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Sample records for nato sym bol

  1. Saving NATO's Foundation John Deutch, Arnold Kanter, and Brent Scowcroft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutch, John

    Saving NATO's Foundation John Deutch, Arnold Kanter, and Brent Scowcroft FOREIGN AFFAIRS Volume 78--notablyinformationtechnologythatappliestocommand, control, communication, and intelligence. The air war in Kosovo [54] Saving NATO's Foundation John Deutch

  2. The Fish Barcode of Life (FISH-BOL) special issue ROBERT HANNER1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeSalle, Rob

    EDITORIAL The Fish Barcode of Life (FISH-BOL) special issue ROBERT HANNER1 , ROB DESALLE2 , ROBERT, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia The fascinating diversity of fishes coupled with their broad socio and distribution of many, if not most species of fish. Climate change is likely to exacerbate these effects

  3. Bootstrapping correlation functions in N=4 SYM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Chicherin; Reza Doobary; Burkhard Eden; Paul Heslop; Gregory P. Korchemsky; Emery Sokatchev

    2015-06-16

    We describe a new approach to computing the chiral part of correlation functions of stress-tensor supermultiplets in N=4 SYM that relies on symmetries, analytic properties and the structure of the OPE only. We demonstrate that the correlation functions are given by a linear combination of chiral N=4 superconformal invariants accompanied by coefficient functions depending on the space-time coordinates only. We present the explicit construction of these invariants and show that the six-point correlation function is fixed in the Born approximation up to four constant coefficients by its symmetries. In addition, the known asymptotic structure of the correlation function in the light-like limit fixes unambiguously these coefficients up to an overall normalization. We demonstrate that the same approach can be applied to obtain a representation for the six-point NMHV amplitude that is free from any auxiliary gauge fixing parameters, does not involve spurious poles and manifests half of the dual superconformal symmetry.

  4. Reliable Scalable Symbolic Computation: The Design of SymGridPar2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trinder, Phil

    structures, and dynamic load management for handling dynamic and irregular parallelism. SymGridPar is not

  5. NLO Evolution of Color Dipoles in N = 4 SYM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni A. Chirilli

    2008-11-21

    The small-$x_B$ deep inelastic scattering in the saturation region is governed by the non-linear evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. I discuss recent calculation of the next-to-leading order evolution of color dipoles in QCD and ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM.

  6. Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras 183 Bol. Invest. Mar. Cost. 43 (1) ISSN 0122-9761 Santa Marta, Colombia, 2014183-193

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

    Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras 183 Bol. Invest. Mar. Cost. 43 (1) ISSN 0122 Ecologia e Zoologia, Lab. de Biogeografia e Macroecologia Marinha, Florianópolis, SC 88010-970, Brasil Postal 6109, 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. isazima@gmail.com RESUMEN Asociaciones alimentarias

  7. Thermal analysis for CVL's: Part 2, Final report. [VuSymP code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report documents work carried out for the Copper Vapor Laser (CVL) technology group in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program at LLNL. The problems addressed in this subcontract have focused on the efficient calculation of thermal viewfactors in three-dimensional configurations. Part I of this report provides a detailed description of the algorithms employed in the VuSymP code which has been developed under this subcontract, and has been delivered to LLNL. This volume describes several enhancements of VuSymP which have been implemented to make the code more useful to the CVL group at LLNL.

  8. Amplitudes, Form Factors and the Dilatation Operator in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Wilhelm

    2015-03-24

    We study the form factor of a generic gauge-invariant local composite operator in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory. At tree level and for a minimal number of external on-shell super fields, we find that the form factor precisely yields the spin-chain picture of integrability in the language of scattering amplitudes. Moreover, we compute the cut-constructible part of the one-loop correction to this minimal form factor via generalised unitarity. From its UV divergence, we obtain the complete one-loop dilatation operator of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory. Thus, we provide a field-theoretic derivation of a relation between the one-loop dilatation operator and the four-point tree-level amplitude which was observed earlier. We also comment on the implications of our findings in the context of integrability.

  9. SYM N=4 in light-cone gauge and the "bridge" identities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bassetto; G. De Pol

    2007-12-17

    The light-cone gauge allows to single out a set of ``transverse'' fields (TF), whose Green functions are free from UV divergences in SYM N=4. Green functions with external lines involving the remaining fields do instead exhibit divergences: indeed those fields can be expressed, by solving their equations of motion, as composite operators in terms of ``transverse'' fields. A set of exact identities (bridge identities) automatically realize their insertions in a path-integral formulation.

  10. Angular Momentum and Gravimagnetization of the ${\\cal N}=2$ SYM vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gorsky

    2011-02-09

    In this note we discuss the gravimagnetization of the ${\\cal N}=2$ SYM vacuum in the $\\Omega$-background. It is argued that the Seiberg-Witten prepotential is related to the vacuum density of the angular momentum in the Euclidean $R^4$ space. The possible role of the dyonic instantons as the microscopic angular momentum carriers which could yield the spontaneous vacuum gravimagnetization is conjectured. We interpret the dyonic instanton as a kind of the Euclidean bounce in $R^4$ similar to one responsible for the Schwinger pair creation. The induced angular momentum in $R^4$ is also briefly considered in the dual Liouville formulation of $SU(2)$ theory via AGT relation.

  11. Excited States of Open Strings From $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dzienkowski, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We continue the analysis of building open strings stretched between giant gravitons from $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM by going to second order in perturbation theory using the three-loop dilatation generator from the field theory. In the process we build a Fock-like space of states using Cuntz oscillators which can be used to access the excited open string states. We find a remarkable cancellation among the excited states that shows the ground state energy is consistent with a fully relativistic dispersion relation.

  12. Excited States of Open Strings From $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Dzienkowski

    2015-07-06

    We continue the analysis of building open strings stretched between giant gravitons from $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM by going to second order in perturbation theory using the three-loop dilatation generator from the field theory. In the process we build a Fock-like space of states using Cuntz oscillators which can be used to access the excited open string states. We find a remarkable cancellation among the excited states that shows the ground state energy is consistent with a fully relativistic dispersion relation.

  13. An all order identity between ABJM and N=4 SYM four-point amplitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco S. Bianchi; Matias Leoni; Silvia Penati

    2011-12-15

    We derive an exact algebraic identity between the two-loop four-point amplitude in ABJM theory and the corresponding one-loop amplitude in N=4 SYM theory. This identity generalizes previous partial results to an exact relation valid at all orders in the IR regulator. Moreover, it allows to conjecture an exact iterative expression for the complete three dimensional amplitude in terms of the BDS ansatz for the four dimensional one, indicating that the strict relation between the two amplitudes experimented at two loops might propagate to all orders. In particular, an almost complete expression for the ABJM amplitude at four loops is derived.

  14. SymFET: A Proposed Symmetric Graphene Tunneling Field Effect Pei Zhao, Randall M. Feenstra, Gong Gu and Debdeep Jena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    that is not present in conventional semiconductors. I. INTRODUCTION Graphene is an atomically thin two dimensional (2D current. The SymFET takes advantage of the perfect symmetry of the bandstructure of 2D graphene, a feature applications till date. Most studies of graphene based devices have focused on car- rier transport in the 2D

  15. Gauge/Gravity Duality, Green Functions of N=2 SYM and Radial/Energy-Scale Relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Jun Wang; Seng Hu

    2002-07-19

    We consider supergravity configuration of D5 branes wrapped on supersymmetric 2-cycles and use it to calculate one-point and two-point Green functions of some special operators in N=2 super Yang-Mills theory. We show that Green functions obtained from supergravity include two very different parts. One of them corresponds to perturbative results of quantum field theory, and another is a non-perturbative effect which corresponds to contribution from instantons with fractional charge. Comparing Green functions obtained from supergravity and gauge theory, we obtain radial/energy-scale relation for this gauge/gravity correspondence with N=2 supersymmetry. This relation leads right beta-function of N=2 SYM from supergravity configuration.

  16. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 2: Papers and presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and panels. This volume contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.). Individual papers in this volume were abstracted and indexed for the database.

  17. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 1, Introduction and summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinne, R.L. [ed.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies or exercise. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. This volume, Volume 1, contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).

  18. Cutting through form factors and cross sections of non-protected operators in N=4 SYM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhritiman Nandan; Christoph Sieg; Matthias Wilhelm; Gang Yang

    2015-03-30

    We study the form factors of the Konishi operator, the prime example of non-protected operators in N=4 SYM theory, via the on-shell unitarity methods. Since the Konishi operator is not protected by supersymmetry, its form factors share many features with those in QCD, such as the occurrence of rational terms and of UV divergences that require renormalization. A subtle point is that this operator depends on the spacetime dimension. This requires a modification when calculating its form factors via unitarity methods. We derive a rigorous prescription that implements this modification to all loop orders and obtain the two-point form factor up to two-loop order and the three-point form factor to one-loop order. From these form factors, we construct an IR-finite cross section type quantity, namely the inclusive decay rate of the (off-shell) Konishi operator to any final (on-shell) state. Via the optical theorem, it is connected to the imaginary part of the two-point correlation function. We extract the Konishi anomalous dimension up to two-loop order from it.

  19. This is the preprint of an article which appeared in the Austrian Grid Sym-posium Proceedings as published by the Austrian Computer Society (http

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhl, Andreas

    This is the preprint of an article which appeared in the Austrian Grid Sym- posium Proceedings Abstract. GVid is a Grid service that enables the secure and transparent integration and develop- ment of graphical user interface applications in the Grid. It separates the potentially computation- ally complex

  20. Journal of Counter-Ordnance Technology (Sixth International Sym um on Technology and Mine Problem, NPS, 10-13 Uncertainty in Acoustic Mine Detection Due to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Peter C.

    alternative to nuclear submarines. Technological advancements in battery design have resulted in higherJournal of Counter-Ordnance Technology (Sixth International Sym um on Technology and Mine Problem advantage of nuclear submarines is negligible to these countries. Mines come in a multitude of variations

  1. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 3: Papers by Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process-and how-would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. This volume contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).

  2. Politics of NATO short-range nuclear modernization 1983-1990: The follow-on-to-Lance missile decisions. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    The follow-on to Lance (FOTL) missile was born in 1983 with a consensual decision by NATO, in the face of a worsening strategic situation, to pursue short-range nuclear force (SNF) modernization. The program continued despite increasing popular and political opposition in Europe. It ended with a May 1990 cancellation decision by the American bureaucracy that reflected converging pressures from the international system, from America's allies, and from the domestic arena. The thesis attempts to answer each question through the use of one of three analytical perspectives: systemic theory, alliance politics, or domestic politics. It concludes that during this time of diminishing threat at the systemic level, domestic-level factors within the German and American milieu became more important. While certain perspectives are better at explaining particular aspects or temporal periods of modernization cases, analysts should not focus on one perspective to the exclusion of others. Unexplained residual variables fall through the filter of each perspective, calling for further study by other approaches.

  3. Bol. Soc. Esp. Mat. Apl. no 0 (0000), 133

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    good permanent magnet properties, and in particular, a high coercive field and approximately sample generates a magnetic field, which can be obtained by solving the Maxwell equations [9]. We refer spontaneous magnetization. The magnetization in ferromagnetic materials can exhibit intricate domain

  4. Kees Bol, a scientist on Project Matterhorn, PDX and numerous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gyroscope Company in Lake Success, New York, on Long Island from 1949 to 1954 during the Cold War but lost his security clearance because the F.B.I. considered his work at the...

  5. Bol. Soc. Esp. Mat. Apl. no 30(2004), 115141

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández Gallardo, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    editoriales de los principales peri´odicos del mundo se ocupan estos d´ias de la noticia de la salida a Bolsa´an a la venta acciones por valor de 2700 millones de d´olares. Quiz´as por el recuerdo de los excesos y

  6. Bol. Soc. Esp. Mat. Apl. no 0 (0000), 111

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontelos, Marco

    burbujas,... A pesar de la importancia del fen´omeno, la teor´ia matem´atica del mismo progresa lentamente´olido. Matem´aticamente, el impulso a la investigaci´on de comportamientos singulares viene determinado por formaci´on de una gota est´an dominados por el comportamiento 1 #12;2 M. A. Fontelos de una singularidad

  7. Bol. Soc. Esp. Mat. Apl. no 0 (0000), 16

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ipsen, Ilse

    to display web pages, the search engine Google computes the PageRank vector, whose entries are the PageRanks of the web pages. The PageRank vector is the stationary distribution of a stochastic matrix, the Google represents the link structure of the web graph and a second, rank-one matrix, mimics the random behaviour

  8. Bol. Soc. Esp. Mat. Apl. no 0 (0000), 124

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedroche, Francisco

    Los algoritmos de b´usqueda de informaci´on en internet, como el PageRank de Google, constituyen un ejemplo excelente de aplicaci´on de las herramientas b´asicas del an´alisis matricial, las cadenas de. Introducci´on En mayo de 2005, una consulta en internet usando el motor de b´usqueda Google1 informaba de que

  9. How a neural net grows symbols Proceedings of the Seventh Australian Conference on Neural Networks, Canberra, 1996, pp. 91-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franklin, James

    How a neural net grows symbols Proceedings of the Seventh Australian Conference on Neural Networks neural networks and symbolic AI, in such a way as to combine the good features of each. It is argued.Franklin@unsw.edu.au April 8, 2005 Abstract Brains, unlike artificial neural nets, use sym- bols to summarise and reason

  10. SymPowerco Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeter BatterySolarfinMarketMember CorpSunviePtySwatchSylacauga

  11. Heidelberg University Institute of Environmental Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, Kurt

    T [ C] depthbelowsurfacez[m] ref borehole-temp; file fig/7-heat/borehole-CA-0 he Dome C core [EPICA, 2004]. All these 230 Figure 7.8. Temperatures measured in 1978 in a deep borehole at 75.7 W 45.4 N geothermal gradient (red line) is 0.014 K m-1 . The deviation from the mean temperature (green sym- bols

  12. Effects of Yeast Product on Modulating the Adaptive Immune Function in Broilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jung-Woo

    2014-12-10

    1 1Updated November 2012. Editorial Policies and Procedures Poultry Science publishes the results of fundamental and applied research concerning poultry, poultry products, and avian species in general. Submitted manuscripts shall provide new facts... do not require “s.” Chemical sym- bols and three-letter abbreviations for amino acids do not need definition. Units of measure, except those in the standard Poultry Science abbreviation list, should be ab- breviated as listed in the CRC Handbook...

  13. Bol. Asoc. Herpetol. Esp. (2008) 192 El Mediterrneo Occidental constituye uno

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carranza, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    -spots" de biodiversidad definidos a escala mundial (Myers et al., 2000). Buena parte de su biodiversidad

  14. Bol. SAO (1999) Vol. X No. 18-19 CUERVO et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuervo, Andrés

    1999-01-01

    .salaman@zoo.ox.ac.uk Introducción Los crácidos son muy importantes en la dinámica de los bosques neotropicales; sus bajas densidades con el ánimo de localizar poblaciones de C. alber

  15. Derk Bol, Materials Innovation Institute M2i (Netherlands) M2i, Material

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 20153Danielthrough theK APolicyonStatesinJapanScarcity

  16. Kees Bol, a scientist on Project Matterhorn, PDX and numerous experiments,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand Cubic Feet) SoldDepartment of EnergyPower Flowingdies

  17. The blackcheek tonguefish, Sym-phurus plagiusa (Linnaeus, 1766),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Symphurus plagiusa (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes), in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia* Mark R. Terwilliger University Corvallis, Oregon 97331 E-mail address: terwillm@ucs.orst.edu Thomas A. Munroe National Marine

  18. Modular properties of full 5D SYM partition function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian Qiu; Luigi Tizzano; Jacob Winding; Maxim Zabzine

    2015-12-17

    We study properties of the full partition function for the $U(1)$ 5D $\\mathcal{N}=2^*$ gauge theory with adjoint hypermultiplet of mass $M$. This theory is ultimately related to abelian 6D (2,0) theory. We construct the full non-perturbative partition function on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds by gluing flat copies of the Nekrasov partition function and we express the full partition function in terms of the generalized double elliptic gamma function $G_2^C$ associated with a certain moment map cone $C$. The answer exhibits a curious $SL(4,\\mathbb{Z})$ modular property. Finally, we propose a set of rules to construct the partition function that resembles the calculation of 5D supersymmetric partition function with the insertion of defects of various co-dimensions.

  19. Parton picture for the strongly coupled SYM plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Iancu

    2008-05-27

    Deep inelastic scattering off the strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma at finite temperature can be computed within the AdS/CFT correspondence, with results which are suggestive of a parton picture for the plasma. Via successive branchings, essentially all partons cascade down to very small values of the longitudinal momentum fraction x and to transverse momenta smaller than the saturation momentum Q_s\\sim T/x. This scale Q_s controls the plasma interactions with a hard probe, in particular, the jet energy loss and its transverse momentum broadening.

  20. Instanton corrections to the effective action of N=4 SYM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianchi, Massimo; Wen, Congkao

    2015-01-01

    We compute the one-instanton effective action of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with gauge group Sp(2N). The result can be written in a very compact and manifestly supersymmetric form involving an integral over the superspace of an irrational function of N=4 on-shell superfields. In the Coulomb branch, the instanton corrects both the MHV and next-to-next-MHV gluon couplings D^4F^{2n+2} and F^{2n+4} as well as their super-symmetrically related partners. We confirm at the non-perturbative level the non-renormalization theorems for MHV couplings F^{2n+2} that are expected to receive perturbative corrections only at n-loops. We compute also the one and two-loop corrections to the D^4F^4 coupling and show that its completion under SL(2,Z) duality is consistent with the one-instanton results of U(2) gauge group.

  1. Modular properties of full 5D SYM partition function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian Qiu; Luigi Tizzano; Jacob Winding; Maxim Zabzine

    2015-11-19

    We study properties of the full partition function for the $U(1)$ 5D $\\mathcal{N}=2^*$ gauge theory with adjoint hypermultiplet of mass $M$. This theory is ultimately related to abelian 6D (2,0) theory. We construct the full non-perturbative partition function on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds by gluing flat copies of the Nekrasov partition function and we express the full partition function in terms of the generalized double elliptic gamma function $G_2^C$ associated with a certain moment map cone $C$. The answer exhibits a curious $SL(4,\\mathbb{Z})$ modular property. Finally, we propose a set of rules to construct the partition function that resembles the calculation of 5D supersymmetric partition function with the insertion of defects of various co-dimensions.

  2. RTO-MP-AVT-123 PAPER NBR -1 NATO/PFP UNCLASSIFIED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh, Krishnan

    of propeller crashback Martin Vysohlíd & Krishnan Mahesh Aerospace Engineering & Mechanics University propulsors that often determines propulsor strength, and strongly affects overall maneuverability. Figure 1

  3. Film-Flam: How MPAA/NATO movie labels hide the biggest media risk to kids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polansky, Jonathan R.; Mitchell, Shelley; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    School Documentary Documentary 1994 film Documentary Notesrate future films with tobacco imagery, documentaries wouldrelease films with fewer than 10 incidents (the documentary

  4. Eos,Vol. 83, No. 51, 17 December 2002 A North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Yoram

    contribute to the urgent need to better understand the shallow subsurface. Conventional sampling techniques for char- acterizing or monitoring the shallow subsur- face typically involve drilling a borehole

  5. Support of the NATO Effects Task Group by Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    A method is outlined for measuring the transient attenuation of optical fibers and/or cables exposed to a pulse of radiation (gamma rays, x-rays, electrons, protons, neutrons, etc). It can be employed to determine the level of radiation-induced attenuation (in units of dB/km as a function of time) produced in single-mode or multi-mode optical fibers, in either cabled or uncabled form, due to pulsed exposure to radiation. Co{sup 60} radiation-induced attenuation is measured by optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) techniques and compared to conventional optical throughput measurements. Relative advantages and disadvantages of the OTDR technique are discussed.

  6. NATO CCMS Pilot Study on Clean Products and Processes 2003 Annual Meeting, May 11 -15, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    with the Cogeneration Design System. The Chemical Complex (Multi-Plant) Analysis System is a new methodology that has Management in Multi-Plant, Chemical Production Complexes T. A. Hertwiga , A. Xub , D. B.Ozyurtb , S. Indalab@hal.lamar.edu Abstract The Chemical Complex and Cogeneration Analysis System is an advanced technology for energy

  7. Universidad Sim#n Bol#var Departamento de Computaci#n y Tecnolog#a de la Informaci#n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meza, Oscar J.

    basei[] hnombrei; determina que la variable hnombrei es un arreglo cuyos elementos son de tipo htipo basei. Por ejemplo, las declara­ ciones int[] a; boolean[] c0, c1; MaquinaTrazados[] maqs; nos dicen que tama#o hnumero naturali con segmento dominio [ 0 : : hnumero naturali ) y elementos de tipo htipo basei

  8. One-Loop Partition Functions in Deformed $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Fokken; Matthias Wilhelm

    2015-03-26

    We study the thermodynamic behaviour of the real $\\beta$- and $\\gamma_i$-deformation of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ Super Yang-Mills theory on $\\mathbb{R}\\times S^3$ in the planar limit. These theories were shown to be the most general asymptotically integrable supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric field-theory deformations of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ Super Yang-Mills theory, respectively. We calculate the first loop correction to their partition functions using an extension of the dilatation-operator and P\\'{o}lya-counting approach. In particular, we account for the one-loop finite-size effects which occur for operators of length one and two. Remarkably, we find that the $\\mathcal{O}(\\lambda)$ correction to the Hagedorn temperature is independent of the deformation parameters, although the partition function depends on them in a non-trivial way.

  9. Thermal N = 4 SYM theory as a 2D Coulomb gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hartnoll; S. Prem Kumar

    2006-10-10

    We consider N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with SU(N) gauge group at large N and at finite temperature on a spatial S^3. We show that, at finite weak 't Hooft coupling, the theory is naturally described as a two dimensional Coulomb gas of complex eigenvalues of the Polyakov-Maldacena loop, valued on the cylinder. In the low temperature confined phase the eigenvalues condense onto a strip encircling the cylinder, while the high temperature deconfined phase is characterised by an ellipsoidal droplet of eigenvalues.

  10. Half-BPS SU(N) Correlators in N=4 SYM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. W. Brown

    2008-04-03

    In this note we study half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills for gauge group SU(N) at finite N. In particular we elaborate on the results of hep-th/0410236, providing an exact formula for the null basis operators algorithmically constructed there. For gauge groups U(N) and SU(N) we show that this basis is dual to the basis of multi-trace operators with respect to the two point function. We use this to extend the results of hep-th/0611290 concerning factorisation and probabilities from U(N) to SU(N). We also give a construction for a separate diagonal basis of the SU(N) operators in terms of the higher Hamiltonians of the complex matrix model reduction of this sector.

  11. Three-point functions in ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM: the hexagon proposal at three loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eden, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Basso, Komatsu and Vieira recently proposed an all-loop framework for the computation of three-point functions of single-trace operators of ${\\cal N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills, the "hexagon program". This proposal results in several remarkable predictions, including the three-point function of two protected operators with an unprotected one in the $SU(2)$ and $SL(2)$ sectors. Such predictions consist of an "asymptotic" part---similar in spirit to the asymptotic Bethe Ansatz of Beisert and Staudacher for two-point functions---as well as additional finite-size "wrapping" L\\"uscher-like corrections. The focus of this paper is on such wrapping corrections, which we compute at three-loops in the $SL(2)$ sector. The resulting structure constants perfectly match the ones obtained in the literature from four-point correlators of protected operators.

  12. Siphonophores of the Pacific with a Review of the World Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarino, Angeles

    1971-01-01

    neo Occidental. Bol. Inst. Espa˜ ol Oceanogr. , (81): 1-26.ntico Ib´ rico. Bol. Inst. Espa˜ ol Oceanogr. , (82): 1-51.

  13. The One-Loop Six-Dimensional Hexagon Integral and its Relation to MHV Amplitudes in N=4 SYM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin

    2011-08-19

    We provide an analytic formula for the (rescaled) one-loop scalar hexagon integral {tilde {Phi}}{sub 6} with all external legs massless, in terms of classical polylogarithms. We show that this integral is closely connected to two integrals appearing in one- and two-loop amplitudes in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, {Omega}{sup (1)} and {Omega}{sup (2)}. The derivative of {Omega}{sup (2)} with respect to one of the conformal invariants yields {tilde {Phi}}{sub 6}, while another first-order differential operator applied to {tilde {Phi}}{sub 6} yields {Omega}{sup (1)}. We also introduce some kinematic variables that rationalize the arguments of the polylogarithms, making it easy to verify the latter differential equation. We also give a further example of a six-dimensional integral relevant for amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills.

  14. SPACEWAR WIRE MILITARY SPACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    arrest officer from Azerbaijan over brutal murder NATO chief hopes Putin will attend bloc's June summit

  15. Systematic Techniques for Finding and Preventing Script Injection Vulnerabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Prateek

    2012-01-01

    Sym- posium on Software Testing and Analysis. 2008. [6] E.Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation.Sym- posium on Software Testing and Analysis. 2009. [67

  16. Instabilities and chaos in quantum optics II; Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, Il Ciocco, Italy, June 28-July 7, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, N.B.; Arecchi, F.T.; Lugiato, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The following topics are considered: laser and maser instabilities, classical and quantum noise, transverse effects, dynamics in optical bistability and nonlinear optical media, and methods of analysis in nonlinear dynamics. Particular papers are presented on multistability and chaos in a two-photon microscopic maser, quantum chaos in quantum optics, spatial chaos in bistable optical arrays, four-wave mixing and dynamics, and bifurcation problems in nonlinear optics.

  17. to appear in Calculational System Design, Proceedings of the International Summer School Marktoberdorf, Ed. M. Broy, NATO ASI Series, IOS Press, Amsterdam, 1999.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas R.

    presents a mechanizable framework for representing these various sources of information, and for composing Douglas R. Smith Kestrel Institute 3260 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto, California 94304 20 December 1998. The framework is based on a category of specifications. The key idea is rep­ resenting knowledge about

  18. Reference to Situation Content in Uyghur Auxiliary bolmaq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Andrew; Eziz, Gülnar; Major, Travis

    2015-01-01

    we’ve seen so far. Cough as part of medical checkup (ex. (the physical c. bolP = ?s. cough(I)(s) & SAC(s l )(s) Leg-y¨otel-ip bol-du-m cough- IP bol-past-1s ‘I coughed’ # put-

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Low diversity and high host preference of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of biotrophic fungi, endophytes, mycorrhizal and hexapod sym- bionts, is largely driven by their host preference

  20. Ties That Do Not Bind: Russia and the International Liberal Order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krickovic, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    and NATO membership for Ukraine and Georgia has been pushedLe Monde, May 31, 2008. “Ukraine, Georgia membership wouldmultipolar world. 82 Keeping Ukraine out of NATO is critical

  1. 1 of 2 DOCUMENTS The Washington Post

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutch, John

    aspects. The prospect of eliminating an entire class of nuclear weapons in Europe is superficially in Europe. Since NATO's nuclear weapons were deployed in Europe principally to compensate for NATO

  2. Part 14, Authors: S To Shweig 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrey, Judith M.; Hassall, Albert; Doss, Mildred A.

    1951-01-01

    de Qu?mica de la Universidad Na- cional Autonoma de M?xico. M?xico, D. F. Bol. Lab. Bacteriol. Tucuman (Rep. Argentina). [Not available.] Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro.?Boletim do Museo Nacional. Rio de Janeiro. Bol. Ofic. Acad. M?d.-Quir. Espa...?.?Bolet?n Oficial de la Academia M?dico-Quir?rgica Espa?ola. Madrid. Bol. San., Buenos Aires.?Bolet?n Sanitario. Departamento Nacional de Higiene. Ministerio del Interior. Rep?blica Argentina. Buenos Aires. INDEX-CATALOGUE OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ZOOLOGY...

  3. Extended mpiJava for Distributed Checkpointing and Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardinale Villarreal, Yudith C.

    , and Wilmer Pereira Universidad Sim´on Bol´ivar, Departamento de Computaci´on y Tecnolog´ia de la Informaci´on

  4. Aspectos de Tolerancia a Fallas y Seguridad en Metasistemas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardinale Villarreal, Yudith C.

    Universidad Sim'on Bol'ivar, Departamento de Computaci'on y Tecnolog'ia de la Informaci'on, Apartado 89000

  5. Reanudaci'on de Ejecuci'on de Procesos en Metasistemas \\Lambda Yudith Cardinale and Emilio Hern'andez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardinale Villarreal, Yudith C.

    'andez Universidad Sim'on Bol'ivar, Departamento de Computaci'on y Tecnolog'ia de la Informaci'on, Apartado 89000

  6. Late Quaternary climate change from delta 13 O records of multiple species of planktonic foraminifera: High-resolution records from the Anoxic Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hui-Ling; Peterson, Larry C; Overpeck, Jonathan T; Trumbore, Susan E; Murray, David W

    1997-01-01

    the Lake Valencia Basin, Venezuela, Ecology, 66, 1279-1295,1954. waters of eastern Venezuela, Bol. Inst. Oceanogr.Los foraminiferos de Venezuela (resumen), Acta Geol. Hisp. ,

  7. Engineering artificial protein assemblies based on natural protein oligomeric domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Yen-Ting

    2013-01-01

    PISCES_PISAcomplex/"." $filename1"." _PISA_addAxis.pdb . /C_PISCES_PISAcomplex/"." $filename2"." _PISA_addAxis.pdb . /N_by SymD and put into the PISA files. # Filename: Add_SymD_

  8. volume10,no.5 Subjective Probabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    any particularly rele- vant statistics about this. The situation doesn't have any obvious sym- metries

  9. Deep Challenges for Foundation Performance at Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deep Challenges for Foundation Performance at Savannah River Site Frank H. Syms and Brent Gutierrez October 22, 2014

  10. Hazen, T. C., A. J. Tien, A. Worsztynowicz, D. J. Altman, K. Ulfig, and T. Manko. 2003. Biopiles for Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils: A Polish Case Study. NATO Advanced Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    on The Utilization of Bioremediation to Reduce Soil Contamination: Problems and Solutions. V. Sasek, J. Glaser, and P Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas of Poland demonstrated bioremediation to destroy oil sludges [6]. By applying oil to the soil surface, adding fertilizer (P & N), water

  11. Newell, RIE, TR Fisher, RR Holyoke and JC Cornwell, 2005. Pages 93 -120. In: The Comparative Roles of Suspension Feeders in Ecosystems. R. Dame and S.Olenin, eds. Vol. 47, NATO Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newell, Roger

    sources of N and P cause fundamental changes in the magnitude and distribution of phytoplankton biomass phytoplankton production and blooms of both toxic and nontoxic microalgae frequently have deleterious effects and Long Island Sound, USA, microbial decomposition of the excess phytoplankton biomass supported

  12. Conjugation of injections by permutations Zachary Mesyan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesyan, Zak

    , equivalently, that every h Sym() can be expressed in the form h = afa-1 bfb-1 for some a, b, f Sym() can be expressed in the form h = afa-1 bfb-1 , for some f Inj() and a, b Sym(), if and only

  13. Adjustment patterns to commodity terms of trade shocks: the role of exchange rate and international reserves policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Edwards, Sebastian; Riera-Crichton, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Q3 1997 Q3 2003 Uruguay Q2 2004 Q4 2009 Venezuela, Rep. Bol.Q1 1989 Q1 1989 Venezuela, Rep. Bol. Q4 1990 Q1 1992 End Q4Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. The data in this table show

  14. CURRICULUM VITAE Ren'e Escalante

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raydan, Marcos

    Universidad Central de Venezuela o Correo Electr'onico: rescalan Matem'aticas. Universidad Sim'on Bol'ivar, Caracas, Venezuela - 1983. o Maestr'ia_: Magister en Matem'atica. Universidad Sim'on Bol'ivar, Caracas, Venezuela - 1987. o

  15. Soviet short-range nuclear forces: flexible response or flexible aggression. Student essay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, T.R.

    1987-03-23

    This essay takes a critical look at Soviet short-range nuclear forces in an effort to identify Soviet capabilities to fight a limited nuclear war with NATO. From an analysis of Soviet military art, weapon-system capabilities and tactics, the author concludes that the Soviets have developed a viable limited-nuclear-attack option. Unless NATO reacts to this option, the limited nuclear attack may become favored Soviet option and result in the rapid defeat of NATO.

  16. Science of Computer Programming 6 (1986) 35-88 North-Holland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taubenfeld, Gadi

    1986-01-01

    , in the NATO ASI Series Vol. F 13. Nissim Francez was a WTVS at IBM Research (Yorktown) while on a sabbatical

  17. Conflict or Cooperation? Arctic Geopolitics and Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruby, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Walter. 2010. "Russia and Norway Reach Accord on Barents2011. "Better Ties For Norway, Russia Cause NATO Strains."Tancau, Romona. 2011. "Norway involved in Gaddafi bombing."

  18. Four Papers by the Supernova Cosmology Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perlmutter, S.; Deustua, S.; Gabi, S.; Goldhaber, G.

    2008-01-01

    Study Institute Thermonuclear Supernovae Conference,STUDY INSTITUTE THERMONUCLEAR SUPERNOVAE Aiguablava, SPAIN20-30, 1995 To appear-in Thermonuclear Supernovae (NATO ASI)

  19. Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackey, KRM; Chien, CT; Post, AF; Saito, MA; Paytan, A

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic,” in Trace Metals in Seawater, NATO Conferencesolubility of trace metals from natural and anthropogenicresponses to atmospheric metal deposi- tion in the coastal

  20. Physics from the lattice: glueballs in QCD; topology; SU(N) for all N

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Teper

    1997-11-06

    Lectures given at the Isaac Newton Institute, NATO-ASI School on "Confinement, Duality and Non-Perturbative Aspects of QCD", 23 June - 4 July, 1997.

  1. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  2. Supplement 18, Part 1, Authors: A To Z 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segal, Dorothy B.; Humphrey, Judith M.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

    1970-01-01

    . Cien. Nat. "Bernardino Rivadavia".? Bolet?n del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia". Instituto Nacional de Investiga-ci?n de las Ciencias Naturales. Buenos Aires. [W .] Bol. R. Soc. Espa?. Hist. Nat., Secc. Biol.? Bolet?n de... la Real Sociedad Espa?ola de Historia Natural, Sec- ci?n Biologica. Madrid. [W3?. (4/2.9 Sol8)] Bol. Soc. Cearense Agron., Fortaleza.? Boletim da Soc-iedade Cearense de Agronomia. Fortaleza, Cear?, Brasil. [W .(9.2 S0I4B)] Bol. Soc. Estud...

  3. Impact of Climate Changes on Pollution Levels in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimov, Ivan

    Impact of Climate Changes on Pollution Levels in Europe Final Report NATO Project CLG 980505 Petra scientific project: "Impact of Climatic Changes on Pollution Levels in Europe" is partly supported by a NATO ..................................................................................................... 8 3. Constant meteorology versus constant anthropogenic emissions .................. 9 4. Climatic

  4. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01

    of a Single Reading Heat Stress Instrument!! , AD BOl7and Psychological Effects of Heat Stress Simulati.ng CockpitDobos, "Indus trial Heat Stress Monitoring Ii, In: Thermal

  5. Genital Depilation and Power in Classical Greece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Paige

    2012-01-01

    La Rocca. 1978. Eros in Greece. London. Bol, Peter C. 1978.Sexual Life in Ancient Greece. London. Burkert, Walter.Men and Maidens in Ancient Greece. Chicago. Freud, Sigmund.

  6. Evaluaci'on del Desempe~no en Metasistemas Mariela J. Curiel Yudith C. Cardinale Carlos E. Figueira

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardinale Villarreal, Yudith C.

    Emilio F. Hern'andez Universidad Sim'on Bol'ivar, Departamento de Computaci'on y Tecnolog'ia de la Informaci'on, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080­A, Venezuela http://suma.ldc.usb.ve fmcuriel

  7. Extending and Evaluating a Platform for Story Understanding David K. Elson and Kathleen R. McKeown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiffman, Barry

    of the system is bol- stered by the infusion of a large library of knowledge frames, including verbs, adjectives and the infusion of over 100,000 knowledge frames to enhance the expressiveness of SCHEHERAZADE. We also describe

  8. Efficient Bug Prediction and Fix Suggestions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shivaji, Shivkumar

    2013-01-01

    International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis,Sym- posium on Software Testing and Analysis, pages 159–170,Conference on Software Testing, Verification, and

  9. Supersymmetry Algebra in Super Yang-Mills Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuichi Yokoyama

    2015-09-18

    We compute supersymmetry algebra (superalgebra) in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories (SYM) consisting of a vector multiplet including fermionic contribution in six dimensions. We show that the contribution of fermion is given by boundary terms. From six dimensional results we determine superalgebras of five and four dimensional SYM by dimensional reduction. In five dimensional superalgebra the Kaluza-Klein momentum and the instanton particle charge are not the same but algebraically indistinguishable. We also extend this calculation including a hyper multiplet and for maximally SYM. We derive extended supersymmetry algebras in these four dimensional SYM with the holomorphic coupling constant given in hep-th/9408099.

  10. Supersymmetry Algebra in Super Yang-Mills Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yokoyama, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    We compute supersymmetry algebra (superalgebra) in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories (SYM) consisting of a vector multiplet including fermionic contribution in six dimensions. We show that the contribution of fermion is given by boundary terms. From six dimensional results we determine superalgebras of five and four dimensional SYM by dimensional reduction. In five dimensional superalgebra the Kaluza-Klein momentum and the instanton particle charge are not the same but algebraically indistinguishable. We also extend this calculation including a hyper multiplet and for maximally SYM. We derive extended supersymmetry algebras in those four dimensional SYM with the holomorphic coupling constant given in hep-th/9408099.

  11. A cost-benefit approach to youth vocational training schemes in Africa 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuanyin, Emmanuel Bol

    1974-01-01

    A COST-BENEFIT APPROACH TO YOUTH VOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHEMES IN AFRICA A Thesis By EMMANUEL BOL KUANY IN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... Oecember 1974 Major Subject: Economic s A COST-BENEFIT APPROACH TO YOUTH VOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHEMES IN AFRICA A Thesis EMMANUEL BOL KUANYIN As Approved to Style and Content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member ~ ~ (Member...

  12. Universidad Simn Bolvar Memoria y Cuenta 1997-1999 Universidad Simn Bolvar Memoria y Cuenta 1997-1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vásquez, Carlos

    Universidad Simón Bolívar Memoria y Cuenta 1997-1999 Docencia 1 #12;Universidad Simón Bolívar Memoria y Cuenta 1997-1999 Docencia 2 DOCENCIA 1. Proceso de Admisión y matrícula estudiantil 1 Espacial. En septiembre del año 1998 y 1999 se realizó una prueba piloto a los nuevos estudiantes que

  13. First National Bank Bldg. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raiford Stripling Associates, Inc.; Stripling, Raiford L.

    1949-01-01

    . Agrie., Univ. Puerto Rico.? Bolet?n. Estaci?n Experimental Agricola, Uni- versidad de Puerto Rico. Rio Piedras. Bol. Hosp. Of tal. Ntra. Sra. La Luz.?Bolet?n del Hospital Oftalmologico de Ntra. Sra. de La Luz. Mexico, D. ?. Bol. Mens. Educ. San.... Bull. Vet. Dept. Bombay. [Not available.] Calif. Health?California's Health. State Depart- ment of Public Health. Sacramento; San Fran- cisco; Los Angeles. Campo, Guadalajara.?El Campo. Guadalajara, Jalisco [M?xico]. Cancer.?Le Cancer, Bruxelles...

  14. Improving the Regeneration of CO?-Binding Organic Liquids with a Polarity Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathias, Paul M.; Afshar, Kash; Zheng, Feng; Bearden, Mark D.; Freeman, Charles J.; Andrea, Tamer; Koech, Phillip K.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Zwoster, Andy; Smith, Arnold R.; Jessop, Philip G.; Nik, Omid Ghafari; Heldebrant, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an unusual solvent regeneration method unique to CO?BOLs and other switchable ionic liquids; utilizing changes in polarity to shift the free energy of the system. The degree of CO? loading in CO?BOLs is known to control the polarity of the solvent; conversely, polarity could be exploited as a means to control CO? loading. In this process, a chemically inert non-polar “antisolvent” is added to aid in de-complexing CO? from a CO?-rich CO?BOL. The addition of this polarity assist reduces temperatures required for regeneration of CO?BOLs by as much as 76 °C. The lower regeneration temperatures realized with this polarity change allow for reduced solvent attrition and thermal degradation. Furthermore, the polarity assist shows considerable promise for reducing regeneration energy of CO?BOL solvents, and separation of the CO?BOL from the antisolvent is as simple as cooling the mixture below the upper critical solution temperature. Vapour-liquid equilibrium and liquid-liquid equilibrium measurements of a candidate CO?BOL with CO? with and without an antisolvent were completed. From this data, we present the evidence and impacts of a polarity change on a CO?BOL. Thermodynamic models and analysis of the system were constructed using ASPEN Plus, and forecasts preliminary process configurations and feasibility are also presented. Lastly, projections of solvent performance for removing CO? from a sub-critical coal fired power plant (total net power and parasitic load) are presented with and without this polarity assist and compared to DOE’s Case 10 MEA baseline.

  15. Safe havens in Syria : missions and requirements for an air campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggerty, Brian Thomas

    2014-01-01

    What if the United States had led its NATO allies to intervene in Syria's civil war in the midst of calls for humanitarian intervention in mid-2012? Despite the importance of this question for the study and evaluation of ...

  16. Interaction Categories and the Foundations of Typed Concurrent Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abramsky, S.; Gay, S.J.

    Abramsky,S. Gay,S.J. Nagarajan,R. Deductive Program Design: Proceedings of the 1994 Marktoberdorf Summer School (M. Broy, ed.). NATO ASI Series F, Springer-Verlag Springer

  17. Supernovae. Part I: The events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trimble, V; Trimble, V

    1982-01-01

    Barkat, Z. , 1977, in Supernovae, edited by D. N. Schramm {Sci. Rev. 27, Canal, Supernovae. R. A. , 1981f, in NATO81.C. B. , Ed. , 1974, Supernovae and Their Remnants,

  18. Sciences and society

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-10

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  19. www.xinhuanet.com XINHUA online

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's ties with Germany, France keep momentum despite NATO expansion - Tailoring health care policies - Enterprises - Policy update - Technological & Economic Development Zones News Photos Voice People Biz) will deepen their cooperation in space technologies, hydrogen energy development, fusion development and bio

  20. Sciences and society

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    J.Luns des Pays-Bas, ancien sécétaire général de NATO (OTAN=Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord) parle du passé, présent et future de la défense européenne et des relations est et ouest

  1. NO.3 2009 7 2 2009 5 8 9:00-15:30 D.C.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tachizawa, Kazuya

    ;15 #12;16 2007 307 82 14 8 5 CIS MD NATO G8 NATO MD 2020 #12 EU EU NAVFOR EU EU EUIMF EU EU 70 G8 #12;28 G8 G20 IMF EU 1990 20 11 EU 80 80 G8 G20 G7 EU G8 #12;29 G8 G14 G20 EU IMF

  2. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration Full Technology Feasibility Study B1 - Solvent-based Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J

    2014-08-31

    PNNL, Fluor Corporation and Queens University (Kingston, ON) successfully completed a three year comprehensive study of the CO2BOL water-lean solvent platform with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed solvent synthesis, characterization, environmental toxicology, physical, thermodynamic and kinetic property measurements, Aspen Plus™ modeling and bench-scale testing of a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule. Key Program Findings The key program findings are summarized as follows: • PSAR favorably reduced stripper duties and reboiler temperatures with little/no impact to absorption column • >90% CO2 capture was achievable at reasonable liquid-gas ratios in the absorber • High rich solvent viscosities (up to 600 cP) were successfully demonstrated in the bench-scale system. However, the projected impacts of high viscosity to capital cost and operational limits compromised the other levelized cost of electricity benefits. • Low thermal conductivity of organics significantly increased the required cross exchanger surface area, and potentially other heat exchange surfaces. • CO2BOL had low evaporative losses during bench-scale testing • There was no evidence of foaming during bench scale testing • Current CO2BOL formulation costs project to be $35/kg • Ecotoxicity (Water Daphnia) was comparable between CO2BOL and MEA (169.47 versus 103.63 mg/L) • Full dehydration of the flue gas was determined to not be economically feasible. However, modest refrigeration (13 MW for the 550 MW reference system) was determined to be potentially economically feasible, and still produce a water-lean condition for the CO2BOLs (5 wt% steady-state water loading). • CO2BOLs testing with 5 wt% water loading did not compromise anhydrous performance behavior, and showed actual enhancement of CO2 capture performance. • Mass transfer of CO2BOLs was not greatly impeded by viscosity • Facile separation of antisolvent from lean CO2BOL was demonstrated on the bench cart • No measurable solvent degradation was observed over 4 months of testing – even with 5 wt% water present

  3. Competition of symmetry energy and Wigner energy in nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junlong Tian; Haitao Cui; Teng Gao; Ning Wang

    2015-08-24

    We propose a method to extract the symmetry energy coefficient (including the coefficient $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}$ of $I^{4}$ term) from the differences of available experimental binding energies of isobaric nuclei. The advantage of this approach is that one can efficiently remove the volume, surface and pairing energies in the process. It is found that the extracted symmetry energy coefficient $a^{*}_{\\rm sym}(A,I)$ decreases with increasing of isospin asymmetry $I$, which is mainly caused by Wigner correction, since $e^{*}_{\\rm sym}$ is the summation of the traditional symmetry energy $e_{\\rm sym}$ and the Wigner energy $e_{\\rm W}$. We obtain the optimal values $J=30.25$ MeV, $a_{\\rm ss}=56.18$ MeV, $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}=8.33$ MeV and the Wigner parameter $x=2.38$ through the polynomial fit to 2240 measured binding energies for nuclei with $20 \\leq A \\leq 261$ with an rms deviation of 23.42 keV. We also find that the volume-symmetry coefficient $J\\simeq 30$ MeV is insensitive to the value $x$, whereas the surface-symmetry coefficient $a_{\\rm ss}$ and the coefficient $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}$ are very sensitive to the value of $x$ in the range $1\\leq x\\leq 4$. The symmetry energy coefficients are also extracted based on 14 different theoretical mass tables. The sign (positive or negative) of $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}$ directly affects the predicted binding energies of very neutron-rich nuclei in different theoretical models, since the contribution of $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}$ term increases rapidly with increasing of isospin asymmetry $I$. For very neutron-rich nuclei or neutron star, the contribution of $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}$ term will play an important role.

  4. Competition of symmetry energy and Wigner energy in nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junlong Tian; Haitao Cui; Teng Gao; Ning Wang

    2015-08-31

    We propose a method to extract the symmetry energy coefficient (including the coefficient $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}$ of $I^{4}$ term) from the differences of available experimental binding energies of isobaric nuclei. The advantage of this approach is that one can efficiently remove the volume, surface and pairing energies in the process. It is found that the extracted symmetry energy coefficient $a^{*}_{\\rm sym}(A,I)$ decreases with increasing of isospin asymmetry $I$, which is mainly caused by Wigner correction, since $e^{*}_{\\rm sym}$ is the summation of the traditional symmetry energy $e_{\\rm sym}$ and the Wigner energy $e_{\\rm W}$. We obtain the optimal values $J=30.25$ MeV, $a_{\\rm ss}=56.18$ MeV, $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}=8.33$ MeV and the Wigner parameter $x=2.38$ through the polynomial fit to 2240 measured binding energies for nuclei with $20 \\leq A \\leq 261$ with an rms deviation of 23.42 keV. We also find that the volume-symmetry coefficient $J\\simeq 30$ MeV is insensitive to the value $x$, whereas the surface-symmetry coefficient $a_{\\rm ss}$ and the coefficient $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}$ are very sensitive to the value of $x$ in the range $1\\leq x\\leq 4$. The symmetry energy coefficients are also extracted based on 14 different theoretical mass tables. The sign (positive or negative) of $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}$ directly affects the predicted binding energies of very neutron-rich nuclei in different theoretical models, since the contribution of $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}$ term increases rapidly with increasing of isospin asymmetry $I$. For very neutron-rich nuclei or neutron star, the contribution of $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}$ term will play an important role.

  5. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    Publication 31, p. 127-155, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 1982. Galloway,on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, April 17-21, 2004. King,Oil Recovery Sym- posium, Tulsa, April 21-24. Holm, L.W. ,

  6. Measurement of Colliding Beam Parameters with Wide Angle Beamstrahlung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    crossing, significantly affecting the Twiss matrix of the machine. The beam currents N i (t) decrease due to beam lifetime also causing the machine's Twiss matrix to drift. If the machine is perfectly sym­ metric

  7. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 1 www.advmat.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    -emitting diodes,[2] photovoltaic cells,[3] optical memories,[4] sensors[5] and biomedical imaging[6] have been crystal with non-central sym- metry, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in Cd

  8. Chapter in Diakonov, D. (ed.): Subtleties in quantum field theory : Lev Lipatov Festschrift, pp. 104-149

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Balitsky

    2010-09-01

    I review the calculation of the next-to-leading order behavior of high-energy amplitudes in N=4 SYM and QCD using the operator expansion in Wilson lines.

  9. ACTINIDE-SPECIFIC SEQUESTERING AGENTS AND DECONTAMINATION APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In: The Health Eff, of Plutonium and Radium, Proc. Sym. ,The Metabolism of Compounds Plutonium and Other Actinides.In: The Radiobiology of Plutonium. Stover, B. J. , Jee, H.

  10. NLO BFKL and anomalous dimensions of light-ray operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balitsky, Ian

    2013-05-01

    This presentation covers: Regge limit in the coordinate space; “BFKL” representation of 4-point correlation function in N = 4 SYM; light-ray operators; “DGLAP” representation of 4-point correlation function; and anomalous dimensions from DGAP vs BFKL representations.

  11. Nuclear symmetry energy and the role of the tensor force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaac Vidana; Artur Polls; Constanca Providencia

    2011-07-27

    Using the Hellmann--Feynman theorem we analyze the contribution of the different terms of the nucleon-nucleon interaction to the nuclear symmetry energy $E_{sym}$ and the slope parameter $L$. The analysis is performed within the microscopic Brueckner--Hartree--Fock approach using the Argonne V18 potential plus the Urbana IX three-body force. We find that the main contribution to $E_{sym}$ and $L$ is due to the tensor component of the nuclear force.

  12. Ampere's Law and Energy Loss in AdS/CFT Duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang-Jin Sin; Ismail Zahed

    2006-08-09

    We note that the energy loss in ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM measures directly the spatial string tension $\\sigma_S=\\pi\\sqrt{\\lambda}T^2/2$ which is at the origin of the area law for large spatial Wilson loops. We show that the latter reflects on the nonperturbative nature of Ampere's law in ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM both in vacuum and at finite temperature.

  13. Water skin anomalies: density, elasticity, hydrophobicity, thermal stability, interface repulsivity, etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q. Sun

    2015-02-26

    Molecular undercoordination induced O:H-O bond relaxation and dual polarization dictates the supersolid behavior of water skins interacting with other substances such as flowing in nanochannels, dancing of water droplets, floating of insects. The BOLS-NEP notion unifies the Wenzel-Cassie-Baxter models and explains controllable transition between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity.

  14. International Planning Competition 2004 (IPC-4)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littman, Michael L.

    (Universidad Simón Bolívar) Héctor Geffner (Univ. Pompeu Fabra) Description: Labeled RTDP with lower bounds :conditional-effects :probabilistic-effects) (:predicates (bomb-in-package ?pkg) (toilet-clogged) (bomb-defused)) (:action dunk-package :parameters (?pkg) :effect (and (when (bomb-in-package ?pkg) (bomb

  15. What is 4-H? (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    en ingl?s: head (cabeza), heart (coraz?n), hands (manos) y health (salud). Las hojas del tr?bol son verdes y las haches son blancas. El color blanco representa pureza. El verde es el color m?s com?n en la naturaleza y significa juventud, vida y...

  16. Universidad Simn Bolvar Depto. de Computacin y T.I.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meza, Oscar J.

    Universidad Simón Bolívar Depto. de Computación y T.I. CI2693 Laboratorio de Algoritmos y) y en amplitud (BFS) usando el Modelo General de Etiquetamiento. Estos algoritmos se deben la clase abstracta Algoritmo, de la cual descenderán todos los algoritmos a ser usados en adelante

  17. SUBMILLIMETRE CONTINUUM EMISSION FROM CLASS 0 SOURCES: THEORY, OBSERVATIONS, AND MODELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Froebrich, Dirk

    ) and temperature (T bol ), and age) of Class 0 sources. Speci#12;cally, we combine the information from the dust1 SUBMILLIMETRE CONTINUUM EMISSION FROM CLASS 0 SOURCES: THEORY, OBSERVATIONS, AND MODELLING M Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778 Tautenburg, Germany 2 Institute for Astronomy, 640 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI

  18. universidade superior Crise e ms notas nos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    - bra desde 2005. país pág. 12 #12;Desde 2005 que não havia tão poucos candidatos Ensino Superior. 1 mostram que este é o número mais baixo de can- didatos desde 2005. Em relação ao ano passado, houve menos das famílias e de uma maior dificuldade de acesso às bol- sas de ação social". Por isso, defen- de que

  19. Issue 02 | summer 2015 mAGAZINeOf HeINrIcH HeINe uNIversIty DsselDOrf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meise, Reinhold

    Ice Offer fOr stuDeNts suspecteD eBOlA: Acid test for Special Isolation Unit HIGH BlOOD suGAr: Cough mixture lives abroad... Surrogacy and child wellbeing: What is the legal situation? 13 Cough mixture helps

  20. Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation (2006) M.-P. Cani, J. O'Brien (Editors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panne, M. van de

    2006-01-01

    by supporting the types of di- alogue and pointing that might be used when one person is explaining a desired interfaces was that developed in 1980 by Bolt [Bol80]. The "Put-That-There" system used basic speech. The system was among the first to support a speak-and-point multimodal interface. In recent years, more

  1. Review: Konferenca o Pou?evanju Južnoslovanskih Jezikov in Književnosti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ul?nik, Natalija

    2013-09-17

    v Pragi. Na tridnevni konfe­ renci (od 30. maja do 1. junija 2013) so ???????????????????????????????????????? Slovaške, Poljske, Slovenije, Hrvaške, Bosne in Hercegovine, Srbije, Makedo­ ?????????????????????????????????????? Plenarnemu predavanju uglednega ????????... ???? ? VESNA ????????? IVAN ???????? SAN? DRA ???????? ????? ??????? ANA PETROV (30. 5. in 1. 6. 2013)? (2) Bol­ garski in makedonski jezik – sodelu­ ????????????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ??...

  2. JaDiMa: Java Applications Distributed Management on Grid Platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardinale Villarreal, Yudith C.

    , and Jes´us De Oliveira Universidad Sim´on Bol´ivar, Departamento de Computaci´on y Tecnolog´ia de la Informaci´on, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A, Venezuela {yudith,eduardo}@ldc.usb.ve,jesus@bsc.co.ve Abstract

  3. Acceso Seguro a Datos Confidenciales en Grids Yudith Cardinale, Carlos Figueira y Emilio Hernandez*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardinale Villarreal, Yudith C.

    ´andez* Universidad Sim´on Bol´ivar, Departamento de Computaci´on y Tecnolog´ia de la Informaci´on, Caracas 1080-A, Venezuela {yudith,figueira,emilio}@usb.ve Resumen La tecnolog´ia grid permite compartir los recursos de;1. Introducci´on La tecnolog´ia grid [5] permite compartir los recursos de almacenamiento y facilidades de c

  4. The Gould Belt 'MISFITS' Survey: The Real Solar Neighborhood Protostars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heiderman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    We present an HCO$^{+}$ J=3-2 survey of Class 0+I and Flat SED young stellar objects (YSOs) found in the Gould Belt clouds by surveys with Spitzer. Our goal is to provide a uniform Stage 0+I source indicator for these embedded protostar candidates. We made single point HCO$^{+}$ J = 3-2 measurements toward the source positions at the CSO and APEX of 546 YSOs (89% of the Class 0+I + Flat SED sample). Using the criteria from van Kempen et al. (2009), we classify sources as Stage 0+I or bona fide protostars and find that 84% of detected sources meet the criteria. We recommend a timescale for the evolution of Stage 0+I (embedded protostars) of 0.54 Myr. We find significant correlations of HCO$^{+}$ integrated intensity with ${\\alpha}$ and $T_{bol}$ but not with $L_{bol}$. The detection fraction increases smoothly as a function of ${\\alpha}$ and $L_{bol}$, while decreasing smoothly with $T_{bol}$. Using the Stage 0+I sources tightens the relation between protostars and high extinction regions of the cloud; 89% of ...

  5. ;n 3:i'tion to the melhods recenrly reviewed in TREEoy Ro,?sset and Raymond'. the introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beerli, Peter

    genealogies ustng Markov chain Monte Carlo importance samplmg For DNA and microsatellite data these ML Hudson, R.R. I19901 Oxf. Sm. Evol. Bol. 7, 1-44 4 Watterson, G. (19%; Jheor. Popul. Bid. 35, 161-180 5 Fu: estimation of populationsize. exponentlai growth rate, data migration rates. Three programs available as C

  6. Review: Elke Hentschel, Theo Harden: Einführung in die germanistische linguistik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesenšek, Vida

    2014-11-01

    Spra- che? Sprachgeschichte. Avtor T. Harden nato v nazorno-pronicljivem slogu pre- ide h kronološki predstavitvi razvoja nemškega jezika. – Razdelek, posve?en dialektologiji, nosi naslov Das ist doch keine Sprache, das ist eine Halskrank- heit. Dia... Spra- che? Sprachgeschichte. Avtor T. Harden nato v nazorno-pronicljivem slogu pre- ide h kronološki predstavitvi razvoja nemškega jezika. – Razdelek, posve?en dialektologiji, nosi naslov Das ist doch keine Sprache, das ist eine Halskrank- heit. Dia...

  7. Constraints on neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and density-dependent symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianmin Dong; Wei Zuo; Jianzhong Gu

    2015-04-09

    Accurate knowledge about the neutron skin thickness $\\Delta R_{np}$ in $^{208}$Pb has far-reaching implications for different communities of nuclear physics and astrophysics. Yet, the novel Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) did not yield stringent constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$ recently. We employ a more practicable strategy currently to probe the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb based on a high linear correlation between the $\\Delta R_{np}$ and $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$, where $J$ and $a_{\\text{sym}}$ are the symmetry energy (coefficient) of nuclear matter at saturation density and of $^{208}$Pb. An accurate $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ thus places a strong constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$. Compared with the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{\\text{PV}}$ in the PREX, the reliably experimental information on the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ is much more easily available attributed to a wealth of measured data on nuclear masses and on decay energies. The density dependence of the symmetry energy is also well constrained with the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$. Finally, with a `tomoscan' method, we find that one just needs to measure the nucleon densities in $^{208}$Pb starting from $R_{m} = 7.61\\pm0.04$ fm to obtain the $\\Delta R_{np}$ in hadron scattering experiments, regardless of its interior profile that is hampered by the strong absorption.

  8. Competition of symmetry energy and Wigner energy in nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Junlong; Gao, Teng; Wang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to extract the symmetry energy coefficient (including the coefficient $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}$ of $I^{4}$ term) from the differences of available experimental binding energies of isobaric nuclei. The advantage of this approach is that one can efficiently remove the volume, surface and pairing energies in the process. It is found that the extracted symmetry energy coefficient $a^{*}_{\\rm sym}(A,I)$ decreases with increasing of isospin asymmetry $I$, which is mainly caused by Wigner correction, since $e^{*}_{\\rm sym}$ is the summation of the traditional symmetry energy $e_{\\rm sym}$ and the Wigner energy $e_{\\rm W}$. We obtain the optimal values $J=30.25$ MeV, $a_{\\rm ss}=56.18$ MeV, $a_{\\rm sym}^{(4)}=8.33$ MeV and the Wigner parameter $x=2.38$ through the polynomial fit to 2240 measured binding energies for nuclei with $20 \\leq A \\leq 261$ with an rms deviation of 23.42 keV. We also find that the volume-symmetry coefficient $J\\simeq 30$ MeV is insensitive to the value $x$, whereas the surface-s...

  9. Future Trends in Microelectronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luryi, Serge

    Future Trends in Microelectronics Reflections on the Road to Nanotechnology edited by Serge Luryi;Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Future Trends in Microelectronics: Reflections is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 0-7923-4169-4 Published by Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box

  10. Updated 6-13 B. Lynn Wright

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    comprehensive intelligence to Navy leadership, overseeing intelligence activities within the Navy, representing the Navy within the Intelligence Community, creating Naval Intelligence policy, and performing policy the U.S. Navy, the Joint Staff, NATO, DIA, the Secretary of Defense and a Presidential Rank Award

  11. MCM for PDEs Monte Carlo Methods for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mascagni, Michael

    Clain Research supported by ARO, DOE/ASCI, NATO, and NSF #12;MCM for PDEs Introduction Early History of MCMs History of MCMs for PDEs Probabilistic Representations of PDEs Probabilistic Representation of Elliptic for PDEs Introduction Early History of MCMs for PDEs Probabilistic Representations of PDEs Probabilistic

  12. NEW WINE IN OLD BOTTLES: An Analysis of Pakistan's Conflict in the Pashtun Tribal Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Huma

    2008-08-25

    The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan have regained prominence in recent years because of the U.S.' "war on terror" against Al-Qaeda. The Government of Pakistan, backed by the U.S. and NATO, is involved in a bloody conflict...

  13. Home -Yahoo! -My Yahoo! -News Alerts -Help FREE Web-enabled Cell Phone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savrasov, Sergej Y.

    Home - Yahoo! - My Yahoo! - News Alerts - Help FREE Web-enabled Cell Phone Home Top Stories of Energy (news - web sites) supercomputer and a grid of 80 computer processors to predict the volume radioactivity over that period. Traces of plutonium in depleted uranium (DU) weapons used by NATO (news - web

  14. An Approach to JBMC2 as a Combat System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -to-air integrated weapons system. It is designed to defend the fleet against any airborne threat. The heart (VLA) Mark 34 gun weapons system, including the Mark 160 Mod 11 gun computer system and the 5-inch/62 intentions ... Sometimes unintended consequences... #12;Combat/Weapon System weapon(s) system: (DOD, NATO

  15. The University of Melbourne Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melbourne, University of

    1 The University of Melbourne Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering 433-254 Software Design Semester 2, 2003 Solutions - Tutorial 1 Week 2 1. Define the term software engineering. Sample Answer: x An early definition given at the first NATO conference on software engineering (1968

  16. bush i police soviet percent mecham stock dukakis think shot gorbachev year keating market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blei, David M.

    dont man president rate senators index jackson people arrested summit last lincoln stocks president production office shares george thats officers mikhail department years jones bentsen see death nato months reagan got wounded foreign new made big told says men visit inflation senate prices state am officer

  17. THEORY OF CHEMICAL REACTION ANTONIO LAGANA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auzinsh, Marcis

    THEORY OF CHEMICAL REACTION DYNAMICS Edited by: ANTONIO LAGANA Department of Chemistry University Theoretical treatment of the dynamics of chemical reactions has undergone a spectacular development during the NATO Advanced Research Work- shop on the Theory of the Dynamics of Chemical Reactions in Balatonf

  18. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS The plurality of optical singularities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Michael Victor

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF OPTICS A: PURE AND APPLIED OPTICS EDITORIAL The plurality of optical singularities Guest Editors Michael Berry (Co-Director of NATO ARW) H H Wills Physics, Kiev, Ukraine This collection of papers arose from an Advanced Research Workshop on Singular Optics

  19. Jordan F. Clark Department of Earth Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Jordan

    , and the coastal ocean, 2) how flow patterns effect water chemistry and quality, 3) gas exchange across the air NRC Committee on Oil in the Sea: Natural Seeps Working Session 2002 NATO Advance Research Workshop, paleotemperatures, and paleo-recharge rates are inferred from the distribution of natural and anthropogenic tracers

  20. PERGAMON Nonlinear Analysis 40 (2000) 185-212 www.elsevier.nl/locate/na

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    or the seabed. As much of the acoustic energy passes into the seabed, this imagery is possible only if the sea of the seabed [9,10,16]; however, the primary one in usage goes back *This work was partially supported by NATO, Universitlt Heidelberg, Germany. * Corresponding author. 0362-546X/00/$-see front matter 0 2000 Elsevier

  1. Cloud-Point Phenomena in Wormlike Micellar Systems Containing Cationic Surfactant and Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    unusual phase behavior in aqueous solution as a function of temperature and added salt concentration. Low and the zero-shear viscosity 0 pass in parallel through minima as a function of NaTos concentration. Cloud M NaSal. High concentrations of salt can also cause cationic surfactant solutions to separate

  2. Symmetry energy systematics and its high density behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lie-Wen Chen

    2015-06-30

    We explore the systematics of the density dependence of nuclear matter symmetry energy in the ambit of microscopic calculations with various energy density functionals, and find that the symmetry energy from subsaturation density to supra-saturation density can be well determined by three characteristic parameters of the symmetry energy at saturation density $\\rho_0 $, i.e., the magnitude $E_{\\text{sym}}({\\rho_0 })$, the density slope $L$ and the density curvature $K_{\\text{sym}}$. This finding opens a new window to constrain the supra-saturation density behavior of the symmetry energy from its (sub-)saturation density behavior. In particular, we obtain $L=46.7 \\pm 12.8$ MeV and $K_{\\text{sym}}=-166.9 \\pm 168.3$ MeV as well as $E_{\\text{sym}}({2\\rho _{0}}) \\approx 40.2 \\pm 12.8$ MeV and $L({2\\rho _{0}}) \\approx 8.9 \\pm 108.7$ MeV based on the present knowledge of $E_{\\text{sym}}({\\rho_{0}}) = 32.5 \\pm 0.5$ MeV, $E_{\\text{sym}}({\\rho_c}) = 26.65 \\pm 0.2$ MeV and $L({\\rho_c}) = 46.0 \\pm 4.5$ MeV at $\\rho_{\\rm{c}}= 0.11$ fm$^{-3}$ extracted from nuclear mass and the neutron skin thickness of Sn isotopes. Our results indicate that the symmetry energy cannot be stiffer than a linear density dependence.In addition, we also discuss the quark matter symmetry energy since the deconfined quarks could be the right degree of freedom in dense matter at high baryon densities.

  3. CO2 Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David

    2014-05-31

    This report outlines the comprehensive bench-scale testing of the CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) solvent platform and its unique Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study outlines all efforts on a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule, including solvent synthesis, material characterization, preliminary toxicology studies, and measurement of all physical, thermodynamic and kinetic data, including bench-scale testing. Equilibrium and kinetic models and analysis were made using Aspen Plus™. Preliminary process configurations, a technoeconomic assessment and solvent performance projections for separating CO2 from a subcritical coal-fired power plant are compared to the U.S. Department of Energy's Case 10 monoethanolamine baseline.

  4. Photo-emission rate of sQGP at finite density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwanghyun Jo; Sang-Jin Sin

    2010-06-09

    We calculate the thermal spectral function of SYM plasma with finite density using holographic technique. We take the RN-AdS black hole as the dual gravity theory. In the presence of charge, vector modes of gravitational and electromagnetic perturbation are coupled with each other. By introducing master variables for these modes, we solve the coupled system and calculate spectral function. We also calculated photoemission rate of SYM plasma from spectral function for light like momentum, AC conductivity and their density dependence. The suppression of the conductivity in high density is noticed, which might be yet another mechanism for the Jet quenching phenomena in RHIC experiment.

  5. Higher Rank Wilson Loops in N = 2* Super-Yang-Mills Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xinyi Chen-Lin; Konstantin Zarembo

    2015-02-13

    The N=2* Super-Yang-Mills theory (SYM*) undergoes an infinite sequence of large-N quantum phase transitions. We compute expectation values of Wilson loops in k-symmetric and antisymmetric representations of the SU(N) gauge group in this theory and show that the same phenomenon that causes the phase transitions at finite coupling leads to a non-analytic dependence of Wilson loops on k/N when the coupling is strictly infinite, thus making the higher-representation Wilson loops ideal holographic probes of the non-trivial phase structure of SYM*.

  6. American Mineralogist, Volume 96, pages 11661170, 2011 0003-004X/11/00071166$05.00/DOI: 10.2138/am.2011.3740 1166

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Chi

    , Subpolar Urals, Russia Stuart J. MillS,1,2, * Pavel M. KartaShov,3 Chi Ma,4 GeorGe r. roSSMan,4 MarGarita i-039) from the alluvial deposits of the Bol'shaya Pol'ya River, Subpolar Urals, Russia. The new mineral, Russia 4 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

  7. THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 487:867884, 1997 October 1 1997. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.(

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    ~8.5 nondetections at B2 and later. For the B0 and B1 stars, our modeling suggests that wind attenuation of the X-known law simply may be an artifact of the neglect of wind attenuation. TheL X /L Bol B 10~7 ROSAT PSPC observations of most of the B stars are very soft, with the notable exception of q Sco (B0 V). The wind

  8. V751 Cyg and V Sge as transient supersoft Xray sources Jochen Greiner a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greiner, Jochen

    for luminous, soft X­ray emission during optical low­states in the two cataclysmic variables V751 Cyg and V Sge of the accreted matter (van den Heuvel et al. 1992). The sources are highly luminous (L bol ¸ 10 36 \\Gamma 10 38 of the energy is radiated in the far ultraviolet or soft X­ray region of the spectrum, where the radiation

  9. Relation between Supersoft Xray sources and VY Scl stars J. Greiner 1 and R. Di Stefano 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greiner, Jochen

    ­ ing its optical low state, we found that the VY Scl star V751 Cyg was a highly luminous source of soft of the accreted mat­ ter (van den Heuvel et al. 1992). The sources are highly luminous (L bol ¸ 10 36 \\Gamma 10 38 of the energy is radiated in the far ultraviolet or soft X­ray region of the spectrum, where the radiation

  10. The toxicity of different emulsions of toxaphene to cotton insects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selby, James Winford

    1952-01-01

    . Summary of the cotton boll weevil toxicity tests ~ . LS 5. Analysis of cotton bolL weevil control data ob- tained in the laboratory and field teste ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 20 4 ~ Summary of the cotton boll weevil toxicity test in the Laboratorye ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 6 Summary of the saltish caterpillar toxicity tests ~ ~ ~ eo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e( ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ee ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 22 6 ~ Vedian lethal dosage {KID) of the test materials as obtained fran the Laboratory...

  11. j j j j j j j j j j j j

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meza, Oscar J.

    Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Elementos de Teor#a Axiom#tica de Conjuntos Conjuntos Yriarte Universidad Sim#n Bol#var #12; #12; Elementos de Teor#a Axiom#tica de Conjuntos Vicente Yriarte conocimiento b#sico de l#gica. Se presentan los elementos de una teor#a axiom#tica de conjuntos, esto signi

  12. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  13. Impurity-induced bound states in iron-based superconductors with s-wave cos kxcos ky pairing symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Jiangping

    Impurity-induced bound states in iron-based superconductors with s-wave cos kx·cos ky pairing an explicit cos kx·cos ky form of the pairing sym- metry in momentum space, as long as two general conditions are small near the aforementioned spots in the FBZ. Further- more, this simple form, cos kx·cos ky

  14. Fluorescence-dip infrared spectroscopy of tropolone and tropolone-OD Rex K. Frost, Fredrick C. Hagemeister, Caleb A. Arrington, and Timothy S. Zwiera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zwier, Timothy S.

    in a sym- metric double minimum potential well.1­7 The ready wave- length accessibility, reasonable of the zero-point tunneling doublet free from interference from one another. The high power of the optical state. Its excitation in S0 will probe regions of the potential energy surface wh

  15. Symbolic Representation of Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Huan

    Draft Symbolic Representation of Neural Networks Rudy Setiono and Huan Liu Department,liuhg@iscs.nus.sg Abstract Although backpropagation neural networks generally predict better than decision trees do is needed by human experts. This work drives a sym­ bolic representation for neural networks to make

  16. RIMS K^oky^uroku Bessatsu B3 (2007), 083099

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    conditions to the bifurcation structures. For instance, Dillon, Maini and Othmer [2] 2000 Mathematics Subject with boundary conditions which is not SO(2) sym- metric in their study of biological pattern formation. Namely crossing at multiple critical points for different modes which have same parity. The same problem

  17. A novel determination of density, temperature and symmetry energy for nuclear multi-fragmentation through primary fragment yield reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Lin; X. Liu; M. R. D. Rodrigues; S. Kowalski; R. Wada; M. Huang; S. Zhang; Z. Chen; J. Wang; G. Q. Xiao; R. Han; Z. Jin; J. Liu; F. Shi; T. Keutgen; K. Hagel; M. Barbui; C. Bottosso; A. Bonasera; J. B. Natowitz; E. J. Kim; T. Materna; L. Qin; P. K. Sahu; K. J. Schmidt; S. Wuenschel; H. Zheng

    2014-02-17

    For the first time primary hot isotope distributions are experimentally reconstructed in intermediate heavy ion collisions and used with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) calculations to determine density, temperature and symmetry energy coefficient in a self-consistent manner. A kinematical focusing method is employed to reconstruct the primary hot fragment yield distributions for multifragmentation events observed in the reaction system $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon. The reconstructed yield distributions are in good agreement with the primary isotope distributions of AMD simulations. The experimentally extracted values of the symmetry energy coefficient relative to the temperature, $a_{sym}/T$, are compared with those of the AMD simulations with different density dependence of the symmetry energy term. The calculated $a_{sym}/T$ values changes according to the different interactions. By comparison of the experimental values of $a_{sym}/T$ with those of calculations, the density of the source at fragment formation was determined to be $\\rho /\\rho_{0} = (0.63 \\pm 0.03 )$. Using this density, the symmetry energy coefficient and the temperature are determined in a self-consistent manner as $a_{sym} = (24.7 \\pm 1.9) MeV$ and $T=(4.9 \\pm 0.2)$ MeV

  18. Reconstructed primary fragments and symmetry energy, temperature and density of the fragmenting source in $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Liu; W. Lin; R. Wada; M. Huang; S. Zhang; P. Ren; Z. Chen; J. Wang; G. Q. Xiao; R. Han; J. Liu; F. Shi; M. R. D. Rodrigues; S. Kowalski; T. Keutgen; K. Hagel; M. Barbui; H. Zheng; A. Bonasera; J. B. Natowitz

    2014-10-14

    Symmetry energy, temperature and density at the time of the intermediate mass fragment formation are determined in a self-consistent manner, using the experimentally reconstructed primary hot isotope yields and anti-symmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations. The yields of primary hot fragments are experimentally reconstructed for multifragmentation events in the reaction system $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon. Using the reconstructed hot isotope yields and an improved method, based on the modified Fisher model, symmetry energy values relative to the apparent temperature, $a_{sym}/T$, are extracted. The extracted values are compared with those of the AMD simulations, extracted in the same way as that for the experiment, with the Gogny interaction with three different density-dependent symmetry energy terms. $a_{sym}/T$ values change according to the density-dependent symmetry energy terms used. Using this relation, the density of the fragmenting system is extracted first. Then symmetry energy and apparent temperature are determined in a self consistent manner in the AMD model simulations. Comparing the calculated $a_{sym}/T$ values and those of the experimental values from the reconstructed yields, $\\rho /\\rho_{0} = 0.65 \\pm 0.02 $, $a_{sym} = 23.1 \\pm 0.6$ MeV and $T= 5.0 \\pm 0.4$ MeV are evaluated for the fragmenting system experimentally observed in the reaction studied.

  19. Supplemental Material Generalized Streak Lines Advected Tangent Curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of advected tangent curves. It turns out that generalized streak lines [WTS+ 07] can be described using. Generalized Streak Lines w = v, ¯f = FFF Wiebel et al. [WTS+ 07] introduced a generalization of streak lines. In Data Visualization 2003. Proc. VisSym 03, pages 141­148, 2003. [WTS+ 07] Alexander Wiebel, Xavier

  20. Constraints on neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and density-dependent symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Jianmin; Gu, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge about the neutron skin thickness $\\Delta R_{np}$ in $^{208}$Pb has far-reaching implications for different communities of nuclear physics and astrophysics. Yet, the novel Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) did not yield stringent constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$ recently. We employ a more practicable strategy currently to probe the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb based on a high linear correlation between the $\\Delta R_{np}$ and $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$, where $J$ and $a_{\\text{sym}}$ are the symmetry energy (coefficient) of nuclear matter at saturation density and of $^{208}$Pb. An accurate $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ thus places a strong constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$. Compared with the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{\\text{PV}}$ in the PREX, the reliably experimental information on the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ is much more easily available attributed to a wealth of measured data on nuclear masses and on decay energies. The density dependence of the symmetry energy is also well constrained with the $J-a_{\\...

  1. Fractals from Simple Polynomial Composite Functions Ken Shirriff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirriff, Ken

    , and the forced logistic map, as well as new fractals can be generated with this technique. In many cases, the sym parameter plane) can be generated from (1) by using common escape­time techniques. That is, for each c value of California Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT This paper describes a method of generating fractals by composing two

  2. a generalized-laguerre-fourier-hermite pseudospectral method for ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-05-29

    that begins with the study of liquid Helium and superconductors. Their appearance is viewed ... closed loop, superfluids can flow endlessly without friction. Different research ... For temperatures well below the critical temperature of the BEC, the .... Remark 2.1. It is straightforward to design high-order, e.g. fourth-order, sym-.

  3. Integrability and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam Rej

    2009-11-11

    In this article we review the recently discovered asymptotic integrability in the planar N = 4 SYM theory and discuss its breakdown beyond the asymptotic region due to the wrapping interactions. We also discuss novel dynamical tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence one can perform in the special cases when the wrapping interactions may be neglected.

  4. ENERGY DEPOSITION AND SHIELDING STUDY OF THE FRONT END FOR THE NEUTRINO FACTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    results in signif- icant background from protons and electrons, which may result in heat deposition that it is challenging to get good transmission over the desired range of momenta, and that both positive and negative chicanes induce a vertical dispersion in the beam, resulting in sym- metric transmission of both particle

  5. [A. 05] A. Blum and J. Hartline. Near-Optimal Online Auctions. In Proc. 16th Symp. on Discrete Alg. ACM/SIAM, 2005.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    . on Discrete Alg. ACM/SIAM, 2005. [AFG+ 05] G. Aggarwal, A. Fiat, A. Goldberg, J. Hartline, N. Immorlica, and M. Sudan. Derandomization of Auctions. In Proc. 37th ACM Sym- posium on the Theory of Computing. ACM Press. Competitive Gen- eralized Auctions. In Proc. 34th ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing. ACM Press, New

  6. A Maple Package for Symmetric Functions Version 2.4*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stembridge, John

    * * Maple programs that create an environment for computations involving symmetric functi* *ons and related structures. Included are programs for manipulating partitions, for conv* *erting sym- metric functions are ___________________________ *Version 2.4 is the Hermann Weyl Birthday Edition. 1This work has been supported by NSF grants DMS

  7. The "Seven Dwarfs" of Symbolic Computation* Erich L. Kaltofen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaltofen, Erich

    The "Seven Dwarfs" of Symbolic Computation* Erich L. Kaltofen Dept. of Mathematics, North Carolina://www.kaltofen.us August 26, 2011 Abstract We present the Seven Dwarfs of Symbolic Computation, which are sequential. Computation of closed form solutions SymDwf 7. Rewrite rule systems and computational group theory We

  8. Vibrational properties of semitrimer picotubes N. Rosenkranza

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    in 1996 by the synthesis of the tetramer picotube, a highly symmetric hydro- carbon, similar by structure. This picotube re- sembles a short (3,3) nanotube, whereas the sym- metry is reduced compared to the tetramer similarities to the spectra of tetramer picotubes and single-walled nanotubes. The equivalencies include

  9. Diffractionless Flow of Light in All-Optical Microchips Alongkarn Chutinan, Sajeev John, and Ovidiu Toader

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Sajeev

    crystal layers containing engineered defects into a 3D PBG material, this provides a general and versatile sym- metry, PBG materials enable microscopic molding of the flow of light without recourse control of diffractive effects, light localization enables molding of light flow on a micron- scale

  10. Laplace Transform May 7, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mead, Jodi L.

    MATH 333 Laplace Transform Lab 9 May 7, 2008 In this lab we will compute the Laplace transform symbolically and the inverse Laplace transform both symbolically and numerically. Symbolic representation The command syms assigns a variable to be symbolic, laplace(f) finds the Laplace transform of a function f

  11. CELLULAR AUTOMATA BASED CRYPTOSYSTEM Subhayan Sen 1 Chandrama Shaw 1 Dipanwita Roy Chowdhuri 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganguly, Niloy

    CELLULAR AUTOMATA BASED CRYPTOSYSTEM (CAC) Subhayan Sen 1 Chandrama Shaw 1 Dipanwita Roy Chowdhuri introduces a Cellular Automata (CA) based sym- metric key cryptosystem for block cipher. The scheme named as CAC (Cellular Automata based Cryptosystem) employs a series of transforms { simple, moderately complex

  12. Supplemental Data Structural Basis for the Acyltransferase Activity of Lecithin:Retinol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    .2) 4.8 (66.2) 4.4 (51.3) 4.7 (28.5) Riso (%) -- -- 28 23.7 26 15.5 -- Number of sites -- -- 5 5 4 5, respectively. # Rsym, Riso, Rcullis, and phaseing power were calculated as follows: #12;3 100)( , , sym

  13. Electric Dipole Polarizability in $^{208}$Pb as a Probe of the Symmetry Energy and Neutron Matter around $?_0/3$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen Zhang; Lie-Wen Chen

    2015-08-21

    It is currently a big challenge to accurately determine the symmetry energy $E_{\\text{sym}}(\\rho)$ and the pure neutron matter equation of state $E_{\\text{PNM}}(\\rho)$, even their values around saturation density $\\rho_0 $. We find that the electric dipole polarizability $\\alpha _ {\\text{D}}$ in $^{208}$Pb can be determined uniquely by the magnitude of the $E_{\\text{sym}}(\\rho)$ or almost equivalently the $E_{\\text{PNM}}(\\rho)$ at subsaturation densities around $\\rho_0/3 $, shedding a light upon the genuine correlation between the $\\alpha _ {\\text{D}}$ and the $E_{\\text{sym}}(\\rho)$. By analyzing the experimental data of the $\\alpha _ {\\text{D}}$ in $^{208}$Pb from RCNP using a number of non-relativistic and relativistic mean-field models, we obtain very stringent constraints on $E_{\\text{sym}}(\\rho)$ and $E_{\\text{PNM}}(\\rho)$ around $\\rho_0/3 $. The obtained constraints are found to be in good agreement with the results extracted in other analyses. In particular, our results provide for the first time the experimental constraints on $E_{\\text{PNM}}(\\rho)$ around $\\rho_0/3 $, which are in harmony with the recent determination of $E_{\\text{PNM}}(\\rho)$ from microscopic theoretical studies and potentially useful in constraining the largely uncertain many-nucleon interactions in microscopic calculations of neutron matter.

  14. Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs (Invited Paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs (Invited Paper) Andrew J. Whalen*t, Sean N. Brennan Engineering, + Engineering Science and Mechanics, Neurosurgery, and Physics, Penn State University, University) neuronal networks as a function of 1) the connection topology and sym metry, 2) the measured nodes, and 3

  15. Parameters Affecting Viscosity as a Quality Control for Frozen Fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at the International Sym- posium on Alterations in the Chemical Constitu- ents of Foods in Industrial Processing and preserved chilled, was purchased at a local market. The muscle was minced using a mincer with plate orfices/second and then vacuum-packed and stored at -24°C for the 5 days during which tests were made. The apparent viscosity (Y

  16. Multiple integral formula for the off-shell six vertex scalar product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan de Gier; Wellington Galleas; Mark Sorrell

    2011-11-16

    We write a multiple integral formula for the partition function of the Z-invariant six vertex model and demonstrate how it can be specialised to compute the norm of Bethe vectors. We also discuss the possibility of computing three-point functions in N= 4 SYM using these integral formul{\\ae}.

  17. Multiple integral formula for the off-shell six vertex scalar product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Gier, Jan; Sorrell, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We write a multiple integral formula for the partition function of the Z-invariant six vertex model and demonstrate how it can be specialised to compute the norm of Bethe vectors. We also discuss the possibility of computing three-point functions in N= 4 SYM using these integral formul{\\ae}.

  18. Proc. FASE 2015, (c) Springer Facilitating Reuse in Multi-Goal Test-Suite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beyer, Dirk

    approach for automated product-line test-suite generation incorporating extensive reuse of reachability. Keywords: Software Product Lines, Automated Test Generation, Sym- bolic Model Checking, CPAchecker, CPA Product Lines Johannes Bürdek1 , Malte Lochau1 , Stefan Bauregger1 , Andreas Holzer2 , Alexander von Rhein

  19. Density slope of the nuclear symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An; Xu, Jun.

    2010-01-01

    of finite nuclei and nuclear matter properties. We find that existing data on neutron skin thickness Delta r(np) of Sn isotopes give an important constraint on the symmetry energy E(sym)(rho(0)) and its density slope L at saturation density rho(0). Combining...

  20. Symmetry Energy of Nucleonic Matter With Tensor Correlations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Or Hen; Bao-An Li; Wen-Jun Guo; L. B. Weinstein; Eli Piasetzky

    2015-02-06

    The nuclear symmetry energy (E_sym(\\roh)) is a vital ingredient of our understanding of many processes, from heavy-ion collisions to neutron stars structure. While the total nuclear symmetry energy at nuclear saturation density (\\rho_0) is relatively well determined, its value at supranuclear densities is not. The latter can be better constrained by separately examining its kinetic and potential terms and their density dependencies. The kinetic term of the symmetry energy, E_sym^kin(\\rho_0), equals the difference in the per-nucleon kinetic energy between pure neutron matter (PNM) and symmetric nuclear matter (SNM), often calculated using a simple Fermi gas model. However, experiments show that tensor force induced short-range correlations (SRC) between proton-neutron pairs shift nucleons to high-momentum in SNM, but have almost no effect in PNM. We present an approximate analytical expression for E_sym^kin(\\rho) of correlated nucleonic matter. In our model, E_sym^kin(\\rho_0) = -10 MeV, which differs significantly from +12.5 MeV for the widely-used free Fermi gas model. This result is consistent with our analysis of recent data on the free proton-to-neutron ratios measured in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as with microscopic many-body calculations, and previous phenomenological extractions. We then use our calculated E_sym^kin(\\rho) in combination with the known total symmetry energy and its density dependence at saturation density to constrain the value and density dependence of the potential part and to extrapolate the total symmetry energy to supranuclear densities.

  1. RADIATION MECHANISM AND JET COMPOSITION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND GeV-TeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jin; Lu Ye; Zhang Shuangnan; Liang Enwei; Sun Xiaona; Zhang Bing

    2013-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and GeV-TeV-selected radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are compared based on our systematic modeling of the observed spectral energy distributions of a sample of AGNs with a single-zone leptonic model. We show that the correlation between the jet power (P{sub jet}) and the prompt gamma-ray luminosity (L{sub jet}) of GRBs is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the correlation between jet power and the synchrotron peak luminosity (L{sub s,jet}) of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Their radiation efficiencies ({epsilon}) are also comparable (>10% for most sources), which increase with the bolometric jet luminosity (L{sub bol,jet}) for FSRQs and with the L{sub jet} for GRBs with similar power-law indices. BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) do not follow the P{sub jet}-L{sub s,jet} relation of FSRQs. They have lower {epsilon} and L{sub bol,jet} values than FSRQs, and a tentative L{sub bol,jet}-{epsilon} relation is also found, with a power-law index different from that of the FSRQs. The magnetization parameters ({sigma}) of FSRQs are on average larger than that of BL Lacs. They are anti-correlated with {epsilon} for the FSRQs, but positively correlated with {epsilon} for the BL Lacs. GeV narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies potentially share similar properties with FSRQs. Based on the analogy between GRBs and FSRQs, we suggest that the prompt gamma-ray emission of GRBs is likely produced by the synchrotron process in a magnetized jet with high radiation efficiency, similar to FSRQs. The jets of BL Lacs, on the other hand, are less efficient and are likely more matter-dominated.

  2. THE SPITZER MID-INFRARED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SURVEY. I. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF OBSCURED CANDIDATES AND NORMAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SELECTED IN THE MID-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacy, M.; Ridgway, S. E.; Gates, E. L.; Petric, A. O.; Sajina, A.; Urrutia, T.; Cox Drews, S.; Harrison, C.; Seymour, N.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGNs closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L {sub bol} ? 10{sup 10} L {sub ?} to highly luminous quasars (L {sub bol} ? 10{sup 14} L {sub ?}), all with redshifts ranging from 0 to 4.3. Samples of candidate AGNs were selected with mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 ?m flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGNs and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type 1 AGNs with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type 2 objects with extinctions A{sub V} ?> 5 toward their AGNs, 96 (14%) are AGNs with lower extinctions (A{sub V} ? 1), and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. Of the survey objects 50% have L {sub bol} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ?}, in the quasar regime. We present composite spectra for type 2 quasars and objects with no signs of AGN activity in their spectra. We also discuss the mid-infrared—emission-line luminosity correlation and present the results of cross correlations with serendipitous X-ray and radio sources. The results show that: (1) obscured objects dominate the overall AGN population, (2) mid-infrared selected AGN candidates exist which lack AGN signatures in their optical spectra but have AGN-like X-ray or radio counterparts, and (3) X-ray and optical classifications of obscured and unobscured AGNs often differ.

  3. Part 6, Authors: G To Gyser 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassall, Albert; Doss, Mildred A.; Taylor, Ruth M.; Carson, Gertrude B.; Segal, Dorothy B.

    1942-01-01

    . Argent. Cirug.?Boletines y Trabajos. Academia Argentina de Cirug?a. Buenos Aires. [Continuation of: Bol. y Trab. Soc. Cirug. Buenos Aires] Boll. Lab. Zool. Agrar, e Bachicolt. R. 1st. Super. Agrar. Milano.?Bollettino del Labo- ratorio di Zoologia.... Inst. Biol. Soc. Rural Argent.?Memoria de los Trabajos Realizados por el Instituto Biol?gica de la Sociedad Rural Argentina. Buenos Aires. M?m. Inst. Egypte.?M?moires Pr?sent?s ? l'Institut d'Egypte. Le Caire. Mem. Mich. State Coll. Agrie. Exper. Sta...

  4. Supplement 22, Part 1, Authors: A To Z 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

    1978-01-01

    Federai do Parana. Curitiba. [Wa. (QH301.A29)] [Continuation of: Bol. Univ. Fed. Parana, s. Biol., Botan e Zool.] Acta Bioquim. Clin. Latinoam.-- Acta Bioqu?mica Clinica Latinoamericana. Confederaci?n Bio- qu?mica Clinica de la Rep?blica Argentina y....-- Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni. Ankara, Turkey. [Wm.(W1 MI 409K)] Minerva Med. Argentina.-- Minerva Medica Argen- tina. Buenos Aires. [Wm.(W1 MI646K)] Minerva Oftal.-- Minerva Oftalmologica. Torino. [Wm.(W1 MI6489)] ABBREVIATIONS Nematol. Mediterran.-- Nematologia...

  5. Special Publication No. 2, A Bibliography On Chagas' Disease (1909-1969) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivier, Margaret C.; Olivier, Louis J.; Segal, Dorothy B.

    1972-01-01

    -Mazza en la Rep?blica Argentina. (National program for Chagas' disease control in Argentina.) Dia Med., Buenos Aires, 34(13): 277-278, Mar. 12. 1965,- New light on Chagas' disease. (Nuevas luces sobre la enfermedad de Chagas.) Lancet, 1:1150- 1151, May.... (Cardiomyopathies.) Bol. Ofic. San. Panamer., 61(5):452-460, Nov. Abalos, Jorge W. 1946,- Hallazgo de Panstrongylus megistus en la Argen- tina. (The collection of P^. megistus in Argentina.) An. Inst. Med. Reg., Tucum?n, 1(3): 333-335. 1958.- Importancia...

  6. Characterization of Zr-Fe-Cu Alloys for an Inert Matrix Fuel for Nuclear Energy Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnhart, Brian A.

    2013-08-09

    Spectroscopy EPMA Electron Probe Microanalyzer FCCI Fuel Clad Chemical Interaction FCMI Fuel Clad Mechanical Interaction IMF Inert Matrix Fuel LFA Light Flash Analysis LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Lab LWR Light Water Reactor MRF Materials... it appealing for use in a nuclear reactor. The UO2 crystal has a fluorite structure of the CaF2 type. At beginning of life (BOL), UO2 is manufactured to be as pure as possible; as such when it is loaded into the fuel bundles it is a single phase and has...

  7. Basketball - Mens - 1951-1960 - 30 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-04-18

    . 930-931. [W*.] AOOSIN K., MO?SES; CHRISTEN ?., REN?; and JARPA G., ARTURO. 1951 a.?Action of cortisone alone or asso- ciated to pentaquine phosphate or to the compound pentaquine phosphate?quinine sulphate on experimental trypanosomo3is (T... Escolar. Organo de los Servicios de Higiene Escolar de la Republic. Quito, Ecuador. Bol. Inform. Agrie, y Ganad., Badajoz.?Bolet?n de Informaci?n Agr?cola y Ganadera. Ser- vicios T?cnicos Agropecuarios de la Exema. Diputaci?n Provincial de Badajoz...

  8. Supplement 4, Authors: A To K 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segal, Dorothy B.; Doss, Mildred A.; Humphrey, Judith M.

    1955-01-01

    Aires.?Bolet?n de Fomento Rural. Ministerio de Agricultura de la Naci?n. Buenos Aires. Bol. Inst. Invest. Vet., Caracas.?Bolet?n del Instituto de Investigaciones Veterinarias. _ Di- recci?n de Ganader?a. Ministerio de Agricul- tura y Cr?a. Estados...., pp. 6-10. [W.] AESCHLIMANN A. See Geigy, R. ; Wagner, O. ; and Aeschlimann, A. AFRIDI, M. K. I9=Lal^?eP?r? on Parasitology, premunition and epidemiology of malaria

  9. New formulae for the $(-2)$ moment of the photo-absorption cross section, $?_{_{-2}}$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nico Orce

    2015-10-14

    Two new formulae for the $(-2)$ moment of the photo-absorption cross section, $\\sigma_{_{-2}}$, have been determined, respectively, from the 1988 compilation of Dietrich and Berman and a mass-dependent symmetry energy coefficient, $a_{sym}(A)$. The data for $A\\gtrsim50$ follow, with a {\\small $RMS$} deviation of 6\\%, the power-law $\\sigma_{_{-2}}=2.4 A^{5/3}$$\\mu$b/MeV, which is in agreement with Migdal's calculation of $\\sigma_{_{-2}}=2.25A^{5/3}$$\\mu$b/MeV based on the hydrodynamic model and the $\\sigma_{_{-2}}$ sum rule. The additional inclusion of $a_{sym}(A)$ provides a deeper insight to the nuclear polarization of $A\\geqq10$ nuclei.

  10. New formulae for the $(-2)$ moment of the photo-absorption cross section, $\\sigma_{_{-2}}$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orce, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Two new formulae for the $(-2)$ moment of the photo-absorption cross section, $\\sigma_{_{-2}}$, have been determined, respectively, from the 1988 compilation of Dietrich and Berman and a mass-dependent symmetry energy coefficient, $a_{sym}(A)$. The data for $A\\gtrsim50$ follow, with a {\\small $RMS$} deviation of 6\\%, the power-law $\\sigma_{_{-2}}=2.4 A^{5/3}$$\\mu$b/MeV, which is in agreement with Migdal's calculation of $\\sigma_{_{-2}}=2.25A^{5/3}$$\\mu$b/MeV based on the hydrodynamic model and the $\\sigma_{_{-2}}$ sum rule. The additional inclusion of $a_{sym}(A)$ provides a deeper insight to the nuclear polarization of $A\\geqq10$ nuclei.

  11. Geometry of N=1 Super Yang-Mills Theory in Curved Superspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Konechny; A. Schwarz

    1996-09-12

    We give a new description of N=1 super Yang-Mills theory in curved superspace. It is based on the induced geometry approach to a curved superspace in which it is viewed as a surface embedded into C(4|2). The complex structure on C(4|2) supplied with a standard volume element induces a special Cauchy-Riemann (SCR)-structure on the embedded surface. We give an explicit construction of SYM theory in terms of intrinsic geometry of the superspace defined by this SCR-structure and a CR-bundle over the superspace. We write a manifestly SCR-covariant Lagrangian for SYM coupled with matter. We also show that in a special gauge our formulation coincides with the standard one which uses Lorentz connections. Some useful auxiliary results about the integration over surfaces in superspace are obtained.

  12. Top-forms of Leading Singularities in Nonplanar Multi-loop Amplitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Baoyi; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E; Xie, Ruofei; Xin, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Bipartite on-shell diagrams are the latest tool in constructing scattering amplitudes. In this letter we prove that an on-shell diagram process a rational top-form if and only if the algebraic ideal comprised of the geometrical constraints can be shifted linearly during successive Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten integrations. With a proper geometric interpretation of the constraints in the Grassmannian manifold, the rational top-form integration contours can thus be obtained, and understood, in a straightforward way. All top-form integrands of arbitrary higher loops can therefore be derived recursively, completing the top-form picture of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM scattering amplitudes proposed by us earlier. Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric ($\\mathcal{N}=4$) Super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory can thus be greatly simplified due to the existence of top-forms comprised of rational functions of the minors of the constraint matrices.

  13. Top-forms of Leading Singularities in Nonplanar Multi-loop Amplitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baoyi Chen; Gang Chen; Yeuk-Kwan E. Cheung; Ruofei Xie; Yuan Xin

    2015-06-09

    Bipartite on-shell diagrams are the latest tool in constructing scattering amplitudes. In this letter we prove that an on-shell diagram process a rational top-form if and only if the algebraic ideal comprised of the geometrical constraints can be shifted linearly during successive Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten integrations. With a proper geometric interpretation of the constraints in the Grassmannian manifold, the rational top-form integration contours can thus be obtained, and understood, in a straightforward way. All top-form integrands of arbitrary higher loops can therefore be derived recursively, completing the top-form picture of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM scattering amplitudes proposed by us earlier. Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric ($\\mathcal{N}=4$) Super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory can thus be greatly simplified due to the existence of top-forms comprised of rational functions of the minors of the constraint matrices.

  14. Nuclear symmetry energy in a modified quark meson coupling model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, R N; Panda, P K; Barik, N; Frederico, T

    2015-01-01

    We study nuclear symmetry energy and the thermodynamic instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner by using a modified quark-meson coupling model where the confining interaction for quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically averaged potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to $\\sigma$, $\\omega$, and $\\rho$ mesons through mean-field approximations. We find an analytic expression for the symmetry energy ${\\cal E}_{sym}$ as a function of its slope $L$. Our result establishes a linear correlation between $L$ and ${\\cal E}_{sym}$. We also analyze the constraint on neutron star radii in $(pn)$ matter with $\\beta$ equilibrium.

  15. Adjoint BFKL at finite coupling: a short-cut from the collinear limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Basso; Simon Caron-Huot; Amit Sever

    2015-01-16

    In the high energy Regge limit, the six gluons scattering amplitude is controlled by the adjoint BFKL eigenvalue and impact factor. In this paper we determine these two building blocks at any value of the 't Hooft coupling in planar $\\cal{N}$=4 SYM theory. This is achieved by means of analytic continuations from the collinear limit, where similar all loops expressions were recently established. We check our predictions against all available data at weak and strong coupling.

  16. Experimental reconstruction of primary hot isotopes and characteristic properties of the fragmenting source in the heavy ion reactions near the Fermi energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Lin; X. Liu; M. R. D. Rodrigues; S. Kowalski; R. Wada; M. Huang; S. Zhang; Z. Chen; J. Wang; G. Q. Xiao; R. Han; Z. Jin; J. Liu; P. Ren; F. Shi; T. Keutgen; K. Hagel; M. Barbui; C. Bottosso; A. Bonasera; J. B. Natowitz; T. Materna; L. Qin; P. K. Sahu; H. Zheng

    2014-09-14

    The characteristic properties of the hot nuclear matter existing at the time of fragment formation in the multifragmentation events produced in the reaction $^{64}$Zn + $^{112}$Sn at 40 MeV/nucleon are studied. A kinematical focusing method is employed to determine the multiplicities of evaporated light particles, associated with isotopically identified detected fragments. From these data the primary isotopic yield distributions are reconstructed using a Monte Carlo method. The reconstructed yield distributions are in good agreement with the primary isotope distributions obtained from AMD transport model simulations. Utilizing the reconstructed yields, power distribution, Landau free energy, characteristic properties of the emitting source are examined. The primary mass distributions exhibit a power law distribution with the critical exponent, $A^{-2.3}$, for $A \\geq 15$ isotopes, but significantly deviates from that for the lighter isotopes. Landau free energy plots show no strong signature of the first order phase transition. Based on the Modified Fisher Model, the ratios of the Coulomb and symmetry energy coefficients relative to the temperature, $a_{c}/T$ and $a_{sym}/T$, are extracted as a function of A. The extracted $a_{sym}/T$ values are compared with results of the AMD simulations using Gogny interactions with different density dependencies of the symmetry energy term. The calculated $a_{sym}/T$ values show a close relation to the symmetry energy at the density at the time of the fragment formation. From this relation the density of the fragmenting source is determined to be $\\rho /\\rho_{0} = (0.63 \\pm 0.03 )$. Using this density, the symmetry energy coefficient and the temperature of fragmenting source are determined in a self-consistent manner as $a_{sym} = (24.7 \\pm 3.4) MeV$ and $T=(4.9 \\pm 0.2)$ MeV.

  17. Shooting string holography of jet quenching at RHIC and LHC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ficnar, Andrej; Gubser, Steven S.; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2014-10-13

    We derive a new formula for jet energy loss using finite endpoint momentum shooting strings initial conditions in SYM plasmas to overcome the difficulties of previous falling string holographic scenarios. We apply the new formula to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow parameter v2 of light hadrons at RHIC and LHC. We show furthermore that Gauss–Bonnet quadratic curvature corrections to the AdS5 geometry improve the agreement with the recent data.

  18. Recovery Boiler Modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullah, Z.; Salcudean, M.; Nowak, P.

    1994-01-01

    wide range of scales and a complex interaction between the fuel and the air which are introduced separately. The interaction between the jets can often lead to unstea dyness. The flow is turbulent, and the jets have strong curvature. Physical flow... task. The flow is fully three dimensional as geometric symmetry even on one plane is not present in all designs. Even when the boiler is geometrically sym metric, flow instabilities and jet interactions can cause major asymmetries in the flow...

  19. Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lie-Wen Chen; Bao-Jun Cai; Chun Shen; Che Ming Ko; Jun Xu; Bao-An Li

    2009-11-17

    The incompressibility $K_sat(\\delta)$ of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of $K_sat(\\delta)$ in powers of isospin asymmetry $\\delta$, i.e., $K_sat(\\delta )$=K_{0}+K_{sat,2}\\delta^{2}+K_{sat,4}\\delta^{4}+O(\\delta^{6})$, the magnitude of the 4th-order K_{sat,4} parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order K_{sat,2} parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at saturation density. Furthermore, the K_{sat,2} can be expressed as K_{sat,2}=K_{sym}-6L-J_{0}/{K_{0}L in terms of the slope parameter $L$ and the curvature parameter $K_{\\mathrm{sym}}$ of the symmetry energy and the third-order derivative parameter $J_0$ of the energy of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density, and we find the higher order $J_0$ contribution to K_{sat,2} generally cannot be neglected. Also, we have found a linear correlation between K_{sym} and $L$ as well as between $J_{0}/K_{0}$ and $K_{0}$. Using these correlations together with the empirical constraints on $K_{0}$ and $L$, the nuclear symmetry energy $E_sym(\\rho_{0})$ at normal nuclear density, and the nucleon effective mass, we have obtained an estimated value of K_{sat,2}=-370 +- 120 MeV for the 2nd-order parameter in the isospin asymmetry expansion of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density.

  20. Twisted 3D $N=4$ Supersymmetric YM on deformed $\\mathbb{A}_3^\\ast$ Lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Hassan Saidi

    2014-07-13

    We study a class of twisted 3D $N=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on particular 3-dimensional lattice denoted as $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$ and given by non trivial fibration $\\mathcal{L}_{1D}^{u_1}\\times \\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_3}$ with base $\\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_3}=\\mathbb{A}_2^\\ast$, the weight lattice of $SU(3)$. We first, develop the twisted 3D $N=4$ SYM in continuum by using superspace method where the scalar supercharge $Q$ is manifestly exhibited. Then, we show how to engineer the 3D lattice $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$ that host this theory. After that we build the lattice action $\\mathcal{S}_{latt}$ invariant under the 3 following: (i) $U(N)$ gauge invariance, (ii) BRST symmetry, (iii) the hidden $SU(3) \\times U(1)$ symmetry of $\\mathcal{L}_{3D}^{su_3\\times u_1}$. Other features such as reduction to twisted 2D supersymmetry with 8 supercharges living on $\\mathcal{L}_{2D}^{su_2\\times u_1}$, the extension to twisted maximal 5D SYM with 16 supercharges on lattice $\\mathcal{L}_{5D}^{su_4\\times u_1}$ as well as the relation with known results are also given.

  1. Primary Isotope Yields and Characteristic Properties of the Fragmenting Source in Heavy-ion Reactions near the Fermi Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. Liu; W. Lin; R. Wada; M. Huang; Z. Chen; G. Q. Xiao; S. Zhang; X. Jin; J. Liu; F. Shi; P. Ren; H. Zheng; J. B. Natowitz; A. Bonasera

    2014-06-13

    For central collisions of $^{40}$Ca $+ ^{40}$Ca at 35 MeV/nucleon, the density and temperature of a fragmenting source have been evaluated in a self-consistent manner using the ratio of the symmetry energy coefficient relative to the temperature, $a_{sym}/T$, extracted from the yields of primary isotopes produced in antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations. The $a_{sym}/T$ values are extracted from all isotope yields using an improved method based on the Modified Fisher Model (MFM). The values of $a_{sym}/T$ obtained, using different interactions with different density dependencies of the symmetry energy term, are correlated with the values of the symmetry energies at the density of fragment formation. Using this correlation, the fragment formation density is found to be $\\rho/\\rho_0 = 0.67 \\pm 0.02$. Using the input symmetry energy value for each interaction temperature values are extracted as a function of isotope mass $A$. The extracted temperature values are compared with those evaluated from the fluctuation thermometer with a radial flow correction.

  2. Quasi-localized wavefunctions on magnetized tori and tiny neutrino Yukawa couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keigo Sumita

    2015-09-11

    This paper shows that, a quasi-localization of wavefunctions in toroidal compactifications with magnetic fluxes can lead to a strong suppression for relevant Yukawa couplings, and it is applicable to obtain tiny neutrino masses. Although it is known that magnetic fluxes lead to a Gaussian profile of zero-modes on a torus and that can yield a suppressed coupling in higher-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theories, the largest (diagonal) entry of Yukawa matrices is always of $\\mathcal O(1)$. In this paper, we propose a way to induce an absolutely tiny global factor of Yukawa matrices. In two SYM theories defined in different dimensional spacetime, their bifundamental representations must be localized as a point in some directions. Overlaps of such point-like localized wavefunctions and Gaussian zero-modes give a global factor of Yukawa matrices, and it can be a strong suppression factor or a usual $\\mathcal O(1)$ factor, corresponding to their distance. Our numerical analysis shows that it is possible to obtain a suppression strong enough to realize the tiny neutrino masses without a hard fine-tuning. Furthermore, we propose a concrete model of the tiny neutrino Yukawa couplings in a magnetized SYM system.

  3. Improved Accelerated Stress Tests Based on Fuel Cell Vehicle Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Timothy; Motupally, Sathya

    2012-06-01

    UTC will led a top-tier team of industry and national laboratory participants to update and improve DOE’s Accelerated Stress Tests (AST’s) for hydrogen fuel cells. This in-depth investigation will focused on critical fuel cell components (e.g. membrane electrode assemblies - MEA) whose durability represented barriers for widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technology. UTC had access to MEA materials that had accrued significant load time under real-world conditions in PureMotion® 120 power plant used in transit buses. These materials are referred to as end-of-life (EOL) components in the rest of this document. Advanced characterization techniques were used to evaluate degradation mode progress using these critical cell components extracted from both bus power plants and corresponding materials tested using the DOE AST’s. These techniques were applied to samples at beginning-of-life (BOL) to serve as a baseline. These comparisons advised the progress of the various failure modes that these critical components were subjected to, such as membrane degradation, catalyst support corrosion, platinum group metal dissolution, and others. Gaps in the existing ASTs predicted the degradation observed in the field in terms of these modes were outlined. Using the gaps, new AST’s were recommended and tested to better reflect the degradation modes seen in field operation. Also, BOL components were degraded in a test vehicle at UTC designed to accelerate the bus field operation.

  4. Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-11-10

    Current chemical CO2 scrubbing technology is primarily aqueous alkanolamine based. These systems rapidly bind CO2 (forming water-soluble carbamate and bicarbonate salts) however, the process has serious disadvantages. The concentration of monoethanolamine rarely exceeds 30 wt % due to the corrosive nature of the solution, and this reduces the maximum CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the CO2 scrubber. The ?30 wt % loading of ethanolamine also means that a large excess of water must be pumped and heated during CO2 capture and release, and this greatly increases the energy requirements especially considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1). Our approach is to switch to organic systems that chemically bind CO2 as liquid alkylcarbonate salts. Our CO2-binding organic liquids have higher CO2 solubility, lower specific heats, potential for less corrosion and lower binding energies for CO2 than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs also reversibly bind and release mixed sulfur oxides. Furthermore the CO2BOL system can be direct solvent replacements for any solvent based CO2 capture systems because they are commercially available reagents and because they are fluids they would not require extensive process re-engineering.

  5. Bullet Retarding Forces in Ballistic Gelatin by Analysis of High Speed Video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaylord, Steven; Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Though three distinct wounding mechanisms (permanent cavity, temporary cavity, and ballistic pressure wave) are described in the wound ballistics literature, they all have their physical origin in the retarding force between bullet and tissue as the bullet penetrates. If the bullet path is the same, larger retarding forces produce larger wounding effects and a greater probability of rapid incapacitation. By Newton's third law, the force of the bullet on the tissue is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of the tissue on the bullet. For bullets penetrating with constant mass, the retarding force on the bullet can be determined by frame by frame analysis of high speed video of the bullet penetrating a suitable tissue simulant such as calibrated 10% ballistic gelatin. Here the technique is demonstrated with 9mm NATO bullets, 32 cm long blocks of gelatin, and a high speed video camera operating at 20,000 frames per second. It is found that different 9mm NATO bullets have a wide variety of pot...

  6. Twisted 3D N=4 supersymmetric YM on deformed A{sub 3}{sup *} lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saidi, El Hassan [Lab of High Energy Physics, Modeling and Simulations, Faculty of Science, University Mohamed V-Agdal, Morocco and Centre of Physics and Mathematics, CPM, Rabat (Morocco)] [Lab of High Energy Physics, Modeling and Simulations, Faculty of Science, University Mohamed V-Agdal, Morocco and Centre of Physics and Mathematics, CPM, Rabat (Morocco)

    2014-01-15

    We study a class of twisted 3D N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory on particular 3-dimensional lattice L{sub 3D} formally denoted as L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}} and given by non-trivial fibration L{sub 1D}{sup u{sub 1}}×L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 3}} with base L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 3}}=A{sub 2}{sup *}, the weight lattice of SU(3). We first, develop the twisted 3D N=4 SYM in continuum by using superspace method where the scalar supercharge Q is manifestly exhibited. Then, we show how to engineer the 3D lattice L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}} that host this theory. After that we build the lattice action S{sub latt} invariant under the following three points: (i) U(N) gauge invariance, (ii) BRST symmetry, (iii) the S{sub 3} point group symmetry of L{sub 3D}{sup su{sub 3}×u{sub 1}}. Other features such as reduction to twisted 2D supersymmetry with 8 supercharges living on L{sub 2D}?L{sub 2D}{sup su{sub 2}×u{sub 1}}, the extension to twisted maximal 5D SYM with 16 supercharges on lattice L{sub 5D}?L{sub 5D}{sup su{sub 4}×u{sub 1}} as well as the relation with known results are also given.

  7. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids, an Integrated Acid Gas Capture System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2011-04-01

    Amine systems are effective for CO2 capture, but they are still inefficient because the solvent regeneration energy is largely defined by the amount of water in the process. Most amines form heat-stable salts with SO2 and COS resulting in parasitic solvent loss and degradation. Stripping the CO2-rich solvent is energy intensive it requires temperatures above 100 ?C due to the high specific heat and heat of vaporization of water. CO2-capture processes could be much more energy efficient in a water free amine process. In addition, if the capture-material is chemically compatible with other acid gases, less solvent would be lost to heat-stable salts and the process economics would be further improved. One such system that can address these concerns is Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs), a class of switchable ionic liquids.

  8. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SUPER-EARTH HOST GJ 1214

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalitha, S.; Singh, K. P.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2014-07-20

    Stellar activity can produce large amounts of high-energy radiation, which is absorbed by the planetary atmosphere leading to irradiation-driven mass loss. We present the detection and an investigation of high-energy emission in a transiting super-Earth host system, GJ 1214, based on XMM-Newton observations. We derive an X-ray luminosity of L{sub X} = 7.4 × 10{sup 25} erg s{sup –1} and a corresponding activity level of log (L{sub X} /L {sub bol}) ? –5.3. Further, we determine a coronal temperature of about ?3.5 MK, which is typical for coronal emission of moderately active low-mass stars. We estimate that GJ 1214 b evaporates at a rate of 1.3× 10{sup 10} g s{sup –1} and has lost a total of ?2-5.6 M {sub ?}.

  9. Fish condition as an indicator of water quality in upper Galveston Bay system, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matlock, Gary C

    1972-01-01

    Conversion Equaoion Hyd!oiogical Nlothods SVater Temperature D is so lvecl 0 xygen 4 3 Conductivity (Salinity) /I 6 Hy!1! ogen-Ion ConcentraUon (pH) Turoldity TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) ~Pa e LIFE HISTORy 47 Anchoa mitchilli R I' 2t...!ocembcr 1971 (sec '1'abl, 8, p ges 6Z nnd 63 for ex;&h&nation of hearlincs a!'d vn! bols) 65 RankI!&g of yca! s for: ach an. ". 1 (T:!bj&s Bay, Cedar B!'" u, und T;ini ~y Bay) r!n L!! . b!'!'s o( co!!dlt'on 7' LIST QF TABLE:S (continued) Table of anchovy...

  10. Reconstructing the Cosmic Evolution of Quasars from the Age Distribution of Local Early-Type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoltan Haiman; Raul Jimenez; Mariangela Bernardi

    2006-10-24

    We use the spectra of 22,000 nearby early-type galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to determine the age distribution of these galaxies as a function of their velocity dispersion sigma_v in the range 100 km/s at fixed sigma_v. These assumptions require that the SMBH remnants of quasars with bolometric luminosity below L_bol=10^{12.5} f_Edd L_sun reside predominantly in bulges of late type galaxies. We find that evolution of the observed quasar LF can be fit over the entire redshift range in this simple model, 0=0.3-0.5. We find no evidence that any of the model parameters evolves with redshift, supporting the strong connection between the formation of stars and nuclear SMBHs in spheroids.

  11. ASASSN-15lh: The Most Luminous Supernova Ever Discovered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Subo; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W -S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Wozniak, P R

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery and early evolution of ASASSN-15lh, the most luminous supernova ever found. At redshift z=0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of M_{u,AB} ~ -23.5 and bolometric luminosity L_bol ~ 2.2x10^45 ergs/s, which is >~ 2 times more luminous than any previously known supernova. Its spectra match the hydrogen-poor sub-class of super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are poorly understood. In contrast to known SLSNe-I, most of which reside in star-forming, dwarf galaxies, its host appears to be a luminous galaxy (M_V ~ -22; M_K ~ -25.1) with little star formation. In the two months since its first detection, ASASSN-15lh has radiated ~7.5x10^51 ergs, challenging the popular magnetar model for the engine of SLSNe-I.

  12. Follow-up observations of X-ray emitting hot subdwarf star: the He-rich sdO BD +37{\\deg} 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Palombara, N; Mereghetti, S; Novara, G; Tiengo, A

    2015-01-01

    We report on the results of the first XMM-Newton satellite observation of the luminous and helium-rich O-type subdwarf BD +37{\\deg} 1977 carried out in April 2014. X-ray emission is detected with a flux of about 4*10^(-14) erg/cm2/s (0.2-1.5 keV), corresponding to a f_X/f_bol ratio about 10^(-7); the source spectrum is very soft, and is well fit by the sum of two plasma components at different temperatures. Both characteristics are in agreement with what is observed in the main-sequence early-type stars, where the observed X-ray emission is due to turbulence and shocks in the stellar wind. A smaller but still significant stellar wind has been observed also in BD +37{\\deg} 1977; therefore, we suggest that also in this case the detected X-ray flux has the same origin.

  13. Modeling CHANDRA Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer Observations of Classical Novae with PHOENIX. I. V4743 Sagittarii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Petz; Peter H. Hauschildt; Jan-Uwe Ness; Sumner Starrfield

    2004-10-15

    We use the PHOENIX code package to model the X-ray spectrum of Nova V4743 Sagittarii observed with the LETGS onboard the Chandra satellite on March 2003. Our atmosphere models are 1D spherical, expanding, line blanketed, and in full NLTE. To analyze nova atmospheres and related systems with an underlying nuclear burning envelope at X-ray wavelengths, it was necessary to update the code with new microphysics, as discussed in this paper. We demonstrate that the X-ray emission is dominated by thermal bremsstrahlung and that the hard X-rays are dominated by Fe and N absorption. The best fit to the observation is provided at a temperature of T_eff = 5.8 x 10^5 K, with L_bol = 50 000 L_sun. The models are calculated for solar abundances. It is shown that the models can be used to determine abundances in the nova ejecta.

  14. Accretion and OH photodissociation at a nearby T Tauri system in the ? Pictoris moving group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuckerman, B.; Vican, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rodriguez, David R., E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: lvican@ucla.edu, E-mail: drodrigu@das.uchile.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-20

    We present spectra of an M-type, binary star system (LDS 5606) that belongs to the nearby ?20 Myr old ? Pictoris moving group. Both stars are very dusty; the dustier member displays optical emission lines from eight elements indicative of ongoing mass accretion. The spectra of both stars contain oxygen forbidden line emission at 6302 and 5579 Å, consistent with a recent model of far ultraviolet photodissociation of OH molecules in a circumstellar disk. These are the oldest dwarf stars presently known to display such a phenomenon. The spectral energy distribution of the dustier star indicates substantial quantities of dust as hot as 900 K, and its fractional infrared luminosity (L {sub IR}/L {sub bol}) is almost as large as that of the main sequence record holder, V488 Per. The LDS 5606 binary joins a remarkable group of very dusty, old, T Tauri stars that belong to widely separated multiple systems.

  15. Holographic charge transport in non commutative gauge theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibakar Roychowdhury

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, based on the holographic techniques, we explore the hydrodynamics of charge diffusion phenomena in non commutative $ \\mathcal{N}=4 $ SYM plasma at strong coupling. In our analysis, we compute the $ R $ charge diffusion rates both along commutative as well as the non commutative coordinates of the brane. It turns out that unlike the case for the shear viscosity, the DC conductivity along the non commutative direction of the brane differs significantly from that of its cousin corresponding to the commutative direction of the brane. Such a discrepancy however smoothly goes away in the limit of the vanishing non commutativity.

  16. Review of AdS/CFT Integrability, Chapter IV.3: N=6 Chern-Simons and Strings on AdS4xCP3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Klose

    2012-03-27

    We review the duality and integrability of N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons theory in three dimensions and IIA superstring theory on the background AdS4xCP3. We introduce both of these models and describe how their degrees of freedom are mapped to excitations of a long-range integrable spin-chain. Finally, we discuss the properties of the Bethe equations, the S-matrix and the algebraic curve that are special to this correspondence and differ from the case of N=4 SYM theory and strings on AdS5xS5.

  17. Asymptotic, Algorithmic and Geometric Aspects of Groups Generated by Automata 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savchuk, Dmytro M.

    2010-01-14

    : Mathematics iii ABSTRACT Asymptotic, Algorithmic and Geometric Aspects of Groups Generated by Automata. (August 2009) Dmytro Savchuk, B.S., National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Ukraine; M.S., National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Ukraine Co...?4; qn?3 = (a;a) n?3; (1.1) where i 2 Sym(f0;1g) is chosen arbitrarily. Conjecturally, each automaton in the family for which at least one of the i is nontrivial, generates the free product of groups of order 2. The flrst result supporting...

  18. OPE for all Helicity Amplitudes II. Form Factors and Data analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Basso; Joao Caetano; Lucia Cordova; Amit Sever; Pedro Vieira

    2015-08-12

    We present the general flux tube integrand for MHV and non-MHV amplitudes, in planar N = 4 SYM theory, up to a group theoretical rational factor. We find that the MHV and non-MHV cases only differ by simple form factors which we derive. This information allows us to run the operator product expansion program for all sorts of non-MHV amplitudes and to test the recently proposed map with the so called charged pentagons transitions. Perfect agreement is found, on a large sample of non-MHV amplitudes, with the perturbative data available in the literature.

  19. Stress Tensor of Static Dipoles in strongly coupled $\\cal{N}$=4 Gauge Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu Lin; Edward Shuryak

    2007-08-16

    In the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence we calculate the induced stress tensor of static dipoles (electric-electric and electric-magnetic) in a strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM gauge theory, by solving the linearized Einstein equation with Maldecena string as a source. Analytic expressions are given for the far-field and a near-field close to one charge, and compared to what one has in weak coupling. The result can be compared to lattice results for QCD-like theories in a deconfined but strongly coupled regime.

  20. OPE for all Helicity Amplitudes II. Form Factors and Data analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basso, Benjamin; Cordova, Lucia; Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We present the general flux tube integrand for MHV and non-MHV amplitudes, in planar N = 4 SYM theory, up to a group theoretical rational factor. We find that the MHV and non-MHV cases only differ by simple form factors which we derive. This information allows us to run the operator product expansion program for all sorts of non-MHV amplitudes and to test the recently proposed map with the so called charged pentagons transitions. Perfect agreement is found, on a large sample of non-MHV amplitudes, with the perturbative data available in the literature.

  1. The Host Galaxy and Central Engine of the Dwarf AGN POX 52

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. E. Thornton; A. J. Barth; L. C. Ho; R. E. Rutledge; J. E. Greene

    2008-07-09

    We present new multi-wavelength observations of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy POX 52 in order to investigate the properties of the host galaxy and the active nucleus, and to examine the mass of its black hole, previously estimated to be ~ 10^5 M_sun. Hubble Space Telescope ACS/HRC images show that the host galaxy has a dwarf elliptical morphology (M_I = -18.4 mag, Sersic index n = 4.3) with no detected disk component or spiral structure, confirming previous results from ground-based imaging. X-ray observations from both Chandra and XMM show strong (factor of 2) variability over timescales as short as 500 s, as well as a dramatic decrease in the absorbing column density over a 9 month period. We attribute this change to a partial covering absorber, with a 94% covering fraction and N_H = 58^{+8.4}_{-9.2} * 10^21 cm^-2, that moved out of the line of sight in between the XMM and Chandra observations. Combining these data with observations from the VLA, Spitzer, and archival data from 2MASS and GALEX, we examine the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the active nucleus. Its shape is broadly similar to typical radio-quiet quasar SEDs, despite the very low bolometric luminosity of L_bol = 1.3 * 10^43 ergs/s. Finally, we compare black hole mass estimators including methods based on X-ray variability, and optical scaling relations using the broad H-beta line width and AGN continuum luminosity, finding a range of black hole mass from all methods to be M_bh = (2.2-4.2) * 10^5 M_sun, with an Eddington ratio of L_bol/L_edd = 0.2-0.5.

  2. IMPLICATIONS OF MASS AND ENERGY LOSS DUE TO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS ON MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2013-02-20

    Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power-law relationships between the 1-8 A flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE = kE {sup -{alpha}}. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of {alpha} and are very large: M-dot {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and E-dot {approx}0.1 L{sub sun}. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence {approx}> 10{sup 31} erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energy budget is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger than the canonical 10{sup -3} L {sub bol} X-ray saturation threshold. This raises the question of what is the maximum energy a magnetic dynamo can extract from a star? For an energy budget of 1% of L {sub bol}, the CME mass loss rate is about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  3. Extraction of the symmetry energy coefficients from the masses differences of isobaric nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junlong Tian; Haitao Cui; Kuankuan Zheng; Ning Wang

    2014-03-28

    The nuclear symmetry energy coefficients of finite nuclei are extracted by using the differences between the masses of isobaric nuclei. Based on the masses of more than 2400 nuclei with $A=9-270$, we investigate the model dependence in the extraction of symmetry energy coefficient. We find that the extraction of the symmetry energy coefficients is strongly correlated with the forms of the Coulomb energy and the mass dependence of the symmetry energy coefficient adopted. The values of the extracted symmetry energy coefficients increase by about 2 MeV for heavy nuclei when the Coulomb correction term is involved. We obtain the bulk symmetry energy coefficient $S_0=28.26\\pm1.3$ MeV and the surface-to-volume ratio $\\kappa=1.26\\pm 0.25 $ MeV if assuming the mass dependence of symmetry energy coefficient $a_{\\rm sym}(A)=S_0(1-\\kappa/A^{1/3})$, and $S_0=32.80\\pm1.7$ MeV, $\\kappa=2.82\\pm0.57$ MeV when $a_{\\rm sym}(A)=S_0 (1+\\kappa/A^{1/3})^{-1}$ is adopted.

  4. Master integrals for the four-loop Sudakov form factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boels, Rutger; Yang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The light-like cusp anomalous dimension is a universal function in the analysis of infrared divergences. In maximally ($\\mathcal{N}=4$) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM) in the planar limit, it is known, in principle, to all loop orders. The non-planar corrections are not known in any theory, with the first appearing at the four-loop order. Probably the simplest quantity which contains this correction is the four-loop two-point form factor of the stress tensor multiplet. This form factor was obtained in integrand form in a previous work for $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM, up to a single parameter. In this work, a reduction of the appearing integrals obtained by solving integration-by-parts (IBP) identities using (a tweaked version of) Reduze is reported. The form factor is shown to be independent of the remaining parameter at integrand level due to an intricate pattern of cancellations after IBP reduction. The appearing master integrals are cross-checked using algebraic techniques explored in the Mint package. The ...

  5. Semiclassical Strings in Electric and Magnetic Fields Deformed $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wung-Hong Huang

    2006-01-06

    We first apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to the 11D M-theory with a stack N M2-branes to find the spacetime of a stack of N D2-branes with magnetic or electric flux in 10 D IIA string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We then perform the T duality to the spacetime to find the background of a stack of N D3-branes with magnetic or electric flux. In the near-horizon limit the background becomes the magnetic or electric field deformed $AdS_5 \\times S^5$. We adopt an ansatz to find the classical string solution which is rotating in the deformed $S^5$ with three angular momenta in the three rotation planes. The relations between the classical string energy and its angular momenta are found and results show that the external magnetic and electric fluxes will increase the string energy. Therefore, from the AdS/CFT point of view, the corrections of the anomalous dimensions of operators in the dual SYM theory will be positive. We also investigate the small fluctuations in these solutions and discuss the effects of magnetic and electric fields on the stability of these classical rotating string solutions. Finally, we find the possible solutions of string pulsating on the deformed spacetimes and show that the corrections to the anomalous dimensions of operators in the dual SYM theory are non-negative.

  6. Quasi-localized wavefunctions on magnetized tori and tiny neutrino Yukawa couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumita, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that, a quasi-localization of wavefunctions in toroidal compactifications with magnetic fluxes can lead to a strong suppression for relevant Yukawa couplings, and it is applicable to obtain tiny neutrino masses. Although it is known that magnetic fluxes lead to a Gaussian profile of zero-modes on a torus and that can yield a suppressed coupling in higher-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theories, the largest (diagonal) entry of Yukawa matrices is always of $\\mathcal O(1)$. In this paper, we propose a way to induce an absolutely tiny global factor of Yukawa matrices. In two SYM theories defined in different dimensional spacetime, their bifundamental representations must be localized as a point in some directions. Overlaps of such point-like localized wavefunctions and Gaussian zero-modes give a global factor of Yukawa matrices, and it can be a strong suppression factor or a usual $\\mathcal O(1)$ factor, corresponding to their distance. Our numerical analysis shows that it is possibl...

  7. Constraining the density slope of nuclear symmetry energy at subsaturation densities using electric dipole polarizability in $^{208}$Pb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen Zhang; Lie-Wen Chen

    2014-12-11

    Nuclear structure observables usually most effectively probe the properties of nuclear matter at subsaturation densities rather than at saturation density. We demonstrate that the electric dipole polarizibility $\\alpha _ {\\text{D}}$ in $^{208}$Pb is sensitive to both the magnitude $E_{\\text{sym}}(\\rho_{\\text{c}})$ and density slope $L(\\rho_{\\text{c}})$ of the symmetry energy at a subsaturation cross density $\\rho_{\\text{c}} = 0.11$ fm$^{-3}$. Using the experimental data of $\\alpha _ {\\text{D}}$ in $^{208}$Pb from RCNP and the recent accurate constraint of $E_{\\text{sym}}(\\rho_{\\text{c}})$ from the binding energy difference of heavy isotope pairs, we extract a value of $L(\\rho_{\\text{c}}) = 47.3 \\pm 7.8$ MeV. The implication of the present constraint of $L(\\rho_{\\text{c}})$ to the symmetry energy at saturation density, the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb and the core-crust transition density in neutron stars is discussed.

  8. Comparing Terminal Performance of .357 SIG and 9mm Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keys, Elizabeth; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    High-speed video has emerged as an valuable tool for quantifying bullet performance in ballistic gelatin. This paper presents the results of testing four .357 SIG bullets using high-speed video of bullet impacts in ballistic gelatin to determine retarding force curves, permanent cavities, temporary cavities, and energy deposit vs. penetration depth. Since the methods are identical, results are meaningfully compared with four 9mm NATO bullets studied in an earlier project. Though .357 SIG bullets perform slightly better due to higher impact energy, the principal finding is that there is a much bigger difference in performance between the best and worst performing bullets in each cartridge than there is between bullets of similar design in the two cartridges. In each cartridge, higher performing expanding bullets (jacketed hollow points) outperform non-expanding bullets (full metal jacket) by a wide margin, showing a much higher probability of rapid incapacitation according to an Army Research Laboratory model ...

  9. Computer Simulations of charged systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Holm; K. Kremer

    2002-03-26

    In this brief contribution to the Proceedings of the NATO-ASI on ``Electrostatic Effects in Soft Matter and Biophysics'', which took place in Les Houches from Oct. 1-13, 2000, we summarize in short aspects of the simulations methods to study charged systems. After describing some basics of Monte Carlo and Molecular dynamics techniques, we describe a few methods to compute long range interactions in periodic systems. After a brief detour to mean-field models, we describe our results obtained for flexible polyelectrolytes in good and bad solvents. We follow with a description of the inhomogeneity of the counterion distribution around finite chains, and continue then with infinitely long, rodlike systems. The last part is devoted to the phenomenon of overcharging for colloidal particles and its explanation in terms of simple electrostatic arguments.

  10. The CFE Treaty and changed conditions in Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allentuck, J.

    1994-08-01

    The Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was signed in November 1990 by sixteen nations, members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and six nations, members of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO). It was resigned to prevent a major surprise attack in Europe by the conventional forces of one Treaty Organization against those of the other and was the first major arms control treaty to address conventional weapons. This paper focuses on how CFE adapted to changes in the military-political situation in Europe which occurred after 1990 and failed to adapt to others. Suggestions are offered on how it might be changed to make it more relevant under these changed conditions.

  11. On-Shell Methods for the Two-Loop Dilatation Operator and Finite Remainders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian Loebbert; Dhritiman Nandan; Christoph Sieg; Matthias Wilhelm; Gang Yang

    2015-10-05

    We compute the two-loop minimal form factors of all operators in the SU(2) sector of planar N=4 SYM theory via on-shell unitarity methods. From the UV divergence of this result, we obtain the two-loop dilatation operator in this sector. Furthermore, we calculate the corresponding finite remainder functions. Since the operators break the supersymmetry, the remainder functions do not have the property of uniform transcendentality. However, the leading transcendentality part turns out to be universal and is identical to the corresponding BPS expressions. The remainder functions are shown to satisfy linear relations which can be explained by Ward identities of form factors following from R-symmetry.

  12. Partially twisted superconformal M5 brane in R-symmetry gauge field backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Dongsu

    2015-01-01

    We obtain the action for a curved superconformal abelian M5 brane with the background R-symmetry gauge field turned on. We then restrict ourselves to superconformal M5 brane on a sphere times flat Minkowski space. We choose R-symmetry SO(1,4) instead of SO(5), which enables us to partially twist on Minkowski space and replace it by some curved Lorentzian manifold. We obtain M5 brane actions on $M_{1,1} \\times S^4$ and $M_{1,2} \\times S^3$ where actions and all fields, including the background gauge field, are real. Dimensional reduction along time gives real 5d SYM actions with nonabelian generalizations.

  13. Berends-Giele recursions and the BCJ duality in superspace and components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mafra, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    The recursive method of Berends and Giele to compute tree-level gluon amplitudes is revisited using the framework of ten-dimensional super Yang--Mills. First we prove that the pure spinor formula to compute SYM tree amplitudes derived in 2010 reduces to the standard Berends--Giele formula from the 80s when restricted to gluon amplitudes and additionally determine the fermionic completion. Second, using BRST cohomology manipulations in superspace, alternative representations of the component amplitudes are explored and the Bern--Carrasco--Johansson relations among partial tree amplitudes are derived in a novel way. Finally, it is shown how the supersymmetric components of manifestly local BCJ-satisfying tree-level numerators can be computed in a recursive fashion.

  14. Symmetry Energy as a Function of Density and Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawel Danielewicz; Jenny Lee

    2007-08-21

    Energy in nuclear matter is, in practice, completely characterized at different densities and asymmetries, when the density dependencies of symmetry energy and of energy of symmetric matter are specified. The density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities produces mass dependence of nuclear symmetry coefficient and, thus, can be constrained by that latter dependence. We deduce values of the mass dependent symmetry coefficients, by using excitation energies to isobaric analog states. The coefficient systematic, for intermediate and high masses, is well described in terms of the symmetry coefficient values of a_a^V=(31.5-33.5) MeV for the volume coefficient and a_a^S=(9-12) MeV for the surface coefficient. These two further correspond to the parameter values describing density dependence of symmetry energy, of L~95 MeV and K_{sym}~25 MeV.

  15. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, E.; Kirby, S.; Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-04-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more, efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts can be superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires infinite contact between the catalyst and coal. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potential of bimetallic dispersed catalysts from heterometallic molecular precursors in their use in model compound liquefaction reactions. This quarterly report describes the use of three precursors in model compound reactions. The first catalyst is a heterometallic complex consisting of two transition metals, Mo and Ni, and sulfur in a single molecule. The second is a thiocubane type complex consisting of cobalt, molybdenum and sulfur. The third is a thiocubane type cluster consisting of iron and sulfur and the fourth, the pure inorganic salt ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATM). It was found that the structure and the ligands in the model complexes affect the activity of the resulting catalyst significantly. The optimum reaction at a pressure of 6.9 MPa hydrogen gas varied for different catalysts. The bimetallic catalysts generated in situ from the organometallic precursor are more active than monometallic catalysts like ATTM and the thiocubane type cluster Fe{sub 4}. Main products are hydrogenated phenanthrene derivatives, like DBP, THP, sym-OHP, cis- and trans-unsym-OHP with minor isomerization products such as sym-OHA. Our results indicate that other transition metal and ligand combinations in the organometallic precursors and the use of another model compound could result in substantially higher conversion activity.

  16. Exploring the symbiotic pangenome of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galardini, Marco [University of Florence; Mengoni, Alessio [University of Florence; Brilli, Matteo [Universite de Lyon, France; Pini, Francesco [University of Florence; Fioravanti, Antonella [University of Florence; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Daligault, Hajnalka E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mocali, Stefano [Agrobiol & Pedol Ctr ABP, Agr Res Council, I-50121 Florence, Italy; Bazzicalupo, Marco [University of Florence; Biondi, Emanuele [University of Florence

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model system for the studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. An extensive polymorphism at the genetic and phenotypic level is present in natural populations of this species, especially in relation with symbiotic promotion of plant growth. AK83 and BL225C are two nodule-isolated strains with diverse symbiotic phenotypes; BL225C is more efficient in promoting growth of the Medicago sativa plants than strain AK83. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of the phenotypic diversification of S. meliloti strains AK83 and BL225C, we sequenced the complete genomes for these two strains. Results: With sizes of 7.14 Mbp and 6.97 Mbp, respectively, the genomes of AK83 and BL225C are larger than the laboratory strain Rm1021. The core genome of Rm1021, AK83, BL225C strains included 5124 orthologous groups, while the accessory genome was composed by 2700 orthologous groups. While Rm1021 and BL225C have only three replicons (Chromosome, pSymA and pSymB), AK83 has also two plasmids, 260 and 70 Kbp long. We found 65 interesting orthologous groups of genes that were present only in the accessory genome, consequently responsible for phenotypic diversity and putatively involved in plant-bacterium interaction. Notably, the symbiosis inefficient AK83 lacked several genes required for microaerophilic growth inside nodules, while several genes for accessory functions related to competition, plant invasion and bacteroid tropism were identified only in AK83 and BL225C strains. Presence and extent of polymorphism in regulons of transcription factors involved in symbiotic interaction were also analyzed. Our results indicate that regulons are flexible, with a large number of accessory genes, suggesting that regulons polymorphism could also be a key determinant in the variability of symbiotic performances among the analyzed strains.

  17. AGN feedback in action: a new powerful wind in 1SXPSJ050819.8+172149

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballo, L; Braito, V; Campana, S; Della Ceca, R; Moretti, A; Vignali, C

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy merging is widely accepted to be a key driving factor in galaxy formation and evolution, while the feedback from AGN is thought to regulate the BH-bulge coevolution and the star formation process. In this context, we focused on 1SXPSJ050819.8+172149, a local (z=0.0175) Seyfert 1.9 galaxy (L_bol~4x10^43 ergs/s). The source belongs to an IR-luminous interacting pair of galaxies, characterized by a luminosity for the whole system (due to the combination of star formation and accretion) of log(L_IR/L_sun)=11.2. We present the first detailed description of the 0.3-10keV spectrum of 1SXPSJ050819.8+172149, monitored by Swift with 9 pointings performed in less than 1 month. The X-ray emission of 1SXPSJ050819.8+172149 is analysed by combining all the Swift pointings, for a total of ~72ks XRT net exposure. The averaged Swift-BAT spectrum from the 70-month survey is also analysed. The slope of the continuum is ~1.8, with an intrinsic column density NH~2.4x10^22 cm-2, and a deabsorbed luminosity L(2-10keV)~4x10^42...

  18. Near-Infrared Adaptive Optics Imaging of the Central Regions of Nearby Sc Galaxies: I. M33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Davidge

    1999-10-18

    Near-infrared images obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Adaptive Optics Bonnette (AOB) are used to investigate the stellar content within 18 arcsec of the center of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. AGB stars with near-infrared spectral-energy distributions similar to those of giants in the solar neighborhood and Baade's Window are detected over most of the field. The bolometric luminosity function (LF) of these stars has a discontinuity near M_{bol} = -5.25, and comparisons with evolutionary tracks suggest that most of the AGB stars formed in a burst of star formation 1 - 3 Gyr in the past. The images are also used to investigate the integrated near-infrared photometric properties of the nucleus and the central light concentration. The nucleus is bluer than the central light concentration, in agreement with previous studies at visible wavelengths. The CO index of the central light concentration 0.5 arcsec from the galaxy center is 0.05, which corresponds to [Fe/H] = -1.2 for simple stellar systems. Hence, the central light concentration could not have formed from the chemically-enriched material that dominates the present-day inner disk of M33.

  19. V and I Photometry of Bright Giants in the Central Regions of NGC 147

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Davidge

    1994-10-13

    Deep V and I CCD images with sub-arcsec spatial resolution are used to investigate the stellar content of the central regions of the Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC147. Red giant branch (RGB) stars are resolved over the entire field, and the RGB-tip occurs at I ~ 20.5, suggesting that the distance modulus is 24.3. A comparison with globular cluster sequences indicates that the center of NGC147 is moderately metal-poor, with [Fe/H] ~ -1. This is not significantly different from what was found in the outer regions of the galaxy by Mould, Kristian & Da Costa (1983, ApJ, 270, 471). Moreover, the width of the V-I color distribution at I = 21.0 indicates that a spread in metallicity is present, with sigma[Fe/H] ~ +/- 0.3. There is no evidence of a component more metal-poor than [Fe/H] ~ -1.3. A small population of moderately bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars has also been detected, and the AGB-tip occurs near M{bol} ~ -5.0, indicating that an intermediate-age population is present. It is estimated that the intermediate-age population contributes ~ 2-3% of the V light from NGC147.

  20. Far infrared CO and H$_2$O emission in intermediate-mass protostars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matuszak, M; Kristensen, L E; Herczeg, G J; Tychoniec, L; van Kempen, T; Fuente, A

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) provide a link to understand how feedback from shocks and UV radiation scales from low to high-mass star forming regions. Aims: Our aim is to analyze excitation of CO and H$_2$O in deeply-embedded intermediate-mass YSOs and compare with low-mass and high-mass YSOs. Methods: Herschel/PACS spectral maps are analyzed for 6 YSOs with bolometric luminosities of $L_\\mathrm{bol}\\sim10^2 - 10^3$ $L_\\odot$. The maps cover spatial scales of $\\sim 10^4$ AU in several CO and H$_2$O lines located in the $\\sim55-210$ $\\mu$m range. Results: Rotational diagrams of CO show two temperature components at $T_\\mathrm{rot}\\sim320$ K and $T_\\mathrm{rot}\\sim700-800$ K, comparable to low- and high-mass protostars probed at similar spatial scales. The diagrams for H$_2$O show a single component at $T_\\mathrm{rot}\\sim130$ K, as seen in low-mass protostars, and about $100$ K lower than in high-mass protostars. Since the uncertainties in $T_\\mathrm{rot}$ are of the same order as the differen...

  1. H\\alpha\\ Emission Variability in Active M Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Keaton J; Davenport, James R A; Hawley, Suzanne L; West, Andrew A; Rogel, Allen B

    2011-01-01

    We use ~12,000 spectra of ~3,500 magnetically active M0-M9 dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey taken at 10-15 minute intervals, together with ~300 spectra of ~60 M0-M8 stars obtained hourly with the Hydra multi-object spectrometer, to probe H\\alpha\\ variability on timescales of minutes to weeks. With multiple observations for every star examined, we are able to characterize fluctuations in H\\alpha emission as a function of activity strength and spectral type. Stars with greater magnetic activity (as quantified by L_H\\alpha/L_bol) are found to be less variable at all spectral types. We attribute this result to the stronger level of persistent emission in the high activity stars, requiring a larger heating event in order to produce measurable variability. We also construct H\\alpha\\ structure functions to constrain the timescale of variability. The more active objects with lower variability exhibit a characteristic timescale longer than an hour, likely due to larger, longer lasting heating events, while the...

  2. RXJ 1821.6+6827: a Cool Cluster at z=0.81 from the ROSAT NEP Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gioia, I M; Mullis, R; Henry, J P; Briel, U G; Böhringer, H

    2004-01-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of the cluster of galaxies RXJ 1821.6+6827, or NEP 5281, at a redshift z=0.816+/-0.001. RXJ 1821.6+6827 was discovered during the optical identification of the X-ray sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) region of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and it is the highest redshift cluster of galaxies of the NEP survey. We have measured spectroscopic redshifts for twenty cluster galaxies using the Keck-I and the Canada-France-Hawai'i (CFH) telescopes. The value for the cluster velocity dispersion is sigma_V=775(+182,-113) km s-1. The cluster was also observed by XMM-Newton. Both the optical and X-ray data are presented in this paper. The cluster has an unabsorbed X-ray flux in the 2-10 keV energy band of F(2-10 keV)=1.24(+0.16,-0.23) x 10-13 erg cm2 s-1 and a K-corrected luminosity in the same band of L(2-10 keV)=6.32(+76,-0.73)x10^44 h_50^-2 erg s-1 (90% confidence level). The cluster X-ray bolometric luminosity is L(BOL,X)=1.35(+0.08,-0.21)x10^45 h_50^-2 erg s-1. The data do n...

  3. Tracing the Mass during Low-Mass Star Formation, IV: Observations and Modeling of the Submillimeter Continuum Emission from Class I Protostars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. H. Young; Y. L. Shirley; N. J. Evans II; J. M. C. Rawlings

    2002-10-08

    We present results from the observations and modeling of seventeen Class I cores with the Submillimetre Common Users Bolometer Array (SCUBA) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). By modeling the transfer of radiation through the envelope for nine cores, we find, for a power law distribution n(r)=n_f(r/r_f)^-p, the average and standard deviation p=1.6 +/- 0.4 and a median of p=1.8. However, the inclusion of a disk or other point-like component can cause the derived p to be shallower by as much as 0.5. In addition, we test the Shu collapse model for our sources and discuss the application of simpler analyses that derive a density power law distribution directly from the slope of the intensity radial profile. The total mass of the envelope in our sample has a range from 0.04 to 5.0 M_sun, but these masses disagree with the virial masses derived from molecular line observations. Finally, we discuss the nature of these sources in light of various evolutionary indicators and find that T_bol and L_obs/L_smm are often inconsistent in distinguishing Class 0 from Class I cores.

  4. NEW CANDIDATE ERUPTIVE YOUNG STARS IN LYNDS 1340

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kun, M.; Moór, A.; Szegedi-Elek, E. [Konkoly Observatory, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege út 15-17 (Hungary); Apai, D. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Planetary Sciences, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); O'Linger-Luscusk, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stecklum, B. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Wolf-Chase, G., E-mail: kun@konkoly.hu [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We report on the discovery of three candidate eruptive young stars, found during our comprehensive multi-wavelength study of the young stellar population of the dark cloud L1340. These stars are as follows. (1) IRAS 02224+7227 (2MASS 02270555+7241167, HH 487S) exhibited FUor-like spectrum in our low-resolution optical spectra. The available photometric data restrict its luminosity to 23 L {sub ?} < L {sub bol} < 59 L {sub ?}. (2) 2MASS 02263797+7304575, identified as a classical T Tauri star during our H? survey, exhibited an EXor-type brightening in 2005 November at the time of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations of the region. (3) 2MASS 02325605+7246055, a low-mass embedded young star, associated with a fan-shaped infrared nebula, underwent an outburst between the DSS 1 and DSS 2 surveys, leading to the appearance of a faint optical nebula. Our [S II] and H? images, as well as the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 4.5 ?m images, revealed Herbig-Haro objects associated with this star. Our results suggest that amplitudes and timescales of outbursts do not necessarily correlate with the evolutionary stage of the stars.

  5. Accretion Rates of Red Quasars from the Hydrogen P$\\beta$ line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Dohyeong; Glikman, Eilat; Woo, Jong-Hak; Urrutia, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Red quasars are thought to be an intermediate population between merger-driven star-forming galaxies in dust-enshrouded phase and normal quasars. If so, they are expected to have high accretion ratios, but their intrinsic dust extinction hampers reliable determination of Eddington ratios. Here, we compare the accretion rates of 16 red quasars at $z \\sim 0.7$ to those of normal type 1 quasars at the same redshift range. The red quasars are selected by their red colors in optical through near-infrared (NIR) and radio detection. The accretion rates of the red quasars are derived from the P$\\beta$ line in NIR spectra, which is obtained by the SpeX on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) in order to avoid the effects of dust extinction. We find that the measured Eddington ratios ($L_{\\rm bol}$/$L_{\\rm Edd} \\simeq 0.69$) of red quasars are significantly higher than those of normal type 1 quasars, which is consistent with a scenario in which red quasars are the intermediate population and the black holes of red qu...

  6. RELAP5 model of the high flux isotope reactor with low enriched fuel thermal flux profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, J.; Mervin, B.; Hart, S.; Ritchie, J.; Walker, S.; Ruggles, A.; Maldonado, G. I. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) currently uses highly enriched uranium (HEU) fabricated into involute-shaped fuel plates. It is desired that HFIR be able to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel while preserving the current performance capability for its diverse missions in material irradiation studies, isotope production, and the use of neutron beam lines for basic research. Preliminary neutronics and depletion simulations of HFIR with LEU fuel have arrived to feasible fuel loadings that maintain the neutronics performance of the reactor. This article illustrates preliminary models developed for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the LEU core to ensure safe operation of the reactor. The beginning of life (BOL) LEU thermal flux profile has been modeled in RELAP5 to facilitate steady state simulation of the core cooling, and of anticipated and unanticipated transients. Steady state results are presented to validate the new thermal power profile inputs. A power ramp, slow depressurization at the outlet, and flow coast down transients are also evaluated. (authors)

  7. Linking low- to high-mass YSOs with Herschel-HIFI observations of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose-Garcia, I San; van Dishoeck, E F; Kristensen, L E; van der Tak, F F S; Braine, J; Herpin, F; Johnstone, D; van Kempen, T A; Wyrowski, F

    2015-01-01

    Water probes the dynamics in young stellar objects (YSOs) effectively, especially shocks in molecular outflows. It is a key molecule for exploring whether the physical properties of low-mass protostars can be extrapolated to massive YSOs. As part of the WISH key programme, we investigate the dynamics and the excitation conditions of shocks along the outflow cavity wall as function of source luminosity. Velocity-resolved Herschel-HIFI spectra of the H2O 988, 752, 1097 GHz and 12CO J=10-9, 16-15 lines were analysed for 52 YSOs with bolometric luminosities (L_bol) ranging from 10^5 L_sun. The profiles of the H2O lines are similar, indicating that they probe the same gas. We see two main Gaussian emission components in all YSOs: a broad component associated with non-dissociative shocks in the outflow cavity wall (cavity shocks) and a narrow component associated with quiescent envelope material. More than 60% of the total integrated intensity of the H2O lines (L_H2O) comes from the cavity shock component. The H2O ...

  8. The identification of z-dropouts in Pan-STARRS1: three quasars at 6.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venemans, B P; Decarli, R; Farina, E P; Walter, F; Chambers, K C; Fan, X; Rix, H-W; Schlafly, E; McMahon, R G; Simcoe, R; Stern, D; Burgett, W S; Draper, P W; Flewelling, H; Hodapp, K W; Kaiser, N; Magnier, E A; Metcalfe, N; Morgan, J S; Price, P A; Tonry, J L; Waters, C; AlSayyad, Y; Banerji, M; Chen, S S; González-Solares, E A; Greiner, J; Mazzucchelli, C; McGreer, I; Miller, D R; Reed, S; Sullivan, P W

    2015-01-01

    Luminous distant quasars are unique probes of the high redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) and of the growth of massive galaxies and black holes in the early universe. Absorption due to neutral Hydrogen in the IGM makes quasars beyond a redshift of z~6.5 very faint in the optical $z$-band, thus locating quasars at higher redshifts require large surveys that are sensitive above 1 micron. We report the discovery of three new z>6.5 quasars, corresponding to an age of the universe of 6.5 quasars from 4 to 7. The quasars have redshifts of z=6.50, 6.52, and 6.66, and include the brightest z-dropout quasar reported to date, PSO J036.5078+03.0498 with M_1450=-27.4. We obtained near-infrared spectroscopy for the quasars and from the MgII line we estimate that the central black holes have masses between 5x10^8 and 4x10^9 M_sun, and are accreting close to the Eddington limit (L_Bol/L_Edd=0.13-1.2). We investigate the ionized regions around the quasars and find near zone radii of R_NZ=1.5-5.2 proper Mpc, confirming the t...

  9. Calibrated Estimates of the Energy in Major Flares of GRS 1915+105

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Punsly, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the energetics of the major radio flare of October 8 2005 in GRS 1915+105. The flare is of particular interest because it is one of the most luminous and energetic radio flares from a Galactic black hole that has ever been observed. The motivation is two-fold. One, to learn more about the energetics of this most extreme phenomenon and its relationship to the accretion state. The second is to verify if the calibrated estimates of the energy of major radio flares (based on the peak low frequency optically thin flux) derived from flares in the period 1996-2001 in Punsly & Rodriguez (2013), PR13 hereafter, can be used to estimate plasmoid energy beyond this time period. We find evidence that the calibrated curves are still accurate for this strong flare. Furthermore, the physically important findings of PR13 are supported by the inclusion of this flare: the flare energy is correlated with both the intrinsic bolometric X-ray luminosity, $L_{\\mathrm{bol}}$, $\\sim 1$ hour before ejection and $L_{\\math...

  10. The Strikingly Uniform, Highly Turbulent Interstellar Medium of the Most Luminous Galaxy in the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz-Santos, T; Blain, A W; Tsai, C -W; Aravena, M; Eisenhardt, P; Wu, J; Stern, D; Bridge, C

    2015-01-01

    Observed at z = 4.601 and with L_bol = 3.5 x 10^14 Lsun, W2246-0526 is the most luminous galaxy known in the Universe, and hosts a deeply-buried active galactic nucleus (AGN)/super-massive black hole (SMBH). Discovered using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), W2246-0526 is classified as a Hot Dust Obscured Galaxy (Hot DOG), based on its luminosity and dust temperature. Here we present spatially resolved ALMA [CII]157.7um observations of W2246-0526, providing unique insight into the kinematics of its interstellar medium (ISM). The measured [CII]-to-far-infrared ratio is ~2 x 10^-4, implying ISM conditions that compare only with the most obscured, compact starbursts and AGN in the local Universe today. The spatially resolved [CII] line is strikingly uniform and very broad, 500-600 km/s wide, extending throughout the entire galaxy over about 2.5 kpc, with modest shear. Such a large, homogeneous velocity dispersion indicates a highly turbulent medium. W2246-0526 is unstable in terms of the energy and...

  11. The Herschel first look at protostars in the Aquila Rift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bontemps, S; Konyves, V; Men'shchikov, A; Schneider, N; Maury, A; Peretto, N; Arzoumanian, D; Attard, M; Motte, F; Minier, V; Didelon, P; Saraceno, P; Abergel, A; Baluteau, J -P; Bernard, J -Ph; Cambresy, L; Cox, P; Di Francesco, J; Di Giorgo, A M; Griffin, M; Hargrave, P; Huang, M; Kirk, J; Li, J; Martin, P; Merin, B; Molinari, S; Olofsson, G; Pezzuto, S; Prusti, T; Roussel, H; Russeil, D; Sauvage, M; Sibthorpe, B; Spinoglio, L; Testi, L; Vavrek, R; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G; Wilson, C; Woodcraft, A; Zavagno, A

    2010-01-01

    As part of the science demonstration phase of the Herschel mission of the Gould Belt Key Program, the Aquila Rift molecular complex has been observed. The complete ~ 3.3deg x 3.3deg imaging with SPIRE 250/350/500 micron and PACS 70/160 micron allows a deep investigation of embedded protostellar phases, probing of the dust emission from warm inner regions at 70 and 160 micron to the bulk of the cold envelopes between 250 and 500 micron. We used a systematic detection technique operating simultaneously on all Herschel bands to build a sample of protostars. Spectral energy distributions are derived to measure luminosities and envelope masses, and to place the protostars in an M_env - L_bol evolutionary diagram. The spatial distribution of protostars indicates three star-forming sites in Aquila, with W40/Sh2-64 HII region by far the richest. Most of the detected protostars are newly discovered. For a reduced area around the Serpens South cluster, we could compare the Herschel census of protostars with Spitzer res...

  12. A Very Low-Luminosity, Very Cool, DC White Dwarf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugh Harris; Conard Dahn; Frederick Vrba; Arne Henden; James Liebert; Gary Schmidt; Neill Reid

    1999-06-03

    The star LHS 3250 is found to be a white dwarf at a distance of 30 pc. Its absolute magnitudes (M_V = 15.72; M_bol = 16.2) put it among the least-luminous white dwarfs known. Its optical spectrum shows no features, indicating it has a DC classification, and it shows no detectable polarization, indicating it does not have a very strong magnetic field. However, its broadband colors show it to have a unique spectral energy distribution, and it stands out from all other stars in BVI and other broadband photometric surveys. We discuss these properties, and conclude that LHS 3250 must be an extremely cool white dwarf with strong collision-induced absorption at red-infrared wavelengths from molecular hydrogen, in accord with models for very cool white dwarf atmospheres. If so, it is the first such star known, and the first star to provide observational evidence supporting these models. It suggests that other very cool white dwarfs, both halo white dwarfs and the oldest disk white dwarfs, also may have colors affected by similar absorption. The atmospheric composition of LHS 3250 is not known, and therefore its temperature is poorly determined. It may be a helium-core star with a mass 0.3-0.45 M_solar and a product of mass-transfer in a close binary system. However, until its temperature is better known, its mass and age remain uncertain.

  13. Microstructural evolution of U(Mo)–Al(Si) dispersion fuel under irradiation – Destructive analyses of the LEONIDAS E-FUTURE plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Leenaers; S. Van den Berghe; J. Van Eyken; E. Koonen; F. Charollais; P. Lemoine; Y. Calzavara; H. Guyon; C. Jarousse; D. Geslin; D. Wachs; D. Keiser; A. Robinson; G. Hofman; Y. S. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Several irradiation experiments have confirmed the positive effect of adding Si to the matrix of an U(Mo) dispersion fuel plate on its in-pile irradiation behavior. E-FUTURE, the first experiment of the LEONIDAS program, was performed to select an optimum Si concentration and fuel plate heat treatment parameters for further qualification. It consisted of the irradiation of 4 distinct (regarding Si content and heat treatments), full size flat fuel plates in the BR2 reactor under bounding conditions (470 W/cm2 peak BOL power, approximately 70% peak burn-up). After the irradiation, the E-FUTURE plates were examined non-destructively and found to have pillowed in the highest burn-up positions. The destructive post-irradiation examination confirmed that the fuel evolves in a stable way up to a burn-up of 60%235U. Even in the deformed area (pillow) the U(Mo) fuel itself shows stable behavior and remaining matrix material was present. From the calculation of the volume fractions, the positive effect of a higher Si amount added to the matrix and the higher annealing temperature can be derived.

  14. 1-MeV-Electron Irradiation of GaInAsN Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; King, R. R.; Edmondson, K. M.; Friedman, D. J.; Karam, N. H.

    2002-05-01

    This conference paper describes the GaInAsN cells that are measured to retain 933% and 894% of their original efficiency after exposure to 5 X 1014 and 1 X 1015 cm-2 1-MeV electrons, respectively. The rate of degradation is not correlated with the performance at beginning of life (BOL). The depletion width remains essentially unchanged, increasing by< 1%. Temperature-coefficient data for GaInAsN cells are also presented. These numbers are used to project the efficiency of GaInAsN-containing multijunction cells. The GaInAsN junction is not currently predicted to increase the efficiencies of the multijunction cells. Nevertheless, GaInAsN-containing multijunction cell efficiencies are predicted to be comparable to those of the conventional structures, and even small improvements in the GaInAsN cell may lead to higher multijunction cell efficiencies, especially for high-radiation applications and when cell operating temperature is low.

  15. The high-efficiency jets magnetically accelerated from a thin disk in powerful lobe-dominated FRII radio galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shuang-Liang

    2014-06-10

    A maximum jet efficiency line R ? 25 (R = L {sub jet}/L {sub bol}), found in FRII radio galaxies by Fernandes et al., was extended to cover the full range of jet power by Punsly. Recent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of jet formation have mainly focused on the enhancement of jet power. In this work, we suggest that the jet efficiency could be very high even for conventional jet power if the radiative efficiency of disks was much smaller. We adopt the model of a thin disk with magnetically driven winds to investigate the observational high-efficiency jets in FRII radio galaxies. It is found that the structure of a thin disk can be significantly altered by the feedback of winds. The temperature of a disk gradually decreases with increasing magnetic field; the disk density, surface density, and pressure also change enormously. The lower temperature and higher surface density in the inner disk result in the rapid decrease of radiative efficiency. Thus, the jet efficiency is greatly improved even if the jet power is conventional. Our results can explain the observations quite well. The theoretical maximum jet efficiency of R ? 1000 suggested by our calculations is large enough to explain all of the high jet efficiency in observations, even considering the episodic activity of jets.

  16. Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Menzies; Michael Feast; Patricia Whitelock; Enrico Olivier; Noriyuki Matsunaga; Gary Da Costa

    2007-12-29

    JHKs near-infrared photometry of stars in the Phoenix dwarf galaxy is presented and discussed. Combining these data with the optical photometry of Massey et al. allows a rather clean separation of field stars from Phoenix members. The discovery of a Mira variable (P = 425 days), which is almost certainly a carbon star, leads to an estimate of the distance modulus of 23.10+/-0.18 that is consistent with other estimates and indicates the existence of a significant population of age ~2 Gyr. The two carbon stars of Da Costa have M{bol} = -3.8 and are consistent with belonging to a population of similar age; some other possible members of such a population are identified. A Da Costa non-carbon star is Delta Ks~0.3 mag brighter than these two carbon stars. It may be an AGB star of the dominant old population. The nature of other stars lying close to it in the Ks,(J-Ks) diagram needs studying.

  17. Interactions between ingredients in IMX-101: Reactive Chemical Processes Control Insensitive Munitions Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard; Kay, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry (STMBMS) measurements have been conducted on a new Insensitive Munitions (IM) formulation. IMX-101 is the first explosive to be fully IM qualified under new NATO STANAG guidelines for fielded munitions. The formulation uses dinitroanisole (DNAN) as a new melt cast material to replace TNT, and shows excellent IM performance when formulated with other energetic ingredients. The scope of this work is to explain this superior IM performance by investigating the reactive processes occurring in the material when subjected to a well-controlled thermal environment. The dominant reactive processes observed were a series of complex chemical interactions between the three main ingredients (DNAN, NQ, and NTO) that occurs well below the onset of the normal decomposition process of any of the individual ingredients. This process shifts the thermal response of the formulations to a much lower temperature, where the kinetically controlled reaction processes are much slower. This low temperature shift has the effect of allowing the reactions to consume the reactive solids (NQ, NTO) well before the reaction rates increase and reach thermal runaway, resulting in a relatively benign response to the external stimuli. The main findings on the interaction processes are presented.

  18. Nuclear proliferation: Lessons learned from the Iraqi case. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The nuclear weapons inspection regime implemented in Iraq following the United Nations coalition victory in Desert Storm is the most intrusive in history. Important conclusions about the current non-proliferation regime can therefore be determined from a study of Iraq's progress. This thesis examines Iraq's efforts to acquire nuclear weapons. The supply side of the equation is also studied, with a concentration upon the contributions of NATO nations. The strategic culture of Iraq is discussed, in an effort to discover why Iraq sought nuclear weapons. Finally, policy prescriptions are advanced. The current non-proliferation regime needs to be improved if the spread of nuclear weapons is to be halted, or even slowed. The most promising way to improve this regime is to involve the U.N. Special Commission and the U.N. Security Council in the management of the problem of nuclear proliferation.... Iraq, Strategic culture, Non-Proliferation treaty, International atomic energy agency, Nuclear weapons, Middle east security, Nuclear suppliers group, United Nations.

  19. IEA Energy conservation in the iron and steel industry. [US and Western Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tunnah, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society research program, under the auspices of the IEA, had the objectives of collecting data on material requirements and energy-consumption patterns in selected energy-intensive industries in the US and Western Europe, of identifying technologies and operating practices with the potential for energy conservation in those industries, and of recommending research projects that could lead to improved energy efficiency. The steel industry was selected for analysis and ideas for an international cooperative program were developed. Representatives from various countries conducted meetings and the form of an implementing agreement for a research and development program was finalized in December, 1980. The program includes three technical areas: hot-surface inspection, heat recovery, and coal gasification. Hot-surface inspection methods to be demonstrated are: optical, induction, electromagnetic ultrasonic, electromagnetic ultrasonic surface testing methods, and eddy current method for hot surface inspection and an infrared system (possibly). Three heat-recovery projects are: ceramic heat wheel development; demonstration of granular bed/heat pipe system for heat recovery; and demonstration of tubular ceramic recuperators. Processes in coal gasification are: converter process, gas treatment, and iron treatment. Each project is described in detail. (MCW)

  20. Development and Validation of a Lifecycle-based Prognostics Architecture with Test Bed Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, J. Wesley; Upadhyaya, Belle; Sharp, Michael; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Jeffries, Brien; Nam, Alan; Strong, Eric; Tong, Matthew; Welz, Zachary; Barbieri, Federico; Langford, Seth; Meinweiser, Gregory; Weeks, Matthew

    2014-11-06

    On-line monitoring and tracking of nuclear plant system and component degradation is being investigated as a method for improving the safety, reliability, and maintainability of aging nuclear power plants. Accurate prediction of the current degradation state of system components and structures is important for accurate estimates of their remaining useful life (RUL). The correct quantification and propagation of both the measurement uncertainty and model uncertainty is necessary for quantifying the uncertainty of the RUL prediction. This research project developed and validated methods to perform RUL estimation throughout the lifecycle of plant components. Prognostic methods should seamlessly operate from beginning of component life (BOL) to end of component life (EOL). We term this "Lifecycle Prognostics." When a component is put into use, the only information available may be past failure times of similar components used in similar conditions, and the predicted failure distribution can be estimated with reliability methods such as Weibull Analysis (Type I Prognostics). As the component operates, it begins to degrade and consume its available life. This life consumption may be a function of system stresses, and the failure distribution should be updated to account for the system operational stress levels (Type II Prognostics). When degradation becomes apparent, this information can be used to again improve the RUL estimate (Type III Prognostics). This research focused on developing prognostics algorithms for the three types of prognostics, developing uncertainty quantification methods for each of the algorithms, and, most importantly, developing a framework using Bayesian methods to transition between prognostic model types and update failure distribution estimates as new information becomes available. The developed methods were then validated on a range of accelerated degradation test beds. The ultimate goal of prognostics is to provide an accurate assessment for RUL predictions, with as little uncertainty as possible. From a reliability and maintenance standpoint, there would be improved safety by avoiding all failures. Calculated risk would decrease, saving money by avoiding unnecessary maintenance. One major bottleneck for data-driven prognostics is the availability of run-to-failure degradation data. Without enough degradation data leading to failure, prognostic models can yield RUL distributions with large uncertainty or mathematically unsound predictions. To address these issues a "Lifecycle Prognostics" method was developed to create RUL distributions from Beginning of Life (BOL) to End of Life (EOL). This employs established Type I, II, and III prognostic methods, and Bayesian transitioning between each Type. Bayesian methods, as opposed to classical frequency statistics, show how an expected value, a priori, changes with new data to form a posterior distribution. For example, when you purchase a component you have a prior belief, or estimation, of how long it will operate before failing. As you operate it, you may collect information related to its condition that will allow you to update your estimated failure time. Bayesian methods are best used when limited data are available. The use of a prior also means that information is conserved when new data are available. The weightings of the prior belief and information contained in the sampled data are dependent on the variance (uncertainty) of the prior, the variance (uncertainty) of the data, and the amount of measured data (number of samples). If the variance of the prior is small compared to the uncertainty of the data, the prior will be weighed more heavily. However, as more data are collected, the data will be weighted more heavily and will eventually swamp out the prior in calculating the posterior distribution of model parameters. Fundamentally Bayesian analysis updates a prior belief with new data to get a posterior belief. The general approach to applying the Bayesian method to lifecycle prognostics consisted of identifying the prior, which is the RUL es

  1. Recovery Act: Web-based CO{sub 2} Subsurface Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paolini, Christopher; Castillo, Jose

    2012-11-30

    The Web-based CO{sub 2} Subsurface Modeling project focused primarily on extending an existing text-only, command-line driven, isothermal and isobaric, geochemical reaction-transport simulation code, developed and donated by Sienna Geodynamics, into an easier-to-use Web-based application for simulating long-term storage of CO{sub 2} in geologic reservoirs. The Web-based interface developed through this project, publically accessible via URL http://symc.sdsu.edu/, enables rapid prototyping of CO{sub 2} injection scenarios and allows students without advanced knowledge of geochemistry to setup a typical sequestration scenario, invoke a simulation, analyze results, and then vary one or more problem parameters and quickly re-run a simulation to answer what-if questions. symc.sdsu.edu has 2x12 core AMD Opteron™ 6174 2.20GHz processors and 16GB RAM. The Web-based application was used to develop a new computational science course at San Diego State University, COMP 670: Numerical Simulation of CO{sub 2} Sequestration, which was taught during the fall semester of 2012. The purpose of the class was to introduce graduate students to Carbon Capture, Use and Storage (CCUS) through numerical modeling and simulation, and to teach students how to interpret simulation results to make predictions about long-term CO{sub 2} storage capacity in deep brine reservoirs. In addition to the training and education component of the project, significant software development efforts took place. Two computational science doctoral and one geological science masters student, under the direction of the PIs, extended the original code developed by Sienna Geodynamics, named Sym.8. New capabilities were added to Sym.8 to simulate non-isothermal and non-isobaric flows of charged aqueous solutes in porous media, in addition to incorporating HPC support into the code for execution on many-core XSEDE clusters. A successful outcome of this project was the funding and training of three new computational science students and one geological science student in technologies relevant to carbon sequestration and problems involving flow in subsurface media. The three computational science students are currently finishing their doctorial studies on different aspects of modeling CO{sub 2} sequestration, while the geological science student completed his master’s thesis in modeling the thermal response of CO{sub 2} injection in brine and, as a direct result of participation in this project, is now employed at ExxonMobil as a full-time staff geologist.

  2. Revisiting the axion bounds from the Galactic white dwarf luminosity function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertolami, M.M. Miller [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748, Garching (Germany); Melendez, B.E.; Althaus, L.G. [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, UNLP-CONICET, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Isern, J., E-mail: marcelo@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: brenmele@gmail.com, E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: isern@ieec.cat [Institut de Ciéncies de l'Espai (CSIC), Facultat de Ciéncies, Campus UAB, Torre C5-parell, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    It has been shown that the shape of the luminosity function of white dwarfs (WDLF) is a powerful tool to check for the possible existence of DFSZ-axions, a proposed but not yet detected type of weakly interacting particles. With the aim of deriving new constraints on the axion mass, we compute in this paper new theoretical WDLFs on the basis of WD evolving models that incorporate the feedback of axions on the thermal structure of the white dwarf. We find that the impact of the axion emission into the neutrino emission can not be neglected at high luminosities M{sub  Bol}?< 8) and that the axion emission needs to be incorporated self-consistently into the evolution of the white dwarfs when dealing with axion masses larger than m{sub a} cos {sup 2}??> 5 meV (i.e. axion-electron coupling constant g{sub ae}?> 1.4× 10{sup -13}). We went beyond previous works by including 5 different derivations of the WDLF in our analysis. Then we have performed ?{sup 2}-tests to have a quantitative measure of the agreement between the theoretical WDLFs — computed under the assumptions of different axion masses and normalization methods --- and the observed WDLFs of the Galactic disk. While all the WDLF studied in this work disfavour axion masses in the range suggested by asteroseismology m{sub a} cos {sup 2}??> 10 meV; g{sub ae}?> 2.8× 10{sup -13}) lower axion masses can not be discarded from our current knowledge of the WDLF of the Galactic Disk. A larger set of completely independent derivations of the WDLF of the galactic disk as well as a detailed study of the uncertainties of the theoretical WDLFs is needed before quantitative constraints on the axion-electron coupling constant can be made.

  3. The type IIb supernova 2013df and its cool supergiant progenitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zheng, WeiKang; Fox, Ori D.; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kelly, Patrick L. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Miller, Adam A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Smith, Nathan [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85720 (United States); Lee, William H. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Cd. Universitaria, México DF 04510 (Mexico); Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay, E-mail: vandyk@ipac.caltech.edu [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2014-02-01

    We have obtained early-time photometry and spectroscopy of supernova (SN) 2013df in NGC 4414. The SN is clearly of Type IIb, with notable similarities to SN 1993J. From its luminosity at secondary maximum light, it appears that less {sup 56}Ni (? 0.06 M {sub ?}) was synthesized in the SN 2013df explosion than was the case for the SNe IIb 1993J, 2008ax, and 2011dh. Based on a comparison of the light curves, the SN 2013df progenitor must have been more extended in radius prior to explosion than the progenitor of SN 1993J. The total extinction for SN 2013df is estimated to be A{sub V} = 0.30 mag. The metallicity at the SN location is likely to be solar. We have conducted Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Target of Opportunity observations of the SN with the Wide Field Camera 3, and from a precise comparison of these new observations to archival HST observations of the host galaxy obtained 14 yr prior to explosion, we have identified the progenitor of SN 2013df to be a yellow supergiant, somewhat hotter than a red supergiant progenitor for a normal Type II-Plateau SN. From its observed spectral energy distribution, assuming that the light is dominated by one star, the progenitor had effective temperature T {sub eff} = 4250 ± 100 K and a bolometric luminosity L {sub bol} = 10{sup 4.94±0.06} L {sub ?}. This leads to an effective radius R {sub eff} = 545 ± 65 R {sub ?}. The star likely had an initial mass in the range of 13-17 M {sub ?}; however, if it was a member of an interacting binary system, detailed modeling of the system is required to estimate this mass more accurately. The progenitor star of SN 2013df appears to have been relatively similar to the progenitor of SN 1993J.

  4. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Theta Car

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yael Naze; Gregor Rauw

    2008-08-25

    Context : The peculiar hot star Theta Car in the open cluster IC2602 is a blue straggler as well as a single-line binary of short period (2.2d). Aims : Its high-energy properties are not well known, though X-rays can provide useful constraints on the energetic processes at work in binaries as well as in peculiar, single objects. Methods : We present the analysis of a 50ks exposure taken with the XMM-Newton observatory. It provides medium as well as high-resolution spectroscopy. Results : Our high-resolution spectroscopy analysis reveals a very soft spectrum with multiple temperature components (1--6MK) and an X-ray flux slightly below the `canonical' value (log[L_X(0.1-10.)/L_{BOL}] ~ -7). The X-ray lines appear surprisingly narrow and unshifted, reminiscent of those of beta Cru and tau Sco. Their relative intensities confirm the anomalous abundances detected in the optical domain (C strongly depleted, N strongly enriched, O slightly depleted). In addition, the X-ray data favor a slight depletion in neon and iron, but they are less conclusive for the magnesium abundance (solar-like?). While no significant changes occur during the XMM-Newton observation, variability in the X-ray domain is detected on the long-term range. The formation radius of the X-ray emission is loosely constrained to <5 R_sol, which allows for a range of models (wind-shock, corona, magnetic confinement,...) though not all of them can be reconciled with the softness of the spectrum and the narrowness of the lines.

  5. Neutronic evaluation of a non-fertile fuel for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in a boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterbentz, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    A new non-fertile, weapons-grade plutonium oxide fuel concept is developed and evaluated for deep burn applications in a boiling water reactor environment using the General Electric 8x8 Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) fuel assembly dimensions and pitch. Detailed infinite lattice fuel burnup results and neutronic performance characteristics are given and although preliminary in nature, clearly demonstrate the fuel`s potential as an effective means to expedite the disposition of plutonium in existing light water reactors. The new non-fertile fuel concept is an all oxide composition containing plutonia, zirconia, calcia, and erbia having the following design weight percentages: 8.3; 80.4; 9.7; and 1.6. This fuel composition in an infinite fuel lattice operating at linear heat generation rates of 6.0 or 12.0 kW/ft per rod can remain critical for up to 1,200 and 600 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD), respectively, and achieve a burnup of 7.45 {times} 10{sup 20} f/cc. These burnups correspond to a 71--73% total plutonium isotope destruction and a 91--94% destruction of the {sup 239}Pu isotope for the 0--40% moderator steam void condition. Total plutonium destruction greater than 73% is possible with a fuel management scheme that allows subcritical fuel assemblies to be driven by adjacent high reactivity assemblies. The fuel exhibits very favorable neutron characteristics from beginning-of-life (BOL) to end-of-life (EOL). Prompt fuel Doppler coefficient of reactivity are negative, with values ranging between {minus}0.4 to {minus}2.0 pcm/K over the temperature range of 900 to 2,200 K. The ABWR fuel lattice remains in an undermoderated condition for both hot operational and cold startup conditions over the entire fuel burnup lifetime.

  6. MN Lup: X-RAYS FROM A WEAKLY ACCRETING T TAURI STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Wolter, U.; Robrade, J.

    2013-07-01

    Young T Tauri stars (TTS) are surrounded by an accretion disk, which over time disperses due to photoevaporation, accretion, and possibly planet formation. The accretion shock on the central star produces an UV/optical veiling continuum, line emission, and X-ray signatures. As the accretion rate decreases, the impact on the central star must change. In this article we study MN Lup, a young star where no indications of a disk are seen in IR observations. We present XMM-Newton and VLT/UVES observations, some of them taken simultaneously. The X-ray data show that MN Lup is an active star with L{sub X} /L{sub bol} close to the saturation limit. However, we find high densities (n{sub e} > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}) in the X-ray grating spectrum. This can be well fitted using an accretion shock model with an accretion rate of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Despite the simple H{alpha} line profile which has a broad component, but no absorption signatures as typically seen on accreting TTS, we find rotational modulation in Ca II K and in photospheric absorption lines. These line profile modulations do not clearly indicate the presence of a localized hot accretion spot on the star. In the H{alpha} line we see a prominence in absorption about 2R{sub *} above the stellar surface-the first of its kind on a TTS. MN Lup is also the only TTS where accretion is seen, but no dust disk is detected that could fuel it. We suggest that MN Lup presents a unique and short-lived state in the disk evolution. It may have lost its dust disk only recently and is now accreting the remaining gas at a very low rate.

  7. The ups and downs of ? Centauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayres, Thomas R., E-mail: Thomas.Ayres@Colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The following is a progress report on the long-term coronal (T ? 1 MK) activity of ? Centauri A (HD 128620: G2 V) and B (HD 128621: K1 V). Since 2005, Chandra X-Ray Observatory has carried out semiannual pointings on AB, mainly with the High Resolution Camera, but also on two occasions with the Low-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, fully resolving the close pair in all cases. During 2008-2013, Chandra captured the rise, peak, and initial decline of B's coronal luminosity. Together with previous high states documented by ROSAT and XMM-Newton, the long-term X-ray record suggests a period of 8.1 ± 0.2 yr, compared to 11 yr for the Sun, with a minimum-to-peak contrast of 4.5, about half the typical solar cycle amplitude. Meanwhile, the A component has been mired in a Maunder-Minimum-like low state since 2005, initially recognized by XMM-Newton. But now, A finally appears to be climbing out of the extended lull. If interpreted simply as an overlong cycle, the period would be 19.2 ± 0.7 yr, with a minimum-to-peak contrast of 3.4. The short X-ray cycle of B, and possibly long cycle of A, are not unusual compared with the diverse (albeit much lower amplitude) chromospheric variations recorded, for example, by the HK Project. Further, the deep low state of A also is not unusual, but instead is similar to the L {sub X}/L {sub bol} of the Sun during recent minima of the sunspot cycle.

  8. An X-ray Census of Young Stars in the Massive Southern Star-Forming Complex NGC 6357

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junfeng Wang; Leisa K. Townsley; Eric D. Feigelson; Konstantin V. Getman; Patrick S. Broos; Gordon P. Garmire; Masahiro Tsujimoto

    2006-09-11

    We present the first high spatial resolution X-ray study of the massive star forming region NGC 6357, obtained in a 38 ks Chandra/ACIS observation. Inside the brightest constituent of this large HII region complex is the massive open cluster Pismis 24. It contains two of the brightest and bluest stars known, yet remains poorly studied; only a handful of optically bright stellar members have been identified. We investigate the cluster extent and Initial Mass Function and detect ~800 X-ray sources with a limiting sensitivity of 10^{30} ergs s^{-1}; this provides the first reliable probe of the rich intermediate-mass and low-mass population of this massive cluster, increasing the number of known members from optical study by a factor of ~50. The high luminosity end (log L_h[2-8 keV]\\ge 30.3 ergs s^{-1}) of the observed X-ray luminosity function in NGC 6357 is clearly consistent with a power law relation as seen in the Orion Nebula Cluster and Cepheus B, yielding the first estimate of NGC 6357's total cluster population, a few times the known Orion population. We investigate the structure of the cluster, finding small-scale substructures superposed on a spherical cluster with 6 pc extent, and discuss its relationship to the nebular morphology. The long-standing Lx - 10^{-7}L_{bol} correlation for O stars is confirmed. Twenty-four candidate O stars and one possible new obscured massive YSO or Wolf-Rayet star are presented. Many cluster members are estimated to be intermediate-mass stars from available infrared photometry (assuming an age of 1 Myr), but only a few exhibit K-band excess. We report the first detection of X-ray emission from an Evaporating Gaseous Globule at the tip of a molecular pillar; this source is likely a B0-B2 protostar.

  9. SEARCH FOR IONIZED JETS TOWARD HIGH-MASS YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzman, Andres E.; Garay, Guido; Brooks, Kate J.; Voronkov, Maxim A.

    2012-07-01

    We are carrying out multi-frequency radio continuum observations, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, to systematically search for collimated ionized jets toward high-mass young stellar objects (HMYSOs). Here we report observations at 1.4, 2.4, 4.8, and 8.6 GHz, made with angular resolutions of about 7'', 4'', 2'', and 1'', respectively, toward six objects of a sample of 33 southern HMYSOs thought to be in very early stages of evolution. The objects in the sample were selected from radio and infrared catalogs by having positive radio spectral indices and being luminous (L{sub bol} > 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} L{sub Sun }), but underluminous in radio emission compared with that expected from its bolometric luminosity. This criterion makes the radio sources good candidates for being ionized jets. As part of this systematic search, two ionized jets have been discovered: one previously published and the other reported here. The rest of the observed candidates correspond to three hypercompact H II regions and two ultracompact H II regions. The two jets discovered are associated with two of the most luminous (7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} and 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} L{sub Sun }) HMYSOs known to harbor this type of object, showing that the phenomena of collimated ionized winds appear in the formation process of stars at least up to masses of {approx}20 M{sub Sun} and provide strong evidence for a disk-mediated accretion scenario for the formation of high-mass stars. From the incidence of jets in our sample, we estimate that the jet phase in high-mass protostars lasts for {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} yr.

  10. CONSTRAINING JET PRODUCTION SCENARIOS BY STUDIES OF NARROW-LINE RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikora, Marek; Stasinska, Grazyna; Koziel-Wierzbowska, Dorota; Madejski, Greg M.; Asari, Natalia V.

    2013-03-01

    We study a large sample of narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) with extended radio structures. Using 1.4 GHz radio luminosities L {sub 1.4}, narrow optical emission line luminosities L {sub [OIII]} and L{sub H{sub {alpha}}}, as well as black hole masses M {sub BH} derived from stellar velocity dispersions measured from the optical spectra obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that (1) NLRGs cover about four decades of the Eddington ratio, {lambda} {identical_to} L {sub bol}/L {sub Edd}{proportional_to}L {sub line}/M {sub BH}; (2) L {sub 1.4}/M {sub BH} strongly correlates with {lambda}; and (3) radio loudness, R{identical_to}L{sub 1.4}/L{sub line}, strongly anti-correlates with {lambda}. A very broad range of the Eddington ratio indicates that the parent population of NLRGs includes both radio-loud quasars (RLQs) and broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs). The correlations they obey and their high jet production efficiencies favor a jet production model which involves the so-called magnetically choked accretion scenario. In this model, production of the jet is dominated by the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, and the magnetic fields in the vicinity of the central black hole are confined by the ram pressure of the accretion flow. Since large net magnetic flux accumulated in central regions of the accretion flow required by the model can take place only via geometrically thick accretion, we speculate that the massive, 'cold' accretion events associated with luminous emission-line active galactic nucleus can be accompanied by an efficient jet production only if preceded by a hot, very sub-Eddington accretion phase.

  11. Symmetry potential of $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance and its effects on the $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratio in heavy-ion collisions near the pion production threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Bao-An

    2015-01-01

    Effects of the completely unknown symmetry (isovector) potential of the \\D on the total and differential \\rpi in heavy-ion collisions at beam energies from 100 to 1000 MeV/A are explored within an isospin-dependent transport model IBUU. The effects are found to be negligible at beam energies above the pion production threshold due to the very short lifetimes of less than 2 fm/c for $\\Delta$ resonances with masses around $m_{\\Delta}=1232$ MeV, leaving the $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratios of especially the energetic pions still a reliable probe of the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy $E_{sym}(\\rho)$. However, as the beam energy becomes deeply sub-threshold for pion production, effects of the $\\Delta$ symmetry potential becomes appreciable especially on the \\rpi of low-energy pions from the decays of low-mass $\\Delta$ resonances which have lived long enough to be affected by their mean-field potentials, providing a useful tool to study the symmetry potential and spectroscopy of $\\Delta$ resonances in neutron...

  12. Gravity Dual Corrections to the Heavy Quark Potential at Finite-Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hovhannes R. Grigoryan; Yuri V. Kovchegov

    2011-06-23

    We apply gauge/gravity duality to compute $1/N^2_c$ corrections to the heavy quark potentials of a quark--anti-quark pair ($Q\\bar Q$) and of a quark--quark pair ($QQ$) immersed into the strongly coupled N = 4 SYM plasma. On the gravity side these corrections come from the exchanges of supergravity modes between two string worldsheets stretching from the UV boundary of AdS space to the black hole horizon in the bulk and smeared over $S^5$. We find that the contributions to the $Q\\bar Q$ potential coming from the exchanges of all of the relevant modes (such as dilaton, massive scalar, 2-form field, and graviton) are all attractive, leading to an attractive net $Q\\bar Q$ potential. We show that at large separations $r$ and/or high-temperature $T$ the potential is of Yukawa-type, dominated by the graviton exchange, in agreement with earlier findings. On the other hand, at small-$r T$ the $Q\\bar Q$ potential scales as $\\sim (1/r) \\ln (1/rT)$. In the case of $QQ$ potential the 2-form contribution changes sign and becomes repulsive: however, the net $QQ$ potential remains attractive. At large-$r T$ it is dominated by the graviton exchange, while at small-$r T$ the $QQ$ potential becomes Coulomb-like.

  13. An Analysis of Anomaly Cancellation for Theories in D=10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Antonelli

    2015-07-21

    We prove that the swampland for D=10 N=1 SUGRA coupled to D=10 N=1 SYM is only populated by U(1)^496 and E_8 x U(1)^248. With this goal in mind, we review the anomalies for classical and exceptional groups, retrieving trace identities up to the sixth power of the curvature for each class of groups. We expand this idea for low-dimensional groups, for which the trace of the sixth power is known to factorize, and we retrieve such factorization. We obtain the total anomaly polynomials for individual low dimensional groups and combinations of them and finally we investigate their non-factorization, in such a way that U(1)^496and E_8 xU(1)^248 are non-trivially shown to be the only anomaly-free theories allowed in D=10. Using the method developed for checking the factorization of gauge theories, we retrieve the Green-Schwarz terms for the two theories populating the swampland.

  14. Diffractive deep inelastic scattering in an AdS/CFT inspired model: A phenomenological study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Betemps; V. P. Goncalves; J. T. de Santana Amaral

    2010-04-29

    The analytical treatment of the nonperturbative QCD dynamics is one of main open questions of the strong interactions. Currently, it is only possible to get some qualitative information about this regime considering other QCD-like theories, as for example the N=4 super Yang-Mills (SYM), where one can perform calculations in the nonperturbative limit of large 't Hooft coupling using the Anti-de Sitter space/Conformal field theory (AdS/CFT). Recently, the high energy scattering amplitude was calculated in the AdS/CFT approach, applied to deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and confronted with the $F_2$ HERA data. In this work we extend the nonperturbative AdS/CFT inspired model for diffractive processes and compare its predictions with a perturbative approach based on the Balitsky - Kovchegov (BK) equation. We demonstrate that the AdS/CFT inspired model is not able to describe the current $F_2^{D(3)}$ HERA data and predicts a similar behavior to that from BK equation in the range $10^{-7} \\lesssim x_{IP} \\lesssim 10^{-4}$. At smaller values of $x_{IP}$ the diffractive structure function is predicted to be energy independent.

  15. Nuclear Symmetry Energy in Relativistic Mean Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shufang Ban; Jie Meng; Wojciech Satula; Ramon A. Wyss

    2005-09-12

    The Physical origin of the nuclear symmetry energy is studied within the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. Based on the nuclear binding energies calculated with and without mean isovector potential for several isobaric chains we conform earlier Skyrme-Hartree-Fock result that the nuclear symmetry energy strength depends on the mean level spacing $\\epsilon (A)$ and an effective mean isovector potential strength $\\kappa (A)$. A detaied analysis of isospin dependence of the two components contributing to the nuclear symmetry energy reveals a quadratic dependence due to the mean-isoscalar potential, $\\sim\\epsilon T^2$, and, completely unexpectedly, the presence of a strong linear component $\\sim\\kappa T(T+1+\\epsilon/\\kappa)$ in the isovector potential. The latter generates a nuclear symmetry energy in RMF theory that is proportional to $E_{sym}\\sim T(T+1)$ at variance to the non-relativistic calculation. The origin of the linear term in RMF theory needs to be further explored.

  16. Non-Planar On-Shell Diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian Franco; Daniele Galloni; Brenda Penante; Congkao Wen

    2015-03-17

    We initiate a systematic study of non-planar on-shell diagrams in N=4 SYM and develop powerful technology for doing so. We introduce canonical variables generalizing face variables, which make the dlog form of the on-shell form explicit. We make significant progress towards a general classification of arbitrary on-shell diagrams by means of two classes of combinatorial objects: generalized matching and matroid polytopes. We propose a boundary measurement that connects general on-shell diagrams to the Grassmannian. Our proposal exhibits two important and non-trivial properties: positivity in the planar case and it matches the combinatorial description of the diagrams in terms of generalized matroid polytopes. Interestingly, non-planar diagrams exhibit novel phenomena, such as the emergence of constraints on Plucker coordinates beyond Plucker relations when deleting edges, which are neatly captured by the generalized matching and matroid polytopes. This behavior is tied to the existence of a new type of poles in the on-shell form at which combinations of Plucker coordinates vanish. Finally, we introduce a prescription, applicable beyond the MHV case, for writing the on-shell form as a function of minors directly from the graph.

  17. Nuclear incompressibility parameters evaluated from isoscalar giant monopole resonance of $N=Z$, $A=100,132$ nuclide and Sn isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuichiro Ebata

    2015-08-26

    The isoscaler giant monopole resonances (ISGMR) are computed using the canonical-basis time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory (Cb-TDHFB) with five kinds of Skyrme parameter sets (SGII, SkM$^*$, SLy4, SkT3 and SkI3). To extract the nuclear matter property from finite system, ISGMRs of $N$=$Z$ ($Z$=20 - 50), isobar even-even nuclide for $A$=100, 132 and Sn isotopes are analysed systematically. The magnitude relation of nuclear incompressibility-parameter ($K_\\infty$) among Skyrme parameter sets, can be corresponded to the peak positions of GMR in spherical isotopes over $A$=80. The parameters ($K_{\\rm surf}, K_\\tau$ and $K_{\\rm Coul}$) which appear in expansion of the finite nucleus incompressibility $K_A$, are determined for each Skyrme parameter. From the comparison experimental data whole mass region and the present results, they indicate that the isospin dependent term $K_\\tau$ is filtered as -305$\\pm$10 MeV. The incompressibility parameters of {\\it infinite} system corresponding to our results is $K_\\tau^\\infty$=-340$\\pm$35, $K_\\infty$=225$\\pm$11, and $K_{\\rm sym}$=-138$\\pm$18 MeV.

  18. Two-dimensional N=(2,2) super Yang-Mills theory on computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroshi Suzuki

    2007-09-05

    We carry out preliminary numerical study of Sugino's lattice formulation \\cite{Sugino:2004qd,Sugino:2004qdf} of the two-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ super Yang-Mills theory (2d $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ SYM) with the gauge group $\\SU(2)$. The effect of dynamical fermions is included by re-weighting a quenched ensemble by the pfaffian factor. It appears that the complex phase of the pfaffian due to lattice artifacts and flat directions of the classical potential are not problematic in Monte Carlo simulation. Various one-point supersymmetric Ward-Takahashi (WT) identities are examined for lattice spacings up to $a=0.5/g$ with the fixed physical lattice size $L=4.0/g$, where $g$ denotes the gauge coupling constant in two dimensions. WT identities implied by an exact fermionic symmetry of the formulation are confirmed in fair accuracy and, for most of these identities, the quantum effect of dynamical fermions is clearly observed. For WT identities expected only in the continuum limit, the results seem to be consistent with the behavior expected from supersymmetry, although we do not see clear distintion from the quenched simulation. We measure also the expectation values of renormalized gauge-invariant bi-linear operators of scalar fields.

  19. On the soft limit of open string amplitudes with massive states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianchi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the soft behaviour of open string amplitudes with gluons and massive states in any dimension. Notwithstanding non-minimal couplings of massive higher spin states to gluons, relying on OPE and factorization, we argue that the leading and sub-leading terms are universal and identical to the ones in Yang-Mills theories. In order to illustrate this, we compute some 4-point amplitudes on the disk involving gluons, massive states and, for the bosonic string, tachyons. For the superstring, we revisit the structure of the massive super-multiplets at the first massive level and rewrite the amplitudes in D = 4 in the spinor helicity formalism, that we adapt to accommodate massive higher spin states. We also check the validity of a recently proposed formula relating open superstring amplitudes for mass-less states at tree-level to SYM amplitudes, by factorisation on two-particle massive poles. Finally we analyse the holomorphic soft limit of superstring amplitudes with one massive insertion.

  20. Nuclear polarization effects in Coulomb excitation studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orce, Nico

    2015-01-01

    New polarization potentials have been determined based on: 1) the latest photo-neutron cross section evaluation and a missing factor of two in previous work, and 2) the mass dependency of the symmetry energy, $a_{sym}(A)$. The magnitude of the first one is 35\\% stronger than the currently accepted polarization potential. The second one opens up the possibility for a parameter-free polarization potential. Both polarization potentials are essentially the same for heavy nuclei. The polarization effect on quadrupole collectivity is more substantial than previously assumed for light nuclei. Particular cases are discussed where long-standing discrepancies between high-precision Coulomb-excitation and lifetime measurements still remain. A solution to the long-standing discrepancy between $B(E2; 0^+_1\\rightarrow 2^+_1)$ values determined in $^{18}$O by several Coulomb-excitation studies and a high-precision lifetime measurement is provided in favor of the latter. Polarization effects in light nuclei also influence th...

  1. Top-forms of Leading Singularities in Nonplanar Multi-loop Amplitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Baoyi; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E; Xie, Ruofei; Xin, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Bipartite on-shell diagram is the latest tool in constructing scattering amplitudes. In this letter we prove that an on-shell diagram process a rational top-form if and only if the algebraic ideal comprised of the geometrical constraints can be shifted linearly during successive Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) integrations. With a proper geometric interpretation of the constraints in the Grassmannian manifold, the top-form integration contours can thus be obtained, and understood, in a straightforward way. All top-form integrands can be obtained with the BCFW bridge decomposition chain. For on-shell diagrams without external BCFW-bridges, an extra step of adding an auxiliary external momentum line and the taking the soft limit is needed. This completes the top-form description of leading singularities in nonplanar scattering amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$~Super Yang-Mills (SYM), which is valid for arbitrary higher-loops and beyond the Maximally-Helicity-Violation (MHV) amplitudes.

  2. Top-forms of Leading Singularities in Nonplanar Multi-loop Amplitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baoyi Chen; Gang Chen; Yeuk-Kwan E. Cheung; Ruofei Xie; Yuan Xin

    2015-07-12

    Bipartite on-shell diagram is the latest tool in constructing scattering amplitudes. In this letter we prove that an on-shell diagram process a rational top-form if and only if the algebraic ideal comprised of the geometrical constraints can be shifted linearly during successive Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) integrations. With a proper geometric interpretation of the constraints in the Grassmannian manifold, the top-form integration contours can thus be obtained, and understood, in a straightforward way. All top-form integrands can be obtained with the BCFW bridge decomposition chain. For on-shell diagrams without external BCFW-bridges, an extra step of adding an auxiliary external momentum line and the taking the soft limit is needed. This completes the top-form description of leading singularities in nonplanar scattering amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$~Super Yang-Mills (SYM), which is valid for arbitrary higher-loops and beyond the Maximally-Helicity-Violation (MHV) amplitudes.

  3. Modeling The Shock Initiation of PBX-9501 in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leininger, L; Springer, H K; Mace, J; Mas, E

    2008-07-01

    The SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has determined the 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX-based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX 9501. A series of finite element impact calculations have been performed in the ALE3D [1] hydrodynamic code and compared to the SMIS results to validate the code predictions. The SMIS tests use a powder gun to shoot scaled NATO standard fragments at a cylinder of PBX 9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. The SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. The goal of this model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model [2] in this fully 3-dimensional regime of Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT). The 3-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian hydrodynamic model in ALE3D applies the Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model with PBX 9501 parameters derived from historical 1-dimensional experimental data. The model includes the off-center and angle of impact variations seen in the experiments. Qualitatively, the ALE3D I&G calculations accurately reproduce the 'Go/No-Go' threshold of the Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) reaction in the explosive, as well as the case expansion recorded by a high-speed optical camera. Quantitatively, the calculations show good agreement with the shock time of arrival at internal and external diagnostic pins. This exercise demonstrates the utility of the Ignition and Growth model applied in a predictive fashion for the response of heterogeneous high explosives in the SDT regime.

  4. Modeling Three-Dimensional Shock Initiation of PBX 9501 in ALE3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leininger, L; Springer, H K; Mace, J; Mas, E

    2008-07-08

    A recent SMIS (Specific Munitions Impact Scenario) experimental series performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has provided 3-dimensional shock initiation behavior of the HMX-based heterogeneous high explosive, PBX 9501. A series of finite element impact calculations have been performed in the ALE3D [1] hydrodynamic code and compared to the SMIS results to validate and study code predictions. These SMIS tests used a powder gun to shoot scaled NATO standard fragments into a cylinder of PBX 9501, which has a PMMA case and a steel impact cover. This SMIS real-world shot scenario creates a unique test-bed because (1) SMIS tests facilitate the investigation of 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) within the context of a considerable suite of diagnostics, and (2) many of the fragments arrive at the impact plate off-center and at an angle of impact. A particular goal of these model validation experiments is to demonstrate the predictive capability of the ALE3D implementation of the Tarver-Lee Ignition and Growth reactive flow model [2] within a fully 3-dimensional regime of SDT. The 3-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic model in ALE3D applies the Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model with PBX 9501 parameters derived from historical 1-dimensional experimental data. The model includes the off-center and angle of impact variations seen in the experiments. Qualitatively, the ALE3D I&G calculations reproduce observed 'Go/No-Go' 3D Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) reaction in the explosive, as well as the case expansion recorded by a high-speed optical camera. Quantitatively, the calculations show good agreement with the shock time of arrival at internal and external diagnostic pins. This exercise demonstrates the utility of the Ignition and Growth model applied for the response of heterogeneous high explosives in the SDT regime.

  5. MPC&A for plutonium disposition in the Russian federation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1995-08-08

    The issue of what to do with excess fissile materials from dismantled nuclear weapons has been discussed for a number of years. The options or alternatives commanding the most attention were identified by the American National Academy of Sciences. For plutonium these options are: (1) the fabrication and use of mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel followed by the disposal of the spent fuel, or (2) vitrification (immobilization) of plutonium combined with highly radioactive material followed by direct disposal. The Academy report also identified the alternative of disposal in a deep borehole as requiring further study before being eliminated or accepted. The report emphasized security of nuclear materials as a principal factor in considering management and disposition decisions. Security of materials is particularly important in the near term-now-long before ultimate disposition can be accomplished. The MOX option was the subject of a NATO workshop held at Obninsk, Russia in October 1994. Hence this paper does not deal with the MOX alternative in detail. It deals with the following: materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A) for immobilization and disposal; the immobilization vs MOX alternatives; the security of disposed plutonium; the need to demonstrate MTC&A for plutonium disposition; and, finally, a recommended investment to quickly and inexpensively improve the protection of fissile materials in Russia. It is the author`s view that near-term management is of overriding importance. That is, with respect to the ultimate disposition of excess nuclear materials, how we get there is more important than where we are going.

  6. SUPERNOVA 2008bk AND ITS RED SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Elias-Rosa, Nancy [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, Mailcode 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Davidge, Tim J., E-mail: vandyk@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: tim.davidge@nrc.ca [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada); and others

    2012-01-15

    We have obtained limited photometric and spectroscopic data for supernova (SN) 2008bk in NGC 7793, primarily at {approx}> 150 days after explosion. We find that it is a Type II-Plateau (II-P) SN that most closely resembles the low-luminosity SN 1999br in NGC 4900. Given the overall similarity between the observed light curves and colors of SNe 2008bk and 1999br, we infer that the total visual extinction to SN 2008bk (A{sub V} = 0.065 mag) must be almost entirely due to the Galactic foreground, similar to what has been assumed for SN 1999br. We confirm the identification of the putative red supergiant (RSG) progenitor star of the SN in high-quality g'r'i' images we had obtained in 2007 at the Gemini-South 8 m telescope. Little ambiguity exists in this progenitor identification, qualifying it as the best example to date, next to the identification of the star Sk -69 Degree-Sign 202 as the progenitor of SN 1987A. From a combination of photometry of the Gemini images with that of archival, pre-SN, Very Large Telescope JHK{sub s} images, we derive an accurate observed spectral energy distribution (SED) for the progenitor. We find from nebular strong-intensity emission-line indices for several H II regions near the SN that the metallicity in the environment is likely subsolar (Z Almost-Equal-To 0.6 Z{sub Sun }). The observed SED of the star agrees quite well with synthetic SEDs obtained from model RSG atmospheres with effective temperature T{sub eff} = 3600 {+-} 50 K. We find, therefore, that the star had a bolometric luminosity with respect to the Sun of log (L{sub bol}/L{sub Sun} ) = 4.57 {+-} 0.06 and radius R{sub *} = 496 {+-} 34 R{sub Sun} at {approx}6 months prior to explosion. Comparing the progenitor's properties with theoretical massive-star evolutionary models, we conclude that the RSG progenitor had an initial mass in the range of 8-8.5 M{sub Sun }. This mass is consistent with, albeit at the low end of, the inferred range of initial masses for SN II-P progenitors. It is also consistent with the estimated upper limit on the initial mass of the progenitor of SN 1999br, and it agrees with the low initial masses found for the RSG progenitors of other low-luminosity SNe II-P.

  7. Full-length U-xPu-10Zr (x=0, 8, 19 wt%) Fast Reactor Fuel Test in FFTF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Porter; H.C. Tsai

    2012-08-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor-1 (IFR-1) experiment performed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was the only U-Pu-10Zr (Pu-0, 8 and 19 wt%) metallic fast reactor test with commercial-length (91.4 cm active fuel column length) conducted to date. With few remaining test reactors there is little opportunity for performing another test with a long active fuel column. The assembly was irradiated to the goal burnup of 10 at.%. The beginning of life (BOL) peak cladding temperature of the hottest pin was 608?C, cooling to 522?C at end of life (EOL). Selected fuel pins were examined non destructively using neutron radiography, precision axial gamma scanning, and both laser and spiral contact cladding profilometry. Destructive exams included plenum gas pressure, volume, and gas composition determinations on a number of pins followed by optical metallography, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and alpha and beta gamma autoradiography on a single U-19Pu-10Zr pin. The post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) showed very few differences compared to the short-pin (34.3 cm fuel column) testing performed on fuels of similar composition in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The fuel column grew axially slightly less than observed in the short pins, but with the same pattern of decreasing growth with increasing Pu content. There was a difference in the fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) in that the maximum cladding penetration by interdiffusion with fuel/fission products did not occur at the top of the fuel column where the cladding temperature is highest, as observed in EBR-II tests. Instead, the more exaggerated fission-rate profile of the FFTF pins resulted in a peak FCCI at ~0.7 X/L axial location along the fuel column. This resulted from a lower production of rare earth fission products higher in the fuel column as well as a much smaller delta-T between fuel center and cladding, and therefore less FCCI, despite the higher cladding temperature. This behavior could actually help extend the life of a fuel pin in a “long pin” reactor design to a higher peak fuel burnup.

  8. RXJ 1821.6+6827: a Cool Cluster at z=0.81 from the ROSAT NEP Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Gioia; A. Wolter; C. R. Mullis; J. P. Henry; H. Boehringer; U. G. Briel

    2004-08-02

    We present an analysis of the properties of the cluster of galaxies RXJ 1821.6+6827, or NEP 5281, at a redshift z=0.816+/-0.001. RXJ 1821.6+6827 was discovered during the optical identification of the X-ray sources in the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) region of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and it is the highest redshift cluster of galaxies of the NEP survey. We have measured spectroscopic redshifts for twenty cluster galaxies using the Keck-I and the Canada-France-Hawai'i (CFH) telescopes. The value for the cluster velocity dispersion is sigma_V=775(+182,-113) km s-1. The cluster was also observed by XMM-Newton. Both the optical and X-ray data are presented in this paper. The cluster has an unabsorbed X-ray flux in the 2-10 keV energy band of F(2-10 keV)=1.24(+0.16,-0.23) x 10-13 erg cm2 s-1 and a K-corrected luminosity in the same band of L(2-10 keV)=6.32(+76,-0.73)x10^44 h_50^-2 erg s-1 (90% confidence level). The cluster X-ray bolometric luminosity is L(BOL,X)=1.35(+0.08,-0.21)x10^45 h_50^-2 erg s-1. The data do not allow fitting both metal abundance and temperature at the same time. The abundance is unconstrained and can vary in the range 0.28-1.42 Z_sun while the best fit X-ray temperature is T=4.7(+1.2,-0.7) keV. This emission weighted X-ray temperature is a little lower, barely within the uncertainties, than the predicted temperature, T=6.34(+0.13,-0.35) keV, from the L_X-T_X relation of local clusters published in the literature. The optically measured velocitydispersion is consistent with the velocity dispersion expected from the sigma_V-T_X relationship. We also examine the point X-ray source RXJ1821.9+6818, or NEP 5330, located to the south east of the cluster which was identified as a QSO at z=1.692+/-0.008 in the ROSAT NEP survey.

  9. Clustering of moderate luminosity X-ray-selected type 1 and type 2 AGNs at z ? 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Civano, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Cappelluti, N. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Shankar, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Miyaji, T. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ensenada (Mexico); Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gilli, R.; Zamorani, G.; Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lanzuisi, G. [National Observatory of Athens I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou St. GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Salvato, M. [Max-Planck-Institute für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Elvis, M. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Silverman, J. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwashi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-11-20

    We investigate, for the first time at z ? 3, the clustering properties of 189 Type 1 and 157 Type 2 X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs) of moderate luminosity ((L {sub bol}) = 10{sup 45.3} erg s{sup –1}), with photometric or spectroscopic redshifts in the range 2.2 < z < 6.8. These samples are based on Chandra and XMM-Newton data in COSMOS. We find that Type 1 and Type 2 COSMOS AGNs at z ? 3 inhabit DMHs with typical mass of log M{sub h} = 12.84{sub ?0.11}{sup +0.10} and 11.73{sub ?0.45}{sup +0.39} h {sup –1} M {sub ?}, respectively. This result requires a drop in the halo masses of Type 1 and 2 COSMOS AGNs at z ? 3 compared to z ? 2 XMM-COSMOS AGNs with similar luminosities. Additionally, we infer that unobscured COSMOS AGNs at z ? 3 reside in 10 times more massive halos compared to obscured COSMOS AGNs, at the 2.6? level. This result extends to z ? 3 the results found in COSMOS at z ? 2, and rules out the picture in which obscuration is purely an orientation effect. A model which assumes that the AGNs activity is triggered by major mergers is quite successful in predicting both the low halo mass of COSMOS AGNs and the typical mass of luminous SDSS quasars at z ? 3, with the latter inhabiting more massive halos respect to moderate luminosity AGNs. Alternatively we can argue, at least for Type 1 COSMOS AGNs, that they are possibly representative of an early phase of fast (i.e., Eddington limited) BH growth induced by cosmic cold flows or disk instabilities. Given the moderate luminosity, these new fast growing BHs have masses of ?10{sup 7-8} M {sub ?} at z ? 3 which might evolve into ?10{sup 8.5-9} M {sub ?} mass BHs at z = 0. Following our clustering measurements, we argue that this fast BH growth at z ? 3 in AGNs with moderate luminosity occurs in DMHs with typical mass of ? 6× 10{sup 12} h {sup –1} M {sub ?}.

  10. An Operator Product Expansion for the Mutual Information in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javier Molina-Vilaplana

    2014-09-11

    We investigate the behaviour of the mutual information $\\mathcal{I}_{AB}$ between two "small" and wide separated spherical regions $A$ and $B$ in the $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM gauge theory dual to Type IIB string theory in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$. To this end, the mutual information is recasted in terms of correlators of surface operators $\\mathcal{W}\\left( \\Sigma\\right)$ defined along a surface $\\Sigma$ within the boundary gauge theory. This construction relies on the strong analogies between the twist field operators appearing in the replica trick method used for the computation of the entanglement entropy, and the disorder-like surface operators in gauge theories. In the AdS/CFT correspondence, a surface operator $\\mathcal{W}\\left( \\Sigma\\right)$ corresponds to having a D3-brane in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ ending on the boundary along the prescribed surface $\\Sigma$. Then, a long distance expansion for $\\mathcal{I}_{AB}$ is provided. The coefficients of the expansion appear as a byproduct of the operator product expansion for the correlators of the operators $\\mathcal{W}(\\Sigma)$ with the chiral primaries of the theory. We find that, while undergoing a phase transition at a critical distance, the holographic mutual information, instead of strictly vanishing, decays with a power law whose leading contributions of order $\\mathcal{O}(N^0)$, originate from the exchange of pairs of the lightest bulk particles between $A$ and $B$. These particles correspond to operators in the boundary field theory with the smallest scaling dimensions.

  11. Noncompact gauging of N=2 7D supergravity and AdS/CFT holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parinya Karndumri

    2015-02-02

    Half-maximal gauged supergravity in seven dimensions coupled to $n$ vector multiplets contains $n+3$ vectors and $3n+1$ scalars parametrized by $\\mathbb{R}^+\\times SO(3,n)/SO(3)\\times SO(n)$ coset manifold. The two-form field in the gravity multiplet can be dualized to a three-form field which admits a topological mass term. Possible non-compact gauge groups take the form of $G_0\\times H\\subset SO(3,n)$ with a compact group $H$. $G_0$ is one of the five possibilities; $SO(3,1)$, $SL(3,\\mathbb{R})$, $SO(2,2)$, $SO(2,1)$ and $SO(2,2)\\times SO(2,1)$. We investigate all of these possible non-compact gauge groups and classify their vacua. Unlike the gauged supergravity without a topological mass term, there are new supersymmetric $AdS_7$ vacua in the $SO(3,1)$ and $SL(3,\\mathbb{R})$ gaugings. These correspond to new $N=(1,0)$ superconformal field theories (SCFT) in six dimensions. Additionally, we find a class of $AdS_5\\times S^2$ and $AdS_5\\times H^2$ backgrounds with $SO(2)$ and $SO(2)\\times SO(2)$ symmetries. These should correspond to $N=1$ SCFTs in four dimensions obtained from twisted compactifications of six-dimensional field theories on $S^2$ or $H^2$. We also study RG flows from six-dimensional $N=(1,0)$ SCFT to $N=1$ SCFT in four dimensions and RG flows from a four-dimensional $N=1$ SCFT to a six-dimensional SYM in the IR. The former are driven by a vacuum expectation value of a dimension-four operator dual to the supergravity dilaton while the latter are driven by vacuum expectation values of marginal operators.

  12. Nonlinear Quantum Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas G. Wong

    2015-06-14

    Although quant mech is linear, there are nevertheless quant sys with multiple interacting particles in which the effective evo of a single particle is governed by a nonlinear eq. This includes Bose-Einstein condensates, which are gov by the Gross-Pitaevskii eq (GPE), which is a cubic nonlin Schrodinger eq (NLSE) with a term propto $|\\psi|^2\\psi$. Evo by this eq solves the unstruct search prob in const time, but at the novel expense of increasing the time-measurement precision. Jointly optimizing these resources results in an overall scaling of $N^{1/4}$, which is a significant, but not unreasonable, improvement over the $N^{1/2}$ scaling of Grover's algo. Since the GPE effectively approx the multi-particle Schrodinger eq, for which Grover's algo is optimal, our result leads to a quant info-theoretic bound on the num of particles needed for this approx to hold, asymp. The GPE is not the only nonlin of the form $f(|\\psi|^2)\\psi$ that arises in effective eqs for the evo of real quant phys sys, however: The cubic-quintic NLSE describes light propagation in nonlin Kerr media with defocusing corrections, and the log NLSE describes Bose liquids under certain cond. Analysis of comput with such sys yields some surprising results; e.g., when time-measurement precision is included in the resource accounting, searching a "database" when there is a single correct ans may be easier than searching when there are multiple correct ans. These results lead to quant info-theoretic bounds on the phys resources required for these effective nonlin theories to hold, asymp. Further, strongly reg graphs, which have no global sym, are sufficiently complete for quant search on them to asymp behave like unstruct search. Certain suff complete graphs retain the improved runtime and resource scalings for some nonlin, so our scheme for nonlin, analog quant comput retains its benefits even when some struct is introduced.

  13. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of ? The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. ? The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. ? The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. ? The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. ? The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

  14. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torn, M.S.; Swanston, C.W.; Castanha, C.; Trumbore, S.E.

    2008-07-15

    Historically, attention on soil organic matter (SOM) has focused on the central role that it plays in ecosystem fertility and soil properties, but in the past two decades the role of soil organic carbon in moderating atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations has emerged as a critical research area. This chapter will focus on the storage and turnover of natural organic matter in soil (SOM), in the context of the global carbon cycle. Organic matter in soils is the largest carbon reservoir in rapid exchange with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and is thus important as a potential source and sink of greenhouse gases over time scales of human concern (Fischlin and Gyalistras 1997). SOM is also an important human resource under active management in agricultural and range lands worldwide. Questions driving present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of carbon to the atmosphere? What role will soils play as a natural modulator or amplifier of climatic warming? How is C stabilized and sequestered, and what are effective management techniques to foster these processes? Answering these questions will require a mechanistic understanding of how and where C is stored in soils. The quantity and composition of organic matter in soil reflect the long-term balance between plant carbon inputs and microbial decomposition, as well as other loss processes such as fire, erosion, and leaching. The processes driving soil carbon storage and turnover are complex and involve influences at molecular to global scales. Moreover, the relative importance of these processes varies according to the temporal and spatial scales being considered; a process that is important at the regional scale may not be critical at the pedon scale. At the regional scale, SOM cycling is influenced by factors such as climate and parent material, which affect plant productivity and soil development. More locally, factors such as plant tissue quality and soil mineralogy affect decomposition pathways and stabilization. These factors influence the stability of SOM in part by shaping its molecular characteristics, which play a fundamental role in nearly all processes governing SOM stability but are not the focus of this chapter. We review here the most important controls on the distribution and dynamics of SOM at plot to global scales, and methods used to study them. We also explore the concepts of controls, processes, and mechanisms, and how they operate across scales. The concept of SOM turnover, or mean residence time, is central to this chapter and so it is described in some detail. The Appendix details the use of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C), a powerful isotopic tool for studying SOM dynamics. Much of the material here was originally presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on 'Soils and Global Change: Carbon Cycle, Trace Gas Exchange and Hydrology', held June 16-27, 1997, at the Chateau de Bonas, France.

  15. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the vision of a nuclear-free world is powerful, both existing nuclear powers and proliferators are unlikely to forego nuclear weapons entirely in a world that is dangerous and uncertain. And the emerging world would not necessarily be more secure and stable without nuclear weapons. Even if nuclear weapons were given up by the United States and other nuclear-weapon states, there would continue to be concerns about the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, which would not disappear and could worsen. WMD terrorism would remain a concern that was largely unaffected by US and other nuclear-weapon decisions. Conventional capabilities would not disappear and the prospects for warfare could rise. In addition, new problems could arise if rogue states or other non-status-quo powers attempted to take advantage of moves toward disarmament, while friends and allies who are not reassured as in the past could reconsider their options if deterrence declined. To address these challenges, non- and counter-proliferation and counterterrorismincluding defenses and consequence management-are priorities, especially in light of an anticipated 'renaissance' in civil nuclear power. The current agenda of the United States and others includes efforts to: (1) Strengthen International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its safeguards system; (2) Strengthen export controls, especially for sensitive technologies, by limiting the development of reprocessing and enrichment technologies and by requiring the Additional Protocol as a condition of supply; (3) Establish a reliable supply regime, including the possibility of multilateral or multinational ownership of fuel cycle facilities, as a means to promote nuclear energy without increasing the risks of proliferation or terrorism; (4) Implement effectively UN Security Council Resolution 1540; and (5) Strengthen and institutionalize the Proliferation Security Initiative and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. These and other activities are important in themselves, and are essential to maintaining and strengthening the Nonproliferati

  16. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel container is penetrated by twelve hexagonal control assembly (CA) guide tubes, each of which has 3.0 mm thickness and 69.4 mm flat-to-flat outer distance. The distance between two neighboring CA guide tube is selected to be 26 cm to provide an adequate space for CA driving systems. The fuel container has 18181 penetrating coolant tubes of 6.0 mm inner diameter and 2.0 mm thickness. The coolant tubes are arranged in a triangular lattice with a lattice pitch of 1.21 cm. The fuel, structure, and coolant volume fractions inside the fuel container are 0.386, 0.383, and 0.231, respectively. Separate steel reflectors and B4C shields are used outside of the fuel container. Six gas expansion modules (GEMs) of 5.0 cm thickness are introduced in the radial reflector region. Between the radial reflector and the fuel container is a 2.5 cm sodium gap. The TRU inventory at the beginning of equilibrium cycle (BOEC) is 5081 kg, whereas the TRU inventory at the beginning of life (BOL) was 3541 kg. This is because the equilibrium cycle fuel contains a significantly smaller fissile fraction than the LWR TRU feed. The fuel inventory at BOEC is composed of 34.0 a/o TRU, 41.4 a/o Ce, 23.6 a/o Co, and 1.03 a/o solid fission products. Since uranium-free fuel is used, a theoretical maximum TRU consumption rate of 1.011 kg/day is achieved. The semi-continuous fuel cycle based on the 300-batch, 1- day cycle approximation yields a burnup reactivity loss of 26 pcm/day, and requires a daily reprocessing of 32.5 kg of SLFFR fuel. This yields a daily TRU charge rate of 17.45 kg, including a makeup TRU feed of 1.011 kg recovered from the LWR used fuel. The charged TRU-Ce-Co fuel is composed of 34.4 a/o TRU, 40.6 a/o Ce, and 25.0 a/o Co.

  17. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolkov, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine's defensive stance was left out of the doctrine; rumored options for use of nuclear weapons in local wars and in preemptive strikes were also left out.