery Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon...

  19. Resource Adequacy Forum Technical Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessment's treatment of natural gas fired combustion turbines align with the owner/operator's expectation annual energy ­ actual project output provided by owner/operator. #12;Natural Gas Combustion Turbines 300 350 400 450 Natural Gas Combustion Turbines Planning Actual Genesis 4/6/2011 50 100 #12;

  20. Next generation information systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limback, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Medina, Melanie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silva, Michelle E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Information Systems Analysis and Development (ISAD) Team of the Safeguards Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing web based information and knowledge management systems for sixteen years. Our vision is to rapidly and cost effectively provide knowledge management solutions in the form of interactive information systems that help customers organize, archive, post and retrieve nonproliferation and safeguards knowledge and information vital to their success. The team has developed several comprehensive information systems that assist users in the betterment and growth of their organizations and programs. Through our information systems, users are able to streamline operations, increase productivity, and share and access information from diverse geographic locations. The ISAD team is also producing interactive visual models. Interactive visual models provide many benefits to customers beyond the scope of traditional full-scale modeling. We have the ability to simulate a vision that a customer may propose, without the time constraints of traditional engineering modeling tools. Our interactive visual models can be used to access specialized training areas, controlled areas, and highly radioactive areas, as well as review site-specific training for complex facilities, and asset management. Like the information systems that the ISAD team develops, these models can be shared and accessed from any location with access to the internet. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the capabilities of information systems and interactive visual models as well as consider the possibility of combining the two capabilities to provide the next generation of infonnation systems. The collection, processing, and integration of data in new ways can contribute to the security of the nation by providing indicators and information for timely action to decrease the traditional and new nuclear threats. Modeling and simulation tied to comprehensive databases are progressions of the tools that can be used in new ways and further developed to enhance the mission of nonproliferation and threat reduction.