Sample records for natural background radiation

  1. Influence of Spinning Electric Fields on Natural Background Gamma-Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Krinker; Felix Kitaichik

    2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper considers influence of spinning electric field on statistics of natural background gamma-radiation. The spinning electric field, shown as a virtual gyroscope, has quantum mechanics characteristics. Interaction of the virtual fermion-like gyroscope with bosons (gamma-quanta) results in lowering intensity of the gamma-radiation and altering Poisson distribution. The statistic of the observed phenomenon depends on the direction of rotation of the virtual gyroscope. The results are discussed in a shade of spin-spin interaction having regard to realizing thermodynamically profitable conditions. Similarity of observed reduction of gamma-radiation in spinning electric fields and that for mechanical rotation stresses a special role of rotation itself, disregarding the matter of its carrier.

  2. Local microwave background radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingos Soares

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  3. Developing a Methodology for Characterizing the Effects of Building Materials’ Natural Radiation Background on a Radiation Portal Monitoring System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzmaurice, Matthew Blake 1988-

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    , weather, and time of day. 6 Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation emitted by excited nuclei in order for them to reach the ground state after decaying. Once emitted, these particles mainly interact with matter in three ways: photoelectric effect... and measured density were then used to define the MCNP material card for concrete. Pulse height tallies were used to determine the total gamma ray count rate in each of the four gamma detectors in the RPM. 5 CHAPTER II BACKGROUND II.A. Radiation...

  4. Integrated Molecular Analysis Indicates Undetectable Change in DNA Damage in Mice after Continuous Irradiation at ~ 400-fold Natural Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olipitz, Werner

    Background: In the event of a nuclear accident, people are exposed to elevated levels of continuous low dose-rate radiation. Nevertheless, most of the literature describes the biological effects of acute radiation.

  5. Developing a Methodology for Characterizing the Effects of Building Materials’ Natural Radiation Background on a Radiation Portal Monitoring System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzmaurice, Matthew Blake 1988-

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Trafficking of radioactive material, particularly special nuclear material (SNM), has long been a worldwide concern. To interdict this material the US government has installed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) around the globe. Building materials...

  6. The Cosmic Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Smoot; Douglas Scott

    1997-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

  7. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  8. Interstellar Hydrogen and Cosmic Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Sidharth

    2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a "condensation" type of phenomenon corresponding to a peak intensity. The observed cosmic background radiation can be explained from this standpoint in terms of the radiation due to fluctuations in interstellar Hydrogen.

  9. Cosmic Background Radiation Due to Photon Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Sidharth

    1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a Bose "condensation" type of phenomenon at about 3 degrees K corresponding to a peak intensity at a wave length of about 0.4cm. This could give a mechanism for the observed Cosmic Background Radiation, and also explain some curious features.

  10. apm background radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extragalactic Background Radiation Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: Attenuation of high--energy gamma rays by pair--production with UV, optical and IR background photons provides a...

  11. POLARIZATION OF THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubin, Philip Lubin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a 45° angle. Radiation whose electric field (polarization)radiation field, it can be uniquely characterized by its electric

  12. TeV Blazars and Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. A. Aharonian

    2001-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent developments in studies of TeV radiation from blazars are highlighted and the implications of these results for derivation of cosmologically important information about the cosmic infrared background radiation are discussed.

  13. An electronic radiation of blackbody: Cosmic electron background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Miin Liu

    2008-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Universe owns the electronic radiation of blackbody at temperature 2.725 K, which we call the cosmic electron background. We calculate its radiation spectrum. The energy distribution of number density of electrons in the cosmic electron background becomes zero as energy goes to both zero and infinity. It has one maximum peak near the energy level of 10**(-23) J.

  14. Primordial Helium And the Cosmic Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary Steigman

    2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The products of primordial nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons are relics from the early evolution of the Universe whose observations probe the standard model of cosmology and provide windows on new physics beyond the standard models of cosmology and of particle physics. In the standard, hot big bang cosmology, long before any stars have formed a significant fraction (~25%) of the baryonic mass in the Universe should be in the form of helium-4 nuclei. Since current 4He observations are restricted to low redshift regions where stellar nucleosynthesis has occurred, observations of high redshift, prestellar 4He would constitute a fundamental test of the hot, big bang cosmology. At recombination, long after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) has ended, the temperature anisotropy spectrum imprinted on the CMB depends on the 4He abundance through its connection to the electron density and the effect of the electron density on Silk damping. Since the relic abundance of 4He is relatively insensitive to the universal density of baryons, but is sensitive to a non-standard, early Universe expansion rate, the primordial mass fraction of 4He, Yp, offers a test of the consistency of the standard models of BBN and the CMB and, provides constraints on non-standard physics. Here, the WMAP seven year data (supplemented by other CMB experiments), which lead to an indirect determination of Yp at high redshift, are compared to the BBN predictions and to the independent, direct observations of 4He in low redshift, extragalactic HII regions. At present, given the very large uncertainties in the CMB-determined primordial 4He abundance (as well as for the helium abundances inferred from H II region observations), any differences between the BBN predictions and the CMB observations are small, at a level < 1.5 sigma.

  15. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Blessinger, Christopher S [ORNL; Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  16. Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CARLSBAD, N.M., May 18, 2011 – New Mexico State University?s Low Background Radiation Experiment (LBRE), which takes place 2,150 feet below the earth?s surface at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, recently released some results about the project?s first two years of experimentation.

  17. Position sensitive detection of neutrons in high radiation background field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vavrik, D., E-mail: vavrik@itam.cas.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prosecka 76, 190 00 Prague 9 (Czech Republic); Jakubek, J.; Pospisil, S. [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prosecka 76, 190 00 Prague 9 (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prosecka 76, 190 00 Prague 9 (Czech Republic); Vacik, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez, 250 68 Prague, Czech Republic (Czech Republic)] [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez, 250 68 Prague, Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the development of a high-resolution position sensitive device for detection of slow neutrons in the environment of extremely high ? and e{sup ?} radiation background. We make use of a planar silicon pixelated (pixel size: 55 × 55 ?m{sup 2}) spectroscopic Timepix detector adapted for neutron detection utilizing very thin {sup 10}B converter placed onto detector surface. We demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation background can be discriminated from the neutron signal utilizing the fact that each particle type produces characteristic ionization tracks in the pixelated detector. Particular tracks can be distinguished by their 2D shape (in the detector plane) and spectroscopic response using single event analysis. A Cd sheet served as thermal neutron stopper as well as intensive source of gamma rays and energetic electrons. Highly efficient discrimination was successful even at very low neutron to electromagnetic background ratio about 10{sup ?4}.

  18. Radiative emission of neutrino pair free of quantum electrodynamic backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Yoshimura; N. Sasao; M. Tanaka

    2015-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A scheme of quantum electrodynamic (QED) background-free radiative emission of neutrino pair (RENP) is proposed in order to achieve precision determination of neutrino properties so far not accessible. The important point for the background rejection is the fact that the dispersion relation between wave vector along propagating direction in wave guide (and in a photonic-crystal type fiber) and frequency is modified by a discretized non-vanishing effective mass. This effective mass acts as a cutoff of allowed frequencies, and one may select the RENP photon energy region free of all macro-coherently amplified QED processes by choosing the cutoff larger than the mass of neutrinos.

  19. A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Cosmic Background Radiation with the Cambridge CosmicCosmic Microwave Background Radiation arXiv:astro-ph/0004404Roma, Italy,. The blackbody radiation left over from the Big

  20. Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature of gas cylinders hazards of a ruptured cylinder. There are almost 200 different types of materials in gas cylinders, there are several general procedures to follow for safe storage and handling of a compressed gas cylinder: II

  1. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M. (eds.)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  2. The Nature of the Ionising Background at z=2.5-5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aaron Sokasian; Tom Abel; Lars E. Hernquist

    2002-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Using radiative transfer calculations and cosmological simulations of structure formation, we study constraints that can be placed on the nature of the cosmic ultraviolet (UV) background in the redshift interval 2.5< z <5. Our approach makes use of observational estimates of the opacities of hydrogen and singly ionised helium in the intergalactic medium during this epoch. In particular, we model the reionisation of He II by sources of hard ultraviolet radiation, i.e. quasars, and infer values for our parameterisation of this population from observational estimates of the opacity of the He II Lyman-alpha forest. Next, we estimate the photoionisation rate of H I from these sources and find that their contribution to the ionising background is insufficient to account for the measured opacity of the H I Lyman-alpha forest at a redshift z 3. This motivates us to include a soft, stellar component to the ionising background to boost the hydrogen photoionisation rate, but which has a negligible impact on the He II opacity. In order to simultaneously match observational estimates of the H I and He II opacities, we find that galaxies and quasars must contribute about equally to the ionising background in H I at z~ 3.

  3. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background Solar panels are designed as a photovoltaic module. The energy producing aspect of the photovoltaic module has two primary steps. The first is a semiconducting material...

  4. BACKGROUND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugust AugustInstruments onG-I,AboutBACKGROUND The

  5. Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P

    2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash.

  6. Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ." #12;Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation Sources in Minnesota A Study gas (GHG) emissions from Minnesota's transportation sector. #12;Research Study Team UniversityBackground: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems

  7. A problem of hypothetical emerging of cosmic background radiation photons on horizon in the standard model of universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Skalsky

    2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present temperature of cosmic background radiation and the present number density of photons of cosmic background radiation in the observed expansive and isotropic relativistic Universe is in the standard model of universe explained by the assumption of emergence of the photons of cosmic background radiation on the horizon (of the most remote visibility). However, the physical analysis shows unambiguously that this assumption contradicts the special theory of relativity and the quantum mechanics.

  8. A Shallow Underground Laboratory for Low-Background Radiation Measurements and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Day, Anthony R.; Erikson, Luke E.; Fast, James E.; Forrester, Joel B.; Fuller, Erin S.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Merriman, Jason H.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Overman, Nicole R.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Runkle, Robert C.

    2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths worldwide houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This manuscript describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  9. Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Oritz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Marlow, William H. (College Station, TX)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles. A continuous air monitoring sampler is described for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. An inlet fractionating screen has been demonstrated to remove about 95% of freshly formed radon progeny from the aerosol sample, and approximately 33% of partially aged progeny. Addition of an electrical condenser and a modified dichotomous virtual impactor are expected to produce considerable improvement in these numbers, the goal being to enrich the transuranic (TRU) fraction of the aerosols. This offers the possibility of improving the signal-to-noise ratio for the detected alpha-particle energy spectrum in the region of interest for detecting TRU materials associated with aerosols, thereby enhancing the performance of background-compensation algorithms for improving the quality of alarm signals intended to warn personnel of potentially harmful quantities of TRU materials in the ambient air.

  10. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  11. Nature of Radiation-Induced Defects in Quartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bu Wang; Yingtian Yu; Isabella Pignatelli; Gaurav N. Sant; Mathieu Bauchy

    2015-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Although quartz ($\\rm \\alpha$-form) is a mineral used in numerous applications wherein radiation exposure is an issue, the nature of the atomistic defects formed during radiation-induced damage have not been fully clarified. Especially, the extent of oxygen vacancy formation is still debated, which is an issue of primary importance as optical techniques based on charged oxygen vacancies have been utilized to assess the level of radiation damage in quartz. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are applied to study the effects of ballistic impacts on the atomic network of quartz. We show that the defects that are formed mainly consist of over-coordinated Si and O, as well as Si--O connectivity defects, e.g., small Si--O rings and edge-sharing Si tetrahedra. Oxygen vacancies, on the contrary, are found in relatively low abundance, suggesting that characterizations based on $E^{\\prime}$ centers do not adequately capture radiation-induced structural damage in quartz. Finally, we evaluate the dependence on the incident energy, of the amount of each type of the point defects formed, and quantify unambiguously the threshold displacement energies for both O and Si atoms. These results provide a comprehensive basis to assess the nature and extent of radiation damage in quartz.

  12. A New Upper Limit on the Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher O'Dell

    2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) is an invaluable probe of the conditions of the early universe. Recent measurements of its spatial anisotropy have allowed accurate determinations of several fundamental cosmological parameters, such as the curvature of the universe, the shape of the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations, and the contribution of baryons, dark matter, and dark energy to the overall energy density of the universe. In addition to being spatially non-uniform, the CMB is theorized to be slightly polarized. Measurements of this polarization, particularly at large angular scales, have the potential to provide information on primordial gravitational waves, theories of inflation, and the ionization history of the universe, as well as help further constrain cosmological parameters. Polarization has not yet been detected in the CMB. This thesis describes a recent search for CMB polarization at large angular scales, conducted in the spring of 2000 at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. After a general introduction on both CMB polarization and general microwave polarimetry, details of the experiment itself are given, as well as a full description of the data selection and analysis techniques. Using these techniques, our data lead to a new upper limit on CMB polarization at large angular scales of 10 $\\mu$K in both E- and B-type polarization at 95% confidence. If B-polarization is assumed to be zero, the limit for E-type polarization is lowered to 8 $\\mu$K. This experiment is the first of a new breed of highly-sensitive instruments that will one day map out this interesting property of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.

  13. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alarcon, R; Benson, S V; Bertozzi, W; Boyce, J R; Cowan, R; Douglas, D; Evtushenko, P; Fisher, P; Ihloff, E; Kalantarians, N; Kelleher, A; Kossler, W J; Legg, R; Long, E; Milner, R G; Neil, G R; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Tennant, C; Tschalaer, C; Williams, G P; Zhang, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is ...

  14. State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

  15. Nature of Radiation-Induced Defects in Quartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Bu; Pignatelli, Isabella; Sant, Gaurav N; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although quartz ($\\rm \\alpha$-form) is a mineral used in numerous applications wherein radiation exposure is an issue, the nature of the atomistic defects formed during radiation-induced damage have not been fully clarified. Especially, the extent of oxygen vacancy formation is still debated, which is an issue of primary importance as optical techniques based on charged oxygen vacancies have been utilized to assess the level of radiation damage in quartz. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are applied to study the effects of ballistic impacts on the atomic network of quartz. We show that the defects that are formed mainly consist of over-coordinated Si and O, as well as Si--O connectivity defects, e.g., small Si--O rings and edge-sharing Si tetrahedra. Oxygen vacancies, on the contrary, are found in relatively low abundance, suggesting that characterizations based on $E^{\\prime}$ centers do not adequately capture radiation-induced structural damage in quartz. Finally, we evaluate the dependenc...

  16. Determining the Impact of Concrete Roadways on Gamma Ray Background Readings for Radiation Portal Monitoring Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Christopher Michael

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    country of origin. To combat the threat of nuclear trafficking, radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are deployed around the world to intercept illicit material while in transit by passively detecting gamma and neutron radiation. Portal monitors in some...

  17. A Measurement of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at 3.0 cm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, S.D.; Smoot, G.F.; De Amici, G.; Witebsky, C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Figure 2. Schematic of the 3.0 cm radiometer. HistogramRADIATION TEMPERATURE AT 3.0 cm S.D. Friedman, G.F. Smoot,Radiation Temperature at 3.0 cm Scott D . Friedman, George

  18. Determining the Impact of Concrete Roadways on Gamma Ray Background Readings for Radiation Portal Monitoring Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Christopher Michael

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    country of origin. To combat the threat of nuclear trafficking, radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are deployed around the world to intercept illicit material while in transit by passively detecting gamma and neutron radiation. Portal monitors in some...

  19. Background radio-frequency radiation and its impact on radio astronomy Michelle C. Storey, Bruce MacA Thomas and John M. Sarkissian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkissian, John M.

    1 Background radio-frequency radiation and its impact on radio astronomy Michelle C. Storey, Bruce 1710 Email:mstorey@atnf.csiro.au Abstract: The use of radio-frequency telecommunications equipment is dramatically increasing, and one consequence is that background levels of radio-frequency radiation

  20. SIMULATION OF RADIATION BACKGROUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH NUCLEAR DIAGNOSTICS IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khater, H; Dauffy, L; Tommasini, R; Eckart, M; Eder, D

    2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments resulting in a significant neutron yield are scheduled to start in 2010 at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Several experiments utilizing Tritium-Hydrogen-Deuterium (THD) and Deuterium-Tritium (DT) targets are scheduled as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). A wide range of diagnostics will be used to measure several parameters of implosion such as the core and fuel shape, temperatures and densities, and neutron yield. Accurate evaluations of the neutron and gamma backgrounds are important for several diagnostics, such as the High Energy X-ray Imager (HEXRI) and Neutron-Time-Of-Flight (nTOF). Several sources of neutron and gamma backgrounds will impact the accuracy of the diagnostics measurements. Fusion neutrons generated by fuel burn and secondary neutrons resulting from the fusion neutrons interaction with structures present inside and outside the Target Chamber (TC) contribute to the neutron background. In the meantime, X-rays emitted from the implosion, X-rays resulting from Laser Plasma Interaction (LPI) of NIF beams with the hohlraum, and gamma-rays induced by neutron interactions with different structures inside and outside the TC contribute to the gamma background. A detailed model has been developed of the NIF facility and all structures inside the TC. Several Monte-Carlo simulations were performed to identify the expected signal-to- background ratios at several potential locations for the HEXRI and nTOF diagnostics. Gamma backgrounds associated with HEXRI were significantly reduced by using a tungsten collimator. The collimator resulted in the reduction of the gamma background at the HEXRI scintillator by more than an order of magnitude during the first 40 ns following a THD shot. The nTOF20 detectors inside the Neutron Spectrometry room are exposed to low levels of neutron and gamma background during yield shots.

  1. Systems and methods for detecting nuclear radiation in the presence of backgrounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for the simultaneous detection and identification of radiation species, including neutrons, gammas/x-rays and minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). A plurality of rectangular and/or triangularly shaped radiation sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within a central hole of each extruded scintillator, wherein the wavelength-shifting fiber absorbs scintillation light and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength, thereby piping the light to a photodetector whose response to the light indicates the presence of radiation The resulting method and system can simultaneously detect neutrons, gamma rays, x-rays and cosmic rays (MIPs) and identify each.

  2. Modulational and filamentational instabilities of two electromagnetic pulses in a radiation background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; G. Brodin; L. Stenflo

    2004-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects, between two electromagnetic pulses and a radiation gas is investigated. It is found that the governing equations admit both modulational and filamentational instabilities. The instability growth rates are derived, and the results are discussed.

  3. MARS June 2012 Flight Data: Natural Background and Point Source Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stave, Sean C.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Benz, Jacob M.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract This brief document describes the electronic data that were collected by the Multi-sensor Aerial Radiation Survey (MARS) detector in June 2012 while mounted onboard the RSL Bell-412 helicopter. A copy of the data is included as an electronic appendix.

  4. SEARCH F O R LINEAR POLARIZATION O F THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited Release PrintedDEVIATIONS F O REndorsement of

  5. Small-scale primordial magnetic fields and anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jedamzik, Karsten [Laboratoire de Univers et Particules, UMR5299-CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Abel, Tom, E-mail: karsten.jedamzik@um2.fr, E-mail: tabel@slac.stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC/Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that small-scale magnetic fields present before recombination induce baryonic density inhomogeneities of appreciable magnitude. The presence of such inhomogeneities changes the ionization history of the Universe, which in turn decreases the angular scale of the Doppler peaks and increases Silk damping by photon diffusion. This unique signature could be used to (dis)prove the existence of primordial magnetic fields of strength as small as B ? 10{sup ?11} Gauss by cosmic microwave background observations.

  6. Reduction of Radioactive Backgrounds in Electroformed Copper for Ultra-Sensitive Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Liezers, Martin; Miley, Harry S.; Overman, Nicole R.; Reeves, James H.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Ultra-pure construction materials are required for the next generation of neutrino physics, dark matter and environmental science applications. These new efforts require materials with purity levels at or below 1 uBq/kg 232Th and 238U. Yet radiometric analysis lacks sensitivity below ~10 uBq/kg for the U and Th decay chains. This limits both the selection of clean materials and the validation of purification processes. Copper is an important high-purity material for low-background experiments due to the ease with which it can be purified by electrochemical methods. Electroplating for purification into near-final shapes, known as electroforming, is one such method. Continued refinement of the copper electroforming process is underway, for the first time guided by an ICP-MS based assay method that can measure 232Th and 238U near the desired purity levels. An assay of electroformed copper at 10 uBq/kg for 232Th has been achieved and is described. The implications of electroformed copper at or better than this purity on next-generation low-background experiments are discussed.

  7. Background Radiation Survey of the Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colin Okada

    2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In preparation for operations at the Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Complex (Rad/NucCTEC), the Department of Homeland Security Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DHS/DNDO) requested that personnel from the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) conduct a survey of the present radiological conditions at the facility. The measurements consist of the exposure rate from a high-pressure ion chamber (HPIC), high-resolution spectra from a high-purity germanium (HPGe) system in an in situ configuration, and low-resolution spectra from a sodium iodide (NaI) detector in a radiation detection backpack. Measurements with these systems were collected at discrete locations within the facility. Measurements were also collected by carrying the VECTOR backpack throughout the complex to generate a map of the entire area. The area was also to be surveyed with the Kiwi (an array of eight-2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch NaI detectors) from the Aerial Measuring Systems; however, conflicts with test preparation activities at the site prevented this from being accomplished.

  8. Unsterile-active neutrino mixing: Consequences on radiative decay and bounds from the x-ray background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyanovsky, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Holman, R.; Hutasoit, Jimmy A. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a sterile neutrino to be an unparticle, namely, an unsterile neutrino, with anomalous dimension {eta} and study its mixing with a canonical active neutrino via a seesaw mass matrix. We show that there is no unitary transformation that diagonalizes the mixed propagator and a field redefinition is required. The propagating or 'mass' states correspond to an unsterilelike and activelike mode. The unsterile mode features a complex pole or resonance for 0{<=}{eta}<1/3 with an 'invisible width' which is the result of the decay of the unsterile mode into the active mode and the massless particles of the hidden conformal sector. For {eta}{>=}1/3, the complex pole disappears, merging with the unparticle threshold. The active mode is described by a stable pole, but 'inherits' a nonvanishing spectral density above the unparticle threshold as a consequence of the mixing. We find that the radiative decay width of the unsterile neutrino into the active neutrino (and a photon) via charged current loops, is suppressed by a factor {approx}[2sin{sup 2}({theta}{sub 0})(M{sup 2}/{lambda}{sup 2})]{sup {eta}}{sup /(1-{eta})}, where {theta}{sub 0} is the mixing angle for {eta}=0, M is approximately the mass of the unsterile neutrino, and {lambda}>>M is the unparticle scale. The suppression of the radiative (visible) decay width of the sterile neutrino weakens the bound on the mass and mixing angle from the x-ray or soft gamma-ray background.

  9. Chapter 5. Conclusion Uranium, a naturally occurring element, contributes to low levels of natural background radiation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    radium and the radioactive gas radon. Mining is the process by which mineral and metal bearing ores and price. This subeconomic ore is often stockpiled at the mine site for future exploitation under straddling the Four Corners where Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona meet, though more than a dozen

  10. Prediction of the Virgo axis anisotropy: CMB radiation illuminates the nature of things

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Berkovich

    2005-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent findings of the anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation are confusing for standard cosmology. Remarkably, this fact has been predicted several years ago in the framework of our model of the physical world. Moreover, in exact agreement with our prediction the CMB has a preferred direction towards the Virgo Cluster. The transpired structure of the CMB shows workings of the suggested model of the physical world. Comprising the information processes of Nature, this model presents a high-tech version of the previous low-tech developments for mechanical ether and quantum vacuum. In the current model, the phenomenon of Life turns up as a collective effect on the "Internet of the Physical Universe" using DNA structures for access codes. Most convincingly, this construction points to a harmful analogy with so-called "identity theft" - improper manipulations with DNA of individual organisms can destroy these organisms from a remote location without any physical contact. Appearing incredible, such a possibility creates a superlative Experimentum Crucis. In a broad sense, this surmised biological effect is intimately related to the cosmological prediction of the structurization of the CMB, but it is more compelling.

  11. The 60-micron extragalactic background radiation intensity, dust-enshrouded AGNs and the assembly of groups and clusters of galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew W. Blain; Tom Phillips

    2002-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Submillimetre observations reveal a cosmologically significant population of high-redshift dust-enshrouded galaxies. The form of evolution inferred for this population can be reconciled easily with COBE FIRAS and DIRBE measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at wavelengths >100 microns. At shorter wavelengths, however, the 60-micron CBR intensity reported by Finkbeiner et al. is less easily accounted for. Lagache et al. have proposed that this excess CBR emission is a warm Galactic component, and the detection of the highest-energy gamma-rays from blazars limits the CBR intensity at these wavelengths, but here we investigate sources of this excess CBR emission, assuming that it has a genuine extragalactic origin. We propose and test three explanations, each involving additional populations not readily detected in existing submm-wave surveys. First, dust-enshrouded galaxies with hot dust temperatures, perhaps dust-enshrouded, Compton-thick AGN as suggested by recent deep Chandra surveys. Secondly, a population of relatively low-redshift dusty galaxies with SEDs more typical of the existing submm-selected galaxies, which could plausibly be associated with the assembly of groups and clusters of galaxies. Thirdly, a population of low-luminosity, cool, quiescent spiral galaxies. Hot AGN and the assembly of groups can account for the excess 60-micron background. There are significant problems with the cluster assembly scenario, in which too many bright IRAS sources are predicted. Spiral galaxies have the wrong SEDs to account for the excess. Future wide-field far-IR surveys using SIRTF and Herschel will sample representative volumes of the distant Universe, allowing any hot population of dusty AGNs and forming groups to be detected.

  12. The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) hazards include LNG flammable vapor dispersion and LNG pool fire thermal radiation. A large LNG pool fire emits high thermal radiation thus preventing fire fighters from approaching and extinguishing the fire. One...

  13. Effective gamma-ray doses due to natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silveira, M. A. G.; Moreira, R. H.; Bellini, B. S. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Medina, N. H.; Aguiar, V. A. P. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used gamma-ray spectrometry to study the distribution of natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil: Billings reservoir, Sao Bernardo do Campo Parks, Diadema Parks, Interlagos region, Sao Paulo, and soil from Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro beaches. In most of the regions studied we have found that the dose due the external exposure to gamma-rays, proceeding from natural terrestrial elements, are between the values 0.3 and 0.6 mSv/year, established by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

  14. Natural radiation exposure in a municipality of the Brazilian Sertao

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malanca, A. [UFRN, Natal (Brazil)] [UFRN, Natal (Brazil); Gaidolfi, L. [Settore Fisico-Ambientale, Piacenza (Italy)] [Settore Fisico-Ambientale, Piacenza (Italy)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sixty-seven thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) were distributed to the inhabitants of a Brazilian municipality located in the semi-arid inland (Sertao) of the state of Rio Grande do Norte. All the TLDs were exposed for 180 d in bedrooms or in living areas of the selected buildings and eventually returned to the authors` laboratory in italy. Radiological measurements gave a range of 32-330 nGy h{sup -1}, an arithmetic mean of 107 {+-} 47 nGy h{sup -1}, and a geometric mean of 99 nGy h{sup -1}. This last value corresponds to an annual indoor effective dose equivalent of 425 {mu}Sv. Concentrations of primordial radionuclides in some samples of building material, soil, and rock collected in the aformentioned territory were analytically determined by gamma spectrometer. The relatively high content of {sup 226}Ra (98.5 {+-} 12 Bq kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (252.5 {+-} 47 Bq kg{sup -1}), and {sup 40}K (1533 {+-} 169 Bq kg{sup -1}) in bedrock is probably responsible for the elevated {lambda}-radiation environment of that municipality. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tab.

  15. Comparative analysis of spectra of the background of the proportional counter filled with Kr, enriched in Kr-78, and with Kr of natural content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. M. Gavriljuk; V. N. Gavrin; A. M. Gangapshev; V. V. Kazalov; V. V. Kuzminov; S. I. Panasenko; S. S. Ratkevich

    2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the experiment searching for 2K-capture with large low-background proportional counter are presented. The comparison of spectra of the background of the proportional counter filled with Kr enriched in $^{78}$Kr (8400 hr) and with natural Kr (3039 hr) is given. A new limit on the half-life of $^{78}$Kr with regard to 2K-capture, T$_{1/2}\\geq2.0\\cdot10^{21}$ yrs (95% C.L.) has been obtained.

  16. Response of five tropical plant species to natural solar ultraviolet-B radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searles, P.S.; Caldwell, M.M. (Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)); Winter, K. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa (Panama))

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tropical latitudes currently receive high solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) even without ozone depletion. Thus, the influence of natural, present-day UV-B irradiance was examined for three native rainforest tree species and two economically important species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (9[degrees] N). Solar UV-B radiation conditions were obtained using a UV-B excluding plastic film or a near-ambient UV-B transmitting film over potted plants in a small clearing. Significant differences were often exhibited as increased foliar UV-B absorbing compounds, increased leaf mass pre area, and reduced leaf blade length for plants receiving solar UV-B radiation. Plant height was typically reduced under solar UV-B, but some variation among species in response was seen. Biomass and photosystem II function were generally unaffected. The results provide evidence that tropical vegetation responds to the present level of Solar UV-B radiation. This suggests even a small increase in UV-B radiation with ozone depletion may have biological implications.

  17. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  18. Supersymmetry with radiatively-driven naturalness: implications for WIMP and axion searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Barger, Vernon; Savoy, Michael R; Serce, Hasan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By insisting on naturalness in both the electroweak and QCD sectors of the MSSM, the portrait for dark matter production is seriously modified from the usual WIMP miracle picture. In SUSY models with radiatively-driven naturalness (radiative natural SUSY or RNS) which include a DFSZ-like solution to the strong CP and SUSY mu problems, dark matter is expected to be an admixture of both axions and higgsino-like WIMPs. The WIMP/axion abundance calculation requires simultaneous solution of a set of coupled Boltzmann equations which describe quasi-stable axinos and saxions. In most of parameter space, axions make up the dominant contribution of dark matter although regions of WIMP dominance also occur. We show the allowed range of PQ scale f_a and compare to the values expected to be probed by the ADMX axion detector in the near future. We also show WIMP detection rates which are suppressed from usual expectations because now WIMPs comprise only a fraction of the total dark matter. Nonetheless, ton-scale noble liq...

  19. Neutron inelastic scattering and reactions in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta-decay experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. E. Guiseppe; M. Devlin; S. R. Elliott; N. Fotiades; A. Hime; D. -M. Mei; R. O. Nelson; D. V. Perepelitsa

    2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Inelastic neutron scattering and reactions on Pb isotopes can result in gamma rays near the signature endpoint energy in a number of double-beta decay isotopes. In particular, there are gamma-ray transitions in Pb-206,207,208 that might produce energy deposits at the 76-Ge Q value in Ge detectors used for double-beta decay searches. The levels that produce these gamma rays can be excited by (n,n'gamma) or (n,xngamma) reactions, but the cross sections are small and previously unmeasured. This work uses the pulsed neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to directly measure reactions of interest to double-beta decay experiments. The cross section on natural Pb to produce the 2041-keV gamma ray from Pb-206 is measured to be 3.6 +/- 0.7 (stat.) +/- 0.3 (syst.) mb at ~9.6 MeV. The cross section on natural Pb to produce the 3062-keV gamma ray from Pb-207 and Pb-208 is measured to be 3.9 +/- 0.8 (stat.) +/- 0.4 (syst.) mb at the same energy. We report cross sections or place upper limits on the cross sections for exciting some other levels in Pb that have transition energies corresponding to Q value in other double-beta decay isotopes.

  20. Derivation of the Blackbody Radiation Spectrum from a Natural Maximum-Entropy Principle Involving Casimir Energies and Zero-Point Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timothy H. Boyer

    2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    By numerical calculation, the Planck spectrum with zero-point radiation is shown to satisfy a natural maximum-entropy principle whereas alternative choices of spectra do not. Specifically, if we consider a set of conducting-walled boxes, each with a partition placed at a different location in the box, so that across the collection of boxes the partitions are uniformly spaced across the volume, then the Planck spectrum correspond to that spectrum of random radiation (having constant energy kT per normal mode at low frequencies and zero-point energy (1/2)hw per normal mode at high frequencies) which gives maximum uniformity across the collection of boxes for the radiation energy per box. The analysis involves Casimir energies and zero-point radiation which do not usually appear in thermodynamic analyses. For simplicity, the analysis is presented for waves in one space dimension.

  1. Radiation Sensitivity of Natural Organic Matter: Clay Mineral Association Effects in the Callovo-Oxfordian Argillite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schäfer, T.; Michel, P; Claret, F; Beetz, T; Wirick, S; Jacobsen, C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clay-rich low-organic carbon formations (e.g., Callovo-Oxfordian argillite in France and Opalinus Clay in Switzerland) are considered as host rocks for radioactive waste disposal. The clay-organic carbon has a strong impact on the chemical stability of the clays. For this reason, the nature of the clay-organic carbon, the release of hydrophilic organic compounds, namely, humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) and the radiation sensitivity of the undisturbed host rock organics was investigated. The clay sample originates from Oxfordian argillite (447 m depth, borehole EST 104). HA and FA were extracted following the standard International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) isolation procedure. Synchrotron based (C-, K-, Ca-, O- and Fe-edge XANES) scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and FT-IR microspectroscopy was used to identify under high spatial resolution the distribution of clay-organic matter with different functionality using principal component and cluster analysis. The results show that in this old (Jurassic) geological formation, small parts of the organic inventory (1-5%) keeps the structure/functionality and can be mobilized as hydrophilic humic substance type material (HA and FA). Target spectra analysis shows best correlation for isolated humic acids with organics found in smectite-rich regions, whereas the extractable FA has better spectral similarities with the illite mixed layer minerals (MLM) regions. After radiation of 1.7 GGy under helium atmosphere the same rock sample area was investigated for radiation damage. Radiation damage in the smectite and illite-MLM associated organic matter is comparably low with 20-30% total oxygen mass loss and 13-18% total carbon mass loss. A critical dose dc of 2.5 GGy and a optical density after infinite radiation (OD?) of 54% was calculated under room temperature conditions. C(1s) XANES show a clear increase in Cdouble bond; length as m-dashC bonds especially in the illite-MLM associated organics. This results suggests a combination of the formation of Cdouble bond; length as m-dashC bond due to crosslinking via polymerization and mass loss due to bond breaking (scissioning) in the main chain or in side groups of the organic macromolecules upon irradiation.

  2. Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols, Natural Cirrus Clouds and Contrails: Broadband Optical Properties and Sensitivity Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Bingqi

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation aims to study the broadband optical properties and radiative effects of dust aerosols and ice clouds. It covers three main topics: the uncertainty of dust optical properties and radiative effects from the dust particle shape...

  3. Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols, Natural Cirrus Clouds and Contrails: Broadband Optical Properties and Sensitivity Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Bingqi

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation aims to study the broadband optical properties and radiative effects of dust aerosols and ice clouds. It covers three main topics: the uncertainty of dust optical properties and radiative effects from the dust particle shape...

  4. Transitional regimes of natural convection in a differentially heated cubical cavity under the effects of wall and molecular gas radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soucasse, L.; Rivière, Ph.; Soufiani, A., E-mail: anouar.soufiani@ecp.fr [CNRS, UPR 288, Laboratoire EM2C, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry (France); École Centrale Paris, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry (France)] [France; Xin, S. [CNRS/INSA-Lyon, UMR 5008, CETHIL, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)] [CNRS/INSA-Lyon, UMR 5008, CETHIL, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Le Quéré, P. [CNRS, UPR 3251, LIMSI, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)] [CNRS, UPR 3251, LIMSI, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to unsteadiness and the dynamics of weakly turbulent natural convection, coupled to wall or gas radiation in a differentially heated cubical cavity with adiabatic lateral walls, are studied numerically. The working fluid is air with small contents of water vapor and carbon dioxide whose infrared spectral radiative properties are modelled by the absorption distribution function model. A pseudo spectral Chebyshev collocation method is used to solve the flow field equations and is coupled to a direct ray tracing method for radiation transport. Flow structures are identified by means of either the proper orthogonal decomposition or the dynamic mode decomposition methods. We first retrieve the classical mechanism of transition to unsteadiness without radiation, characterized by counter-rotating streamwise-oriented vortices generated at the exit of the vertical boundary layers. Wall radiation through a transparent medium leads to a homogenization of lateral wall temperatures and the resulting transition mechanism is similar to that obtained with perfectly conducting lateral walls. The transition is due to an unstable stratification upstream the vertical boundary layers and is characterized by periodically oscillating transverse rolls of axis perpendicular to the main flow. When molecular gas radiation is accounted for, no periodic solution is found and the transition to unsteadiness displays complex structures with chimneys-like rolls whose axes are again parallel to the main flow. The origin of this instability is probably due to centrifugal forces, as suggested previously for the case without radiation. Above the transition to unsteadiness, at Ra = 3 × 10{sup 8}, it is shown that both wall and gas radiation significantly intensify turbulent fluctuations, decrease the thermal stratification in the core of the cavity, and increase the global circulation.

  5. Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas -BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas University began operating with natural gas, instead of the coal-fired generators of the coal that had been stockpiled, the Plant is running completely on natural gas

  6. Skyshine Contribution to Gamma Ray Background Between 0 and 4 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Allison L.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gamma-ray background is composed of four components; which include cosmic rays, cosmic ray produced atmospheric activity, terrestrial sources, and skyshine from terrestrial sources. Skyshine is radiation scattered from the air above a source that can produce a signal in radiation detection instrumentation. Skyshine has been studied for many years but its contribution to the natural background observed in a detector has not been studied. A large NaI(Tl) detector was used to investigate each of the four components of the natural background using a series of 48-hour measurements and appropriate lead shielding configured to discriminate contributions from each component. It was found that while the contribution from skyshine decreases rapidly with energy, it represents a significant portion of the background spectrum below ~500keV. A similar campaign of measurements using a HPGe detector is underway.

  7. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, J.A.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  8. Elimination of space debris and objects of natural origin by laser radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, V V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the application of ground-based repetitively pulsed, high-frequency DF-laser systems and space-based Nd : YAG-laser systems for elimination of space debris and objects of natural origin. We have estimated the average power level of such systems ensuring destruction of space debris and similar objects. (laser applications)

  9. Hubble diagrams of soft and hard radiation sources in the graviton background: to an apparent contradiction between supernova 1a and gamma-ray burst observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael A. Ivanov

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In the sea of super-strong interacting gravitons, non-forehead collisions with gravitons deflect photons, and this deflection may differ for soft and hard radiations. As a result, the Hubble diagram would not be a universal function and it will have a different view for such sources as supernovae in visible light and gamma-ray bursts. Observations of these two kinds are compared here with the limit cases of the Hubble diagram.

  10. Self-Calibration of Neutrino Detectors using characteristic Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachim Kopp; Manfred Lindner; Alexander Merle

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the possibility to use characteristic natural neutrino backgrounds, such as Geoneutrinos (\\bar{\

  11. Earth X-ray albedo for cosmic X-ray background radiation in the 1--1000 keV band

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Churazov; S. Sazonov; R. Sunyaev; M. Revnivtsev

    2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present calculations of the reflection of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) by the Earth's atmosphere in the 1--1000 keV energy range. The calculations include Compton scattering and X-ray fluorescent emission and are based on a realistic chemical composition of the atmosphere. Such calculations are relevant for CXB studies using the Earth as an obscuring screen (as was recently done by INTEGRAL). The Earth's reflectivity is further compared with that of the Sun and the Moon -- the two other objects in the Solar system subtending a large solid angle on the sky, as needed for CXB studies.

  12. A Search for a keV Signature of Radiatively Decaying Dark Matter with Suzaku XIS Observations of the X-ray Diffuse Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekiya, Norio; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed the deepest search for an X-ray emission line between 0.5 and 7 keV from non-baryonic dark matter with the Suzaku XIS. Dark matter associated with the Milky Way galaxy was selected as the target to obtain the best signal-to-noise ratio. From the Suzaku archive, we selected 187 data sets of blank sky regions which were dominated by the X-ray diffuse background. The data sets were from 2005 to 2013. Instrumental responses were adjusted by multiple calibration data sets of the Crab Nebula. We also improved the technique of subtracting lines of instrumental origin. These energy spectra were well described by X-ray emission due to charge exchange around the Solar System, hot plasma in and around the Milky Way and superposition of extra-galactic point sources. A signal of a narrow emission line was searched for, and the significance of detection was evaluated in consideration of the blind search method (the Look-elsewhere Effect). Our results exhibited no significant detection of an emission line featu...

  13. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  14. POLARIZATION OF THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubin, Philip Lubin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lett. 42 , 14, 925 (1979). Yariv, A. , Quantum Electronics (speeds through the ferrite (Yariv, 1967; Gurevich, 1960). As

  15. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

    2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  16. Change of Primary Cosmic Radiation Nuclear Conposition in the Energy Range $10^{15} - 10^{17}$ eV as a Result of the Interaction with the Interstellar Cold Background of Light Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. T. Barnaveli; T. T. Barnaveli Jr; N. A. Eristavi; I. V. Khaldeeva

    2003-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the updated arguments in favor of a simple model, explaining from the united positions all peculiarities of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadron E_h(E_0) (and muon E_mu(E_0)) component energy fluxes dependence on the primary particle energy E_0 in the primary energy region 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV are represented. These peculiarities have shapes of consequent distinct deeps of a widths dE_h/E_h of the order of 0.2 and of relative amplitudes dL/L of the order of {0.1 - 1.0}, and are difficult to be explained via known astrophysical mechanisms of particle generation and acceleration. In the basis of the model lies the destruction of the Primary Cosmic Radiation (PCR) nuclei on some monochromatic background of interstellar space, consisting of the light particles of the mass in the area of 36 eV (maybe the component of a dark matter). The destruction thresholds of PCR different nuclear components correspond to the peculiarities of E_h(E_0). In this work the results of the recent treatment of large statistical material are analyzed. The experimental results are in good agreement with the Monte-Carlo calculations carried out in the frames of the proposed model.

  17. Illuminating the background : topics in cosmic microwave background polarization research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nathan James

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results in electric dipole radiation. For an unpolarizedincom- ing radiation. Because the electric field oscillates,

  18. M2-Branes and Background Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil Lambert; Paul Richmond

    2009-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the coupling of multiple M2-branes to the background 3-form and 6-form gauge fields of eleven-dimensional supergravity, including the coupling of the Fermions. In particular we show in detail how a natural generalization of the Myers flux-terms, along with the resulting curvature of the background metric, leads to mass terms in the effective field theory.

  19. Measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of radiation hazard indices in soil samples at Pengerang, Kota Tinggi, Johor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Nur Nazihah; Khoo, Kok Siong [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Pengerang area consists of a mix of private plantation, individual residential lots and state land, which is leased for agriculture related activities. The analysis was conducted to determine the specific activity of the initial value and the radiation hazard indices in the surrounding area in Pengerang. This area will be developed into a major downstream for oil and gas. The aims of this preliminary study were 1) to determine the specific activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K of soil samples at six selected areas by Gamma-ray spectrometry and 2) to calculate the radiation hazard indices. The specific activities (Bq/kg) of the samples ranged from 7.08±5.01 to 36.29±25.72 Bq/kg, 5.62±3.98 to 34.53±24.07 Bq/kg, 4.75±3.42 to 24.76±17.66 Bq/kg and 10.58±7.51 to 101.25±72.00 Bq/kg for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K, respectively. These values were well within the range that reported by UNSCEAR. The study also examined the radiation hazard indices, the mean values obtained were 48.49±28.06 Bq/kg for Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq), 0.34 Bq/kg for Representative Level Index (I{sub ?}), 21.83 nGy/h for Absorbed dose rates (D), 0.27 mSv/y for Annual Effective Dose Rates (Deff), 0.13 and 0.18 for External Hazards Index (H{sub ex}) and Internal Hazard Index (H{sub in}), respectively. These calculated hazard indices were used to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rates associated with it were well below their permissible limit. The overall findings show that no radiological threat to the health of the population in the study area.

  20. Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

  1. David Smith Academic background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

  2. Microsoft External Research Backgrounder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    are undeniable. M icrosoft Research believes that collaboration between the public and private sectors, combined with the power of computing, can help researchers as they work to solve the most urgent challenges in medicine, Building the Future of Technology Microsoft External Research Backgrounder #12;The team promotes research

  3. Superluminal Velocity of Photons in a Gravitational Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. B. Khriplovich

    1994-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of radiative corrections on the photon propagation in a gravitational background is investigated without the low-frequency approximation $\\omega \\ll m$. The conclusion is made in this way that the velocity of light can exceed unity.

  4. Cosmological Rotation of Quantum-Mechanical Origin and Anisotropy of the Microwave Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. P. Grishchuk

    1993-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that rotational cosmological perturbations can be generated in the early Universe, similarly to gravitational waves. The generating mechanism is quantum-mechanical in its nature, and the created perturbations should now be placed in squeezed vacuum quantum states. The physical conditions under which the phenomenon can occur are formulated. The generated perturbations can contribute to the large-angular-scale anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation. An exact formula is derived for the angular correlation function of the temperature variations caused by the quantum-mechanically generated rotational perturbations. The multipole expansion begins from the dipole component. The comparison with the case of gravitational waves is made.

  5. Gravitational Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard F Schutz

    2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravity is one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and it is the dominant force in most astronomical systems. In common with all other phenomena, gravity must obey the principles of special relativity. In particular, gravitational forces must not be transmitted or communicated faster than light. This means that when the gravitational field of an object changes, the changes ripple outwards through space and take a finite time to reach other objects. These ripples are called gravitational radiation or gravitational waves. This article gives a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational radiation, including technical material suitable for non-specialist scientists.

  6. Quantum backgrounds and QFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jae-Suk Park; John Terilla; Thomas Tradler

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the concept of a quantum background and a functor QFT. In the case that the QFT moduli space is smooth formal, we construct a flat quantum superconnection on a bundle over QFT which defines algebraic structures relevant to correlation functions in quantum field theory. We go further and identify chain level generalizations of correlation functions which should be present in all quantum field theories.

  7. Calibrating cosmological radiative transfer simulations with Lyman alpha forest data: Evidence for large spatial UV background fluctuations at z ~ 5.6 - 5.8 due to rare bright sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chardin, Jonathan; Aubert, Dominique; Puchwein, Ewald

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calibrate here cosmological radiative transfer simulation with ATON/RAMSES with a range of measurements of the Lyman alpha opacity from QSO absorption spectra. We find the Lyman alpha opacity to be very sensitive to the exact timing of hydrogen reionisation. Models reproducing the measured evolution of the mean photoionisation rate and average mean free path reach overlap at z ~ 7 and predict an accelerated evolution of the Lyman alpha opacity at z > 6 consistent with the rapidly evolving luminosity function of Lyman alpha emitters in this redshift range. Similar to "optically thin" simulations our full radiative transfer simulations fail, however, to reproduce the high-opacity tail of the Lyman alpha opacity PDF at z > 5. We argue that this is due to spatial UV fluctuations in the post-overlap phase of reionisation on substantially larger scales than predicted by our source model, where the ionising emissivity is dominated by large numbers of sub-L* galaxies. We further argue that this suggests a signific...

  8. II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    2 II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar Monitoring Laboratory has operated a solar radiation monitoring network in the Pacific Northwest. The number of stations participat of utilities headed by the Eugene Water and Electric Board initiated the Re- gional Solar Radiation Monitoring

  9. Polarized Nature of Synchrotron Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, K.-J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Undulator [ 9], [10] Institute BESSY, NSLS HASYLAB, LUREPhoton Factory En ESRF BESSY A versatile version of the

  10. LTS Background - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home asLCLS Experimental RunProcedure Doc. ID:Background

  11. Determination and Mitigation of Precipitation Effects on Portal Monitor Gamma Background Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revis, Stephen

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to establish a correlation between precipitation and background gamma radiation levels at radiation portal monitors (RPM) deployed at various ports worldwide, and to devise a mechanism by which the effects...

  12. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James G. Bartlett

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is our richest source of cosmological information; the standard cosmological model was largely established thanks to study of the temperature anisotropies. By the end of the decade, the Planck satellite will close this important chapter and move us deeper into the new frontier of polarization measurements. Numerous ground--based and balloon--borne experiments are already forging into this new territory. Besides providing new and independent information on the primordial density perturbations and cosmological parameters, polarization measurements offer the potential to detect primordial gravity waves, constrain dark energy and measure the neutrino mass scale. A vigorous experimental program is underway worldwide and heading towards a new satellite mission dedicated to CMB polarization.

  13. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

  14. attenuates gamma radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Galactic interstellar radiation field, we calculate the attenuation of the very high energy gamma rays from the Galactic sources. The infra-red radiation background near the...

  15. Possible generation of $?$-ray laser by electrons wiggling in a background laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi-Ren Zhang

    2015-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of $\\gamma-$ray laser generation by the radiation of wiggling electrons in an usual background laser is discussed.

  16. Possible generation of $?$-ray laser by electrons wiggling in a background laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi-Ren Zhang

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of $\\gamma-$ray laser generation by the radiation of wiggling electrons in an usual background laser is discussed.

  17. Environmental radiation data report 80, October-December 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS). Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission products, and specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, stronthium, iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary sources.

  18. Environmental radiation data report 79, July-September 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS). Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission products, and specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, stronthium, iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary sources.

  19. Environmental radiation data report 81, January-March 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS). Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission products, and specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, stronthium, iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary sources.

  20. Environmental radiation data report 82, April-June 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS). Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission products, and specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, stronthium, iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary sources.

  1. Holographic Thermalization in Quark Confining Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Ageev; I. Ya. Aref'eva

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study holographic thermalization of a strongly coupled theory inspired by two colliding shock waves in a vacuum confining background. Holographic thermalization means a black hole formation, in fact a trapped surface formation. As a vacuum confining background we considered a well know bottom-up AdS/QCD model that provides the Cornell potential as well as reproduces QCD beta-function. We perturb vacuum background by colliding domain shock waves, that are assumed to be holographically dual to heavy ions collisions. Our main physical assumption is that we can make a restriction on the time of a trapped surface production that makes a natural limitation on the size of the domain where the trapped surface is produced. This limits the intermediate domain where the main part of the entropy is produced. In this domain one can use an intermediate vacuum background as an approximation to the full confining background. In this intermediate background a dependence of the produced entropy on colliding energy is very similar to the experimental dependence of particles multiplicities on colliding ions energy obtained from RHIC and LHC. This permits us to conclude that the entropy produced in collisions of domain shock waves during a short time models rather well the experimental data.

  2. Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Energy Information Administration Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production Background The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is adjusting its estimates of natural...

  3. Nonclassicality of Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars M. Johansen

    2004-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is demonstrated that thermal radiation of small occupation number is strongly nonclassical. This includes most forms of naturally occurring radiation. Nonclassicality can be observed as a negative weak value of a positive observable. It is related to negative values of the Margenau-Hill quasi-probability distribution.

  4. Dusty Infrared Galaxies: Sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guilaine Lagache; Jean-Loup Puget; Herve Dole

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) in 1996, together with recent cosmological surveys from the mid-infrared to the millimeter have revolutionized our view of star formation at high redshifts. It has become clear, in the last decade, that a population of galaxies that radiate most of their power in the far-infrared (the so-called ``infrared galaxies'') contributes an important part of the whole galaxy build-up in the Universe. Since 1996, detailed (and often painful) investigations of the high-redshift infrared galaxies have resulted in the spectacular progress covered in this review. We outline the nature of the sources of the CIB including their star-formation rate, stellar and total mass, morphology, metallicity and clustering properties. We discuss their contribution to the stellar content of the Universe and their origin in the framework of the hierarchical growth of structures. We finally discuss open questions for a scenario of their evolution up to the present-day galaxies.

  5. Analysis of alpha backgrounds in the DEAP-1 detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin S. Olsen

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEAP-1 is a 7 kg liquid argon dark matter detector used to prototype the tonne scale DEAP-3600 detector at SNOLAB.We present an analysis of the alpha particle backgrounds in DEAP-1 and isolate the radiations from various 222Rn daughters at various locations within the detector. The backgrounds will be removed by event position reconstruction and strict controls of material purity.

  6. Progress on stochastic background search codes for LIGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John T. Whelan; Warren G. Anderson; Martha Casquette; Mario C. Diaz; Ik Siong Heng; Martin McHugh; Joseph D. Romano; Charlie W. Torres Jr.; Rosa M. Trejo; Alberto Vecchio

    2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the types of signals for which the LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors will search is a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We review the technique of searching for a background using the optimally-filtered cross-correlation statistic, and describe the state of plans to perform such cross-correlations between the two LIGO interferometers as well as between LIGO and other gravitational-wave detectors, in particular the preparation of software to perform such data analysis.

  7. Convection induced by radiative cooling of a layer of participating medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasanna, Swaminathan, E-mail: prasannaswam@gmail.com [Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS UPR 288 92295, Chatenay-Malabry, France and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes 92295, Chatenay-Malabry (France)] [Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS UPR 288 92295, Chatenay-Malabry, France and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes 92295, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Venkateshan, S. P., E-mail: spv@iitm.ac.in [HTTP Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Madras, Chennai (India)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations and experiments have been conducted to study the effect of radiative cooling on natural convection in a horizontal layer of a participating medium enclosed between isothermal opaque wall and radiatively transparent wall and exposed to a cold background. The study is of relevance to a nocturnal boundary layer under clear and calm conditions. The focus of the study is to capture the onset of convection caused by radiative cooling. The experiments have been designed to mimic the atmospheric radiative boundary conditions, and hence decoupling convection and radiation boundary conditions. Planck number Pl and optical thickness of the layer ?{sub H} are the two important parameters that govern the interaction between radiation and convection. The radiation-convection coupling is a strong function of length scale. Convection sets up within first few seconds for all the experiments. Strong plume like convection is observed for the experimental conditions used in the present study. Both simulations and experiments confirm that radiative cooling increases substantially with decrease in emissivity of the bottom wall. Radiative cooling is strongly influenced by the nongray nature of the participating medium, especially when strong emission from the medium escapes to space, in the window region of the atmosphere. Accurate representation of radiative properties is critical. Linear stability analysis of onset of convection indicates that radiation stabilizes convection as Pl decreases. The observations are similar to the case of Rayleigh Bénard convection in a radiating gas. However, for both experimental and numerical conditions, the observed Rayleigh numbers are much greater than the critical Rayleigh number. To conclude, the role of radiation is to drive and sustain convection in the unstable layer.

  8. MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchberg, Howard

    MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil Hundreds of indigenous people demonstrated at the National Congress in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, following the announcement in the 1990s in the midst of extensive protests in Brazil and around the world. On February 8, an indigenous

  9. NNSA to Conduct Background Radiation Testing | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide Doc.5 R AOurBlog |National

  10. ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscoveringESnet Update Winter 2008 Joint

  11. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    build a facility in the Sandia Science & Technology Park (SS&TP) in 1998 for their Photovoltaics Division, which builds solar cells for the space industry. This division is built...

  12. Background:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    files in future will now work correctly with that setting. (back to TOC) Importing the SSL Certificate in MSIE7 on Windows Vista Connecting to a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) enabled...

  13. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intalco Plant in Ferndale, Washington. This Agreement obligates BPA to supply 300 MW of electric power to Alcoa's Intalco Plant for a term of nine years and nine months, from...

  14. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable energy sources are critical to the nation's future, and hydrogen-powered fuel cells offer an attractive alternative to current technologies. However, fuel cell...

  15. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    workers, airport maintenance personnel, and film crews use small, portable lighting systems known as "mobile lighting." Traditionally, mobile lighting units are powered...

  16. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas price forecast on the values of the secondary energy revenue credits, balancing power purchase expenses, augmentation expenses and 4(h)(10)(c) credits used when...

  17. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the meeting of short-term load. BPA will look continuously for marketing opportunities in power-related trading and financial transactions. BPA's objective will be to improve net...

  18. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solutions in the area to meet its space needs and increase employee efficiency and productivity For the past 10 years, BPA has provided work space for area employees through a...

  19. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the Bureau of Reclamation signed 10-year agreements - known as the Columbia Basin Fish Accords - with four Northwest tribes and two states on May 2, 2008. These historic...

  20. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PTPC's WTL given the relevant specific information about the load, outages, and load profile of PTPC. PTPC and Jefferson PUD are receiving no benefit other than that...

  1. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  2. Background

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  5. Background

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  6. Background

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade5-F,INITIAL JohnE P T E M B E

  7. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade5-F,INITIAL JohnE P T E M B EAGENCY

  8. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  9. Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling7111A Lithologic and Monitor

  10. Background

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR SEPARATION BYAbrasionAuthor

  11. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BES UserDOEprogramJ U LY 2Babbage

  12. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BES UserDOEprogramJ U LY 2Babbage

  13. Background:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historian ...BES UserDOEprogramJ U LY

  14. Chiral transition in a strong magnetic background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo S. Fraga; Ana Júlia Mizher

    2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of a strong magnetic background can modify the nature and the dynamics of the chiral phase transition at finite temperature. We compute the modified effective potential in the linear sigma model with quarks to one loop in the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme for $N_{f}=2$. For fields $eB\\sim 5 m_{\\pi}^{2}$ and larger a crossover is turned into a weak first-order transition. We discuss possible implications for non-central heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC, and for the primordial QCD transition.

  15. Low background counting at the LBNL low background facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Hurley, D. L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)] [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Wang, B. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to end-users in two unique facilities: locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory space; and a satellite underground station (600 m.w.e) in Oroville, CA. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic and anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via neutron activation analysis for specific applications. A general overview of the facilities, services, and capabilities will be discussed. Recent activities will also be presented, including the recent installation of a 3? muon veto at the surface facility, cosmogenic activation studies of TeO{sub 2} for CUORE, and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout.

  16. Gravitational Radiation From Cosmological Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Kosowsky; Andrew Mack; Tinatin Kahniashvili

    2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection of energy into the early Universe on a given characteristic length scale will result in turbulent motions of the primordial plasma. We calculate the stochastic background of gravitational radiation arising from a period of cosmological turbulence, using a simple model of isotropic Kolmogoroff turbulence produced in a cosmological phase transition. We also derive the gravitational radiation generated by magnetic fields arising from a dynamo operating during the period of turbulence. The resulting gravitational radiation background has a maximum amplitude comparable to the radiation background from the collision of bubbles in a first-order phase transition, but at a lower frequency, while the radiation from the induced magnetic fields is always subdominant to that from the turbulence itself. We briefly discuss the detectability of such a signal.

  17. Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

  18. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. G. Garza; S. Aune; D. Calvet; J. F. Castel; F. E. Christensen; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; T. Decker; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galán; J. A. García; I. Giomataris; R. M. Hill; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; A. C. Jakobsen; D. Jourde; H. Mirallas; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; J. Ruz; A. Tomás; T. Vafeiadis; J. K. Vogel

    2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  19. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Karin D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chu, Tun-Jen (Salt Lake City, UT); Pitt, William G. (Orem, UT)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  20. Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 3 Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds New physics is often discovered by pushing energies. With the current large mixing angle-MSW oscillation parameters, Borexino expects to observe 0.35 neutrino events per day per ton from 7Be in the energy window. Because there are so few events

  1. RPV stops bump off the background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Franceschini; Riccardo Torre

    2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the 8 TeV LHC reach on pair produced heavy flavored di-jet resonances. Motivated by theories of R-parity violation in supersymmetry we concentrate on a final state with two b-jets and two light jets. We exploit b-tagging to reject the background and discuss its importance at the trigger level to probe light stops. We present kinematical selections that can be used to isolate the signal as a bump in the mass distribution of the candidate resonances. We find that stops with R-parity violating couplings giving rise to fully hadronic final states can be observed in the current run of the LHC. Remarkably, the LHC can probe stop masses well within the range predicted by naturalness.

  2. BEDES Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWind Siting ArticlesAugust 2014Background BEDES

  3. Paducah Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732onMakeEducation ProgramsTourPPPO Website Directory|Background

  4. Portsmouth Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602Policy_Flash_2011-85__Attachment_2.pdfPollution PreventionBackground

  5. The Isotropic Radio Background and Annihilating Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Belikov, Alexander V. [Institut d'Astrophysique (France); Jeltema, Tesla E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Linden, Tim [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Profumo, Stefano [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations by ARCADE-2 and other telescopes sensitive to low frequency radiation have revealed the presence of an isotropic radio background with a hard spectral index. The intensity of this observed background is found to exceed the flux predicted from astrophysical sources by a factor of approximately 5-6. In this article, we consider the possibility that annihilating dark matter particles provide the primary contribution to the observed isotropic radio background through the emission of synchrotron radiation from electron and positron annihilation products. For reasonable estimates of the magnetic fields present in clusters and galaxies, we find that dark matter could potentially account for the observed radio excess, but only if it annihilates mostly to electrons and/or muons, and only if it possesses a mass in the range of approximately 5-50 GeV. For such models, the annihilation cross section required to normalize the synchrotron signal to the observed excess is sigma v ~ (0.4-30) x 10^-26 cm^3/s, similar to the value predicted for a simple thermal relic (sigma v ~ 3 x 10^-26 cm^3/s). We find that in any scenario in which dark matter annihilations are responsible for the observed excess radio emission, a significant fraction of the isotropic gamma ray background observed by Fermi must result from dark matter as well.

  6. Background sources and masks for Mark II detector at PEP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadyk, J.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The shielding masks currently at use in several of the current experiments at PEP are the result of an early organized effort to understand the sources of particle background expected at PEP, followed by the evolution of the conceptual designs into actual hardware. The degree and kind of background particle loading which could be tolerated was expected to differ significantly among the different experiments, and several designs emerged from the common study. Qualitatively, the types of radiations studied were, Synchrotron Radiation (SR), Beam Gas Bremsstrahlung (BGB), and, to a limited extent others, e.g., Electroproduction (EP). Calculations will be given of predicted occupancies in the pipe counter and other sensitive elements at small radius, since these will be most susceptible to the SR and BGB backgrounds. The calculations presented in this note are specific to the Mark II detector. Some general statements will be made first about the character of each of the various types of backgrounds considered, then some detailed calculations made for application to the Mark II detector.

  7. Generation of circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, Stephon; Ochoa, Joseph; Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041 (United States); Department of Physics, Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15208 (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard cosmological model, which includes only Compton scattering photon interactions at energy scales near recombination, results in zero primordial circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this paper we consider a particular renormalizable and gauge-invariant standard model extension coupling photons to an external vector field via a Chern-Simons term, which arises as a radiative correction if gravitational torsion couples to fermions. We compute the transport equations for polarized photons from a Boltzmann-like equation, showing that such a coupling will source circular polarization of the microwave background. For the particular coupling considered here, the circular polarization effect is always negligible compared to the rotation of the linear polarization orientation, also derived using the same formalism. We note the possibility that limits on microwave background circular polarization may probe other photon interactions and related fundamental effects such as violations of Lorentz invariance.

  8. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  9. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  10. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  11. RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel [Laboratoire de Mineralogie et Cosmochimie de Museum (LMCM), CNRS and Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7202, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris (France); Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: ejacquet@mnhn.fr, E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick 'adiabatic' regime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.

  12. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to! We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these radionuclides. We will then review some of the industrial sectors affected by TENORM, followed by a brief discussion on regulatory aspects of the issue.

  13. ISO and the Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herve Dole

    2002-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ISO observed, for the first time to such a high sensitivity level, the mid- and far-infrared universe. A Number of deep surveys were performed to probe the cosmological evolution of galaxies. In this review, I discuss and summarize results of mid-infrared ISOCAM and far-infrared ISOPHOT surveys, and show how our vision of the extragalactic infrared universe has become more accurate. In particular, ISO allowed us to resolve into sources a significant fraction of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) in the mid-infrared, and to probe a fainter population in the far-infrared with the detection of the CIB fluctuations. Together with other wavelength data sets, the nature of ISO galaxies is now in the process of being understood. I also show that the high quality of the ISO data put strong constraints on the scenarios of galaxy evolution. This induced a burst in the development of models, yielding to a more coherent picture of galaxy evolution. I finally emphasize the potential of the ISO data archive in the field of observational cosmology, and describe the next steps, in particular the forthcoming cosmological surveys to be carried out by SIRTF.

  14. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarkog, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Arkhipov, N.P. [Scientific and Technical Centre of the RIA `Pripyat` (Ukraine); Johansson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.

  15. Gravitational clustering in Static and Expanding Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Padmanabhan

    2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief summary of several topics in the study of gravitational many body problem is given. The discussion covers both static backgrounds (applicable to astrophysical systems) as well as clustering in an expanding background (relevant for cosmology)

  16. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  17. 22.01 Introduction to Ionizing Radiation, Fall 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coderre, Jeffrey A.

    Introduction to basic properties of ionizing radiations and their uses in medicine, industry, science, and environmental studies. Discusses natural and man-made radiation sources, energy deposition and dose calculations, ...

  18. Hawking radiation in moving plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. C. Garcia de Andrade

    2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Bi-metricity and Hawking radiation are exhibit in non-relativistic moving magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plasma medium generating two Riemannian effective spacetimes. The first metric is a flat metric although the speed of "light" is given by a time dependent signal where no Hawking radiation or effective black holes are displayed. This metric comes from a wave equation which the scalar function comes from the scalar potential of the background velocity of the fluid and depends on the perturbation of the magnetic background field. The second metric is an effective spacetime metric which comes from the perturbation of the background MHD fluid. This Riemann metric exhibits a horizon and Hawking radiation which can be expressed in terms of the background constant magnetic field. The effective velocity is given Alfven wave velocity of plasma physics. The effective black hole found here is analogous to the optical black hole in moving dielectrics found by De Lorenci et al [Phys. Rev. D (2003)] where bi-metricity and Hawking radiation in terms of the electric field are found.

  19. Terrestrial Background Reduction in RPM Systems by Direct Internal Shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Sean M.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Schweppe, John E.

    2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma-ray detection systems that are close to the earth or other sources of background radiation often require shielding, especially when trying to detect a relatively weak source. One particular case of interest that we address in this paper is that encountered by the Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) systems placed at border-crossing Ports of Entry (POE). These RPM systems are used to screen for illicit radiological materials, and they are often placed in situations where terrestrial background is large. In such environments, it is desirable to consider simple physical modifications that could be implemented to reduce the effects from background radiation without affecting the flow of traffic and the normal operation of the portal. Simple modifications include adding additional shielding to the environment, either inside or outside the apparatus. Previous work [2] has shown the utility of some of these shielding configurations for increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of gross-counting RPMs. Because the total cost for purchasing and installing RPM systems can be quite expensive, in the range of hundreds of thousands of dollars for each cargo-screening installation, these shielding variations may offer increases in detection capability for relatively small cost. Several modifications are considered here in regard to their real-world applicability, and are meant to give a general idea of the effectiveness of the schemes used to reduce background for both gross-counting and spectroscopic detectors. These scenarios are modeled via the Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code package [1] for ease of altering shielding configurations, as well as enacting unusual scenarios prior to prototyping in the field. The objective of this paper is to provide results representative of real modifications that could enhance the sensitivity of this, as well as the next generation of radiation detectors. The models used in this work were designed to provide the most general results for an RPM. These results are therefore presented as general guidance on what shielding configurations will be the most valuable for a generalized RPM, considered in light of their economic and geometric possibility in the real world.

  20. Tree level Leptogenesis from Kalb-Ramond Torsion Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. de Cesare; Nick E. Mavromatos; Sarben Sarkar

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of torsion in theories of quantum gravity is known to be well described by an axion-like field which couples to matter as well as to gravitation and radiation gauge fields. In this note we consider a particular kind of torsion, arising from the Kalb-Ramond antisymmetric tensor field that appears in the gravitational multiplet of string theory. We investigate the implications for leptogenesis. It is shown that leptogenesis can occur even at tree-level and with only one generation of right-handed Majorana neutrinos, due to CP and CPT violation introduced by the background geometry.

  1. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  2. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  3. Transition Radiation in QCD matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Djordjevic

    2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions a finite size QCD medium is created. In this paper we compute radiative energy loss to zeroth order in opacity by taking into account finite size effects. Transition radiation occurs on the boundary between the finite size medium and the vacuum, and we show that it lowers the difference between medium and vacuum zeroth order radiative energy loss relative to the infinite size medium case. Further, in all previous computations of light parton radiation to zeroth order in opacity, there was a divergence caused by the fact that the energy loss is infinite in the vacuum and finite in the QCD medium. We show that this infinite discontinuity is naturally regulated by including the transition radiation.

  4. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  5. alpha radiation influencia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  6. alpha radiation detection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  7. acute radiation exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  8. aircrew radiation exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  9. alpha radiation measuring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  10. Diagnostic applications of transient synchrotron radiation in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisch, N.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Kritz, A.H. (Hunter Coll., New York, NY (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient radiation, resulting from a brief, deliberate perturbation of the velocity distribution of superthermal tokamak electrons, can be more informative than the steady background radiation that is present in the absence of the perturbation. It is possible to define a number of interesting inverse problems, which exploit the two-dimensional frequency-time data of the transient radiation signal. 17 refs.

  11. Radiative ?(1S) decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    — wW~ ii~ ~ + v~ 1''&WV'' V 0.20 0.45 0.70 ~y ~ EBFA~ 0.95 l.20 FIG. 4. Energy spectrum (normalized to beam energy) for Y~y2(h+h ) event candidates, with continuum data and ex- pected background from Y~m 2(h +h ) overplotted. 40 30— ~ 20— LLI IO— hl...PHYSICAL REVIEW 0 VOLUME 41, NUMBER 5 Radiative T(lS) decays 1 MARCH 1990 R. Fulton, M. Hempstead, T. Jensen, D. R. Johnson, H. Kagan, R. Kass, F. Morrow, and J. Whitmore Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 W.-Y. Chen, J. Dominick, R. L. Mc...

  12. The cosmic X-ray and gamma-ray background from dark matter annihilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavala, Jesus; Slatyer, Tracy R; Loeb, Abraham; Springel, Volker

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Abridged) The extragalactic background light (EBL) observed at multiple wavelengths is a promising tool to probe the nature of dark matter since it might contain a significant contribution from gamma-rays produced promptly by dark matter annihilation. Additionally, the electrons and positrons produced in the annihilation give energy to the CMB photons to populate the EBL with X-rays and gamma-rays. We here create full-sky maps of the radiation from both of these contributions using the high-resolution Millennium-II simulation. We use upper limits on the contributions of unknown sources to the EBL to constrain the intrinsic properties of dark matter using a model-independent approach that can be employed as a template to test different particle physics models (including those with a Sommerfeld enhancement). These upper limits are based on observations spanning eight orders of magnitude in energy (from soft X-rays measured by CHANDRA to gamma-rays measured by Fermi), and on expectations for the contributions f...

  13. RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. OVERVIEW OF REGULATIONS, PROTECTION STANDARDS, AND RADIATION SAFETY ORGANIZATION.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 V. BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION PRINCIPLES

  14. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  15. Final Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement Background...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 17, 2014 Page 1 Final Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement Background and Need: This Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement describes how Bonneville Power...

  16. Solar Background Document 6 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    6.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Background Document 5 "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) Dams and Energy Sectors...

  17. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation

  18. CTF Surface Contamination and External Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 9 CTF Surface Contamination and External Backgrounds The preceding chapter included Contamination and External Backgrounds 424 it can do so), leading to a low-energy tail of events in the energy Runs 2300­2563 unless stated otherwise. #12;Chapter 9. CTF Surface Contamination and External

  19. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  1. Fractal Structure of Isothermal Lines and Loops on the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Lung-Yih

    Fractal Structure of Isothermal Lines and Loops on the Cosmic Microwave Background Naoki KOBAYASHI and the fractal structure is confirmed in the radiation temperature fluctuation. We estimate the fractal exponents, such as the fractal dimension De of the entire pattern of isothermal lines, the fractal dimension Dc of a single

  2. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  3. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  4. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  5. Gamma-Ray Bursts, Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays, and Cosmic Gamma-Ray Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomonori Totani

    1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may be the origin of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation observed in GeV range. It has theoretically been discussed that protons may carry a much larger amount of energy than electrons in GRBs, and this large energy can be radiated in TeV range by synchrotron radiation of ultra-high-energy protons (\\sim 10^{20} eV). The possible detection of GRBs above 10 TeV suggested by the Tibet and HEGRA groups also supports this idea. If this is the case, most of TeV gamma-rays from GRBs are absorbed in intergalactic fields and eventually form GeV gamma-ray background, whose flux is in good agreement with the recent observation.

  6. Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background from Exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ain, Anirban; Mitra, Sanjit

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent exoplanet surveys have predicted a very large population of planetary systems in our galaxy, more than one planet per star on the average, perhaps totalling about two hundred billion. These surveys, based on electro-magnetic observations, are limited to a very small neighbourhood of the solar system and the estimations rely on the observations of only a few thousand planets. On the other hand, orbital motions of planets around stars are expected to emit gravitational waves (GW), which could provide information about the planets not accessible to electro-magnetic astronomy. The cumulative effect of the planets, with periods ranging from few hours to several years, is expected to create a stochastic GW background (SGWB). We compute the characteristic GW strain of this background based on the observed distribution of planet parameters. We also show that the integrated extragalactic background is comparable or less than the galactic background at different frequencies. Our estimate shows that the net backg...

  7. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  8. Ablation Plume Dynamics in a Background Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoruso, Salvatore [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Schou, Joergen [Deparment of Photonics Engineering, Risoe Campus, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lunney, James G. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The expansion of a plume in a background gas of pressure comparable to that used in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been analyzed in terms of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM). This approach gives a relatively clear and simple description of the essential hydrodynamics during the expansion. The model also leads to an insightful treatment of the stopping behavior in dimensionless units for plumes and background gases of different atomic/molecular masses. The energetics of the plume dynamics can also be treated with this model. Experimental time-of-flight data of silver ions in a neon background gas show a fair agreement with predictions from the PM-model. Finally we discuss the validity of the model, if the work done by the pressure of the background gas is neglected.

  9. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  10. Fractal generation of textures and backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reuter, Kevin Duane

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FRACTAL GENERATION OF TEXTURES AND BACKGROUNDS A Thesis by KEVIN DUANE REUTER Subtnitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1999... Major Subject; Visualization Sciences FRACTAL GENERATION OF TEXTURES AND BACKGROUNDS A Thesis by KEVIN DUANE REUTER Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

  11. Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

  12. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)] [Geo-Environment and Resources Research Centre (CIGAR), Porto University, Faculty of Engineering - FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Meira Castro, Ana Cristina [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)] [School of Engineering Polytechnic of Porto - ISEP, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  13. Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloch, Jeffrey J. (Los Alamos, NM); Roussel-Dupre', Diane (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Barham W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

  14. Mimicking Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into lakes and rivers, and the impact different water management decisions could have. ?We?re trying to mimic nature,? said Dr. Jeff Arnold, research leader and agricultural engineer for the Grassland Soil and Water Research Laboratory in Temple, part..., director of Texas A&M University?s Spatial Sciences Laboratory and professor in the Departments of Ecosystem Science and MIMICKING NATURE Computer model helps manage nation?s, world?s waters #2; Management, and Biological and Agricultural Engineering...

  15. Naturalness redux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Fabbrichesi; Alfredo Urbano

    2015-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of naturalness, as originally conceived, refers only to the finite renormalization of the Higgs boson mass induced by the introduction of heavier states. In this respect, naturalness is still a powerful heuristic principle in model building beyond the standard model whenever new massive states are coupled to the Higgs field. The most compelling case is provided by the generation of neutrino masses. In this paper we confront this problem from a new perspective. The right-handed sector responsible for the seesaw mechanism---which introduces a large energy threshold above the electroweak scale---is made supersymmetric to comply with naturalness while the standard model is left unchanged and non-supersymmetric. Cancellations necessary to the naturalness requirement break down only at two loops, thus offering the possibility to increase the right-handed neutrino mass scale up to one order of magnitude above the usual values allowed by naturalness. If also the weak boson sector of the standard model is made supersymmetric, cancellations break down at three loops and the scale of new physics can be further raised. In the type-I seesaw, this implementation provides right-handed neutrino masses that are natural and at the same time large enough to give rise to baryogenesis (via leptogenesis). The model contains a dark matter candidate and distinctive new physics in the leptonic sector.

  16. Radiation of a neutral polarizable particle moving uniformly through a thermal radiation field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. V. Dedkov; A. A. Kyasov

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the properties of thermal electromagnetic radiation produced by a neutral polarizable nanoparticle moving with an arbitrary relativistic velocity in a heated vacuum background with a fixed temperature. We show that the particle in its own rest frame acquires the radiation temperature of vacuum, multiplied by a velocity-dependent factor, and then emits thermal photons predominantly in the forward direction. The intensity of radiation proves to be much higher than for the particle at rest. For metal particles with high energy, the ratio of emitted and absorbed radiation power is proportional to the Lorentz-factor squared.

  17. Entanglement from thermal black body radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Braun

    2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Two non--interacting quantum systems which couple to a common environment with many degrees of freedom initially in thermal equilibrium can become entangled due to the indirect interaction mediated through this heat bath. I examine here the dynamics of reservoir induced entanglement for a heat bath consisting of a thermal electro--magnetic radiation field, such as black body radiation or the cosmic microwave background, and show how the effect can be understood as result of an effective induced interaction.

  18. The visible Smith-Purcell radiation search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernow, R.C.; Kirk, H.G.; Ulc, S. Wang, X.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report here the results of an experiment at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to search for the production of visible radiation from the Smith-Purcell effect using a 3 MeV electron beam. After running the experiment under a variety of conditions we were unable to isolate a definite signal from Smith-Parcell effect. Any Smith-Purcell signal present in the measured radiation was less than 10% of the background signal.

  19. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goff, David R. (Star City, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interferring blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  20. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goff, D.R.; Notestein, J.E.

    1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interfering blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  1. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs.

  2. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutrinoless double beta (0???) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0??? decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ??} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and ? emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  3. Discussion on spin-flip synchrotron radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Bordovitsyn; V. S. Gushchina; A. N. Myagkii

    2001-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum spin-flip transitions are of great importance in the synchrotron radiation theory. For better understanding of the nature of this phenomenon, it is necessary to except the effects connected with the electric charge radiation from observation. This fact explains the suggested choice of the spin-flip radiation model in the form of radiation of the electric neutral Dirac-Pauli particle moving in the homogeneous magnetic field. It is known that in this case, the total radiation in the quantum theory is conditioned by spin-flip transitions. The idea is that spin-flip radiation is represented as a nonstationary process connected with spin precession. We shall shown how to construct a solution of the classical equation of the spin precession in the BMT theory having the exact solution of the Dirac-Pauli equation.Thus, one will find the connection of the quantum spin-flip transitions with classical spin precession.

  4. An upper bound from helioseismology on the stochastic background of gravitational waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel M. Siegel; Markus Roth

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The universe is expected to be permeated by a stochastic background of gravitational radiation of astrophysical and cosmological origin. This background is capable of exciting oscillations in solar-like stars. Here we show that solar-like oscillators can be employed as giant hydrodynamical detectors for such a background in the muHz to mHz frequency range, which has remained essentially unexplored until today. We demonstrate this approach by using high-precision radial velocity data for the Sun to constrain the normalized energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background around 0.11 mHz. These results open up the possibility for asteroseismic missions like CoRoT and Kepler to probe fundamental physics.

  5. Radiative heat transfer between dielectric bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs

    2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent development of a scanning thermal microscope (SThM) has led to measurements of radiative heat transfer between a heated sensor and a cooled sample down to the nanometer range. This allows for comparision of the known theoretical description of radiative heat transfer, which is based on fluctuating electrodynamics, with experiment. The theory itself is a macroscopic theory, which can be expected to break down at distances much smaller than 10-8m. Against this background it seems to be reasonable to revisit the known macroscopic theory of fluctuating electrodynamics and of radiative heat transfer.

  6. Perturbations of supertube in KK monopole background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yogesh K. Srivastava

    2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study perturbations of supertube in KK monopole background, at both DBI and supergravity levels. We analyse both NS1-P as well as D0-F1 duality frames and study different profiles. This illuminates certain aspects of bound states of KK monopoles with supertubes.

  7. The Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matias Zaldarriaga

    2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize the physical mechanism by which the Cosmic Microwave Background acquires a small degree of polarization. We discuss the imprint left by gravitational waves and the use of polarization as a test of the inflationary paradigm. We discuss some physical processes that affect the CMB polarization after recombination such as gravitational lensing and the reionization of the universe.

  8. EINSTEIN POLICY ON OUTSIDE PROFESSIONAL INCOME BACKGROUND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenny, Paraic

    EINSTEIN POLICY ON OUTSIDE PROFESSIONAL INCOME 1 BACKGROUND: The System of Appointments with the rules and regulations prescribed by the College of Medicine from time to time." The Albert Einstein to the management of professional fees or other outside income earned by individuals holding Einstein faculty

  9. UCHC Lockout/Tagout Policy Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    UCHC Lockout/Tagout Policy (4/09) Background: This safety policy is applicable to all Health Center: Lockout will be utilized for equipment which is designed with a lockout capability. A valve that can be locked out with a chain is considered as having a lockout capability. Only the Office of Research Safety

  10. 2013 National Geothermal Student Competition Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrington, Emily

    1 2013 National Geothermal Student Competition Background: The 2013 National Geothermal Student, is designed to advance the understanding of geothermal energy as a valued resource by promoting innovation to engage students in a collaborative exercise to develop a business plan for developing a geothermal

  11. Background field method and nonrelativistic QED matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jong-Wan Lee; Brian C. Tiburzi

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the resolution of an inconsistency between lattice background field methods and nonrelativistic QED matching conditions. In particular, we show that lack of on-shell conditions in lattice QCD with time-dependent background fields generally requires that certain operators related by equations of motion should be retained in an effective field theory to correctly describe the behavior of Green's functions. The coefficients of such operators in a nonrelativistic hadronic theory are determined by performing a robust nonrelativistic expansion of QED for relativistic scalar and spin-half hadrons including nonminimal electromagnetic couplings. Provided that nonrelativistic QED is augmented with equation-of-motion operators, we find that the background field method can be reconciled with the nonrelativistic QED matching conditions without any inconsistency. We further investigate whether nonrelativistic QED can be employed in the analysis of lattice QCD correlation function in background fields, but we are confronted with difficulties. Instead, we argue that the most desirable approach is a hybrid one which relies on a relativistic hadronic theory with operators chosen based on their relevance in the nonrelativistic limit. Using this hybrid framework, we obtain practically useful forms of correlation functions for scalar and spin-half hadrons in uniform electric and magnetic fields.

  12. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Connor, Rory

    1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background This thesis describes a multi-agent based architecture of the research and an outline plan for the rest of this thesis complete the chapter. 1.2 Software Project and monitor progress to check the development is on time and within budget. #12;3 1.3 Software Project

  13. 1 Introduction 1.1 Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stølen, Ketil

    #12;#12;3 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Research method is a relevant topic to anybody performing. 1.2 Classical Research, Technology and Technology Research The term research is defined in several different ways. According to Merriam-Webster [1], research is "investigation or experimentation aimed

  14. Background Material Important Questions about Magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Background Material Important Questions about Magnetism: 1) What is Magnetism?Magnetism is a force or repulsion due to charge is called the electric force. But what about magnetism, is there a fundamental property of some matter that makes things magnetic? The answer is: "sort of." Electric current

  15. Background and Motivation Biomass derived syngas contains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Background and Motivation · Biomass derived syngas contains: CO, H2, small hydrocarbons, H2S shown to be effective for syngas conditioning 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0 1 2 3 Co2+(molm-2

  16. Yale ME Turbine Test cell instructions Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    Yale ME Turbine Test cell instructions Background: The Turbine Technologies Turbojet engine of the turbine and check a few items: o Open keyed access door on rear of Turbine enclosure o Check Jet A fuel valve ­ turn on, (Drain water separator if turbine has not been run in the last week,) check pressure

  17. Natural Predator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 10 Natural Predator Story by Kathy Wythe Natural Predator Foreign beetle shows promise for controlling saltcedar In the northern part of the Texas Panhandle andalong the West Texas banks of the Colorado andPecos rivers, Texas... scientists are successfully intro- ducing a foreign beetle to help control an invasive and exotic water-thirsty plant. Saltcedar, or Tamarix, was introduced to the western United States in the 1800s from central Asia as an ornamental tree and planted...

  18. Holographic backgrounds from D-brane probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micha Moskovic

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the derivation of holographic backgrounds from the field theory side, without using any supergravity equations of motion. Instead, we rely on the addition of probe D-branes to the stack of D-branes generating the background. From the field theory description of the probe branes, one can compute an effective action for the probes (in a suitable low-energy/near-horizon limit) by integrating out the background branes. Comparing this action with the generic probe D-brane action then allows to determine the holographic background dual to the considered field theory vacuum. In the first part, the required pre-requisites of field and string theory are recalled and this strategy to derive holographic backgrounds is explained in more detail on the basic case of D3-branes in flat space probed by a small number of D-instantons. The second part contains our original results, which have already appeared in arXiv:1301.3738, arXiv:1301.7062 and arXiv:1312.0621. We first derive the duals to three continuous deformations (Coulomb branch, $\\beta$ and non-commutative deformations) of N=4 super-Yang-Mills. We then derive the enhan\\c{c}on mechanism in a simple N=2 quiver gauge theory setup by using a fractional D-instanton as a probe and exploiting recent exact results on the Coulomb branch of N=2 quivers. Finally, we obtain the near-horizon D4-brane geometry by probing the D4-branes with a small number of D0-branes.

  19. Radiation back reaction on moving branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian G. Moss; James P Norman

    2004-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the radiation back reaction problem for cosmological branes. A general framework is provided in which results are given for the radiation reaction with massles and massive scalar fields with flat extra dimensions and massless conformal fields in anti-de Sitter extra dimensions. For massless scalar field radiation the back reaction terms in the equation of motion are non-analytic. The interpretation of the radiation reaction terms is discussed and the equations of motion solved in simple cases. Nucleosynthesis bounds on dark radiation give a lower bound on the string vacuum energy scale of $\\sqrt{A_T} m_p$, where $A_T$ is the tensor perturbation amplitude in the cosmic microwave background.

  20. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  1. The photonuclear neutron and gamma-ray backgrounds in the fast ignition experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arikawa, Y.; Nagai, T.; Hosoda, H.; Abe, Y.; Kojima, S.; Fujioka, S.; Sarukura, N.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka Suita (Japan); Ozaki, T. [National Institution Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki-city, Gifu (Japan)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fast-ignition scheme, very hard x-rays (hereinafter referred to as {gamma}-rays) are generated by Bremsstrahlung radiation from fast electrons. Significant backgrounds were observed around the deuterium-deuterium fusion neutron signals in the experiment in 2010. In this paper the backgrounds were studied in detail, based on Monte Carlo simulations, and they were confirmed to be {gamma}-rays from the target, scattered {gamma}-rays from the experimental bay walls ({gamma}{sup Prime }-rays), and neutrons generated by ({gamma}, n) reactions in either the target vacuum chamber or the diagnostic instruments ({gamma}-n neutrons).

  2. Real-Time Active Cosmic Neutron Background Reduction Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron counting using large arrays of pressurized 3He proportional counters from an aerial system or in a maritime environment suffers from the background counts from the primary cosmic neutrons and secondary neutrons caused by cosmic ray?induced mechanisms like spallation and charge-exchange reaction. This paper reports the work performed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Andrews (RSL-A) and results obtained when using two different methods to reduce the cosmic neutron background in real time. Both methods used shielding materials with a high concentration (up to 30% by weight) of neutron-absorbing materials, such as natural boron, to remove the low-energy neutron flux from the cosmic background as the first step of the background reduction process. Our first method was to design, prototype, and test an up-looking plastic scintillator (BC-400, manufactured by Saint Gobain Corporation) to tag the cosmic neutrons and then create a logic pulse of a fixed time duration (~120 ?s) to block the data taken by the neutron counter (pressurized 3He tubes running in a proportional counter mode). The second method examined the time correlation between the arrival of two successive neutron signals to the counting array and calculated the excess of variance (Feynman variance Y2F)1 in the neutron count distribution from Poisson distribution. The dilution of this variance from cosmic background values ideally would signal the presence of man-made neutrons.2 The first method has been technically successful in tagging the neutrons in the cosmic-ray flux and preventing them from being counted in the 3He tube array by electronic veto—field measurement work shows the efficiency of the electronic veto counter to be about 87%. The second method has successfully derived an empirical relationship between the percentile non-cosmic component in a neutron flux and the Y2F of the measured neutron count distribution. By using shielding materials alone, approximately 55% of the neutron flux from man-made sources like 252Cf or Am-Be was removed.

  3. Evaluation of commercial ADC radiation tolerance for accelerator experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai Chen; Hucheng Chen; James Kierstead; Helio Takai; Sergio Rescia; Xueye Hu; Hao Xu; Joseph Mead; Francesco Lanni; Marena Minelli

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronic components used in high energy physics experiments are subjected to a radiation background composed of high energy hadrons, mesons and photons. These particles can induce permanent and transient effects that affect the normal device operation. Ionizing dose and displacement damage can cause chronic damage which disable the device permanently. Transient effects or single event effects are in general recoverable with time intervals that depend on the nature of the failure. The magnitude of these effects is technology dependent with feature size being one of the key parameters. Analog to digital converters are components that are frequently used in detector front end electronics, generally placed as close as possible to the sensing elements to maximize signal fidelity. We report on radiation effects tests conducted on 17 commercially available analog to digital converters and extensive single event effect measurements on specific twelve and fourteen bit ADCs that presented high tolerance to ionizing dose. Mitigation strategies for single event effects (SEE) are discussed for their use in the large hadron collider environment.

  4. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  5. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  6. Sideband Mixing in Intense Laser Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Lavelle; David McMullan

    2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron propagator in a laser background has been shown to be made up of a series of sideband poles. In this paper we study this decomposition by analysing the impact of the residual gauge freedom in the Volkov solution on the sidebands. We show that the gauge transformations do not alter the location of the poles. The identification of the propagator from the two-point function is maintained but we show that the sideband structures mix under residual gauge transformations.

  7. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  8. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  9. 1. BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES For geological carbon sequestration, it is essential to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES · For geological carbon sequestration, it is essential to understand Material Characterization for Intermediate-scale Testing to Develop Strategies for Geologic Sequestration to generate comprehensive data sets. Due to the nature of the CO2 geological sequestration where supercritical

  10. Method for increased sensitivity of radiation detection and measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. Reduced background is accomplished by more thorough annealing and enhanced radiation induced luminescence is obtained by treating the crystalline material to coalesce primary damage centers into secondary damage centers.

  11. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  12. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W. (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  13. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Mandal, Krishna C. (Ashland, MA)

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  14. Efficient natural defense mechanisms against Listeria monocytogenes in T and B cell-deficient allogeneic bone marrow radiation chimeras. Preactivated macrophages are the main effector cells in an early phase after bone marrow transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roesler, J.; Groettrup, E.B.; Baccarini, M.; Lohmann-Mattes, M.L. (Fraunhofer-Institut ITA, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation chimeras in the early phase after bone marrow transplantation are a good model to study the efficiency of the body's nonspecific defense system represented by macrophages (M phi), polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and NK cells. These cell types are present in large numbers in spleen and liver at that time, whereas the specific immune system represented by T and B cells is functionally deficient. We previously reported enhanced activities in vitro of M phi (and PMN) from recipient animals in an early phase after allogeneic bone marrow transfer. We here demonstrate that these activities result in enhanced spontaneous resistance against Listeria monocytogenes in vivo: CFU of L. monocytogenes in spleen and liver 48 h after infection were about 1 or 2 to 4 log steps less than in untreated control mice of donor or host haplotype. This enhanced resistance decreased over the 4-mo period after marrow transfer. Preactivated M phi were identified as the most important effector cells. Isolated from spleen and peritoneal cavity, they performed enhanced killing of phagocytosed Listeria. Such preactivated M phi occurred in recipient animals after transfer of allogeneic but not of syngeneic bone marrow. The precise mechanism of M phi activation in the allogeneic radiation chimera in the complete absence of any detectable T cell function is not clear at present. However, these preactivated M phi display an important protective effect against L. monocytogenes: chimeras could eliminate Listeria without acquisition of positive delayed-type sensitivity when infected with 10(3) bacteria. An inoculum of 5 . 10(3) L. monocytogenes resulted either in prolonged survival compared with normal mice of the recipient haplotype or in definitive survival accompanied by a positive delayed-type sensitivity.

  15. Split SUSY Radiates Flavor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Baumgart; Daniel Stolarski; Thomas Zorawski

    2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  16. System for determining the type of nuclear radiation from detector output pulse shape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William H. (Columbia, MO); Berliner, Ronald R. (Columbia, MO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detection system determines the type of nuclear radiation received in a detector by producing a correlation value representative of the statistical cross correlation between the shape of the detector signal and pulse shape data previously stored in memory and characteristic of respective types of radiation. The correlation value is indicative of the type of radiation. The energy of the radiation is determined from the detector signal and is used to produce a spectrum of radiation energies according to radiation type for indicating the nature of the material producing the radiation.

  17. System for determining the type of nuclear radiation from detector output pulse shape

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.H.; Berliner, R.R.

    1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detection system determines the type of nuclear radiation received in a detector by producing a correlation value representative of the statistical cross correlation between the shape of the detector signal and pulse shape data previously stored in memory and characteristic of respective types of radiation. The correlation value is indicative of the type of radiation. The energy of the radiation is determined from the detector signal and is used to produce a spectrum of radiation energies according to radiation type for indicating the nature of the material producing the radiation. 2 figs.

  18. environmental management radiation protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    EHS environmental management biosafety radiation protection industrial hygiene safety Working: Biosafety, Environmental Management, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection and Safety. Each specialized Management Program, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection Program, and the Safety Program. (http

  19. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (NewSons, Inc. from "Radiation Detection and Measurement," G. F.

  20. An Analysis of Universality in Blackbody Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Marie Robitaille

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the formulation of his law of thermal emission, Kirchhoff conferred upon blackbody radiation the quality of universality [G.Kirchhoff, Annalen der Physik 109, 275 (1860)]. Consequently, modern physics holds that such radiation is independent of the nature and shape of the emitted object. Recently, Kirchhoff's experimental work and theoretical conclusions have been reconsidered [P.M.L. Robitaille, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 31(6), 1263 (2003). In this work, Einstein's derivation of the Planckian relation is reexamined. It is demonstrated that claims of universality in blackbody radiation are invalid.

  1. Superconducting Hair on Charged Black String Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukasz Nakonieczny; Marek Rogatko

    2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Behaviour of Dirac fermions in the background of a charged black string penetrated by an Abelian Higgs vortex is elaborated. One finds the evidence that the system under consideration can support fermion fields acting like a superconducting cosmic string in the sence that a nontrivial Dirac fermion field can be carried by the system in question. The case of nonextremal and extremal black string vortex systems were considered. The influence of electric and Higgs charge, the winding number and the fermion mass on the fermion localization near the black string event horizon was studied. It turned out that the extreme charged black string expelled fermion fields more violently comparing to the nonextremal one.

  2. alpha-radiation construction calibration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  3. antibody-guided alpha radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  4. Courses on Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation The following is an incomplete list of courses on Synchrotron Radiation. For additional courses, check lightsources.org. XAFS School The APS XAFS School...

  5. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  6. Radiation Control (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

  7. Cooling Limits on Galaxy Formation; Gas dynamical simulations incorporating a background UV field and metal enrichment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Hultman; Daniel Kaellander

    1997-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of galaxies in the mass range 10^9 - 10^13 solar masses, with the focus on the efficiency of gas cooling. The effect of a background UV radiation field, and the effect of metal enrichment of halo gas due to star formation and stellar evolution, are investigated. A background radiation field is found to strongly suppress the formation of galaxies with circular velocities less than approximately 50 km/s. The effect is, however, not large enough to reconcile hierarchical clustering models with observations. Metal enrichment of the halo gas increases the cooling rate at low redshifts. We find that the mass fraction of gas at virial temperatures may be reduced by a factor of two, in simulations with a UV background field added. The decrease in overall efficiency of gas cooling due to the inclusion of a UV background field can be more than compensated for by the increased cooling that follows metal enrichment of halo gas, but the effect may depend strongly on the assumed model of metal enrichment.

  8. The Nature of Light............................................................................ 3 Standing Wave Demonstration from Project Learn.................................... 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Table of Content The Nature of Light of Light......................................................................... 9 Blue Skies and Red.............................................................................. 34 Light, Climate and Earth's Radiation Budget.......................................... 35 Looking

  9. The Gravitational Wave Background From Coalescing Compact Binaries: A New Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evangelista, E F D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational waves are perturbations in the spacetime that propagate at the speed of light. The study of such phenomenon is interesting because many cosmological processes and astrophysical objects, such as binary systems, are potential sources of gravitational radiation and can have their emissions detected in the near future by the next generation of interferometric detectors. Concerning the astrophysical objects, an interesting case is when there are several sources emitting in such a way that there is a superposition of signals, resulting in a smooth spectrum which spans a wide range of frequencies, the so-called stochastic background. In this paper, we are concerned with the stochastic backgrounds generated by compact binaries (i.e. binary systems formed by neutron stars and black holes) in the coalescing phase. In particular, we obtain such backgrounds by employing a new method developed in our previous studies.

  10. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, 225 North Ave NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Steiger, R. von [International Space Science Institute, Hallerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments.

  11. High redshift AGNs and HI reionisation: limits from the unresolved X-ray background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haardt, Francesco

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapidly declining population of bright quasars at z~3 appears to make an increasingly small contribution to the ionising background at the HI Lyman limit. It is then generally though that massive stars in (pre-)galactic systems may provide the additional ionising flux needed to complete HI reionisation by z>6. A galaxy dominated background, however, may require that the escape fraction of Lyman continuum radiation from high redshift galaxies is as high as 10%, a value somewhat at odds with (admittedly scarce) observational constraints. High escape fractions from dwarf galaxies have been advocated, or, alternatively, a so-far undetected (or barely detected) population of unobscured, high-redshift faint AGNs. Here we question the latter hypothesis, and show that such sources, to be consistent with the measured level of the unresolved X-ray background at z=0, can provide a fraction of the HII filling factor not larger than 13% by z=6. The fraction rises to 10%.

  12. Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: Qualitative features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghiglieri, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of physical processes ranging from microscopic particle collisions to macroscopic hydrodynamic fluctuations, any plasma in thermal equilibrium emits gravitational waves. For the largest wavelengths the emission rate is proportional to the shear viscosity of the plasma. In the Standard Model at T > 160 GeV, the shear viscosity is dominated by the most weakly interacting particles, right-handed leptons, and is relatively large. We estimate the order of magnitude of the corresponding spectrum of gravitational waves. Even though at small frequencies (corresponding to the sub-Hz range relevant for planned observatories such as eLISA) this background is tiny compared with that from non-equilibrium sources, the total energy carried by the high-frequency part of the spectrum is non-negligible if the production continues for a long time. We suggest that this may constrain (weakly) the highest temperature of the radiation epoch. Observing the high-frequency part directly sets a very ambitious goal for future ge...

  13. Spherical Shell Cosmological Model and Uniformity of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Considered is spherical shell as a model for visible universe and parameters that such model must have to comply with the observable data. The topology of the model requires that motion of all galaxies and light must be confined inside a spherical shell. Consequently the observable universe cannot be defined as a sphere centered on the observer, rather it is an arc length within the volume of the spherical shell. The radius of the shell is 4.46 $\\pm$ 0.06 Gpc, which is for factor $\\pi$ smaller than radius of a corresponding 3-sphere. However the event horizon, defined as the arc length inside the shell, has the size of 14.0 $\\pm$ 0.2 Gpc, which is in agreement with the observable data. The model predicts, without inflation theory, the isotropy and uniformity of the CMB. It predicts the correct value for the Hubble constant $H_0$ = 67.26 $\\pm$ 0.90 km/s/Mpc, the cosmic expansion rate $H(z)$, and the speed of the event horizon in agreement with observations. The theoretical suport for shell model comes from general relativity, curvature of space by mass, and from holographic principle. The model explains the reason for the established discrepancy between the non-covariant version of the holographic principle and the calculated dimensionless entropy $(S/k)$ for the visible universe, which exceeds the entropy of a black hole. The model is in accordance with the distribution of radio sources in space, type Ia data, and data from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field optical and near-infrared survey.

  14. A New Upper Limit on the Large Angular Scale Polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timbie, Peter

    , dark matter, and dark energy to the overall energy density of the universe. In addition to being of a new breed of highly-sensitive instruments that will one day map out this interesting property knowledge, Brian Keat- ing, also deserves much credit. Thanks to him I have finally memorized the radiometer

  15. Subject Heading: Cosmic Background Radiation - Cosmology LARGE-ANGULAR-SCALE ANISOTROPY IN THE COSMIC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure of All-Polymer. . ~0s ALAMOSStudyingRecovery

  16. Collective neutrino oscillations in turbulent backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Giles; Adams, Jenni; Seunarine, Suruj [University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a Kolmogorov turbulence model, we investigate the effects of fluctuations in matter and neutrino density in the region near a supernova core on the flavor oscillations of neutrinos emitted in the core collapse in a single-angle, two-flavor approximation. Deviation from a smooth background neutrino density causes significant alterations in the final flavor state of the neutrino ensemble after 400 km, but even very large fluctuations in the matter density do not strongly affect the state of the neutrinos after the collective phase. In both cases, there is a strong effect on the neutrino flavor evolution at intermediate radii, with the flavor evolution becoming much more chaotic. The effect of fluctuations also depends strongly on the initial neutrino spectra. We conclude that the true neutrino fluxes arriving at Earth from core-collapse supernova could differ considerably from predictions of neutrino fluxes based on approximate models with smoothly decreasing matter and neutrino densities.

  17. Environmental monitoring for nuclear safeguards. Background paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assure that states are not violating their Non-Proliferation Treaty commitments, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must verify that states do not possess convert nuclear facilities-a mission that prior to the 1991 Gulf War, it had neither the political backing nor the resources to conduct. The IAEA recognizes the importance of this new mission and is in the process of assuming it. One of the tools it is exploring to provide some indication of the presence of secret, or undeclared, nuclear activities and facilities is environmental monitoring. Modern sampling and analysis technologies provide powerful tools to detect the presence of characteristic substances that are likely to be emitted by such illicit activities. This background paper examines the prospects for such technologies to improve nuclear safeguards. It concludes that environmental monitoring can greatly increase the ability to detect undeclared activity at declared, or known, sites, and it can significantly increase the chances of detecting and locating undeclared sites.

  18. Natural Systems & Climate Change: Strategies for Our Future Background and Discussion Questions for Attendees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    of tangible and innovative case studies across California's landscape that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG. It will build on the morning case studies panel and address policy opportunities arising from AB 32 cap greenhouse gases and the risks posed by a changing climate. Panel One Making It Real: Climate Action Case

  19. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire Solar541,9337, 2011 at3,Neutron Scattering3

  20. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  1. Impact of background flow on dissolution trapping of carbon dioxide injected into saline aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapaka, Saikiran

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While there has been a large interest in studying the role of dissolution-driven free convection in the context of geological sequestration, the contribution of forced convection has been largely ignored. This manuscript considers CO$_2$ sequestration in saline aquifers with natural background flow and uses theoretical arguments to compute the critical background velocity needed to establish the forced convective regime. The theoretical arguments are supported by two dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations which demonstrate the importance of forced convection in enhancing dissolution in aquifers characterised by low Rayleigh numbers.

  2. The Majorana experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. G. Phillips II; E. Aguayo; F. T. Avignone III; H. O. Back; A. S. Barabash; M. Bergevin; F. E. Bertrand; M. Boswell; V. Brudanin; M. Busch; Y. -D. Chan; C. D. Christofferson; J. I. Collar; D. C. Combs; R. J. Cooper; J. A. Detwiler; P. J. Doe; Y. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; S. R. Elliott; J. Esterline; J. E. Fast; N. Fields; P. Finnerty; F. M. Fraenkle; V. M. Gehman; G. K. Giovanetti; M. P. Green; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusey; A. L. Hallin; R. Hazama; R. Henning; A. Hime; E. W. Hoppe; M. Horton; S. Howard; M. A. Howe; R. A. Johnson; K. J. Keeter; C. Keller; M. F. Kidd; A. Knecht; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; B. LaFerriere; B. H. LaRoque; J. Leon; L. E. Leviner; J. C. Loach; S. MacMullin; M. G. Marino; R. D. Martin; D. -M. Mei; J. Merriman; M. L. Miller; L. Mizouni; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; N. R. Overman; A. W. P. Poon; G. Perumpilly; G. Prior; D. C. Radford; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; M. C. Ronquest; A. G. Schubert; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; K. J. Snavely; D. Steele; J. Strain; K. Thomas; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; I. Vanyushin; R. L. Varner; K. Vetter; K. Vorren; J. F. Wilkerson; B. A. Wolfe; E. Yakushev; A. R. Young; C. -H. Yu; V. Yumatov; C. Zhang

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana experiment, known as the Demonstrator, will house 40 kg of Ge in an ultra-low background shielded environment at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The objective of the Demonstrator is to determine whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a narrow region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay peak.

  3. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, D.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keller, C.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana Experiment, known as the Demonstrator, will house 40 kg of Ge in an ultra-low background shielded environment at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The objective of the Demonstrator is to validate whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a narrow region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay peak.

  4. Hadronic Radiation Patterns in Vector Boson Fusion Higgs Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Khoze; W. J. Stirling; P. H. Williams

    2003-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the hadronic radiation patterns for the generic process of bb + 2 forward jet production at the LHC, where the (centrally produced) bb originate either from a Higgs, a Z or from standard QCD production processes. A numerical technique for evaluating the radiation patterns for non-trivial final states is introduced and shown to agree with the standard analytic results for more simple processes. Significant differences between the radiation patterns for the Higgs signal and the background processes are observed and quantified. This suggests that hadronic radiation patterns could be used as an additional diagnostic tool in Higgs searches in this channel at the LHC.

  5. Method for detecting moisture in soils using secondary cosmic radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth

    2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water content in a soil is determined by measuring the attenuation of secondary background cosmic radiation as this radiation propagates through a layer of soil and water. By measuring the attenuation of secondary cosmic radiation in the range of 5 MeV-15 MeV it is possible to obtain a relative measure of the water content in a soil layer above a suitable radiation detector and thus establish when and how much irrigation is needed. The electronic circuitry is designed so that a battery pack can be used to supply power.

  6. Nonclassical Radiation from a Single Quantum Dot P. Michler1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buratto, Steve

    Nonclassical Radiation from a Single Quantum Dot P. Michler1 ) (a, b), A. Imamoglu (a), A. Kiraz (a nature of radiation and provides direct evi- dence that the emission source is a single two-level quantum of a single atom in an atomic beam [1] and from a single ion which has been stored in a radiofrequency trap [2

  7. Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib Electro-Magnetic Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habib, Ayman

    Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 1 Chapter 2 Electro-Magnetic Radiation #12;Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 2 Elements of Remote Sensing #12;Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 3 Chapter 2 Radiation: nature & source #12;Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 4 Chapter 2 Interaction with the atmosphere #12;Remote Sensing

  8. Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib Electro-Magnetic Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habib, Ayman

    Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 1 Chapter 2 Electro-Magnetic Radiation Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 2 Elements of Remote Sensing #12;Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 3 Chapter 2 Radiation: nature & source Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 4 Chapter 2 Interaction with the atmosphere #12;Remote Sensing Ayman

  9. Personal Background andPersonal Background and AreasAreas ofof InterestInterest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boehning, Dankmar

    General Topics CurrentCurrent AreasAreas ofof InterestInterest ResearchResearch AreasAreas inin Preperation InterestInterest ResearchResearch AreasAreas inin PreperationPreperation #12;Personal BackgroundHistory BesidesBesides cooperatingcooperating inin severalseveral projectsprojects in SEin SE AsiaAsia oneone

  10. Quantized black holes, their spectrum and radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khriplovich, I. B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: khriplovich@inp.nsk.su

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Under quite natural general assumptions, the following results are obtained. The maximum entropy of a quantized surface is demonstrated to be proportional to the surface area in the classical limit. The general structure of the horizon spectrum is found. In the special case of loop quantum gravity, the value of the Barbero-Immirzi parameter is found. The discrete spectrum of thermal radiation of a black hole fits the Wien profile. The natural widths of the lines are much smaller than the distances between them. The total intensity of the thermal radiation is estimated. If the density of quantized primordial black holes is close to the present upper limit on the dark-matter density in our Solar system, the sensitivity of modern detectors is close to that necessary for detecting this radiation.

  11. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Window Functions Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd Knox

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary results of most observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy are estimates of the angular power spectrum averaged through some broad band, called band-powers. These estimates are in turn what are used to produce constraints on cosmological parameters due to all CMB observations. Essential to this estimation of cosmological parameters is the calculation of the expected band-power for a given experiment, given a theoretical power spectrum. Here we derive the "band power" window function which should be used for this calculation, and point out that it is not equivalent to the window function used to calculate the variance. This important distinction has been absent from much of the literature: the variance window function is often used as the band-power window function. We discuss the validity of this assumed equivalence, the role of window functions for experiments that constrain the power in {\\it multiple} bands, and summarize a prescription for reporting experimental results. The analysis methods detailed here are applied in a companion paper to three years of data from the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement.

  12. Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngangbam Ishwarchandra; Ng. Ibohal; K. Yugindro Singh

    2014-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present an exact solution of Einstein's field equations describing the Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background. It is also regarded as an embedded solution that the Schwarzschild black hole is embedded into the dark energy space producing Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole. It is found that the space-time geometry of Schwarzschild-dark energy solution is non-vacuum Petrov type $D$ in the classification of space-times. We study the energy conditions (like weak, strong and dominant conditions) for the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution. We also find that the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution violates the strong energy condition due to the negative pressure leading to a repulsive gravitational force of the matter field in the space-time. It is shown that the time-like vector field for an observer in the Schwarzschild-dark energy space is expanding, accelerating, shearing and non-rotating. We investigate the surface gravity and the area of the horizons for the Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole.

  13. Cosmic axion background propagation in galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Francesca V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many extensions of the Standard Model include axions or axion-like particles (ALPs). Here we study ALP to photon conversion in the magnetic field of the Milky Way and starburst galaxies. By modelling the effects of the coherent and random magnetic fields, the warm ionized medium and the warm neutral medium on the conversion process, we simulate maps of the conversion probability across the sky for a range of ALP energies. In particular, we consider a diffuse cosmic ALP background (CAB) analogous to the CMB, whose existence is suggested by string models of inflation. ALP-photon conversion of a CAB in the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters has been proposed as an explanation of the cluster soft X-ray excess. We therefore study the phenomenology and expected photon signal of CAB propagation in the Milky Way. We find that, for the CAB parameters required to explain the cluster soft X-ray excess, the photon flux from ALP-photon conversion in the Milky Way would be unobservably small. The ALP-photon conversion prob...

  14. K-mouflage Cosmology: the Background Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe Brax; Patrick Valageas

    2014-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the cosmology of K-mouflage theories at the background level. We show that the effects of the scalar field are suppressed at high matter density in the early Universe and only play a role in the late time Universe where the deviations of the Hubble rate from its $\\Lambda$-CDM counterpart can be of the order five percent for redshifts $1 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 5$. Similarly, we find that the equation of state can cross the phantom divide in the recent past and even diverge when the effective scalar energy density goes negative and subdominant compared to matter, preserving the positivity of the squared Hubble rate. These features are present in models for which Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is not affected. We analyze the fate of K-mouflage when the nonlinear kinetic terms give rise to ghosts, particle excitations with negative energy. In this case, we find that the K-mouflage theories can only be considered as an effective description of the Universe at low energy below $1$ keV. In the safe ghost-free models, we find that the equation of state always diverges in the past and changes significantly by a few percent since $z\\lesssim 1$.

  15. Nature of language impairment in motor neurone disease 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rewaj, Phillipa Jane

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Language impairment associated with Motor Neurone Disease (MND) has been documented since the late 19th century, yet little is understood about the pervasiveness or nature of these deficits. The common clinical ...

  16. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koller, Josef [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tokar, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Yue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henderson, Michael G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friedel, Reiner H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate results than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.

  17. Cloud Formation and Acceleration in a Radiative Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proga, Daniel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a radiatively heated and cooled medium, the thermal instability is a plausible mechanism for forming clouds, while the radiation force provides a natural acceleration, especially when ions recombine and opacity increases. Here we extend Field's theory to self-consistently account for a radiation force resulting from bound-free and bound-bound transitions in the optically thin limit. We present physical arguments for clouds to be significantly accelerated by a radiation force due to lines during a nonlinear phase of the instability. To qualitatively illustrate our main points, we perform both one and two-dimensional (1-D/2-D) hydrodynamical simulations that allow us to study the nonlinear outcome of the evolution of thermally unstable gas subjected to this radiation force. Our 1-D simulations demonstrate that the thermal instability can produce long-lived clouds that reach a thermal equilibrium between radiative processes and thermal conduction, while the radiation force can indeed accelerate the clouds to ...

  18. Multiple concentric annuli for characterizing spatially nonuniform backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Theiler; Jeff Bloch

    1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for estimating the background at a given location on a sky map by interpolating the estimated background from a set of concentric annuli which surround this location. If the background is nonuniform but smoothly varying, this method provides a more accurate (though less precise) estimate than can be obtained with a single annulus. Several applications of multi-annulus background estimation are discussed, including direct testing for point sources in the presence of a nonuniform background, the generation of "surrogate maps" for characterizing false alarm rates, and precise testing of the null hypothesis that the background is uniform.

  19. Near-Core and In-Core Neutron Radiation Monitors for Real Time Neutron Flux Monitoring and Reactor Power Level Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas S. McGregor; Marvin L. Adams; Igor Carron; Paul Nelson

    2006-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    MPFDs are a new class of detectors that utilize properties from existing radiation detector designs. A majority of these characteristics come from fission chamber designs. These include radiation hardness, gamma-ray background insensitivity, and large signal output.

  20. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  1. Background studies for NaI(Tl) detectors in the ANAIS dark matter project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amaré, J.; Borjabad, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; Fortuño, D.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Gómez, H.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Solórzano, A. Ortiz de; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain and Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc, Paseo de los Ayerbe s/n, 22880 Canfranc Estación, Huesca (Spain)] [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain and Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc, Paseo de los Ayerbe s/n, 22880 Canfranc Estación, Huesca (Spain)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Several large NaI(Tl) detectors, produced by different companies, have been operated in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) in the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) project devoted to the direct detection of dark matter. A complete background model has been developed for a 9.6 kg detector (referred as ANAIS-0 prototype) after a long data taking at LSC. Activities from the natural chains of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in the NaI(Tl) crystal were evaluated applying different methods: discrimination of alpha particles vs beta/gamma background by Pulse Shape Analysis for quantifying the content of the natural chains and coincidence techniques for {sup 40}K. Radioactive contaminations in the detector and shielding components were also determined by HPGe spectrometry. Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 package were carried out to evaluate their contribution. At high energies, most of the measured background is nicely reproduced; at low energy some non-explained components are still present, although some plausible background sources have been analyzed. The {sup 40}K content of the NaI(Tl) crystal has been confirmed to be the dominant contributor to the measured background with this detector. In addition, preliminary results of the background characterization, presently underway at the LSC, of two recently produced NaI(Tl) detectors, with 12.5 kg mass each, will be presented: cosmogenic induced activity has been clearly observed and is being quantified, and {sup 40}K activity at a level ten times lower than in ANAIS-0 has been determined.

  2. Water clarity, maternal behavior, and physiology combine to eliminate UV radiation risk to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palen, Wendy J.

    Water clarity, maternal behavior, and physiology combine to eliminate UV radiation risk for review November 10, 2009) Increasing UV-B radiation (UV-B; 290­320 nm) due to stratospheric across natural landscapes. amphibian declines | ultraviolet radiation | risk analysis | dissolved organic

  3. THE RESPONSE OF HONEY BEES TO VARIATIONS IN SOLAR RADIATION AND TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE RESPONSE OF HONEY BEES TO VARIATIONS IN SOLAR RADIATION AND TEMPERATURE Robert M. BURRILL elements, solar radiation and temperature are considered. While these two elements are naturally numbers of departures. In the case of solar radiation intensity, the response is both positive

  4. MARSAME Appendix B B. SOURCES OF BACKGROUND RADIOACTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : · The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) provides information concerning background radioactivity in Background as a Residual Radioactivity Criterion for Decommissioning NUREG-1501 (NRC 1994). · The United Nations Scientific

  5. Study of alpha background in a dark matter detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yegoryan, Hayk

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpha background, specifically from radon and its progeny in the uranium and thorium chains, has been a major issue in dark matter detectors. This work focuses on alpha background presence in the DMTPC experiment by examining ...

  6. Uniform Gauge for D1-brane in General Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kluson, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct uniform gauge D1-brane action in general background. We also discuss how this action transforms under double Wick rotation and determine transformation properties of background fields.

  7. Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Randal L. (Tijeras, NM); Hargis, Jr., Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

  8. Guidance for Environmental Background Analysis Volume III: Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance for Environmental Background Analysis Volume III: Groundwater Prepared for: Naval This guidance document provides instructions for characterizing groundwater background conditions and comparing datasets representing groundwater impacted by an actual or potential chemical release to appropriate

  9. Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford ..................................................................................................................... 17 The Basic Principles of Radiation Protection........................................................... 17 Protection against Radiation Exposure

  10. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M. [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)] [Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Chemistry Service, SS 17bis km 18.910, 67100 Assergi (Aq) (Italy)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Level Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.

  11. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for...

  12. Muon-induced backgrounds in the CUORICINO experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreotti, E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    background in the neutrinoless double beta decay region ofis searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0???), a

  13. Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

  14. WI Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

  15. Radiation protection at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

  16. What is the radiative process of the prompt phase of Gamma Ray Bursts?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghisellini, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46 I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the dramatic improvement of our knowledge of the phenomenology of Gamma Ray Bursts, we still do not know several fundamental aspects of their physics. One of the puzzles concerns the nature of the radiative process originating the prompt phase radiation. Although the synchrotron process qualifies itself as a natural candidate, it faces severe problems, and many efforts have been done looking for alternatives. These, however, suffer from other problems, and there is no general consensus yet on a specific radiation mechanism.

  17. Natural Inflation and Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anton de la Fuente; Prashant Saraswat; Raman Sundrum

    2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic Inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which Quantum Gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular the constraint of the Weak Gravity Conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically-controlled and predictive class of Natural Inflation models.

  18. RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2002 D. Delacroix* J. P. Guerre** P. Leblanc'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

  19. Radiation Processing -an overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications Radiation · Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles Irradiation · Exposure to radiation

  20. Comparison of radiation exposure and associated radiation-induced cancer risks from mammography and molecular imaging of the breast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, Michael K.; Li Hua; Rhodes, Deborah J.; Hruska, Carrie B.; Clancy, Conor B.; Vetter, Richard J. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, St. James's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Radiation Safety, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Recent studies have raised concerns about exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures. Little has been published regarding the relative exposure and risks associated with breast imaging techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging (BSGI), molecular breast imaging (MBI), or positron emission mammography (PEM). The purpose of this article was to estimate and compare the risks of radiation-induced cancer from mammography and techniques such as PEM, BSGI, and MBI in a screening environment. Methods: The authors used a common scheme for all estimates of cancer incidence and mortality based on the excess absolute risk model from the BEIR VII report. The lifetime attributable risk model was used to estimate the lifetime risk of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality. All estimates of cancer incidence and mortality were based on a population of 100 000 females followed from birth to age 80 and adjusted for the fraction that survives to various ages between 0 and 80. Assuming annual screening from ages 40 to 80 and from ages 50 to 80, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality attributed to digital mammography, screen-film mammography, MBI, BSGI, and PEM was calculated. The corresponding cancer incidence and mortality from natural background radiation was calculated as a useful reference. Assuming a 15%-32% reduction in mortality from screening, the benefit/risk ratio for the different imaging modalities was evaluated. Results: Using conventional doses of 925 MBq Tc-99m sestamibi for MBI and BSGI and 370 MBq F-18 FDG for PEM, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality were found to be 15-30 times higher than digital mammography. The benefit/risk ratio for annual digital mammography was >50:1 for both the 40-80 and 50-80 screening groups, but dropped to 3:1 for the 40-49 age group. If the primary use of MBI, BSGI, and PEM is in women with dense breast tissue, then the administered doses need to be in the range 75-150 MBq for Tc-99m sestamibi and 35 MBq-70 MBq for F-18 FDG in order to obtain benefit/risk ratios comparable to those of mammography in these age groups. These dose ranges should be achievable with enhancements to current technology while maintaining a reasonable examination time. Conclusions: The results of the dose estimates in this study clearly indicate that if molecular imaging techniques are to be of value in screening for breast cancer, then the administered doses need to be substantially reduced to better match the effective doses of mammography.

  1. MaGe - a Geant4-based Monte Carlo framework for low-background experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen-Dat Chan; Jason A. Detwiler; Reyco Henning; Victor M. Gehman; Rob A. Johnson; David V. Jordan; Kareem Kazkaz; Markus Knapp; Kevin Kroninger; Daniel Lenz; Jing Liu; Xiang Liu; Michael G. Marino; Akbar Mokhtarani; Luciano Pandola; Alexis G. Schubert; Claudia Tomei

    2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A Monte Carlo framework, MaGe, has been developed based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit. Its purpose is to simulate physics processes in low-energy and low-background radiation detectors, specifically for the Majorana and Gerda $^{76}$Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. This jointly-developed tool is also used to verify the simulation of physics processes relevant to other low-background experiments in Geant4. The MaGe framework contains simulations of prototype experiments and test stands, and is easily extended to incorporate new geometries and configurations while still using the same verified physics processes, tunings, and code framework. This reduces duplication of efforts and improves the robustness of and confidence in the simulation output.

  2. Constraints on the induced gravitational wave background from primordial black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bugaev, Edgar; Klimai, Peter [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform a consistent calculation of primordial black hole (PBH) mass spectrum and second-order induced gravitational wave (GW) background produced from primordial scalar perturbations in radiation era of the early Universe. It is shown that the maximal amplitudes of the second-order GW spectrum that can be approached without conflicting with the PBH data do not depend significantly on the shape of primordial perturbation spectrum. The constraints on the GW background obtained in previous works are extended to a wider GW frequency range. We discuss the applicability of the currently available pulsar timing limits for obtaining the constraints on scalar power spectrum and PBH abundance and show that they can be used for strongly constraining the PBH number density in the PBH mass range {approx}(0.03-10)M{sub {center_dot}}.

  3. Electric Dipole Radiation from Spinning Dust Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. T. Draine; A. Lazarian

    1998-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the rotational excitation of small interstellar grains and the resulting electric dipole radiation from spinning dust. Attention is given to excitation and damping of rotation by: collisions with neutrals; collisions with ions; plasma drag; emission of infrared radiation; emission of microwave radiation; photoelectric emission; and formation of H_2 on the grain surface. We introduce dimensionless functions F and G which allow direct comparison of the contributions of different mechanisms to rotational drag and excitation. Emissivities are estimated for dust in different phases of the interstellar medium, including diffuse HI, warm HI, low-density photoionized gas, and cold molecular gas. Spinning dust grains can explain much, and perhaps all, of the 14-50 GHz background component recently observed in CBR studies. It should be possible to detect rotational emission from small grains by ground-based observations of molecular clouds.

  4. A First Detection of the Acoustic Oscillation Phase Shift Expected from the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follin, Brent; Millea, Marius; Pan, Zhen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The freestreaming of cosmological neutrinos prior to recombination of the baryon-photon plasma alters gravitational potentials and therefore the details of the time-dependent gravitational driving of acoustic oscillations. We report here a first detection of the resulting shifts in the temporal phase of the oscillations, which we infer from their signature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature power spectrum. The magnitude of the shift is proportional to the fraction of the total radiation density in neutrinos. Parameterizing the shift via an effective number of neutrino species we find $1.9 < N_\

  5. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron interaction cross sections for boron. While corrections to the data files themselves are simple to implement and distribute, it is quite possible, however, that coding changes may be required in G4beamline or even in GEANT4 to fully correct nuclear interactions. Regardless, these studies are ongoing and future results will be reflected in updated releases of G4beamline.

  6. Astroparticle Physics with a Customized Low-Background Broad Energy Germanium Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MAJORANA Collaboration; C. E. Aalseth; M. Amman; F. T. Avignone III; H. O. Back; A. S. Barabash; P. S. Barbeau; M. Bergevin; F. E. Bertrand; M. Boswell; V. Brudanin; W. Bugg; T. H. Burritt; M. Busch; G. Capps; Y-D. Chan; J. I. Collar; R. J. Cooper; R. Creswick; J. A. Detwiler; J. Diaz; P. J. Doe; Yu. Efremenko; V. Egorov; H. Ejiri; S. R. Elliott; J. Ely; J. Esterline; H. Farach; J. E. Fast; N. Fields; P. Finnerty; B. Fujikawa; E. Fuller; V. M. Gehman; G. K. Giovanetti; V. E. Guiseppe; K. Gusey; A. L. Hallin; G. C Harper; R. Hazama; R. Henning; A. Hime; E. W. Hoppe; T. W. Hossbach; M. A. Howe; R. A. Johnson; K. J. Keeter; M. Keillor; C. Keller; J. D. Kephart; M. F. Kidd; A. Knecht; O. Kochetov; S. I. Konovalov; R. T. Kouzes; L. Leviner; J. C. Loach; P. N. Luke; S. MacMullin; M. G. Marino; R. D. Martin; D. -M. Mei; H. S. Miley; M. L. Miller; L. Mizouni; A. W. Meyers; M. Nomachi; J. L. Orrell; D. Peterson; D. G. Phillips II; A. W. P. Poon; G. Prior; J. Qian; D. C. Radford; K. Rielage; R. G. H. Robertson; L. Rodriguez; K. P. Rykaczewski; H. Salazar; A. G. Schubert; T. Shima; M. Shirchenko; D. Steele; J. Strain; G. Swift; K. Thomas; V. Timkin; W. Tornow; T. D. Van Wechel; I. Vanyushin; R. L. Varner; K. Vetter; J. F. Wilkerson; B. A. Wolfe; W. Xiang; E. Yakushev; H. Yaver; A. R. Young; C. -H. Yu; V. Yumatov; C. Zhang; S. Zimmerman

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is building the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c^2 mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the MAJORANA Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

  7. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, S.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Majorana Collaboration is building the Majorana Demonstrator, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c{sup 2} mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the Majorana Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

  8. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  9. TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Emily B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

  10. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (2001) 1: 4351 c European Geophysical Society 2001 Natural Hazards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that the electromagnetic wave monitor- ing system has the potential to monitor and/or warn of vol- canic activity as a field trial for monitoring volcanic activities through the use of the electromagnetic method. Up Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Electromagnetic-wave radiation due to diastrophism of magma dike

  11. Alpha-recoil tracks in natural dark mica: Dating geological samples by optical and scanning force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -differential-interference-contrast microscopy; Scanning force microscopy; Natural radiation damage 1. Introduction Alpha-recoil tracks (ARTsAlpha-recoil tracks in natural dark mica: Dating geological samples by optical and scanning force

  12. Regulation of natural monopolies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and empirical literature on the regulation of natural monopolies. It covers alternative definitions of natural monopoly, regulatory goals, alternative ...

  13. Natural Gas Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue...

  14. Borrowing Nature's Polymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Borrowing Nature's Polymers 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:January 2015 All Issues submit Borrowing Nature's Polymers Los Alamos scientists are...

  15. Natural Resources Districts (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes Natural Resources District, encompassing all of the area of the state, to conserve, protect, develop, and manage Nebraska's natural resources. These districts replace and...

  16. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  17. Natural Gas Rules (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Natural Resources administers the rules that govern natural gas exploration and extraction in the state. DNR works with the Louisiana Department of Environmental...

  18. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  19. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  20. Alpha-beta radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Dale M. (Richland, WA); Simmons, Kevin L. (Kennewick, WA); Froelich, Thomas J. (West Richland, WA); Carter, Gregory L. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is based in part on the discovery that a plastic housing that is lightweight is surprisingly efficient inasmuch as background signals from any gamma radiation are significantly reduced by using a plastic housing instead of a metal housing. A further aspect of the present invention is the profile of the housing as a bi-linear approximation to a parabola resulting in full optical response from any location on the scintillation material to the photomultiplier tube. A yet further aspect of the present invention is that the survey probe is resistant to magnetic fields. A yet further aspect of the present invention is the use of a snap-fit retaining bracket that overcomes the need for multiple screws.

  1. Alpha-beta radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, D.M.; Simmons, K.L.; Froelich, T.J.; Carter, G.L.

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is based in part on the discovery that a plastic housing that is lightweight is surprisingly efficient inasmuch as background signals from any gamma radiation are significantly reduced by using a plastic housing instead of a metal housing. A further aspect of the present invention is the profile of the housing as a bi-linear approximation to a parabola resulting in full optical response from any location on the scintillation material to the photomultiplier tube. A yet further aspect of the present invention is that the survey probe is resistant to magnetic fields. A yet further aspect of the present invention is the use of a snap-fit retaining bracket that overcomes the need for multiple screws. 16 figs.

  2. Data fusion with distributed mobile detectors in a highly variable background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, K. Mani

    -area radiation detection system to evaluate data fusion algorithms for distributed radiation detectors. Our deployment and operation. These are the characteristics that make radiation detection with high sensitivity Material Radiation detection systems, including radiation portal monitors and nonintrusive inspection

  3. Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio Nuclides in Shir-kuh Granites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba [Department of Science, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, City of Aalishahr, Bushehr Province, Iran P.O.Box: 7519619555 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio nuclides, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio nuclides, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.

  4. Observed Aerosol Radiative Forcings: Comparison for Natural and Anthropogenic Sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeeding access(SC)Gas and OilPhaseObservationAerosol

  5. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva [Div. of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  6. The Local Interstellar Ultraviolet Radiation Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Conn Henry

    2002-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    I have used the Hipparcos Input Catalog, together with Kurucz model stellar atmospheres, and information on the strength of the interstellar extinction, to create a model of the expected intensity and spectral distribution of the local interstellar ultraviolet radiation field, under various assumptions concerning the albedo a of the interstellar grains. (This ultraviolet radiation field is of particular interest because of the fact that ultraviolet radiation is capable of profoundly affecting the chemistry of the interstellar medium.) By comparing my models with the observations, I am able to conclude that the albedo a of the interstellar grains in the far ultraviolet is very low, perhaps a = 0.1. I also advance arguments that my present determination of this albedo is much more reliable than any of the many previous (and conflicting) ultraviolet interstellar grain albedo determinations. Beyond this, I show that the ultraviolet background radiation that is observed at high galactic latitudes must be extragalactic in origin, as it cannot be backscatter of the interstellar radiation field.

  7. The Hawking Temperature in the context of Dark Energy for Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goutam Manna; Debashis Gangopadhyay

    2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    For emergent gravity metrics, presence of dark energy modifies the Hawking temperature. We show that for the spherically symmetric Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) background metric, the emergent metric can be mapped into a Robinson-Trautman blackhole. Allowed values of the dark energy density follow from rather general conditions. For some allowed value of the dark energy density this blackhole can have zero Hawking temperature i.e. the blackhole does not radiate. For a Kerr background along $\\theta=0$, the emergent blackhole metric satisfies Einstein's equations for large $r$ and always radiates. Our analysis is done in the context of emergent gravity metrics having $k-$essence scalar fields $\\phi$ with a Born-Infeld type lagrangian. In both cases the scalar field $\\phi(r,t)=\\phi_{1}(r)+\\phi_{2}(t)$ also satisfies the emergent gravity equations of motion for $r\\rightarrow\\infty$ and $\\theta=0$. \\keywords{dark energy, k-essence, Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr blackholes} \\pacs{98.80.-k ;95.36.+x}

  8. Radiative transitions of high energy neutrino in dense matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. E. Lobanov

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum theory of the ``spin light'' (electromagnetic radiation emitted by a massive neutrino propagating in dense matter due to the weak interaction of a neutrino with background fermions) is developed. In contrast to the Cherenkov radiation, this effect does not disappear even if the medium refractive index is assumed to be equal to unity. The formulas for the transition rate and the total radiation power are obtained. It is found out that radiation of photons is possible only when the sign of the particle helicity is opposite to that of the effective potential describing the interaction of a neutrino (antineutrino) with the background medium. Due to the radiative self-polarization the radiating particle can change its helicity. As a result, the active left-handed polarized neutrino (right-handed polarized antineutrino) converting to the state with inverse helicity can become practically ``sterile''. Since the sign of the effective potential depends on the neutrino flavor and the matter structure, the ``spin light'' can change a ratio of active neutrinos of different flavors. In the ultra relativistic approach, the radiated photons averaged energy is equal to one third of the initial neutrino energy, and two thirds of the energy are carried out by the final ``sterile'' neutrinos. This fact can be important for the understanding of the ``dark matter'' formation mechanism on the early stages of evolution of the Universe.

  9. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  10. Radiative torques on interstellar grains; 1, superthermal spinup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draine, B T; Weingartner, Joseph C

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Irregular dust grains are subject to radiative torques when irradiated by interstellar starlight. It is shown how these radiative torques may be calculated using the discrete dipole approximation. Calculations are carried out for one irregular grain geometry, and three different grain sizes. It is shown that radiative torques can play an important dynamical role in spinup of interstellar dust grains, resulting in rotation rates which may exceed even those expected from H_2 formation on the grain surface. Because the radiative torque on an interstellar grain is determined by the overall grain geometry rather than merely the state of the grain surface, the resulting superthermal rotation is expected to be long-lived. By itself, long-lived superthermal rotation would permit grain alignment by normal paramagnetic dissipation on the "Davis-Greenstein" timescale. However, radiative torques arising from anisotropy of the starlight background can act directly to alter the grain alignment on much shorter timescales, a...

  11. acoustic background noise: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or remove acoustic background noise uses setups Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 3 Wind Turbine Acoustic Noise A white paper Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Wind Turbine...

  12. accelerator related backgrounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the first years... Drozhdin, A I; Mokhov, N V 1996-01-01 2 Cosmic acceleration without dark energy: Background tests and thermodynamic analysis General Relativity & Quantum...

  13. Radiation interactions in high-pressure gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christophorou, L.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article is on basic radiation interaction processes in dense fluids and on interphase studies aiming at the interfacing of knowledge on radiation interaction processes in the gaseous and the liquid state of matter. It is specifically focused on the effect of the density and nature of the medium on electron production in irradiated fluids and on the state, energy, transport, and attachment of slow excess electrons in dense fluids especially dielectric liquids which possess excess-electron conduction bands (V{sub 0} < 0 eV). Studies over the past two decades have shown that the interactions of low-energy electrons with molecules embedded in dense media depend not only on the molecules themselves and their internal state of excitation, but also on the electron state and energy in -- and the nature and density of -- the medium in which the interactions occur.

  14. Natural Gas Storage in Basalt Aquifers of the Columbia Basin, Pacific Northwest USA: A Guide to Site Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Spane, Frank A.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2002-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the technical background and a guide to characterizing a site for storing natural gas in the Columbia River Basalt

  15. Natural Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    . Exploration and extraction of natural gas from the Marcellus shale is a potentially valuable economic stimulus for landowners. You might be wondering how the nation's economic situation is affecting the market for naturalNatural Gas Exploration: A Landowners Guide to Financial Management Natural Gas Exploration

  16. Research Highlights Nature Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Markus

    © 2009 APS Research Highlights Nature Nanotechnology Published online: 17 July 2009 | doi:10 perfect fluid. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 025301 (2009). | Article |1. Nature Nanotechnology ISSN 1748 : Nature Nanotechnology http://www.nature.com/nnano/reshigh/2009/0709/full/nnano.2009.222.html 1 of 1 18

  17. Solar radiation intensity calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Randolph Steven

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partia'l fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject...: Physics SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) ( member) (Head of Department) December 1978 f219 037 ABSTRACT Solar Radiation...

  18. Terracentric Nuclear Fission Reactor: Background, Basis, Feasibility, Structure, Evidence, and Geophysical Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Marvin Herndon

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The background, basis, feasibility, structure, evidence, and geophysical implications of a naturally occurring Terracentric nuclear fission georeactor are reviewed. For a nuclear fission reactor to exist at the center of the Earth, all of the following conditions must be met: (1) There must originally have been a substantial quantity of uranium within Earth's core; (2) There must be a natural mechanism for concentrating the uranium; (3) The isotopic composition of the uranium at the onset of fission must be appropriate to sustain a nuclear fission chain reaction; (4) The reactor must be able to breed a sufficient quantity of fissile nuclides to permit operation over the lifetime of Earth to the present; (5) There must be a natural mechanism for the removal of fission products; (6) There must be a natural mechanism for removing heat from the reactor; (7) There must be a natural mechanism to regulate reactor power level, and; (8) The location of the reactor or must be such as to provide containment and prevent meltdown. Herndon's georeactor alone is shown to meet those conditions. Georeactor existence evidence based upon helium measurements and upon antineutrino measurements is described. Geophysical implications discussed include georeactor origin of the geomagnetic field, geomagnetic reversals from intense solar outbursts and severe Earth trauma, as well as georeactor heat contributions to global dynamics.

  19. Terracentric Nuclear Fission Reactor: Background, Basis, Feasibility, Structure, Evidence, and Geophysical Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The background, basis, feasibility, structure, evidence, and geophysical implications of a naturally occurring Terracentric nuclear fission georeactor are reviewed. For a nuclear fission reactor to exist at the center of the Earth, all of the following conditions must be met: (1) There must originally have been a substantial quantity of uranium within Earth's core; (2) There must be a natural mechanism for concentrating the uranium; (3) The isotopic composition of the uranium at the onset of fission must be appropriate to sustain a nuclear fission chain reaction; (4) The reactor must be able to breed a sufficient quantity of fissile nuclides to permit operation over the lifetime of Earth to the present; (5) There must be a natural mechanism for the removal of fission products; (6) There must be a natural mechanism for removing heat from the reactor; (7) There must be a natural mechanism to regulate reactor power level, and; (8) The location of the reactor or must be such as to provide containment and prevent ...

  20. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L. [and others

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  1. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upton, NY 11973, USA Abstract Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) effects in bunch compressors are analyzed. Schemes for reducing the CSR effects are presented. 1 INTRODUCTION...

  2. Atomic Radiation (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

  3. Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

  4. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

    1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  5. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Genetic Background Modulates Gene Expression Profile Induced by Skin Irradiation in Ptch1 Mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna [ENEA Laboratories, Rome (Italy); Dragani, Tommaso A. [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: tommaso.dragani@istitutotumori.mi.it

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Ptch1 germ-line mutations in mice predispose to radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma of the skin, with tumor incidence modulated by the genetic background. Here, we examined the possible mechanisms underlying skin response to radiation in F1 progeny of Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice crossed with either skin tumor-susceptible (Car-S) or -resistant (Car-R) mice and X-irradiated (3 Gy) at 2 days of age or left untreated. Methods and Materials: We conducted a gene expression profile analysis in mRNA samples extracted from the skin of irradiated or control mice, using Affymetrix whole mouse genome expression array. Confirmation of the results was done using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Analysis of the gene expression profile of normal skin of F1 mice at 4 weeks of age revealed a similar basal profile in the nonirradiated mice, but alterations in levels of 71 transcripts in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-R cross and modulation of only eight genes in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-S cross. Conclusions: These results indicate that neonatal irradiation causes a persistent change in the gene expression profile of the skin. The tendency of mice genetically resistant to skin tumorigenesis to show a more complex pattern of transcriptional response to radiation than do genetically susceptible mice suggests a role for this response in genetic resistance to basal cell tumorigenesis.

  7. Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

  8. Alpha Backgrounds for HPGe Detectors in Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Johnson; T. H. Burritt; S. R. Elliott; V. M. Gehman; V. E. Guiseppe; J. F. Wilkerson

    2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of alpha-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An alpha particle emitted external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the alpha and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the alpha backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.

  9. Alpha Backgrounds for HPGe Detectors in Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R. A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Burritt, T. H. [University of Washington, Seattle; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gehman, V. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Guiseppe, V.E. [University of South Dakota; Wilkerson, J. F. [UNC/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab, Durham, NC/ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of alpha-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An alpha particle emitted external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the alpha and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the alpha backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.

  10. Cellular telephone-based radiation sensor and wide-area detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  11. STUDIES OF LASER-DRIVEN RADIATIVE BLAST WAVES A.D. EDENS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ditmire, Todd

    -driven radiating blast waves. In the first set of experiments the effect of a drive laser's passage throughSTUDIES OF LASER-DRIVEN RADIATIVE BLAST WAVES A.D. EDENS1 , T. DITMIRE1 , J.F. HANSEN2 , M a background gas on the hydrodynamical evolution of blast waves was examined. The laser's passage heated

  12. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

  13. cognitive backgroundCIS4140-2 1 administrivia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damon, Craig A.

    Cognitive background human-computer interaction understand computer workings (reasonably well) how about humans? once part of psychology now considered cognitive science may also need some sociology later #12;cognitive backgroundCIS4140-2 4 perceptual 2 perceptions considered for UI auditory visual new interfaces

  14. The Self-Organizing Maps: Background, Theories, Extensions and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Hujun

    The Self-Organizing Maps: Background, Theories, Extensions and Applications Hujun Yin School. The Chapter is intended H. Yin: The Self-Organizing Maps: Background, Theories, Extensions and Applications architectures and learning algorithms, Kohonen's self- organizing map (SOM) [46] is one of the most popular

  15. Non Thermal Features in the Cosmic Neutrino Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Mangano

    2006-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    I review some of the basic information on the Cosmic Neutrino Background momentum distribution. In particular, I discuss how present data from several cosmological observables such as Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure power spectrum constrain possible deviations from a standard Fermi-Dirac thermal distribution.

  16. Revised January 2013 Peabody CollegeBackgroundClearance Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmeri, Thomas

    personnel will receive a photo ID badge certifying that they have passed a TBI/FBI background check by the BCO office when your file contains the completed/signed consent AND the cleared TBI/FBI report. Non There are no exemptions. Process Once an individual has been granted clearance based off their TBI/FBI background check

  17. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  18. Ship Effect Neutron Measurements And Impacts On Low-Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary particles entering the upper atmosphere as cosmic rays create showers in the atmosphere that include a broad spectrum of secondary neutrons, muons and protons. These cosmic-ray secondaries interact with materials at the surface of the Earth, yielding prompt backgrounds in radiation detection systems, as well as inducing long-lived activities through spallation events, dominated by the higher-energy neutron secondaries. For historical reasons, the multiple neutrons produced in spallation cascade events are referred to as “ship effect” neutrons. Quantifying the background from cosmic ray induced activities is important to low-background experiments, such as neutrino-less double beta decay. Since direct measurements of the effects of shielding on the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum are not available, Monte Carlo modeling is used to compute such effects. However, there are large uncertainties (orders of magnitude) in the possible cross-section libraries and the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum for the energy range needed in such calculations. The measurements reported here were initiated to validate results from Monte Carlo models through experimental measurements in order to provide some confidence in the model results. The results indicate that the models provide the correct trends of neutron production with increasing density, but there is substantial disagreement between the model and experimental results for the lower-density materials of Al, Fe and Cu.

  19. Estimation of Cosmic Induced Contamination in Ultra-low Background Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Greene, Austen T.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary This document presents the result of investigating a way to reliably determine cosmic induced backgrounds for ultra-low background materials. In particular, it focuses on those radioisotopes produced by the interactions with cosmic ray particles in the detector materials that act as a background for experiments looking for neutrinoless double beta decay. This investigation is motivated by the desire to determine background contributions from cosmic ray activation of the electroformed copper that is being used in the construction of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The most important radioisotope produced in copper that contributes to the background budget is 60Co, which has the potential to deposit energy in the region of interest of this experiment. Cobalt-60 is produced via cosmic ray neutron collisions in the copper. This investigation aims to provide a method for determining whether or not the copper has been exposed to cosmic radiation beyond the threshold which the Majorana Project has established as the maximum exposure. This threshold is set by the Project as the expected contribution of this source of background to the overall background budget. One way to estimate cosmic ray neutron exposure of materials on the surface of the Earth is to relate it to the cosmic ray muon exposure. Muons are minimum-ionizing particles and the available technologies to detect muons are easier to implement than those to detect neutrons. We present the results of using a portable, ruggedized muon detector, the µ-Witness made by our research group, for determination of muon exposure of materials for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. From the muon flux measurement, this report presents a method to estimate equivalent sea-level exposure, and then infer the neutron exposure of the tracked material and thus the cosmogenic activation of the copper. This report combines measurements of the muon flux taken by the µ-Witness detector with Geant4 simulations in order to assure our understanding of the µ-Witness prototype. As a proof of concept, we present the results of using this detector with electroformed copper during its transport from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, where the copper is grown, to the underground lab in Lead, South Dakota, where the experiment is being deployed. The development of a code to be used with the Majorana parts tracking database, designed to aid in estimating the cosmogenic activation, is also presented.

  20. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation doseCOLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212 regulations of the Rules of the City of New York, Article 175, Radiation Control, there is a requirement

  1. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  2. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  3. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  4. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

  5. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  6. Radiation effects in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Yazzie, A. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ (United States). Dept. of History; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Leavitt, C.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

  7. Climate shocks: Natural and anthropogenic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondratyev, K.Ya.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much recent climate research has focused on the effects of CO{sub 2} and radiatively important trace species, volcanic eruptions, and nuclear exchanges on our future climate. These studies suggest that anthropogenic influence will alter our present climate. The reliability of the climate models are a subject of debate, yet valid information derived from climate models is critical for policy-makers and politicians to make decisions regarding energy use and development and defense strategies. K.Ya. Kondratyev, a leading Soviet climate scientist, addresses the role of the greenhouse effect, nuclear winter, and volcanic eruptions on our climate in a recently published book entitled Climate Shocks: Natural and Anthropogenic. The book provides a detailed survey of the literature on these fields, including the pertinent Soviet literature that is often not surveyed by Western scientists.

  8. RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY................................................................................................................I-1 B. Radiation Protection Program...............................................................................I-3 D. Radiation Safety Management

  9. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeV. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeapproximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Community

  10. Cloud of strings for radiating black holes in Lovelock gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sushant G. Ghosh; Sunil D. Maharaj

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present exact spherically symmetric null dust solutions in the third order Lovelock gravity with a string cloud background in arbitrary $N$ dimensions,. This represents radiating black holes and generalizes the well known Vaidya solution to Lovelock gravity with a string cloud in the background. We also discuss the energy conditions and horizon structures, and explicitly bring out the effect of the string clouds on the horizon structure of black hole solutions for the higher dimensional general relativity and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theories. It turns out that the presence of the coupling constant of the Gauss-Bonnet terms and/or background string clouds completely changes the structure of the horizon and this may lead to a naked singularity. We recover known spherically symmetric radiating models as well as static black holes in the appropriate limits.

  11. Radiative corrections in fermion bags bound by Higgs boson exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Yu. Kuchiev; V. V. Flambaum

    2011-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative corrections for several heavy fermions bound together via the Higgs boson exchange are studied. The fermion bags considered include 12, or fewer, fermions occupying the lowest S_{1/2} shell. It is shown that for `moderately heavy' fermions with masses 0.4< m c^2< 1 TeV the radiative corrections are small, 10^{-2}, and have an attractive nature. Therefore they do not put existence of the fermion bag in doubt. This proves that these fermion bags can exist in nature.

  12. Energy enhancement of proton acceleration in combinational radiation pressure and bubble by optimizing plasma density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie Baisong [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shan Zhang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Hong Xueren [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Wang Hongyu [Department of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China); Shanghai Bright-Tech Information Technology Co. Ltd, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The combinational laser radiation pressure and plasma bubble fields to accelerate protons are researched through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. The dephasing length of the accelerated protons bunch in the front of the bubble and the density gradient effect of background plasma on the accelerating phase are analyzed in detail theoretically. The radiation damping effect on the accelerated protons energy is also considered. And it is demonstrated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the protons bunch energy can be increased by using the background plasma with negative density gradient. However, radiation damping makes the maximal energy of the accelerated protons a little reduction.

  13. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212 Psychiatric Institute Radiation Safety Office (Please complete this form within 24 hours and send a copy to your supervisor and The Radiation Safety Office) Your Name

  14. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212: _______________ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Radiation Safety Office Approval: ______________________ Date: ________________________ Waste containers in place: Yes ___ No ___ Radiation signage on door: Yes ___ No ___ Room monitoring: Dates

  15. Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    to Workers; Inspections 27 10 CFR Part 20Standards for Protection Against Radiation 28 10 CFR Part 35Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated December 2012 Stanford University, Stanford California #12; #12; Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated

  16. Muon-induced backgrounds in the CUORICINO experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreotti, E; Arnaboldi, C; Avignone, F T; Balata, M; Bandac, I; Barucci, M; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Bloxham, T; Brofferio, C; Bryant, A; Bucci, C; Canonica, L; Capelli, S; Carbone, L; Carrettoni, M; Clemenza, M; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; Domizio, S D; Dolinski, M J; Ejzak, L; Faccini, R; Farach, H A; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Firoini, E; Foggetta, L; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gorla, P; Guardincerri, E; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Kadel, R; Kazkaz, K; Kraft, S; Kogler, L; Kolomensky, Y G; Maiano, C; Maruyama, R H; Martinez, C; Martinez, M; Mizouni, L; Morganti, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; Orio, F; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pedretti, M; Pessina, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Risegari, L; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Salvioni, C; Sangiorgio, S; Schaeffer, D; Scielzo, N D; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Tomei, C; Ventura, G; Vignati, M

    2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    To better understand the contribution of cosmic ray muons to the CUORICINO background, ten plastic scintillator detectors were installed at the CUORICINO site and operated during 3 months of the CUORICINO experiment. From these measurements, an upper limit of 0.0021 counts/keV {center_dot} kg {center_dot} yr (95% C.L.) was obtained on the cosmic ray induced background in the neutrinoless double beta decay region of interest. The measurements were compared to Geant4 simulations, which are similar to those that will be used to estimate the backgrounds in CUORE.

  17. Constraints on background torsion field from K physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subhendra Mohanty; Utpal Sarkar

    1998-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We point out that a background torsion field will produce an effective potential to the $K$ and $\\bar{K}$ with opposite signs. This allows us to constrain the background torsion field from the $K_L$ and $K_S$ mass difference, CPT violating $K^\\circ$ and $\\bar{K^\\circ}$ mass difference and the CP violating quantities $\\epsilon$ and $\\eta_{+-}$. The most stringent bound on the cosmological background torsion $ < 10^{-25}$ GeV comes from the direct measurement of the CPT violation.

  18. Spinning Test Particle in Kalb-Ramond background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debaprasad Maity; Soumitra SenGupta; Sourav Sur

    2005-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we explore the geodesic deviations of spinning test particles in a string inspired Einstein-Kalb Ramond background. Such a background is known to be equivalent to a spacetime geometry with torsion. We have shown here that the antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond field has significant effect on the geodesic deviation of a spinning test particle. A search for an observational evidence of such an effect in astrophysical experiments may lead to a better undestanding of the geometry of the background spacetime.

  19. Flavor singlet physics in lattice QCD with background fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detmold, W. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Box 351560, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that hadronic matrix elements can be extracted from lattice simulations with background fields that arise from operator exponentiation. Importantly, flavor-singlet matrix elements can be evaluated without requiring the computation of disconnected diagrams, thus facilitating a calculation of the quark contribution to the spin of the proton and the singlet axial coupling, g{sub A}{sup 0}. In the two-nucleon sector, a background field approach will allow calculation of the magnetic and quadrupole moments of the deuteron and an investigation of the EMC effect directly from lattice QCD. Matrix elements between states of differing momenta are also analyzed in the presence of background fields.

  20. Direct Use of Natural Gas: Economic Fuel Choices from the Regional Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Direct Use of Natural Gas: Economic Fuel Choices from the Regional Power System and Consumer's Perspective Council document 2012-01 Background Is it better to use natural gas directly in water heaters; total-energy efficiency, fuel switching, direct use of gas, and others. The natural gas companies

  1. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  2. Nature/Culture/Seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helmreich, Stefan

    This essay considers seawater as a substance and symbol in anthropological and social theory. Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place with respect to anthropological categories of nature and culture. Seawater as nature ...

  3. Supervisory Natural Gas Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energys Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply (FE) is responsible for regulating natural gas imports and exports...

  4. Radiation detection method and system using the sequential probability ratio test

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Karl E. (Livermore, CA); Valentine, John D. (Redwood City, CA); Beauchamp, Brock R. (San Ramon, CA)

    2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test to enhance the detection of an elevated level of radiation, by determining whether a set of observations are consistent with a specified model within a given bounds of statistical significance. In particular, the SPRT is used in the present invention to maximize the range of detection, by providing processing mechanisms for estimating the dynamic background radiation, adjusting the models to reflect the amount of background knowledge at the current point in time, analyzing the current sample using the models to determine statistical significance, and determining when the sample has returned to the expected background conditions.

  5. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  6. Natural Resources Research Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    /Loll ThermoWood Hybrid Poplars Peat A boost for the peat industry Value in Minnesota peat deposits Natural che

  7. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  8. Wavelet Denoising of Mobile Radiation Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, D; Lanier, R

    2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation of wavelet analysis techniques as a means of filtering the gross-count signal obtained from radiation detectors has shown promise. These signals are contaminated with high frequency statistical noise and significantly varying background radiation levels. Wavelet transforms allow a signal to be split into its constituent frequency components without losing relative timing information. Initial simulations and an injection study have been performed. Additionally, acquisition and analysis software has been written which allowed the technique to be evaluated in real-time under more realistic operating conditions. The technique performed well when compared to more traditional triggering techniques with its performance primarily limited by false alarms due to prominent features in the signal. An initial investigation into the potential rejection and classification of these false alarms has also shown promise.

  9. Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

  10. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

  11. Robust Background Subtraction with Foreground Validation for Urban Traffic Video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, S S; Kamath, C

    2004-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Identifying moving objects in a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in many computer-vision applications. Background subtraction techniques are commonly used to separate foreground moving objects from the background. Most background subtraction techniques assume a single rate of adaptation, which is inadequate for complex scenes such as a traffic intersection where objects are moving at different and varying speeds. In this paper, we propose a foreground validation algorithm that first builds a foreground mask using a slow-adapting Kalman filter, and then validates individual foreground pixels by a simple moving object model, built using both the foreground and background statistics as well as the frame difference. Ground-truth experiments with urban traffic sequences show that our proposed algorithm significantly improves upon results using only Kalman filter or frame-differencing, and outperforms other techniques based on mixture of Gaussians, median filter, and approximated media filter.

  12. Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Disturbance Consequences: Uncertainty in Power System Dynamic Simulation Ian A. Hiskens, University of WisconsinPower Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper Modeling Post-Madison Bernard C. Lesieutre, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory September 16, 2003 Power systems

  13. Plan-view Trajectory Estimation with Dense Stereo Background Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darrell, T.

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a known environment, objects may be tracked in multiple views using a set of back-ground models. Stereo-based models can be illumination-invariant, but often have undefined values which inevitably lead to foreground ...

  14. Reduction of background clutter in structured lighting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.; Giles, Michael K.; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson Jr., Patrick A.; Novick, David K.; Wilson, Christopher W.

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for segmenting the reflected light of an illumination source having a characteristic wavelength from background illumination (i.e. clutter) in structured lighting systems can comprise pulsing the light source used to illuminate a scene, pulsing the light source synchronously with the opening of a shutter in an imaging device, estimating the contribution of background clutter by interpolation of images of the scene collected at multiple spectral bands not including the characteristic wavelength and subtracting the estimated background contribution from an image of the scene comprising the wavelength of the light source and, placing a polarizing filter between the imaging device and the scene, where the illumination source can be polarized in the same orientation as the polarizing filter. Apparatus for segmenting the light of an illumination source from background illumination can comprise an illuminator, an image receiver for receiving images of multiple spectral bands, a processor for calculations and interpolations, and a polarizing filter.

  15. On the fate of vacuum bubbles on matter backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksandar Rakic; Dennis Simon; Julian Adamek; Jens C. Niemeyer

    2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this letter we discuss cosmological first order phase transitions with de Sitter bubbles nucleating on (inhomogeneous) matter backgrounds. The de Sitter bubble can be a toy model for an inflationary phase of universes like our own. Using the thin wall approximation and the Israel junction method we trace the classical evolution of the formed bubbles within a compound model. We first address homogeneous ambient space (FRW model) and already find that bubbles nucleated in a dust dominated background cannot expand. For an inhomogeneous dust background (LTB model) we describe cases with at least initially expanding bubbles. Yet, an ensuing passage of the bubble wall through ambient curvature inhomogeneities remains unnoticed for observers inside the bubble. Notable effects also for interior observers are found in the case of a rapid background phase transition in a FRW model.

  16. On the fate of vacuum bubbles on matter backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rakic, Aleksandar; Adamek, Julian; Niemeyer, Jens C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this letter we discuss cosmological first order phase transitions with de Sitter bubbles nucleating on (inhomogeneous) matter backgrounds. The de Sitter bubble can be a toy model for an inflationary phase of universes like our own. Using the thin wall approximation and the Israel junction method we trace the classical evolution of the formed bubbles within a compound model. We first address homogeneous ambient space (FRW model) and already find that bubbles nucleated in a dust dominated background cannot expand. For an inhomogeneous dust background (LTB model) we describe cases with at least initially expanding bubbles. Yet, an ensuing passage of the bubble wall through ambient curvature inhomogeneities remains unnoticed for observers inside the bubble. Notable effects also for interior observers are found in the case of a rapid background phase transition in a FRW model.

  17. 1 Mathematical Background 1 1.1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, James R.

    Contents 1 Mathematical Background 1 1.1 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Computability Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.4 Probability Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.5 Exercises and Problems

  18. 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirghafori, N. Nikki

    Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Our Goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.3 ICSI's HMM/ANN Hybrid Speech Recognition System . . . . . . . . 2 1.4 What is Multi­band Processing

  19. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Baldenegro-Barrera, C X; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0nbb-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR 0s germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  20. Higgs boson production at hadron colliders: Signal and background processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rainwater; Michael Spira; Dieter Zeppenfeld

    2004-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the theoretical status of signal and background calculations for Higgs boson production at hadron colliders. Particular emphasis is given to missing NLO results, which will play a crucial role for the Tevatron and the LHC.

  1. Modeling surface backgrounds from radon progeny plate-out

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumpilly, G.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Snyder, N. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)] [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The surface deposition and subsequent implantation of radon progeny in detector materials will be a source of energetic background events. We investigate Monte Carlo and model-based simulations to understand the surface implantation profile of radon progeny. Depending on the material and region of interest of a rare event search, these partial energy depositions can be problematic. Motivated by the use of Ge crystals for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay, we wish to understand the detector response of surface backgrounds from radon progeny. We look at the simulation of surface decays using a validated implantation distribution based on nuclear recoils and a realistic surface texture. Results of the simulations and measured ? spectra are presented.

  2. Inductive Rules, Background Knowledge, and Skepticism Daniel Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steel, Daniel

    Inductive Rules, Background Knowledge, and Skepticism Daniel Steel Department of Philosophy 503 S. Kedzie Hall Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48823-1032 Email: steel@msu.edu #12;Abstract

  3. atmospheric neutrinos background: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S. Mine 2007-12-31 5 Solar and Atmospheric Neutrinos: Background Sources for the Direct Dark Matter Searches HEP - Phenomenology (arXiv) Summary: In experiments for direct dark...

  4. argon gas backgrounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sahin, O; Tapan, I; Ozmutlu, E N 2010-01-01 5 Background studies for a ton-scale argon dark matter detector (ArDM) CERN Preprints Summary: The ArDM project aims at operating a...

  5. Lovelock black holes in a string cloud background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tae-Hun Lee; Dharmanand Baboolal; Sushant G. Ghosh

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an exact static, spherically symmetric black hole solution to the third order Lovelock gravity with a string cloud background in seven dimensions for the special case when the second and third order Lovelock coefficients are related via $\\tilde{\\alpha}^2_2=3\\tilde{\\alpha}_3\\;(\\equiv\\alpha^2)$. Further, we examine thermodynamic properties of this black hole to obtain exact expressions for mass, temperature, entropy and also perform the thermodynamic stability analysis. We see that a string cloud background makes a profound influence on horizon structure, thermodynamic properties and the stability of black holes. Interestingly the entropy of the black hole is unaffected due to a string cloud background. However, the critical solution for thermodynamic stability is being affected by a string cloud background.

  6. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the Solar Radiation Monitoring LaboratoryG:SourcesforBackgroundInformation© Useful Web Sites: UO Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Website: http://solardata.uoregon.edu/Educational Solar Radiation Basics Solar Electric Lesson Plans o What is a KiloWatt Hour? o Experiments

  7. The Intense Radiation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

  8. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  9. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  10. Baryon magnetic moments in the background field method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, F X; Zhou, L; Wilcox, W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a calculation of the magnetic moments for the baryon octet and decuplet using the background-field method and standard Wilson gauge and fermion actions in the quenched approximation of lattice QCD. Progressively smaller static magnetic fields are introduced on a $24^4$ lattice at beta=6.0 and the pion mass is probed down to about 500 MeV. Magnetic moments are extracted from the linear response of the masses to the background field.

  11. Review of Monte Carlo simulations for backgrounds from radioactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selvi, Marco [INFN - Sezione di Bologna (Italy)] [INFN - Sezione di Bologna (Italy)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    For all experiments dealing with the rare event searches (neutrino, dark matter, neutrino-less double-beta decay), the reduction of the radioactive background is one of the most important and difficult tasks. There are basically two types of background, electron recoils and nuclear recoils. The electron recoil background is mostly from the gamma rays through the radioactive decay. The nuclear recoil background is from neutrons from spontaneous fission, (?, n) reactions and muoninduced interactions (spallations, photo-nuclear and hadronic interaction). The external gammas and neutrons from the muons and laboratory environment, can be reduced by operating the detector at deep underground laboratories and by placing active or passive shield materials around the detector. The radioactivity of the detector materials also contributes to the background; in order to reduce it a careful screening campaign is mandatory to select highly radio-pure materials. In this review I present the status of current Monte Carlo simulations aimed to estimate and reproduce the background induced by gamma and neutron radioactivity of the materials and the shield of rare event search experiment. For the electromagnetic background a good level of agreement between the data and the MC simulation has been reached by the XENON100 and EDELWEISS experiments, using the GEANT4 toolkit. For the neutron background, a comparison between the yield of neutrons from spontaneous fission and (?, n) obtained with two dedicated softwares, SOURCES-4A and the one developed by Mei-Zhang-Hime, show a good overall agreement, with total yields within a factor 2 difference. The energy spectra from SOURCES-4A are in general smoother, while those from MZH presents sharp peaks. The neutron propagation through various materials has been studied with two MC codes, GEANT4 and MCNPX, showing a reasonably good agreement, inside 50% discrepancy.

  12. Holographic superconductor developed in BTZ black hole background with backreactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yunqi Liu; Qiyuan Pan; Bin Wang

    2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a holographic superconductor in BTZ black hole background with backreactions. We investigate the influence of the backreaction on the condensation of the scalar hair and the dynamics of perturbation in the background spacetime. When the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound is approached, we argue that only one of two possible operators can reflect the real property of the condensation in the holographic superconductor. This argument is supported by the investigation in dynamics.

  13. Muon-induced backgrounds in the CUORICINO experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreotti, E.; Arnaboldi, C.; Avignone III, F. T.; Balata, M.; Bandac, I.; Barucci, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bloxham, T.; Brofferio, C.; Bryant, A.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Clemenza, M.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Domizio, S. Di; Dolinski, M. J.; Ejzak, L.; Faccini, R.; Farach, H. A.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Foggetta, L.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gorla, P.; Guardincerri, E.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Kraft, S.; Kogler, L.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Maiano, C.; Maruyama, R. H.; Martinez, C.; Martinez, M.; Mizouni, L.; Morganti, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Orio, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Risegari, L.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Salvioni, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Schaeffer, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Tomei, C.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To better understand the contribution of cosmic ray muons to the CUORICINO background, ten plastic scintillator detectors were installed at the CUORICINO siteand operated during the final 3 months of the experiment. From these measurements, an upper limit of 0.0021 counts/(keV.kg.yr) (95percent c.l.) was obtained on the cosmicray induced background in the neutrinoless double beta decay region of interest. The measurements were also compared to Geant4 simulations.

  14. The Big Bang, COBE, and the Relic Radiation of Creation (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smoot, George

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Berkeley Lab's George Smoot won the 2006 Physics Nobel Prize, together with John Mather of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, for "the discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation." The anisotropy showed as small variations in the map of the early universe. This research looks back into the infant universe and provides a better understanding of the origin of galaxies and stars. The cosmic background radiation is a tool to understand the structure and history of the universe and the structure of space-time. These observations have provided increased support for the big bang theory of the universe's origin. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) NASA satellite, launched in 1989, carries instruments that measured various aspects of cosmic microwave background radiation, and produced the data for these compelling scientific results, which opened up a field that continues very actively today.

  15. Background reduction and sensitivity for germanium double beta decay experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Gómez; S. Cebrián; J. Morales; J. A. Villar

    2007-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Germanium detectors have very good capabilities for the investigation of rare phenomena like the neutrinoless double beta decay. Rejection of the background entangling the expected signal is one primary goal in this kind of experiments. Here, the attainable background reduction in the energy region where the neutrinoless double beta decay signal of 76Ge is expected to appear has been evaluated for experiments using germanium detectors, taking into consideration different strategies like the granularity of the detector system, the segmentation of each individual germanium detector and the application of Pulse Shape Analysis techniques to discriminate signal from background events. Detection efficiency to the signal is affected by background rejection techniques, and therefore it has been estimated for each of the background rejection scenarios considered. Finally, conditions regarding crystal mass, radiopurity, exposure to cosmic rays, shielding and rejection capabilities are discussed with the aim to achieve a background level of 10-3 c keV-1 kg-1 y-1 in the region of interest, which would allow to explore neutrino effective masses around 40 meV.

  16. Air fluidized balls in a background of smaller beads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. E. Beverland; L. J. Daniels; D. J. Durian

    2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on quasi-two-dimensional granular systems in which either one or two large balls is fluidized by an upflow of air in the presence of a background of several hundred smaller beads. A single large ball is observed to propel ballistically in nearly circular orbits, in direct contrast to the Brownian behavior of a large ball fluidized in the absence of this background. Further, the large ball motion satisfies a Langevin equation with an additional speed-dependent force acting in the direction of motion. This results in a non-zero average speed of the large ball that is an order of magnitude faster than the root mean square speed of the background balls. Two large balls fluidized in the absence of the small-bead background experience a repulsive force depending only on the separation of the two balls. With the background beads present, by contrast, the ball-ball interaction becomes velocity-dependent and attractive. The attraction is long-ranged and inconsistent with a depletion model; instead, it is mediated by local fluctuations in the density of the background beads which depends on the large balls' motion.

  17. Holographic imaging of natural-fiber-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunch, Kyle J [Richland, WA; Tucker, Brian J [Pasco, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Griffin, Jeffrey W [Kennewick, WA; Sheen, David M [Richland, WA

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes methods and apparatuses for imaging material properties in natural-fiber-containing materials. In particular, the images can provide quantified measures of localized moisture content. Embodiments of the invention utilize an array of antennas and at least one transceiver to collect amplitude and phase data from radiation interacting with the natural-fiber-containing materials. The antennas and the transceivers are configured to transmit and receive electromagnetic radiation at one or more frequencies, which are between 50 MHz and 1 THz. A conveyance system passes the natural-fiber-containing materials through a field of view of the array of antennas. A computing device is configured to apply a synthetic imaging algorithm to construct a three-dimensional image of the natural-fiber-containing materials that provides a quantified measure of localized moisture content. The image and the quantified measure are both based on the amplitude data, the phase data, or both.

  18. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Interstate Pipelines Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Thirty Largest U.S. Interstate Natural...

  19. Microbunch preserving in-line system for an APPLE II helical radiator at the LCLS baseline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous work we proposed a scheme for polarization control at the LCLS baseline, which exploited the microbunching from the planar undulator. After the baseline undulator, the electron beam is transported through a drift by a FODO focusing system, and through a short helical radiator. The microbunching structure can be preserved, and intense coherent radiation is emitted in the helical undulator at fundamental harmonic. The driving idea of this proposal is that the background linearly-polarized radiation from the baseline undulator is suppressed by spatial filtering. Filtering is achieved by letting radiation and electron beam through Be slits upstream of the helical radiator, where the radiation spot size is about ten times larger than the electron beam transverse size. Several changes considered in the present paper were made to improve the previous design. Slits are now placed immediately behind the helical radiator. The advantage is that the electron beam can be spoiled by the slits, and narrower sl...

  20. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  1. The Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Ignatov

    2001-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An example of discontinuity of the energy-momentum tensor moving at superluminal velocity is discussed. It is shown that the gravitational Mach cone is formed. The power spectrum of the corresponding Cherenkov radiation is evaluated.

  2. Radiation from Accelerated Branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohab Abou-Zeid; Miguel S. Costa

    2000-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation emitted by accelerated fundamental strings and D-branes is studied within the linear approximation to the supergravity limit of string theory. We show that scalar, gauge field and gravitational radiation is generically emitted by such branes. In the case where an external scalar field accelerates the branes, we derive a Larmor-type formula for the emitted scalar radiation and study the angular distribution of the outgoing energy flux. The classical radii of the branes are calculated by means of the corresponding Thompson scattering cross sections. Within the linear approximation, the interaction of the external scalar field with the velocity fields of the branes gives a contribution to the observed gauge field and gravitational radiation.

  3. Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

  4. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  5. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  6. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  7. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of x-ray producing

  8. Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grishok, Alla

    of External and Internal Doses E. Reports and Notices to Workers Chapter VII: Radiation ProtectionRadiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL For Columbia University NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital New York State Psychiatric Institute Barnard College December 2012 #12;Radiation Safety Manual

  9. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  10. Neural networks and separation of background and foregrounds in astrophysical sky maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baccigalupi, C; Burigana, C; De Zotti, G; Farusi, A; Maino, D; Maris, M; Perrotta, F; Salerno, E; Toffolatti, L; Tonazzini, A

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithm is implemented as a neuralnetwork for separating signals of different origin in astrophysical sky maps.Due to its self-organizing capability, it works without prior assumptions onthe signals, neither on their frequency scaling, nor on the signal mapsthemselves; instead, it learns directly from the input data how to separate thephysical components, making use of their statistical independence. To test thecapabilities of this approach, we apply the ICA algorithm on sky patches, takenfrom simulations and observations, at the microwave frequencies, that are goingto be deeply explored in a few years on the whole sky, by the MicrowaveAnisotropy Probe (MAP) and by the {\\sc Planck} Surveyor Satellite. The maps areat the frequencies of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) aboard the {\\scPlanck} satellite (30, 44, 70 and 100 GHz), and contain simulated astrophysicalradio sources, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, and Galacticdiffuse emissions from thermal dust...

  11. Radiative Transitions in Charmonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; David Richards

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The form factors for the radiative transitions between charmonium mesons are investigated. We employ an anisotropic lattice using a Wilson gauge action, and domain-wall fermion action. We extrapolate the form factors to Q{sup 2} = 0, corresponding to a real photon, using quark-model-inspired functions. Finally, comparison is made with photocouplings extracted from the measured radiative widths, where known. Our preliminary results find photocouplings commensurate with these experimentally extracted values.

  12. Radiative Processes Working Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The

  13. Contemporary evolution, allelic recycling, and adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Windsor E.

    Contemporary evolution, allelic recycling, and adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback within ten generations. Rare freshwater-adapted alleles have been recycled from freshwater to oceanic evolve very slowly led him to study artificial selection, natural selection's component mechanisms (e

  14. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  15. Gravitational Tunneling Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz

    2002-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The isolated black hole radiation of both Hawking and Zel'dovich are idealized abstractions as there is always another body to distort the potential. This is considered with respect to both gravitational tunneling, and black hole "no-hair" theorems. The effects of a second body are to lower the gravitational barrier of a black hole and to give the barrier a finite rather than infinite width so tha a particle can escape by tunneling (as in field emission) or over the top of the lowered barrier (as in Schottky emission). Thus radiation may be emitted from black holes in a process differing from that of Hawking radiation, P SH, which has been undetected for over 24 years. The radiated power from a black hole derived here is PR e ^2__ PSH, where e ^2__ is he ransmission probability for radiation through the barrier. This is similar to electric field emission of electrons from a metal in that the emission can in principle be modulated and beamed. The temperature and entropy of black holes are reexamined. Miniscule black holes herein may help explain the missing mass of the universe, accelerated expansion of the universe, and anomalous rotation of spiral galaxies. A gravitational interference effect for black hole radiation similar to the Aharonov-Bohm effect is also examined.

  16. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  17. Working With Radiation For Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    working with radiation The radiation badge is not a protective device It cannot shield you from ­ Negative Exponential Protection From Radiation #12;18 Time Distance Shielding Basic Principles #121 Working With Radiation For Research Thomas Cummings Junior Physicist Environmental Health

  18. Radiation Safety Annual Refresher Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Radiation Safety Annual Refresher Training Radiation Protection Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety #12;Topics in Radiation Safety (applicable RPD Manual sections indicated) User;Topics in Radiation Safety (applicable RPD Manual sections indicated) User and Non-user topics Types

  19. Background-independent measurement of $?_{13}$ in Double Chooz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Abe; J. C. dos Anjos; J. C. Barriere; E. Baussan; I. Bekman; M. Bergevin; T. J. C. Bezerra; L. Bezrukov; E. Blucher; C. Buck; J. Busenitz; A. Cabrera; E. Caden; L. Camilleri; R. Carr; M. Cerrada; P. -J. Chang; E. Chauveau; P. Chimenti; A. P. Collin; E. Conover; J. M. Conrad; J. I. Crespo-Anadón; K. Crum; A. Cucoanes; E. Damon; J. V. Dawson; D. Dietrich; Z. Djurcic; M. Dracos; M. Elnimr; A. Etenko; M. Fallot; F. von Feilitzsch; J. Felde; S. M. Fernandes; V. Fischer; D. Franco; M. Franke; H. Furuta; I. Gil-Botella; L. Giot; M. Göger-Neff; L. F. G. Gonzalez; L. Goodenough; M. C. Goodman; C. Grant; N. Haag; T. Hara; J. Haser; M. Hofmann; G. A. Horton-Smith; A. Hourlier; M. Ishitsuka; J. Jochum; C. Jollet; F. Kaether; L. N. Kalousis; Y. Kamyshkov; D. M. Kaplan; T. Kawasaki; E. Kemp; H. de Kerret; T. Konno; D. Kryn; M. Kuze; T. Lachenmaier; C. E. Lane; T. Lasserre; A. Letourneau; D. Lhuillier; H. P. Lima Jr; M. Lindner; J. M. López-Castaño; J. M. LoSecco; B. K. Lubsandorzhiev; S. Lucht; J. Maeda; C. Mariani; J. Maricic; J. Martino; T. Matsubara; G. Mention; A. Meregaglia; T. Miletic; R. Milincic; A. Minotti; Y. Nagasaka; K. Nakajima; Y. Nikitenko; P. Novella; M. Obolensky; L. Oberauer; A. Onillon; A. Osborn; C. Palomares; I. M. Pepe; S. Perasso; P. Pfahler; A. Porta; G. Pronost; J. Reichenbacher; B. Reinhold; M. Röhling; R. Roncin; S. Roth; B. Rybolt; Y. Sakamoto; R. Santorelli; F. Sato; A. C. Schilithz; S. Schönert; S. Schoppmann; M. H. Shaevitz; R. Sharankova; S. Shimojima; V. Sibille; V. Sinev; M. Skorokhvatov; E. Smith; J. Spitz; A. Stahl; I. Stancu; L. F. F. Stokes; M. Strait; A. Stüken; F. Suekane; S. Sukhotin; T. Sumiyoshi; Y. Sun; R. Svoboda; K. Terao; A. Tonazzo; H. H. Trinh Thi; G. Valdiviesso; N. Vassilopoulos; C. Veyssiere; M. Vivier; S. Wagner; H. Watanabe; C. Wiebusch; L. Winslow; M. Wurm; G. Yang; F. Yermia; V. Zimmer

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The oscillation results published by the Double Chooz collaboration in 2011 and 2012 rely on background models substantiated by reactor-on data. In this analysis, we present a background-model-independent measurement of the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by including 7.53 days of reactor-off data. A global fit of the observed neutrino rates for different reactor power conditions is performed, yielding a measurement of both $\\theta_{13}$ and the total background rate. The results on the mixing angle are improved significantly by including the reactor-off data in the fit, as it provides a direct measurement of the total background rate. This reactor rate modulation analysis considers antineutrino candidates with neutron captures on both Gd and H, whose combination yields $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{13})=$ 0.102 $\\pm$ 0.028(stat.) $\\pm$ 0.033(syst.). The results presented in this study are fully consistent with the ones already published by Double Chooz, achieving a competitive precision. They provide, for the first time, a determination of $\\theta_{13}$ that does not depend on a background model.

  20. Radiative Feedback in Relic HII Regions at High-Redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Mesinger; Greg L. Bryan; Zoltan Haiman

    2009-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    UV radiation from early astrophysical sources could have a large impact on subsequent star formation in nearby protogalaxies. Here we study the radiative feedback from the first, short-lived stars using hydrodynamical simulations with transient UV backgrounds (UVBs) and persistent Lyman-Werner backgrounds (LWBs) of varying intensity. We extend our prior work in Mesinger et al. (2006), by studying a more typical region whose proto-galaxies form at lower redshifts, z~13-20, in the epoch likely preceding the bulk of reionization. We confirm our previous results that feedback in the relic HII regions resulting from such transient radiation, is itself transient. Feedback effects dwindle away after ~30% of the Hubble time, and the same critical specific intensity of J_UV~0.1 x 10^{-21} ergs/s/cm^2/Hz/sr separates positive and negative feedback regimes. Additionally, we discover a second episode of eventual positive feedback in halos which have not yet collapsed when their progenitor regions were exposed to the transient UVB. This eventual positive feedback appears in all runs, regardless of the strength of the UVB. However, this feedback regime is very sensitive to the presence of Lyman-Werner radiation, and notable effects disappear under fairly modest background intensities of J_LW>10^{-3} x 10^{-21} ergs/s/cm^2/Hz/sr. We conclude that UV radiative feedback in relic HII regions, although a complicated process, seems unlikely to have a major impact on the progress of cosmological reionization, provided that present estimates of the lifetime and luminosity of a PopIII star are accurate. More likely is that the build-up of the LWB ultimately governs the feedback strength until a persistent UV background can be established. [abridged

  1. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Supply Basins...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corridors About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Major Natural...

  2. Classical Helium Atom with Radiation Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Camelio; A. Carati; L. Galgani

    2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a classical model of Helium atom in which, in addition to the Coulomb forces, the radiation reaction forces are taken into account. This modification brings in the model a new qualitative feature of a global character. Indeed, as pointed out by Dirac, in any model of classical electrodynamics of point particles involving radiation reaction one has to eliminate, from the a priori conceivable solutions of the problem, those corresponding to the emission of an infinite amount of energy. We show that the Dirac prescription solves a problem of inconsistency plaguing all available models which neglect radiation reaction, namely, the fact that in all such models most initial data lead to a spontaneous breakdown of the atom. A further modification is that the system thus acquires a peculiar form of dissipation. In particular, this makes attractive an invariant manifold of special physical interest, the zero--dipole manifold, that corresponds to motions in which no energy is radiated away (in the dipole approximation). We finally study numerically the invariant measure naturally induced by the time--evolution on such a manifold, and this corresponds to studying the formation process of the atom. Indications are given that such a measure may be singular with respect to that of Lebesgue.

  3. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maneschg, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) in {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ?15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  4. Reducing backgrounds in the higgs factory muon collider detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary design of the 125-GeV Higgs Factory (HF) Muon Collider (MC) has identified an enormous background loads on the HF detector. This is related to the twelve times higher muon decay probability at HF compared to that previously studied for the 1.5-TeV MC. As a result of MARS15 optimization studies, it is shown that with a carefully designed protection system in the interaction region, in the machine-detector interface and inside the detector one can reduce the background rates to a manageable level similar to that achieved for the optimized 1.5-TeV case. The main characteristics of the HF detector background are presented for the configuration found.

  5. Tunneling and propagation of vacuum bubbles on dynamical backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis Simon; Julian Adamek; Aleksandar Rakic; Jens C. Niemeyer

    2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of bubble universes produced by a first-order phase transition with large nucleation rates compared to the inverse dynamical time scale of the parent bubble, we extend the usual analysis to non-vacuum backgrounds. In particular, we provide semi-analytic and numerical results for the modified nucleation rate in FLRW backgrounds, as well as a parameter study of bubble walls propagating into inhomogeneous (LTB) or FLRW spacetimes, both in the thin-wall approximation. We show that in our model, matter in the background often prevents bubbles from successful expansion and forces them to collapse. For cases where they do expand, we give arguments why the effects on the interior spacetime are small for a wide range of reasonable parameters and discuss the limitations of the employed approximations.

  6. Tunneling and propagation of vacuum bubbles on dynamical backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Dennis; Rakic, Aleksandar; Niemeyer, Jens C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of bubble universes produced by a first-order phase transition with large nucleation rates compared to the inverse dynamical time scale of the parent bubble, we extend the usual analysis to non-vacuum backgrounds. In particular, we provide semi-analytic and numerical results for the modified nucleation rate in FLRW backgrounds, as well as a parameter study of bubble walls propagating into inhomogeneous (LTB) or FLRW spacetimes, both in the thin-wall approximation. We show that in our model, matter in the background often prevents bubbles from succesful expansion and forces them to collapse. For cases where they do expand, we give arguments why the effects on the interior spacetime are small for a wide range of reasonable parameters and discuss the limitations of the employed approximations.

  7. UK low-background infrastructure for delivering SuperNEMO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xin Ran

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SuperNEMO is a next generation neutrinoless double beta decay experiment with a design capability to reach a half-life sensitivity of $10^{26}$ years corresponding to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of $\\langle m_{\\beta\\beta} \\rangle$ $<$ 50 - 100 meV. To achieve this sensitivity, stringent radio-purity requirements are imposed resulting in an equally stringent screening programme. Dedicated facilities have been established in the UK for screening and selection of detector construction materials. Gamma ray spectroscopy using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors has been the standard method for the measurement of material contamination. A low-background facility has been established at Boulby Underground Laboratory. The first results from the 2 current HPGe detector are shown. Radon is one of the most critical backgrounds for SuperNEMO and most other low background experiments. It can enter the detector either through diffusion, contamination during construction or emanation from the detector material...

  8. Reducing 68Ge Background in Dark Matter Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental searches for dark matter include experiments with sub-0.5 keV-energy threshold high purity germanium detectors. Experimental efforts, in partnership with the CoGeNT Collaboration operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, are focusing on energy threshold reduction via noise abatement, reduction of backgrounds from cosmic ray generated isotopes, and ubiquitous environmental radioactive sources. The most significant cosmic ray produced radionuclide is 68Ge. This paper evaluates reducing this background by freshly mining and processing germanium ore. The most probable outcome is a reduction of the background by a factor of two, and at most a factor of four. A very cost effective alternative is to obtain processed Ge as soon as possible and store it underground for 18 months.

  9. Mapping incident photosynthetically active radiation from MODIS data over China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Shunlin

    of incident photosynthetically active radiation from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer data. Journal, nitrogen and energy in different natural systems. Since photosynthesis is the core process for energy as an input for modeling photosynthesis from single plant leaves to complex plant communities. For example

  10. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  11. Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiation EffectsProtection

  12. Equivalent Neutrinos, Light WIMPs, and the Chimera of Dark Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary Steigman

    2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    According to conventional wisdom, in the standard model (SM) of particle physics and cosmology the effective number of neutrinos is Neff=3 (more precisely, 3.046). In extensions of the standard model allowing for the presence of DeltaNnu equivalent neutrinos (or dark radiation), Neff is generally >3. The canonical results are reconsidered here, revealing that a measurement of Neff>3 can be consistent with DeltaNnu=0 (dark radiation without dark radiation). Conversely, a measurement consistent with Neff=3 is not inconsistent with the presence of dark radiation (DeltaNnu>0). In particular, if there is a light WIMP that annihilates to photons after the SM neutrinos have decoupled, the photons are heated beyond their usual heating from e+- annihilation, reducing the late time ratio of neutrino and photon temperatures (and number densities), leading to Neff3 even in the absence of equivalent neutrinos or dark radiation. A measurement of Neff>3 is thus no guarantee of the presence of equivalent neutrinos or dark radiation. In the presence of light WIMPs and/or equivalent neutrinos there are degeneracies among the light WIMP mass and its nature (fermion or boson, as well as its couplings to neutrinos or photons), the number and nature (fermion or boson) of the equivalent neutrinos, and their decoupling temperature (the strength of their interactions with the SM particles). There's more to a measurement of Neff than meets the eye.

  13. Warner College of Natural Resources Warner College of Natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    , and scientific investigation of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources. Programs include the study of everyWarner College of Natural Resources Warner College of Natural Resources Office in Natural Resources, and Conservation Biology Forestry Geology Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism Natural Resources Management

  14. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

  15. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  16. Liquefied Natural Gas (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document adopts the standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association as rules for the transportation, storage, handling, and use of liquefied natural gas. The NFPA standards...

  17. Natural Heritage Program (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Natural Heritage Reviews are conducted by the Missouri Department of Conservation on request in order to assess proposed project sites and adjacent lands. Reviews determine whether potential...

  18. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  19. Background Long history of research and education in "nuclear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemurell, Stefan

    of spent nuclear fuel · Novel nuclear fuel production #12;The third task Having questions about nuclear handled by a web-based management software. #12;Research areas Gen II + III · Nuclear techniques · Radiation protection · Nuclear Safeguards · Novel nuclear fuel production · Safety (fuel coolant

  20. Stochastic Background Search Correlating ALLEGRO with LIGO Engineering Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John T Whelan; Edward Daw; Ik Siong Heng; Martin P McHugh; Albert Lazzarini

    2003-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the role of correlation measurements between the LIGO interferometer in Livingston, LA, and the ALLEGRO resonant bar detector in Baton Rouge, LA, in searches for a stochastic background of gravitational waves. Such measurements provide a valuable complement to correlations between interferometers at the two LIGO sites, since they are sensitive in a different, higher, frequency band. Additionally, the variable orientation of the ALLEGRO detector provides a means to distinguish gravitational wave correlations from correlated environmental noise. We describe the analysis underway to set a limit on the strength of a stochastic background at frequencies near 900 Hz using ALLEGRO data and data from LIGO's E7 Engineering Run.

  1. Stochastic Background Search Correlating ALLEGRO with LIGO Engineering Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whelan, J T; Heng, I S; McHugh, M P; Lazzarini, A; Whelan, John T; Daw, Edward; Heng, Ik Siong; Hugh, Martin P Mc; Lazzarini, Albert

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the role of correlation measurements between the LIGO interferometer in Livingston, LA, and the ALLEGRO resonant bar detector in Baton Rouge, LA, in searches for a stochastic background of gravitational waves. Such measurements provide a valuable complement to correlations between interferometers at the two LIGO sites, since they are sensitive in a different, higher, frequency band. Additionally, the variable orientation of the ALLEGRO detector provides a means to distinguish gravitational wave correlations from correlated environmental noise. We describe the analysis underway to set a limit on the strength of a stochastic background at frequencies near 900 Hz using ALLEGRO data and data from LIGO's E7 Engineering Run.

  2. Technical background document for soil screening guidance. Review draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document provides the technical background behind the development of the November 1994 Soil Screening Guidance for Superfund. These documents define the Soil Screening framework, a suite of methodologies for developing Soil Screening Levels (SSLs) for 107 chemicals commonly found at Superfund sites. The document is an updated version of the background document developed in support of the September 30, 1993, draft SSL guidance (PB93-963508). The document and the Guidance is available for public comment and is currently undergoing extensive peer review. Because the guidance is still under review, it and this document should not be used until they are finalized following this rigorous technical review and public comment.

  3. In Her Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scribner, Rachel

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The following is a written thesis of the conceptual background and visual expression of Rachel Scribner's MFA thesis exhibition, installed at the University of Kansas Art and Design Gallery February 23-28, 2014. The ...

  4. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  5. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  6. High Density Nano-Electrode Array for Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mano Misra

    2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk single crystals of Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.04 to x=0.2) compound semiconductor is used for room temperature radiation detection. The production of large volume of Cd1-xZnxTe with low defect density is expensive. As a result there is a growing research interest in the production of nanostructured compound semiconductors such as Cd1-xZnxTe in an electrochemical route. In this investigation, Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor, referred as CZT, was electrodeposited in the form of nanowires onto a TiO2 nanotubular template from propylene carbonate as the non-aqueous electrolyte, using a pulse-reverse electrodeposition process at 130 ºC. The template acted as a support in growing ordered nanowire of CZT which acts as a one dimensional conductor. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) studies were conducted in determining the potentials for the growth of nanowires of uniform stoichiometry. The morphologies and composition of CZT were characterized by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The STEM mapping carried out on the nanowires showed the uniform distribution of Cd, Zn and Te elements. TEM image showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline in nature. The Mott-Schottky analysis carried on the nanowires showed that the nanowires were a p-type semiconductor. The carrier density, band gap and resistivity of the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te nanowires were 4.29x1013 cm-3, 1.56 eV and 2.76x1011?-cm respectively. The high resistivity was attributed to the presence of deep defect states such as cadmium vacancies or Te antisites which were created by the anodic cycle of the pulse-reverse electrodeposition process. Stacks of series connected CZT nanowire arrays were tested with different bias potentials. The background current was in the order of tens of picoamperes. When exposed to radiation source Amerecium-241 (60 KeV, 4 ?Ci), the stacked CZT nanowires arrays showed sensing behavior. The sensitivity of the nanowire arrays increased as the number of stacks increased. The preliminary results indicate that the CZT nanowire arrays can be used as a potential X-ray and low energy gamma ray detector material at room temperature with a much low bias potential (0.7 – 4V) as against 300 – 500 V applied in the commercial bulk detector materials.

  7. Coherent Nuclear Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Yukalov; E. P. Yukalova

    2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The main part of this review is devoted to the comprehensive description of coherent radiation by nuclear spins. The theory of nuclear spin superradiance is developed and the experimental observations of this phenomenon are considered. The intriguing problem of how coherence develops from initially incoherent quantum fluctuations is analysed. All main types of coherent radiation by nuclear spins are discussed, which are: free nuclear induction, collective induction, maser generation, pure superradiance, triggered superradiance, pulsing superradiance, punctuated superradiance, and induced emission. The influence of electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions and the role of magnetic anisotropy are studied. Conditions for realizing spin superradiance by magnetic molecules are investigated. The possibility of nuclear matter lasing, accompanied by pion or dibaryon radiation, is briefly touched.

  8. Pediatric radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halperin, E.C.; Kun, L.E.; Constine, L.S.; Tarbell, N.J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This text covers all aspects of radiation therapy for treatment of pediatric cancer. The book describes the proper use of irradiation in each of the malignancies of childhood, including tumors that are rarely encountered in adult practice. These include acute leukemia; supratentorial brain tumors; tumors of the posterior fossa of the brain and spinal canal; retinoblastoma and optic nerve glioma; neuroblastoma; Hodgkin's disease; malignant lymphoma; Ewing's sarcoma; osteosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; Desmoid tumor; Wilms' tumor; liver and biliary tumors; germ cell and stromal cell tumors of the gonads; endocrine, aerodigestive tract, and breast tumors; Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; and skin cancer and hemangiomas. For each type of malignancy, the authors describe the epidemiology, common presenting signs and symptoms, staging, and proper diagnostic workup. Particular attention is given to the indications for radiation therapy and the planning of a course of radiotherapy, including the optimal radiation dose, field size, and technique.

  9. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

  10. Optimal coherent control of CARS: signal enhancement and background elimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang Gao; Feng Shuang; JunHui Shi; Herschel Rabitz; HaiFeng Wang; JiXin Cheng

    2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to enhance resonant signals and eliminate the non-resonant background is analyzed for Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS). The analysis is done at a specific frequency as well as for broadband excitation using femtosecond pulse-shaping techniques. An appropriate objective functional is employed to balance resonant signal enhancement against non-resonant background suppression. Optimal enhancement of the signal and minimization of the background can be achieved by shaping the probe pulse alone while keeping the pump and Stokes pulses in transform-limited-form (TLF). In some cases analytical forms for the probe pulse can be found, and numerical simulations are carried out for other circumstances. It is found that a good approximate solution for the optimal pulse in the two-pulse CARS is a superposition of linear and arctangent type phases for the pump. The well-known probe delay method is shown to be a quasi-optimal scheme for background suppression. The results should provide a basis to improve the performance of CARS spectroscopy and microscopy.

  11. Spectral background and transmission characteristics of fiber optic imaging bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gmitro, Arthur F.

    Spectral background and transmission characteristics of fiber optic imaging bundles Joshua Anthony August 2008 The emission and transmission properties of three commercially produced coherent fiber optic optical fibers are used in many imaging applications to allow the flexible relay of image planes over

  12. Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper The New Electric Power Business-tuned, economically efficient, and technically-reliable electric power system. The creation of new information system is outmoded and unprepared for the challenges of the new electric power business. A result

  13. Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper Monitoring and Control of Power level control centers. However, there is little standardization of the monitoring process and data to the control center operators and security coordinators, or to the computers that can detect anomalous patterns

  14. ECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURE AND WILDLIFE A Background Report on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a system of economic incentives and develop cost effective solutions to agricultural and wildlife issues#12;ECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURE AND WILDLIFE A Background Report on the Potential for Use of Economic and Associated Floodplains prepared by Richard M. Porter for Socio-Economic Section Sustainability Division

  15. Amphibian Decline or Extinction? Current Declines Dwarf Background Extinction Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCallum, Malcolm

    the background amphibian extinction rate. If current estimates of amphibian species in imminent danger). Although it is thought that 35 species of amphibians have gone extinct since 1500, this number may). Another 1,896 species may be in imminent danger of extinction (IUCN et al., 2006). All of these estimates

  16. Geophysical constraint on a relic background of the dilatons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachie Shiomi

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    According to a scenario in string cosmology, a relic background of light dilatons can be a significant component of the dark matter in the Universe. A new approach of searching for such a dilatonic background by observing Earth's surface gravity was proposed in my previous work. In this paper, the concept of the geophysical search is briefly reviewed, and the geophysical constraint on the dilaton background is presented as a function of the strength of the dilaton coupling, $q_b^2$. For simplicity, I focus on massless dilatons and assume a simple Earth model. With the current upper limit on $q_b^2$, we obtain the upper limit on the dimensionless energy density of the massless background, $\\Omega_{DW}h^2_{100} \\leq 6 \\times 10^{-7}$, which is about one-order of magnitude more stringent than the one from astrophysical observations, at the frequency of $\\sim$ 7 $\\times$ 10$^{-5}$ Hz. If the magnitude of $q_b^2$ is experimentally found to be smaller than the current upper limit by one order of magnitude, the geophysical upper limit on $\\Omega_{DW}h^2_{100}$ becomes less stringent and comparable to the one obtained from the astrophysical observations.

  17. Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    computer models of the electric grid. In the present day power system, computer models are commonly usedPower Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper Analyzing Blackout Events in planning and operation of the electric grid to determine secure operating limits for how much power can

  18. UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    1 UCF Re-employment Compensation Process Background Information: Re-employment compensation position. Re-employment compensation is a federal-state partnership based upon federal law but it is administered at the state level. Re-employment compensation is a temporary, partial wage replacement

  19. Computational Science Program Self-Assessment Report 0. Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogaerts, Steven

    1 Computational Science Program Self-Assessment Report July, 2011 0. Background The Director of the Computational Science (COSC) program, Eric Stahlberg, left Wittenberg in late 2010. Since then, Interim Assistant Provost Elizabeth George and a reconstituted Computational Science Advisory Committee (made up

  20. Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of opportunities to produce and purchase generation cost-effectively. As a result, thousands of power transfersPower Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper Power System Operations little thought to the source of the power that comes out of the electric outlet. And why should they

  1. 1 Background 1.1 Topic of research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Sebastian

    1 Background 1.1 Topic of research Mathematical quantitative tools (like probabil- ity theory analyses on the basis of these meth- ods. 1.2 Academic and industrial con- text Interference in a security section 1.3). Applications of this work can be found in large scale, mission critical, security related

  2. Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper What is Reactive Power? Peter W-Champaign September 16, 2003 Engineering talk Reactive power is a quantity that is normally only defined for alternating current (AC) electrical systems. Our U.S. interconnected grid is almost entirely an AC system

  3. Cosmic and Galactic Neutrino Backgrounds from Thermonuclear Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristiano Porciani; Silvia Petroni; Giovanni Fiorentini

    2003-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate energy spectra and fluxes at the Earth's surface of the cosmic and Galactic neutrino backgrounds produced by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The extra-galactic component is obtained by combining the most recent estimates of the cosmic star formation history and the stellar initial mass function with accurate theoretical predictions of the neutrino yields all over the thermonuclear lifetime of stars of different masses. Models of the structure and evolution of the Milky Way are used to derive maps of the expected flux generated by Galactic sources as a function of sky direction. The predicted neutrino backgrounds depend only slightly on model parameters. In the relevant 50 keV-10 MeV window, the total flux of cosmic neutrinos ranges between 20 and 65 particles per square cm per s. Neutrinos reaching the Earth today have been typically emitted at redshift z~2. Their energy spectrum peaks at E~0.1-0.3 MeV. The energy and entropy densities of the cosmic background are negligible with respect to the thermal contribution of relic neutrinos originated in the early universe. In every sky direction, the cosmic background is outnumbered by the Galactic one, whose integrated flux amounts to 300-1000 particles per square cm per s. The emission from stars in the Galactic disk contributes more than 95 per cent of the signal.

  4. The prospects for polarized target materials with pure carbon background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.A.

    1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    None of the materials presently in common use for polarized proton targets has a pure carbon nuclear background. The alcohols and diols contain some oxygen, and the ammonia and amine-based materials contain nitrogen and/or other noncarbon species. In the latter cases the noncarbon nuclei are measurably polarized as a concomitant of the process used to polarize the hydrogen nuclei. The relative simplicity of a pure carbon background would be advantageous for most types of scattering experiments and perhaps crucial for some. In addition to simplifying the kinematics of background events, pure carbon is relatively easy to prepare as a ``dummy`` target for background subtraction. Also, in such a target material, {sup 13}C-enrichment would yield a clean polarized {sup 13}C material. In this note I explore the possibilities for such materials, touching upon only what I consider to be the ``high`` points. The subject matter is capable of nearly endless ramification and speculation. In fact, owing to a general lack of relevant experimental data, even this relatively brief note contains much that is speculative to some degree.

  5. The prospects for polarized target materials with pure carbon background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.A.

    1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    None of the materials presently in common use for polarized proton targets has a pure carbon nuclear background. The alcohols and diols contain some oxygen, and the ammonia and amine-based materials contain nitrogen and/or other noncarbon species. In the latter cases the noncarbon nuclei are measurably polarized as a concomitant of the process used to polarize the hydrogen nuclei. The relative simplicity of a pure carbon background would be advantageous for most types of scattering experiments and perhaps crucial for some. In addition to simplifying the kinematics of background events, pure carbon is relatively easy to prepare as a dummy'' target for background subtraction. Also, in such a target material, [sup 13]C-enrichment would yield a clean polarized [sup 13]C material. In this note I explore the possibilities for such materials, touching upon only what I consider to be the high'' points. The subject matter is capable of nearly endless ramification and speculation. In fact, owing to a general lack of relevant experimental data, even this relatively brief note contains much that is speculative to some degree.

  6. Natural History of Experimental Coronary Atherosclerosis and Vascular Remodeling in Relation to Endothelial Shear Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koskinas, Konstantinos C.

    Background— The natural history of heterogeneous atherosclerotic plaques and the role of local hemodynamic factors throughout their development are unknown. We performed a serial study to assess the role of endothelial ...

  7. Natural Intrinsic Geometrical Symmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haesen, Stefan; 10.3842/SIGMA.2009.086

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposal is made for what could well be the most natural symmetrical Riemannian spaces which are homogeneous but not isotropic, i.e. of what could well be the most natural class of symmetrical spaces beyond the spaces of constant Riemannian curvature, that is, beyond the spaces which are homogeneous and isotropic, or, still, the spaces which satisfy the axiom of free mobility.

  8. Technical support for amending standards for management of uranium byproduct materials: 40 cfr part 192-subpart d. Background information document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is amending 40 CFR 192, Subpart D, dealing with disposal of uranium mill tailings at non-operational sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or an agreement state pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. The Background Information Document (BID) was prepared in support of the rulemaking proceedings for EPA's action. The BID only considers long-term disposal of tailings at facilities licensed by the NRC or an agreement state, and designated Title II facilities in the UMTRCA.

  9. High-level and transuranic radioactive wastes: Background information document for amendments to 40 CFR part 191

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report provides the necessary background information technical analyses, and justifications in support of the proposed amendments to 40 CFR Part 191. The scope of the report encompasses the conceptual framework for assessing radiation exposures and associated health risks. In general terms, this assessment examines the radioactive source term characterization, analysis of the movement of radionuclides from the repository through the appropriate environmental exposure pathways and doses received by members of the general public. The report used transuranic waste for individual dose and ground-water protection analysis.

  10. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  11. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  12. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  13. Radiation.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiationRadiation Safety Work

  14. FIRST SEASON QUIET OBSERVATIONS: MEASUREMENTS OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRA AT 43 GHz IN THE MULTIPOLE RANGE 25 {<=} l {<=} 475

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A.; Smith, K. M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chinone, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Cleary, K.; Reeves, R. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dumoulin, R. N.; Newburgh, L. B.; Zwart, J. T. L. [Department of Physics and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Monsalve, R.; Bustos, R. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Naess, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Wehus, I. K. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Zuntz, J. A. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bronfman, L. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Church, S. E. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Varian Physics Building, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dickinson, C., E-mail: akito@kicp.uchicago.edu [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) employs coherent receivers at 43 GHz and 94 GHz, operating on the Chajnantor plateau in the Atacama Desert in Chile, to measure the anisotropy in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). QUIET primarily targets the B modes from primordial gravitational waves. The combination of these frequencies gives sensitivity to foreground contributions from diffuse Galactic synchrotron radiation. Between 2008 October and 2010 December, over 10,000 hr of data were collected, first with the 19 element 43 GHz array (3458 hr) and then with the 90 element 94 GHz array. Each array observes the same four fields, selected for low foregrounds, together covering Almost-Equal-To 1000 deg{sup 2}. This paper reports initial results from the 43 GHz receiver, which has an array sensitivity to CMB fluctuations of 69 {mu}K{radical}s. The data were extensively studied with a large suite of null tests before the power spectra, determined with two independent pipelines, were examined. Analysis choices, including data selection, were modified until the null tests passed. Cross-correlating maps with different telescope pointings is used to eliminate a bias. This paper reports the EE, BB, and EB power spectra in the multipole range l = 25-475. With the exception of the lowest multipole bin for one of the fields, where a polarized foreground, consistent with Galactic synchrotron radiation, is detected with 3{sigma} significance, the E-mode spectrum is consistent with the {Lambda}CDM model, confirming the only previous detection of the first acoustic peak. The B-mode spectrum is consistent with zero, leading to a measurement of the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r = 0.35{sup +1.06}{sub -0.87}. The combination of a new time-stream 'double-demodulation' technique, side-fed Dragonian optics, natural sky rotation, and frequent boresight rotation leads to the lowest level of systematic contamination in the B-mode power so far reported, below the level of r = 0.1.

  15. Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

  16. The pre-inflationary vacuum in the cosmic microwave background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian A. Powell; William H. Kinney

    2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the effects on the primordial power spectrum of a period of radiation-dominated expansion prior to the inflationary era. If inflation lasts a total of only 60 e-folds or so, the boundary condition for quantum modes cannot be taken in the short-wavelength limit as in the standard perturbation calculation. Instead, the boundary condition is set by the vacuum state of the prior radiation-dominated epoch, which only corresponds to the inflationary vacuum state in the ultraviolet limit. This altered vacuum state results in a modulation of the inflationary power spectrum. We calculate the modification to a best-fit model from the WMAP3 data set, and find that power is suppressed at large scales. The modified power spectrum is favored only very weakly by the data.

  17. Light scattering by radiation fields: the optical medium analogy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Pierluigi Fortini; Andrea Geralico; Maria Haney; Antonello Ortolan

    2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical medium analogy of a radiation field generated by either an exact gravitational plane wave or an exact electromagnetic wave in the framework of general relativity is developed. The equivalent medium of the associated background field is inhomogeneous and anisotropic in the former case, whereas it is inhomogeneous but isotropic in the latter. The features of light scattering are investigated by assuming the interaction region to be sandwiched between two flat spacetime regions, where light rays propagate along straight lines. Standard tools of ordinary wave optics are used to study the deflection of photon paths due to the interaction with the radiation fields, allowing for a comparison between the optical properties of the equivalent media associated with the different background fields.

  18. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  19. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Ansanelli, Eric [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  20. Three Dimensional Radiative Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel

    2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative Transfer (RT) effects play a crucial role in the thermal history of the intergalactic medium. Here I discuss recent advances in the development of numerical methods that introduce RT to cosmological hydrodynamics. These methods can also readily be applied to time dependent problems on interstellar and galactic scales.