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  1. Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Miller, R. L.; Tausnev, N.; Kelley, M.; Ruedy, R.; Russell, G. L.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; et al

    2015-02-24

    We examine the anthropogenically forced climate response for the 21st century representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios and their extensions for the period 2101–2500. The experiments were performed with ModelE2, a new version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences (GISS) coupled general circulation model that includes three different versions for the atmospheric composition components: a noninteractive version (NINT) with prescribed composition and a tuned aerosol indirect effect (AIE), the TCAD version with fully interactive aerosols, whole-atmosphere chemistry, and the tuned AIE, and the TCADI version which further includes a parameterized first indirect aerosol effect on clouds. Each atmosphericmore » version is coupled to two different ocean general circulation models: the Russell ocean model (GISS-E2-R) and HYCOM (GISS-E2-H). By 2100, global mean warming in the RCP scenarios ranges from 1.0 to 4.5° C relative to 1850–1860 mean temperature in the historical simulations. In the RCP2.6 scenario, the surface warming in all simulations stays below a 2 °C threshold at the end of the 21st century. For RCP8.5, the range is 3.5–4.5° C at 2100. Decadally averaged sea ice area changes are highly correlated to global mean surface air temperature anomalies and show steep declines in both hemispheres, with a larger sensitivity during winter months. By the year 2500, there are complete recoveries of the globally averaged surface air temperature for all versions of the GISS climate model in the low-forcing scenario RCP2.6. TCADI simulations show enhanced warming due to greater sensitivity to CO₂, aerosol effects, and greater methane feedbacks, and recovery is much slower in RCP2.6 than with the NINT and TCAD versions. All coupled models have decreases in the Atlantic overturning stream function by 2100. In RCP2.6, there is a complete recovery of the Atlantic overturning stream function by the year 2500 while with scenario RCP8.5, the E2-R climate model produces a complete shutdown of deep water formation in the North Atlantic.« less

  2. Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Miller, R. L.; Tausnev, N.; Kelley, M.; Ruedy, R.; Russell, G. L.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bleck, R.; Canuto, V.; Cheng, Y.; Clune, T. L.; Del Genio, A. D.; Faluvegi, G.; Hansen, J. E.; Healy, R. J.; Kiang, N. Y.; Koch, D.; Lacis, A. A.; LeGrande, A. N.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K. K.; Menon, S.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, J.; Puma, M. J.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Sato, M.; Shindell, D. T.; Sun, S.; Tsigaridis, K.; Unger, N.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yao, M. -S.; Zhang, Jinlun

    2015-02-24

    We examine the anthropogenically forced climate response for the 21st century representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios and their extensions for the period 2101–2500. The experiments were performed with ModelE2, a new version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences (GISS) coupled general circulation model that includes three different versions for the atmospheric composition components: a noninteractive version (NINT) with prescribed composition and a tuned aerosol indirect effect (AIE), the TCAD version with fully interactive aerosols, whole-atmosphere chemistry, and the tuned AIE, and the TCADI version which further includes a parameterized first indirect aerosol effect on clouds. Each atmospheric version is coupled to two different ocean general circulation models: the Russell ocean model (GISS-E2-R) and HYCOM (GISS-E2-H). By 2100, global mean warming in the RCP scenarios ranges from 1.0 to 4.5° C relative to 1850–1860 mean temperature in the historical simulations. In the RCP2.6 scenario, the surface warming in all simulations stays below a 2 °C threshold at the end of the 21st century. For RCP8.5, the range is 3.5–4.5° C at 2100. Decadally averaged sea ice area changes are highly correlated to global mean surface air temperature anomalies and show steep declines in both hemispheres, with a larger sensitivity during winter months. By the year 2500, there are complete recoveries of the globally averaged surface air temperature for all versions of the GISS climate model in the low-forcing scenario RCP2.6. TCADI simulations show enhanced warming due to greater sensitivity to CO₂, aerosol effects, and greater methane feedbacks, and recovery is much slower in RCP2.6 than with the NINT and TCAD versions. All coupled models have decreases in the Atlantic overturning stream function by 2100. In RCP2.6, there is a complete recovery of the Atlantic overturning stream function by the year 2500 while with scenario RCP8.5, the E2-R climate model produces a complete shutdown of deep water formation in the North Atlantic.

  3. Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2 ...

  4. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, David I; Kapernick, Richard J; Dixon, David D; Werner, James; Qualls, Louis; Radel, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO{sub 2}-fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  5. NASA

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    0%2A en Materials Science: the science of everything http:nnsa.energy.govblogmaterials-science-science-everything

    Y-12 Senior Metallurgist Steven Dekanich and NASA...

  6. Final Scientific-Technical Report DOE-GISS-61768. Constraints on cloud

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    feedback from analysis of arm observations and models (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Final Scientific-Technical Report DOE-GISS-61768. Constraints on cloud feedback from analysis of arm observations and models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Scientific-Technical Report DOE-GISS-61768. Constraints on cloud feedback from analysis of arm observations and models Final Scientific-Technical Report for research conducted under the Atmospheric Radiation

  7. Catherine Naud (Columbia Univ.) and Anthony Del Genio (GISS), New York

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermodynamic phase distribution in midlatitude optically thin clouds Catherine Naud (Columbia Univ.) and Anthony Del Genio (GISS), New York Martial Haeffelin, Yohann Morille and Vincent Noel (IPSL/LMD, France) Dave Turner (Univ. Wisconsin, Madison), Zhien Wang (Univ. Wyoming, Laramie) Chaomei Lo and Jennifer Comstock (PNNL) 5. Ice fraction vs temperature: similar relation at all cloud levels 2. Thermodynamic phase from lidar: determined at all lidar cloud levels from depolarization ratios and

  8. Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Bond, Tami; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2010-04-09

    Recently, attention has been drawn towards black carbon aerosols as a likely short-term climate warming mitigation candidate. However the global and regional impacts of the direct, cloud-indirect and semi-direct forcing effects are highly uncertain, due to the complex nature of aerosol evolution and its climate interactions. Black carbon is directly released as particle into the atmosphere, but then interacts with other gases and particles through condensation and coagulation processes leading to further aerosol growth, aging and internal mixing. A detailed aerosol microphysical scheme, MATRIX, embedded within the global GISS modelE includes the above processes that determine the lifecycle and climate impact of aerosols. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the impact of microphysical processes involving black carbon, such as emission size distributions and optical properties on aerosol cloud activation and radiative forcing. Our best estimate for net direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing change is -0.56 W/m{sup 2} between 1750 and 2000. However, the direct and indirect aerosol effects are very sensitive to the black and organic carbon size distribution and consequential mixing state. The net radiative forcing change can vary between -0.32 to -0.75 W/m{sup 2} depending on these carbonaceous particle properties. Assuming that sulfates, nitrates and secondary organics form a coating shell around a black carbon core, rather than forming a uniformly mixed particles, changes the overall net radiative forcing from a negative to a positive number. Black carbon mitigation scenarios showed generally a benefit when mainly black carbon sources such as diesel emissions are reduced, reducing organic and black carbon sources such as bio-fuels, does not lead to reduced warming.

  9. Los Alamos, NASA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA November 7, 2014 Near-infrared data could change the way we think about galaxies LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Nov. 7, 2014-By looking...

  10. Los Alamos, NASA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA November 7, 2014 Near-infrared data could change the way we think about galaxies LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Nov. 7, 2014-By looking at the dark spaces between visible galaxies and stars the NASA/JPL CIBER sounding rocket experiment has produced data that could redefine what constitutes a galaxy. "What was very surprising is the brightness of many fluctuations that appear between stars and galaxies," said Los Alamos scientist Joseph Smidt,

  11. NASA Earth at Night Video

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare NASA Earth at Night Video HomeEC, Energy, ... at night? NASA provides a clear, cloud-free view of the Earth at night using the Suomi ...

  12. ARM XDC Datastreams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectral response functions can be seen at http:isccp.giss.nasa.govdocsresponsegms-5s.html (ch1) and http:isccp.giss.nasa.govdocsresponsegms-5i.html (chs 2-4)....

  13. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jensen, M.P.(a) and DelGenio, A.D.(b), Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, NASA GISS (a), NASA GISS (b) Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation...

  14. NASA @ APS | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA @ APS NASA engineers developing rocket propulsion hardware 1 of 8 NASA engineers developing rocket propulsion hardware Patrick McManamen, a propulsion system engineer at NASA, examines a cryogenically cooled fuel spray from a test rocket injector system of a NASA rocket engine. The high-energy X-rays and one-of-a-kind fuel injection detector system at sector 7 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory enable McManamen to capture how the gas and liquids mix deep inside the

  15. Characterizing Aerosol Distributions and Optical Properties Using the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2013-02-14

    The objective of this project was to provide vertically and horizontally resolved data on aerosol optical properties to assess and ultimately improve how models represent these aerosol properties and their impacts on atmospheric radiation. The approach was to deploy the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and other synergistic remote sensors on DOE Atmospheric Science Research (ASR) sponsored airborne field campaigns and synergistic field campaigns sponsored by other agencies to remotely measure aerosol backscattering, extinction, and optical thickness profiles. Synergistic sensors included a nadir-viewing digital camera for context imagery, and, later in the project, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The information from the remote sensing instruments was used to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol properties and type. The retrieved lidar parameters include profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth. Products produced in subsequent analyses included aerosol mixed layer height, aerosol type, and the partition of aerosol optical depth by type. The lidar products provided vertical context for in situ and remote sensing measurements from other airborne and ground-based platforms employed in the field campaigns and was used to assess the predictions of transport models. Also, the measurements provide a data base for future evaluation of techniques to combine active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) measurements in advanced retrieval schemes to remotely characterize aerosol microphysical properties. The project was initiated as a 3-year project starting 1 January 2005. It was later awarded continuation funding for another 3 years (i.e., through 31 December 2010) followed by a 1-year no-cost extension (through 31 December 2011). This project supported logistical and flight costs of the NASA sensors on a dedicated aircraft, the subsequent analysis and archival of the data, and the presentation of results in conferences, workshops, and publications. DOE ASR field campaigns supported under this project included - MAX-Mex /MILAGRO (2006) - TexAQS 2006/GoMACCS (2006) - CHAPS (2007) - RACORO (2009) - CARE/CalNex (2010) In addition, data acquired on HSRL airborne field campaigns sponsored by other agencies were used extensively to fulfill the science objectives of this project and the data acquired have been made available to other DOE ASR investigators upon request.

  16. NASA Remote Sensing Validation Data: Saudi Arabia

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Myers, Daryl R. [NREL; Al-Abbadi, Naif [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Energy Research Institite; Wilcox, Steve [NREL

    Since 1995, the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have co-operated to establish a 12 station network of high quality solar radiation monitoring installations across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NREL and KACST realized the value of accurate surface solar radiation flux measurements for validation of satellite derived surface and atmospheric solar radiation flux measurements, and is making this data available to support validation of satellite data products related to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth component of the Earth Science Enterprise Earth Observing System (EOS) project to evaluate long term climate trends based on measuements from EOS Terra Platforms. A CIMEL 8 channel sunphotometer for measuring aerosol optical depth at 6 wavelengths and total column water has been deployed at the Solar Village station since February 24, 1999. [Taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/new_data/Saudi_Arabia/

  17. Status of NASA`s Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.; Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative. The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power Element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system power output and system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss Stirling experience in Space Power Converters. Fabrication is nearly completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC); results of motoring tests of the cold end (525 K), are presented. The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, bearings, superalloy joining technologies, high efficiency alternators, life and reliability testing and predictive methodologies. This paper provides an update of progress in some of these technologies leading off with a discussion of free-piston Stirling experience in space.

  18. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center...

  19. NASA | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home / NASA

  20. Exoplanet Science from NASAs Kepler Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steffen, Jason

    2012-09-12

    NASA's exoplanet mission is the world's premier instrument for the discovery and study of planets orbiting distant stars. As the nominal mission comes to a close, Kepler has discovered nearly 2500 planet candidates, confirmed dozens of multi-planet systems, provided important insights into the orbital architectures of planetary systems, identified specific systems that challenge theories of planet formation and dynamical evolution, has revolutionized our understanding of stellar interiors, and is gearing to measure the frequency of Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars in its extended mission phase. I present the most recent results from the Kepler mission.

  1. NASA Enhanced Use Lease | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Enhanced Use Lease NASA Enhanced Use Lease Document describes a sample template of an enhanced used lease administered by NASA as part of a power purchase agreement (PPA). PDF icon nasa_lease.pdf More Documents & Publications SCT&E LNG, LLC - FE Dkt. No. 14-72-LNG SCT&E LNG, LLC - FE Dkt. No. 14-89-LNG Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals

  2. NASA Glenn Research Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    44135 Sector: Biofuels, Carbon, Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: Research and development Phone Number: 216-977-7135 Website: www.nasa.govcentersglenn...

  3. Nondestructive Evaluation and Monitoring Projects NASA White...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nondestructive Evaluation and Monitoring Projects NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) ... Monitoring of Composite Tanks Pipeline and Pressure Vessel R&D under the ...

  4. NASA is operating two Lockheed ER-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mis- sion Directorate. The aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources,...

  5. DOE ARM Data and Measurement Needs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Philosophy Practice Proposal DOE ARM Data and Measurement Needs Ann Fridlind * NASA GISS 10 March 2008 Ann Fridlind * NASA GISS DOE ARM Data and Measurement Needs Philosophy Practice Proposal Programmatic goals Programmatic tools Pursue the newest technologies "Build it and they will come" Ann Fridlind * NASA GISS DOE ARM Data and Measurement Needs Philosophy Practice Proposal Programmatic goals Programmatic tools Pursue the newest technologies "Build it and they will come"

  6. NASA-Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Solar Energy AgencyCompany Organization: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Solar Topics: Resource...

  7. fridlind.dvi

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA GISS Acknowledgments Christian Jakob, Tim Hume, and Peter May, BOMRC Christopher Williams, NOAA Funding and Computational Support DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program...

  8. ARM - Campaign Instrument - dc8-nasa

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsdc8-nasa Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : NASA DC-8 (DC8-NASA) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations Campaigns ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2000.11.01 - 2000.12.31 Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Exp [ Download Data ] Tropical Western Pacific, 1992.07.11 - 1993.02.28 Primary Measurements Taken The following

  9. Florida NASA Business Incubation Center FNBIC | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NASA Business Incubation Center FNBIC Jump to: navigation, search Name: FloridaNASA Business Incubation Center (FNBIC) Place: United States Sector: Services Product: General...

  10. Incompressible Flows Free Surfaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    NASA-VOF3D is a three-dimensional, transient, free surface, incompressible fluid dynamics program. It is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low gravity environment in which surface physics must be accurately treated. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion and includes a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. Variable mesh spacing is permitted in all three coordinate directions. Boundary conditions available are rigid free-slip wall, rigid no-slipmore » wall, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure outflow boundary.« less

  11. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap Shanti Pless, DOE NREL Wayne Thalasinos, NASA http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/60838.pdf FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Hosted by: ARC JPL AFRC JSC SSC KSC MSFC LaRC HQ GSFC GRC PBS MAF WFF WSTF GDSCC Field Centers & Component Facilities Sustain- able Design Policy Since 2003 Executive Order 13514 Goals "... establish an integrated strategy towards sustainability in the Federal

  12. NASA's Curiosity Rover Team Features Women Team Members | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Some of the women working on NASA's Mars Science Laboratory Project, which built and operates the Curiosity Mars rover, gathered for this photo in the Mars Yard used for rover testing at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech Some of the women working on NASA's Mars Science Laboratory Project, which built and operates the Curiosity Mars rover, gathered for this photo in the Mars Yard used for rover testing at NASA's Jet Propulsion

  13. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performanc...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The program saved the facility more than 800,000 gallons of water in eight months. nasa-msfcwatercs2.pdf More Documents & Publications NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center...

  14. Scientist Helps NASA Develop Medical Device | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Scientist Helps NASA Develop Medical Device Scientist Helps NASA Develop Medical Device March 11, 2016 - 3:35pm Addthis Radiobiologist Matt Coleman displays a device like the medical diagnosis instrument he helped develop for NASA for use in deep space. | Photo by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Radiobiologist Matt Coleman displays a device like the medical diagnosis instrument he helped develop for NASA for use in deep space. | Photo by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Stephen

  15. National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Flight

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Center | Department of Energy Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Flight Center National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Flight Center Space Shuttle Endeavour, 2002 The NASA Johnson Space Flight Center in Houston is well known for its achievements in the U.S. space program (this 2002 photo shows the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its way to the International Space Station). Overview NASA will save approximately $43 million in facility operations

  16. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-05-01

    A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

  17. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jensen, M.P.(a) and Del Genio, A.D.(b), Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University NASA GISS (a), NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies...

  19. Progress on an ARM/GCSS/SPARC TWP-ICE Monsoon Case Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Progress on an ARMGCSSSPARC TWP-ICE Monsoon Case Study Ann Fridlind and Andrew Ackerman ann.fridlind@nasa.gov * www.giss.nasa.govfridlind Introduction Source: Lori Chappel,...

  20. Evolution of Risk Management at NASA in the Context of Achieving Adequate Safety

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Homayoon Dezfuli, Ph.D. NASA Technical Fellow for System Safety Office of Safety and Mission Assurance NASA Headquarters

  1. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the changes for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the CSTI High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project with develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  2. Programmatic status of NASA`s CSTI high capacity power Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss the status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs have been completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. This paper also provides an update of progress in these technologies.

  3. Nondestructive Evaluation and Monitoring Projects NASA White Sands Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facility (WSTF) | Department of Energy Nondestructive Evaluation and Monitoring Projects NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Nondestructive Evaluation and Monitoring Projects NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) These slides were presented at the Onboard Storage Tank Workshop on April 29, 2010. PDF icon nondestructiveevaluation_nasa_ostw.pdf More Documents & Publications Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Methods for Certification and Production/Performance Monitoring of Composite Tanks

  4. UESC Project Overview: NASA Ames Research Center | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Overview: NASA Ames Research Center UESC Project Overview: NASA Ames Research Center Presentation-given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting-provides an overview of the NASA Ames Research Center's Utility Energy Services Contract (UESC) project. PDF icon fupwg_fall11_farzaneh.pdf More Documents & Publications Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals FUPWG Fall 2015 Agenda and Presentations 2013 Federal

  5. NASA's Composite Portfolio: Department of Energy Workshop Fiber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA 's Composites Portfolio Department of Energy Workshop Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Manufacturing Presented by: John Vickers January ...

  6. Sandia Energy - NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alaska. (Photo by Mark Ivey) Sandians Mark Ivey and Darin Desilets (both in Sandia's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Dept.) were included in a NASA Group Achievement Award "for...

  7. Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA By looking at the dark spaces between visible galaxies and stars the NASA/JPL CIBER sounding rocket experiment has produced data that could redefine what constitutes a galaxy. November 7, 2014 Paul Johnson The optical array on the CIBER instrument, image from NASA. Contact Kevin Roark Communications Office (505) 665-9202 Email "We think stars are being scattered out into space

  8. ORISE: REAC/TS Provides Radiation Expertise as NASA Prepares...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Expertise as NASA Prepares Mars Science Laboratory Launch REACTS staff consult on radiation safety issues during liftoff of plutonium-powered space vehicles Artist...

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - ISDAC - NASA ARCTAS Coordination with ARM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - NASA ARCTAS Coordination with ARM ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) 2008.04.01, Ghan, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ISDAC - NASA ARCTAS Coordination with ARM 2008.04.01 - 2008.04.21 Lead Scientist : Richard Ferrare For data sets, see below. Abstract The NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA King Air

  10. Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has produced data that could redefine what constitutes a galaxy. November 7, 2014 Paul Johnson The optical array on the CIBER instrument, image from NASA. Contact Kevin...

  11. Sandia Assists NASA in Understanding Launch-Area Accidents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assists NASA in Understanding Launch-Area Accidents - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable ...

  12. NASA Benchmarks Lessons Learned Assessment Plan - Developed By...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NASA BENCHMARKS LESSONS LEARNED Assessment Plan Developed By NNSANevada Site Office Facility Representative Division Performance Objective: Management should have an established...

  13. NASA Building 12 Wind Turbines | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in December 2014, the NASA Building 12 installation consists of four Urban Green Energy Eddy GT turbines. The project was constructed as part of a larger Building 12...

  14. NASA Partners License Nanotube Technology for Commercial Use (PR Newswire)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Jefferson Lab prnewswire.com/news-releases/nasa-partners-license-nanotube-technology-for-commercial-use-149724205.html Submitted: Tuesday, May

  15. NASA Scientist Discusses Nanotube Advances Feb. 9 at Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Feb. 2, 2011 - Mike Smith, a NASA Langley Research Center scientist, ... In an abstract for the talk, Smith notes: Since the publication of physicist Sumio ...

  16. Berkeley Scientists to Participate in New NASA Space Telescope Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Scientists to Participate in New NASA Space Telescope Project Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists will play a role in WFIRST, a new NASA space telescope project exploring dark energy, alien worlds and the evolution of galaxies, galaxy clusters and large-scale structure of the universe.

  17. Final Scientific-Technical Report DOE-GISS-61768. Constraints...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Final Scientific-Technical Report for research conducted under the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program from 1994-2010. Authors: Del Genio, Anthony D. 1 + Show Author ...

  18. NASA Lewis Stirling engine computer code evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Stirling engine performance code was evaluated by comparing code predictions without engine-specific calibration factors to GPU-3, P-40, and RE-1000 Stirling engine test data. The error in predicting power output was /minus/11 percent for the P-40 and 12 percent for the RE-1000 at design conditions and 16 percent for the GPU-3 at near-design conditions (2000 rpm engine speed versus 3000 rpm at design). The efficiency and heat input predictions showed better agreement with engine test data than did the power predictions. Concerning all data points, the error in predicting the GPU-3 brake power was significantly larger than for the other engines and was mainly a result of inaccuracy in predicting the pressure phase angle. Analysis into this pressure phase angle prediction error suggested that improvement to the cylinder hysteresis loss model could have a significant effect on overall Stirling engine performance predictions. 13 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. NASA's Composite Portfolio: Department of Energy Workshop Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Manufacturing

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA 's Composites Portfolio Department of Energy Workshop Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Manufacturing Presented by: John Vickers January 13, 2014 www.nasa.gov/spacetech NASA Centers and Mission Areas Composites support all of the NASA Mission Areas The NASA Composites Portfolio The Problem - The Solution Develop technologies and capabilities that make missions more affordable, more capable and more reliable Value to NASA - Value to the Nation

  20. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet and...

  1. Rockets 2 Race Cars Teacher Program at Kentucky Speedway (NASA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Register here. Go Green Edition / The Heat is ON! Get your students revved up about science, technology, engineering and mathematics with NASA's Rockets 2 Race Cars STEM Education program....

  2. Memorandum of Understanding between DOE and NASA concerning RPS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As used in this document, "space vehicle" shall mean the launch vehicle and the spacecraft. PDF icon 1991 MOU between DOE and NASA More Documents & Publications EIS-0373: Draft ...

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - NASA Coordinated Airborne CO2 Lidar Flight...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsNASA Coordinated Airborne CO2 Lidar Flight Test Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at...

  4. ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite Beginning in July, all three ARM sites (Southern Great Plains [SGP], North Slope of Alaska, and Tropical Western Pacific; Figure 1) will participate in the AIRS Validation IOP. This three-month intensive operational period (IOP) will validate data collected by the satellite-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) recently launched into space. On May 4, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched

  5. Performance characterization of the NASA standard detonator (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: Performance characterization of the NASA standard detonator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance characterization of the NASA standard detonator × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A

  6. NASA Perspectives on Cryo H2 Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NASA Perspectives on Cryo H2 Storage NASA Perspectives on Cryo H2 Storage Presented at the R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops on February 14 and 15, 2011. PDF icon compressed_hydrogen2011_11_chato.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks Cryogenic Pressure Vessels: Progress and Plans Hydrogen.PDF

  7. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance Case study details Marshall Space Flight Center's innovative technologies to improve water efficiency and cooling performance for one of its problematic cooling systems. The program saved the facility more than 800,000 gallons of water in eight months. PDF icon

  8. Passive wireless sensing tags NASA inflatable structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-03-01

    This report gives a description of several types of wireless, unpowered remote sensors. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices were coupled with conventional sensors to create entirely new types of sensors. These sensors report physically measurable data in the same manner as the conventional sensors, but they do it remotely and without any local power source. The sensors are measured remotely using a radar-like interrogation device, and the sensors and their related communication electronics draw all of the power needed for communicating from the radar pulse. The report covers only a description of prototype sensors and not of the manufacturing requirements of these devices.

  9. Progress on a TWP-ICE Monsoon Case Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outline Introduction 25-mb large-scale forcing 10-mb large-scale forcing Tracers Future work Progress on a TWP-ICE Monsoon Case Study Ann Fridlind and Andrew Ackerman * NASA GISS...

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Albedo of Aerosols During the Aerosol IOP Cairns, B.(a), Gianelli, S.M.(a), Carlson, B.E.(b), and Lacis, A.A.(b), Columbia University (a), NASA GISS (b) Fourteenth...

  11. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrieving Aerosol Size Distribution Information from Direct Beam Measurements Gianelli, S.M.(a,b), Carlson, B.E.(b), and Lacis, A.A.(b), Columbia University(a), NASA-GISS(b) An...

  12. Overview of NASA supported Stirling thermodynamic loss research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tew, R.C.; Geng, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is funding research to characterize Stirling machine thermodynamic losses. NASA`s primary goal is to improve Stirling design codes to support engine development for space and terrestrial power. However, much of the fundamental data is applicable to Stirling cooler and heat pump applications. The research results are reviewed. Much has been learned about oscillating-flow hydrodynamics, including laminar/turbulent transition, and tabulated data has been documented for further analysis. Now, with a better understanding of the oscillator-flow field, it is time to begin measuring the effects of oscillating flow and oscillating pressure level on heat transfer in heat exchanger flow passages and in cylinders. This critical phase of the work is just beginning.

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - Xie_twpice_NY06.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Variational Analysis of Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP_ICE) Data (01/22/2006 - 2/13/2006) The TWP_ICE Workshop , NASA/GISS, New York, NY, 13-15 November, 2006 A joint effort between LLNL (Xie, McCoy, Klein), BMRC (Hume, Jakob), SUNYSB (Zhang), and other TWPICE participants 143km 130km 172km 99km 148km A Quick Update Done! 3-hourly radiosondes (6 stations) Background field from the ECMWF analysis Radar precipitation Surface turbulence fluxes from Monash University (Darwin

  14. NASA Lidar system support and MOPA technology demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughman, L.M.; Capuano, B.; Wayne, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    A series of lidar design and technology demonstration tasks in support of a CO/sub 2/ lidar program is discussed. The first of these tasks is discussed in Section VI of this report under the heading of NASA Optical Lidar Design and it consists of detailed recommendations for the layout of a CO/sub 2/ Doppler lidar incorporating then existing NASA optical components and mounts. The second phase of this work consisted of the design, development, and delivery to NASA of a novel acousto-optic laser frequency stabilization system for use with the existing NASA ring laser transmitter. The second major task in this program encompasses the design and experimental demonstration of a master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter utilizing a commercially available laser as the amplifier. The MOPA design including the low chirp master oscillator is discussed in detail. Experimental results are given for one, two and three pass amplification. The report includes operating procedures for the MOPA system.

  15. NNSA Supports NASA MARS Scientific Laboratory Launch | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration NASA MARS Scientific Laboratory Launch | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery

  16. Compendium of NASA Data Base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment`s Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation No. 3 (CITE-3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, G.L.; Scott, A.D. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA`s Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation - 3 (CITE-3) conducted over the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean during August/September 1989. CITE-3 objectives were to intercompare instrumentation for aircraft measurements of SO2, DMS (dimethyl sulfide), COS (carbonyl sulfide), C2S, and H2S and to determine for the marine environment, the abundance and distribution of these sulfur species. Sampling was conducted aboard the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft in ambient air over the North Atlantic Ocean east of Wallops Island, Virginia, and the tropical Atlantic east of Natal, Brazil. Intercomparison measurements included 5 techniques for SO2; 6 for DMS; and 3 each for COS, CS2, and H2S. Ancillary data important to ozone photochemistry and sulfur partitioning chemistry were also measured. This document provides a representation of NASA Electra data that are available from NASA Langley`s Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The DAAC data bases include other data such as meteorological data/products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and data from sonde releases.

  17. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  18. Nuclear electric propulsion for future NASA space science missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yen, Chen-wan L.

    1993-07-20

    This study has been made to assess the needs, potential benefits and the applicability of early (circa year 2000) Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology in conducting NASA science missions. The study goals are: to obtain the performance characteristics of near term NEP technologies; to measure the performance potential of NEP for important OSSA missions; to compare NEP performance with that of conventional chemical propulsion; to identify key NEP system requirements; to clarify and depict the degree of importance NEP might have in advancing NASA space science goals; and to disseminate the results in a format useful to both NEP users and technology developers. This is a mission performance study and precludes investigations of multitudes of new mission operation and systems design issues attendant in a NEP flight.

  19. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-22

    National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  20. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and

  1. Unusual Light in Dark Space Revealed by Los Alamos, NASA

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smidt, Joseph

    2015-01-05

    By looking at the dark spaces between visible galaxies and stars the NASA/JPL CIBER sounding rocket experiment has produced data that could redefine what constitutes a galaxy. CIBER, the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, is designed to understand the physics going on between visible stars and galaxies. The relatively small, sub-orbital rocket unloads a camera that snaps pictures of the night sky in near-infrared wavelengths, between 1.2 and 1.6 millionth of a meter. Scientists take the data and remove all the known visible stars and galaxies and quantify what is left.

  2. Unusual Light in Dark Space Revealed by Los Alamos, NASA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smidt, Joseph

    2014-11-07

    By looking at the dark spaces between visible galaxies and stars the NASA/JPL CIBER sounding rocket experiment has produced data that could redefine what constitutes a galaxy. CIBER, the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, is designed to understand the physics going on between visible stars and galaxies. The relatively small, sub-orbital rocket unloads a camera that snaps pictures of the night sky in near-infrared wavelengths, between 1.2 and 1.6 millionth of a meter. Scientists take the data and remove all the known visible stars and galaxies and quantify what is left.

  3. Cloudy Skies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Cloud Radiative Forcing andFeedback in a Climate General Circulation Model A. A. lacis NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Institute for Space Studies New York, NY 10225 The principal objectives of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) are 1) to improve and validate the radiation parameterizations in the GISS general circulation model (GCM) through model intercomparisons with line-by-line calculations and through

  4. Microsoft PowerPoint - ARM_2008_poster_Wu_DelGenio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and GISS SCM Simulations of Convective Updrafts During TWP-ICE Jingbo Wu (Columbia U.), Anthony D. Del Genio (NASA/GISS) SUMMARY: Diagnosis of convective updraft speeds in global climate models is important for two reasons. First, the strength of cumulus updrafts determines the vertical convective condensate transport and the detrainment into anvils whose microphysical and radiative properties are important to climate feedbacks. Second, cumulus updraft speeds are also diagnostic of various

  5. NASA agreements advance Mars exploration, Los Alamos Rover instrument a key

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    component NASA agreements advance Mars exploration NASA agreements advance Mars exploration, Los Alamos Rover instrument a key component Los Alamos National Laboratory is coordinating with the French science and engineering team on developing SuperCam. June 17, 2015 SuperCam builds upon the successful capabilities demonstrated by ChemCam aboard the Curiosity Rover during NASA's current Mars Mission. SuperCam will allow researchers to sample rocks and other targets from a distance using a

  6. February 20, 2008: Navy shoots down NASA satellite | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    20, 2008: Navy shoots down NASA satellite February 20, 2008: Navy shoots down NASA satellite February 20, 2008: Navy shoots down NASA satellite February 20, 2008 The Navy successfully shoots down with a missile an errant satellite 133 miles above the earth. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) assists the Navy using its Red Storm supercomputer, located at its Sandia National Laboratories. For about two months, NNSA diverted Red Storm and its technical experts and codes to the

  7. DOE and NASA Reach Cleanup Agreements with the State of California for the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Santa Susana Field Laboratory | Department of Energy NASA Reach Cleanup Agreements with the State of California for the Santa Susana Field Laboratory DOE and NASA Reach Cleanup Agreements with the State of California for the Santa Susana Field Laboratory December 6, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - The Department of Energy and NASA both signed Administrative Orders on Consent (AOC) with the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal EPA) today that define the process for

  8. Memorandum of Understanding between DOE and NASA concerning RPS for space

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    missions | Department of Energy Memorandum of Understanding between DOE and NASA concerning RPS for space missions Memorandum of Understanding between DOE and NASA concerning RPS for space missions The purpose of this agreement is to delineate the authorities and responsibilities of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (the parties) in the research, technology development, design, production, delivery, space vehicle integration, and

  9. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Urinal Program | Department of Energy NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water with High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program Case study details Marshall Space Flight Center's innovative replacement program for toilets and urinals by researching appropriate fixtures, demonstrating technologies,

  10. PPPL data may play role in first NASA space probe dedicated to magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reconnection | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab data may play role in first NASA space probe dedicated to magnetic reconnection By Raphael Rosen March 30, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The Atlas V MMS rocket is rolled out to the launch pad. Photo courtesy of NASA The Atlas V MMS rocket is rolled out to the launch pad. Photo courtesy of NASA At 10:44 p.m. on Thursday, March 12, NASA launched the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS), a set of four spacecraft that will

  11. NASA Expert Discusses NextGen - the Next Generation Air Transportation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the benefit of seamless information exchange, according to John Cavolowsky of the NASA Airspace Systems Program. Simply expanding the current system cannot handle the...

  12. Nasa Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Nasa Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of ...

  13. Sandia Energy - NASA's Solar Tower Test of the 1-Meter Aeroshell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA's Solar Tower Test of the 1-Meter Aeroshell Home Videos Renewable Energy Energy Facilities Partnership News Concentrating Solar Power Solar National Solar Thermal Test...

  14. An overview of the NASA Rotary Engine Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, P.R.; Hady, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview and technical highlights of the research efforts and studies on rotary engines over the last several years at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The review covers the test results obtained from turbocharged rotary engines and preliminary results from a high performance single-rotor engine. Combustion modeling studies of the rotary engine and the use of a laser doppler velocimeter to confirm the studies are discussed. An in-house program in which a turbocharged rotary engine was installed in a Cessna Skymaster for ground test studies is also covered. Details are presented on single-rotor stratified-charge rotary engine research efforts, both in-house and on contract.

  15. Overview of the NASA Rotary Engine Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, P.R.; Hady, W.F.; Barrows, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview and technical highlights of the research efforts and studies on rotary engines over the last several years at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The review covers the test results obtained from turbocharged rotary engines and preliminary results from a high performance single-rotor engine. Combustion modeling studies of the rotary engine and the use of a Laser Doppler Velocimeter to confirm the studies are discussed. An in-house program in which a turbocharged rotary engine was installed in a Cessna Skymaster for ground test studies is also covered. Details are presented on single-rotor stratified-charge rotary engine research efforts, both in-house and on contract.

  16. Surface mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This paper reports on a GAO study of attorney and expert witness fees awarded as a result of litigation brought under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. As of March 24, 1989, a total of about $1.4 million had been awarded in attorney fees and expenses - about $1.3 subject to the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, a comparison of its features with provisions of ERISA showed that the plan differed from ERISA provisions in areas such as eligibility, funding, and contribution limits.

  17. Calibration of charge state conversion surfaces for neutral particle detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahlstroem, P.; Scheer, J. A.; Wurz, P.; Hertzberg, E.; Fuselier, S. A.

    2008-08-01

    Molecular oxygen and hydrogen ions were scattered off hydrogen terminated diamondlike carbon (DLC) charge state conversion surfaces at incident grazing angles. The energy range of the scattered particles was 390-1000 eV, and the surface roughness of the DLC surface was of the order of 1 A rms. For all surfaces almost equal angular scattering and negative ion fractions were found within the uncertainties of the measurement. This result supports the fact that charge state conversion with DLC surfaces is a reliable technology for neutral particle sensing instruments. Furthermore, these instruments can work in the laboratory as well as in the harsh environment on board a satellite.The surfaces measured here are used in the IBEX-lo sensor, a neutral particle sensing instrument on the NASA IBEX mission, which is scheduled for launch into orbit around Earth in July 2008.

  18. PPPL data may play role in first NASA space probe dedicated to magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reconnection | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL data may play role in first NASA space probe dedicated to magnetic reconnection By Raphael Rosen March 30, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The Atlas V MMS rocket is rolled out to the launch pad. (Photo by NASA) The Atlas V MMS rocket is rolled out to the launch pad. Gallery: The Atlas V MMS rocket lifts off. (Photo by NASA) The Atlas V MMS rocket lifts off. Artist's rendering of the four MMS satellites in orbit. Artist's

  19. NASA and DOE Collaborate on Dark Energy Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NASA and DOE Collaborate on Dark Energy Research NASA and DOE Collaborate on Dark Energy Research November 19, 2008 - 4:58pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -- NASA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have signed a memorandum of understanding for the implementation of the Joint Dark Energy Mission, or JDEM. The mission will feature the first space-based observatory designed specifically to understand the nature of dark energy. Dark energy is a form of energy that pervades and dominates the universe.

  20. JCESR and NASA team up to conduct research for next generation batteries to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be used in space | JCESR and NASA team up to conduct research for next generation batteries to be used in space News Release Media Contacts Ben Schiltz Joint Center for Energy Storage Research Argonne National Laboratory 630-252-5640 phone 630-252-5274 fax bschiltz@anl.gov Katherine Knurek Martin NASA Glenn Research Center 216-433-2406 phone 216-433-8143 fax katherine.martin@nasa.gov Argonne, Ill., Cleveland, Ohio, March 19, 2014 - The DOE Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) and

  1. Rockets 2 Race Cars Teacher Program at the Kentucky Speedway (NASA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Register here. Go Green Edition / The Heat is ON! Get your students revved up about science, technology, engineering and mathematics with NASA's Rockets 2 Race Cars STEM Education program....

  2. JCESR and NASA team up to conduct research for next generation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and NASA team up to conduct research for next generation batteries to be used in space News Release Media Contacts Ben Schiltz Joint Center for Energy Storage Research Argonne...

  3. PPPL data may play role in first NASA space probe dedicated to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data may play role in first NASA space probe dedicated to magnetic reconnection By Raphael Rosen March 30, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The Atlas V MMS...

  4. PPPL data may play role in first NASA space probe dedicated to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    By Raphael Rosen March 30, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The Atlas V MMS rocket is rolled out to the launch pad. (Photo by NASA) The Atlas V MMS rocket...

  5. NASA Ames Saves Energy and Reduces Project Costs with Non-Invasive Retrofit Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers the NASA Ames Research Center's effort to save energy and reduce project costs with non-invasive retrofit technologies.

  6. NASA and DOE Collaborate on Dark Energy Research | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    8 NASA and DOE Collaborate on Dark Energy Research News News Home Featured Articles ... Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW ...

  7. LSST Science Book, Version 2.0 Abell, Paul A.; /NASA, Houston...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LSST Science Book, Version 2.0 Abell, Paul A.; NASA, Houston; Allison, Julius; Alabama A-M; Anderson, Scott F.; Washington U., Seattle; Andrew, John R.; NOAO, Tucson; Angel,...

  8. SAND94-2862C PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NASA STANDARD DETONATOR*

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SAND94-2862C PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NASA STANDARD DETONATOR* William W. Tarbell Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque, NM 87185 Terence L. Burke and Steve E. Solomon Component Engineering USBI Huntsville, AI, 35807 Abstract The NASA Standard Detonator (NSD) is employed in support of a number of current applications, including the Space Shuttle. This effort w a s directed towards providing test results to characterize the output of this

  9. Infrared Land Surface Emissivity in the Vicinity of the ARM SGP Central Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Land Surface Emissivity in the Vicinity of the ARM SGP Central Facility R. O. Knuteson, R. G. Dedecker, W. F. Feltz, B. J. Osbourne, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction The University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (UW-SSEC) has developed, under National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funding, a model for the infrared land surface emissivity (LSE) in the

  10. Sweet Surface Area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sweet Surface Area Sweet Surface Area Create a delicious root beer float and learn sophisticated science concepts at the same time. Sweet Surface Area Science is all around us, so...

  11. Summary of the NASA Lewis component technology program for Stirling power converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thieme, L.G.; Swec, D.M.

    1992-10-01

    An update is presented on the NASA Lewis Stirling component technology program. The component technology program has been organized as part of the NASA Lewis effort to develop Stirling converter technology for space power applications. The Stirling space power project is part of the High Capacity Power element of the NASA Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). Lewis is also providing technical management of a DOE funded project to develop Stirling converter systems for distributed dish solar terrestrial power applications. The primary contractors for the space power and solar terrestrial projects develop component technologies directly related to their project goals. This Lewis component technology program, while coordinated with these main projects, is aimed at longer term issues, advanced technologies, and independent assessments. Topics to be discussed include bearings, linear alternators, controls and load interaction, materials/life assessment, and heat exchangers.

  12. SPRE I Free-Piston Stirling Engine Testing at NASA Lewis Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairelli, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the NASA funded portion of the SP-100 Advanced Technology Program the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE I) was designed and built to serve as a research tool for evaluation and development of advanced Stirling engine concepts. The SPRE I is designed to produce 12.5 kW electrical power when operated with helium at 15 MPa and with an absolute temperature ratio of two. The engine is now under test in a new test facility which was designed and built at NASA LeRC specifically to test the SPRE I. This paper describes the SPRE I, the NASA test facility, the initial SPRE I test results, and future SPRE I test plans.

  13. Exhaust-gas measurements from NASAs HYMETS arc jet.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Paul Albert

    2010-11-01

    Arc-jet wind tunnels produce conditions simulating high-altitude hypersonic flight such as occurs upon entry of space craft into planetary atmospheres. They have traditionally been used to study flight in Earth's atmosphere, which consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. NASA is presently using arc jets to study entry into Mars' atmosphere, which consists of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In both cases, a wide variety of chemical reactions take place among the gas constituents and with test articles placed in the flow. In support of those studies, we made measurements using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) that sampled the exhaust stream of a NASA arc jet. The experiments were conducted at the HYMETS arc jet (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) located at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. This report describes our RGA measurements, which are intended to be used for model validation in combination with similar measurements on other systems.

  14. Check Heat Transfer Surfaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses the importance of checking heat transfer surfaces in process heating systems.

  15. DOE Technology Helps NASA Seek "New Horizons" | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Helps NASA Seek "New Horizons" DOE Technology Helps NASA Seek "New Horizons" January 19, 2006 - 10:51am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C.-The New Horizons spacecraft, powered by deep space battery technology developed by the Department of Energy's national laboratories, was successfully launched today from Florida's Kennedy Space Center on a 9-1/2 year journey to explore Pluto and its moons. The spacecraft will receive heat and electricity from a long-lasting plutonium-238

  16. GE, NASA Work to Relaunch Supersonic Air Travel | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supporting NASA's efforts to Relaunch Commercial Supersonic Air Travel Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE Supporting NASA's efforts to Relaunch Commercial Supersonic Air Travel Awarded 2- year $599,000 program to reduce engine noise during takeoffs and landings NISKAYUNA, NY - JUNE 10, 2015 - Scientists

  17. X-ray technology behind NASA's black-hole hunter (NuSTAR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Bill

    2013-09-10

    Livermore Lab astrophysicist Bill Craig describes his team's role in developing X-ray imaging technology for the NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission. The black-hole-hunting spacecraft bagged its first 10 supermassive black holes this week

  18. X-ray technology behind NASA's black-hole hunter (NuSTAR)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Craig, Bill

    2014-05-22

    Livermore Lab astrophysicist Bill Craig describes his team's role in developing X-ray imaging technology for the NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission. The black-hole-hunting spacecraft bagged its first 10 supermassive black holes this week

  19. Fluorinated silica microchannel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy Jon

    2005-03-15

    A method for surface modification of microchannels and capillaries. The method produces a chemically inert surface having a lowered surface free energy and improved frictional properties by attaching a fluorinated alkane group to the surface. The coating is produced by hydrolysis of a silane agent that is functionalized with either alkoxy or chloro ligands and an uncharged C.sub.3 -C.sub.10 fluorinated alkane chain. It has been found that the extent of surface coverage can be controlled by controlling the contact time from a minimum of about 2 minutes to a maximum of 120 minutes for complete surface coverage.

  20. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  1. Summary Report on Information Technology Integration Activities For project to Enhance NASA Tools for Coastal Managers in the Gulf of Mexico and Support Technology Transfer to Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulbransen, Thomas C.

    2009-04-27

    Deliverable to NASA Stennis Space Center summarizing summarizes accomplishments made by Battelle and its subcontractors to integrate NASA's COAST visualization tool with the Noesis search tool developed under the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative project.

  2. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  3. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

  4. DOE Technology Helps NASA Seek "New Horizons"

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2006 DOE Technology Helps NASA Seek "New Horizons" WASHINGTON, D.C.-The New Horizons spacecraft, powered by deep space battery technology developed by the Department of Energy's national laboratories, was successfully launched today from Florida's Kennedy Space Center on a 9-1/2 year journey to explore Pluto and its moons. The spacecraft will receive heat and electricity from a long-lasting plutonium-238 powered generator developed and assembled by scientists and engineers at the

  5. Cloudy Skies W. Wiscombe and A. Davis NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    W. Wiscombe and A. Davis NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Climate & Radiation Branch Greenbelt, MD 20771 A. Marshak SSAI Lanham, MD 20706 Standard Gaussian-type statistics are not really adequate to describe atmospheric variability; this traditional approach implicitly dismisses fluctuations as "noise" of use only in computing a standard deviation which, together with the mean, presumably varies so little in space and time that one can meaningfully speak of

  6. Nasa Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Nasa Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation / Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301)

  7. Instrument Development F.P.J. Valero P. Pilewskie NASA Ames Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F.P.J. Valero P. Pilewskie NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 Radiative proces,ses in the atmosphere are at the heart of anthropogenically induced climatic changes. High quality measurements of radiative parameters must be obtained to be able to characterize the way in which the interaction of radiation with the atmosphere results in climatic change and evolution. With the goal of contributing to the above objective we are developing state-of-the-art radiation measuring

  8. Probabilistic methods for sensitivity analysis and calibration in the NASA challenge problem

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Najm, Habib N.; Chowdhary, Kenny; Debusschere, Bert; Swiler, Laura P.; Eldred, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a series of algorithms are proposed to address the problems in the NASA Langley Research Center Multidisciplinary Uncertainty Quantification Challenge. A Bayesian approach is employed to characterize and calibrate the epistemic parameters based on the available data, whereas a variance-based global sensitivity analysis is used to rank the epistemic and aleatory model parameters. A nested sampling of the aleatory–epistemic space is proposed to propagate uncertainties from model parameters to output quantities of interest.

  9. Y-12 to help create fuel for NASA's long-range space exploration missions

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration help create fuel for NASA's long-range space exploration missions | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact

  10. Probabilistic methods for sensitivity analysis and calibration in the NASA challenge problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Najm, Habib N.; Chowdhary, Kenny; Debusschere, Bert; Swiler, Laura P.; Eldred, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a series of algorithms are proposed to address the problems in the NASA Langley Research Center Multidisciplinary Uncertainty Quantification Challenge. A Bayesian approach is employed to characterize and calibrate the epistemic parameters based on the available data, whereas a variance-based global sensitivity analysis is used to rank the epistemic and aleatory model parameters. A nested sampling of the aleatoryepistemic space is proposed to propagate uncertainties from model parameters to output quantities of interest.

  11. Surface modification to waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ); Ruzic, David N. (Kendall Park, NJ); Moore, Richard L. (Princeton, NJ); Cohen, Samuel A. (Pennington, NJ); Manos, Dennis M. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    A method of treating the interior surfaces of a waveguide to improve power transmission comprising the steps of mechanically polishing to remove surface protrusions; electropolishing to remove embedded particles; ultrasonically cleaning to remove any residue; coating the interior waveguide surfaces with an alkyd resin solution or electrophoretically depositing carbon lamp black suspended in an alkyd resin solution to form a 1.mu. to 5.mu. thick film; vacuum pyrolyzing the film to form a uniform adherent carbon coating.

  12. Surface modification to waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, J.R.; Ruzic, D.N.; Moore, R.L.; Cohen, S.A.; Manos, D.M.

    1982-06-16

    A method is described for treating the interior surfaces of a waveguide to improve power transmission comprising the steps of mechanically polishing to remove surface protrusions; electropolishing to remove embedded particles; ultrasonically cleaning to remove any residue; coating the interior waveguide surfaces with an alkyd resin solution or electrophoretically depositing carbon lamp black suspended in an alkyd resin solution to form a 1..mu.. to 5..mu.. thick film; vacuum pyrolyzing the film to form a uniform adherent carbon coating.

  13. ARM - Measurement - Surface albedo

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    albedo ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface albedo The fraction of incoming solar radiation at a surface (i.e. land, cloud top) that is effectively reflected by that surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of

  14. Appendix PORSURF: Porosity Surface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BRAGFLO constrained to fall on this surface. Various techniques described in Freeze, Larson, and Davies (Freeze, Larson, and Davies 1995) were used to check the validity of this...

  15. ARM - Measurement - Surface condition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weather Forecasts Model Data LANDCOVER-SAT : Landcover Derived From Satellite Data RSP : Research Scanning Polarimeter MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation VEGWATER-SAT :...

  16. ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sea surface temperature The temperature of sea water near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  17. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  18. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  19. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  20. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  1. New Horizons Science Photos from NASA's Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    DOE provided the power supply for NASA's New Horizons Mission, a mission to the Pluto and Charon, a double-planet system, and the Kuiper Belt. There are 61 science photos posted on the New Horizons website, along with mission photos, spacecraft images, launch photos, posters and renderings that are both scientific and artistic. Dates range from June of 2006 to February of 2008. The images can be searched by keywords, by date, or by subject topic. They can also be browsed as an entire list. Each image has a detailed description.

  2. Evaluation of a Stirling engine heater bypass with the NASA Lewis nodal-analysis performance code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Research Center investigated whether bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater during regenerative cooling would improve the engine thermal efficiency. The investigation was accomplished by using the Lewis nodal-analysis Stirling engine computer model. Bypassing the P-40 Stirling engine heater at full power resulted in a rise in the indicated thermal efficiency from 40.6 to 41.0 percent. For the idealized (some losses not included) heater bypass that was analyzed, this benefit is not considered significant.

  3. Handsfree Surface Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-11-01

    The HANDSFREE SURFACE ANALYSIS software code enables unattended analysis of surfaces by desorption electrospray (DESI) and liquid-junction surface sampling probe (SSP) mass spectrometry. The software allows automated lane scanning, imaging (e.g. lane rastering), spot and array sampling, and array scanning methods by controlling the movement of the sample attached to a computer-controlled stage. The software is able to collect, visualize and analyze mass spectrometry data real-time for surface analysis purposes by interacting with mass spectrometrymore » instrumentation software. The software also enables data post processing for imaging and other analytical purposes. The software also contains image analysis approaches to control the sampling capillary-to-surface distance when used with DESI, and for automated formation and real-time reoptimization of the sampling probe-to-surface liquid microjunction when used with SSP. Control of these distances is essential to automated, hands-free operation of a DESI or SSP mass spectrometry system.« less

  4. Overview of the 1985 NASA Lewis Research Center SP-100 free-piston Stirling engine activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the 1985 (NASA) Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities in support of the SP-100 Program is presented. The SP-100 program is being conducted in support of the Department of Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA. This effort is keyed on the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of a 25 kW(e) Stirling space-power technology-feasibility demonstrator engine. Another facet of the SP-100 project covers the status of a 9000-h goal endurance test conducted on a 2 kW(e) free-piston Stirling/linear alternator system employing hydrostatic gas bearings. Dynamic balancing of the RE-1000 engine (a 1 kW(e) free-piston Stirling engine) using a passive dynamic absorber is discussed, along with the results of a parametric study showing the relationships of Stirling power converter specific weight and efficiency as functions of Stirling engine heater to cooler temperature ratio. Planned tests are described covering a hydrodynamic gas bearing concept for potential SP-100 application.

  5. Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) free-piston Stirling engine activities is presented. These include (1) a generic free-piston Stirling technology project being conducted to develop technologies generic to both space power and terrestrial heat pump applications in a cooperative, cost-shared effort with the Department of Energy (DOE)/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and (2) a free-piston Stirling space power technology feasibility demonstration project being conducted in support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), DOE, NASA, SP-100 project. The generic technology effort includes extensive parametric testing of a 1 kW free-piston Stirling engine (RE-1000), development of a free-piston Stirling performance computer code, design and fabrication under contract of a hydraulic output modification for RE-1000 engine tests, and a 1000-hour endurance test, under contract, of a 3 kWe free-piston Stirling/alternator engine. The newly initiated space power technology feasibility demonstration effort addresses the capability of scaling a free-piston Stirling/alternator system to about 25 kWe; developing thermodynamic cycle efficiency greater than or equal to 70 percent of Carnot at temperature ratios in the order of 1.5 to 2.0; achieving a power conversion unit specific weight of 6 kg/kWe; operating with noncontacting gas bearings; and dynamically balancing the system. Planned engine and component design and test efforts are described.

  6. Overview of free-piston Stirling SP-100 activities at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) SP-100 free-piston Stirling engine activities is presented. These activities are being conducted in support of the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA. The space-power technology effort, under SP-100, addresses the status of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE). Another facet of the SP-100 project covers the status of an endurance test. Dynamic balancing of the SPDE engine will be discussed along with a summary covering the parametric results of a study showing the relationship between power-converter specific weight and efficiency both as a function of Stirling engine heater to cooler temperature ratio. Design parameters and conceptual design features will be presented for a 25 kWe, single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space-power converter. And finally, a description of a hydrodynamic gas bearing concept will be presented.

  7. Planning For Multiple NASA Missions With Use Of Enabling Radioisotope Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2013-02-01

    Since the early 1960s the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have provided radioisotope power systems (RPS) to NASA as an enabling technology for deep space and various planetary missions. They provide reliable power in situations where solar and/or battery power sources are either untenable or would place an undue mass burden on the mission. In the modern era of the past twenty years there has been no time that multiple missions have been considered for launching from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during the same year. The closest proximity of missions that involved radioisotope power systems would be that of Galileo (October 1989) and Ulysses (October 1990). The closest that involved radioisotope heater units would be the small rovers Spirit and Opportunity (May and July 2003) used in the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission. It can be argued that the rovers sent to Mars in 2003 were essentially a special case since they staged in the same facility and used a pair of small launch vehicles (Delta II). This paper examines constraints on the frequency of use of radioisotope power systems with regard to launching them from Kennedy Space Center using currently available launch vehicles. This knowledge may be useful as NASA plans for its future deep space or planetary missions where radioisotope power systems are used as an enabling technology. Previous descriptions have focused on single mission chronologies and not analyzed the timelines with an emphasis on multiple missions.

  8. Dual surface interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-12

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  9. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, Kenneth L. (Dublin, CA); Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA); Thompson, Samuel L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  10. Surface controlled blade stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Larry R. (6025 Edgemor, Suite C, Houston, TX 77081)

    1983-01-01

    Drill string stabilizer apparatus, controllable to expand and retract entirely from the surface by control of drill string pressure, wherein increase of drill string pressure from the surface closes a valve to create a piston means which is moved down by drill string pressure to expand the stabilizer blades, said valve being opened and the piston moving upward upon reduction of drill string pressure to retract the stabilizer blades. Upward and downward movements of the piston and an actuator sleeve therebelow are controlled by a barrel cam acting between the housing and the actuator sleeve.

  11. Fluid Dynamics with Free Surfaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    RIPPLE is a two-dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles.

  12. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childs, E.L.

    1984-01-23

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

  13. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  14. Overview of free-piston Stirling technology at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The activities include: (1) a generic free-piston Stirling technology project being conducted to develop technologies synergistic to both space power and terrestrial heat pump applications in a cooperative, cost-shared effort with the Department of Energy (DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)), and (2) a free-piston Stirling space power technology demonstration project as part of the SP-100 program being conducted in support of the Department of Defense (DOD), DOE, and NASA/Lewis. The generic technology effort includes extensive parametric testing of a 1 kW free-piston Stirling engine (RE-1000), development and validation of a free-piston Stirling performance computer code, and fabrication and initial testing of an hydraulic output modification for the RE-1000 engine. The space power technology effort, under SP-100, addresses the status of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) including early test results.

  15. NASA Lewis Stirling SPRE testing and analysis with reduced number of cooler tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, W.A.; Cairelli, J.E.; Swec, D.M.; Doeberling, T.J.; Lakatos, T.F.; Madi, F.J.

    1994-09-01

    Free-piston Stirling power converters are a candidate for high capacity space power applications. The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine coupled with a linear alternator, is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of the Civil Space Technology Initiative. The SPRE is used as a test bed for evaluating converter modifications which have the potential to improve converter performance and for validating computer code predictions. Reducing the number of cooler tubes on the SPRE has been identified as a modification with the potential to significantly improve power and efficiency. This paper describes experimental tests designed to investigate the effects of reducing the number of cooler tubes on converter power, efficiency and dynamics. Presented are test results from the converter operating with a reduced number of cooler tubes and comparisons between this data and both baseline test data and computer code predictions.

  16. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Stennis Space Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which NASA Stennis Space Center (Stennis) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  17. Pocked surface neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas; Klann, Raymond

    2003-04-08

    The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

  18. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, L.M.

    1996-04-30

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

  19. Surface decontamination compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright; Karen E.; Cooper, David C.; Peterman, Dean R.; Demmer, Ricky L.; Tripp, Julia L.; Hull, Laurence C.

    2011-03-29

    Clay-based compositions capable of absorbing contaminants from surfaces or objects having surface faces may be applied to a surface and later removed, the removed clay-based compositions absorbing at least a portion of the contaminant from the surface or object to which it was applied.

  20. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  1. Surface profiling interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takacs, Peter Z. (P.O. Box 385, Upton, NY 11973); Qian, Shi-Nan (Hefei Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and, Hefei, Anhui, CN)

    1989-01-01

    The design of a long-trace surface profiler for the non-contact measurement of surface profile, slope error and curvature on cylindrical synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The optical system is based upon the concept of a pencil-beam interferometer with an inherent large depth-of-field. The key feature of the optical system is the zero-path-difference beam splitter, which separates the laser beam into two colinear, variable-separation probe beams. A linear array detector is used to record the interference fringe in the image, and analysis of the fringe location as a function of scan position allows one to reconstruct the surface profile. The optical head is mounted on an air bearing slide with the capability to measure long aspheric optics, typical of those encountered in SR applications. A novel feature of the optical system is the use of a transverse "outrigger" beam which provides information on the relative alignment of the scan axis to the cylinder optic symmetry axis.

  2. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1980-06-16

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a beam of coherent light of two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency constantly greater than the other by a fixed amount to produce a difference frequency with a constant phase to be used as a reference, and splitting the beam into its two components. The separate components are directed onto spaced apart points on the face of the object to be tested for smoothness while the face of the object is rotated on an axis normal to one point, thereby passing the other component over a circular track on the face of the object. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a reflected frequency difference of a phase proportional to the difference in path length of one component reflected from one point to the other component reflected from the other point. The phase of the reflected frequency difference is compared with the reference phase to produce a signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track with respect to the fixed point at the center, thereby to produce a signal that is plotted as a profile of the surface along the circular track. The phase detector includes a quarter-wave plate to convert the components of the reference beam into circularly polarized components, a half-wave plate to shift the phase of the circularly polarized components, and a polarizer to produce a signal of a shifted phase for comparison with the phase of the frequency difference of the reflected components detected through a second polarizer. Rotation of the half-wave plate can be used for phase adjustment over a full 360/sup 0/ range.

  3. Stability at the surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-12-05

    Metal oxides are ubiquitous as minerals in the terrestrial environment, as well as in a variety of technologically important structures such as electronic devices and heterogeneous catalysts. Within these various contexts, interfaces between oxides and gases, liquids and solids drive many critically important phenomena ranging from the uptake of contaminants in groundwater by redox-active minerals to the switching of the millions of transistors found in every cell phone and computer. Function is tied to structure. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the structure of oxide surfaces and interfaces is of crucial importance to the comprehension of a plethora of phenomena involving this broad class of materials.

  4. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a beam of coherent light of two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency constantly greater than the other by a fixed amount to produce a difference frequency with a constant phase to be used as a reference. The beam also is split into its two components with the separate components directed onto spaced apart points onthe face of the object to be tested for smoothness. The object is rotated on an axis coincident with one component which is directed to the face of the object at the center which constitutes a virtual fixed point. This component also is used as a reference. The other component follows a circular track on the face of the object as the object is rotated. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a reflected frequency difference of a phase proportional to the difference in path length which is compared with the reference phase to produce a signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track with respect to the fixed point at the center.

  5. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a laser beam having two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency greater than the other to produce a difference frequency with a phase to be used as a reference. The beam also is split into its two components which are directed onto spaced apart points on the face of the object. The object is rotated on an axis coincident with one component as a reference. The other component follows a circular track on the face of the object as the object is rotated. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a difference frequency having a phase that is shifted in an amount that is proportional to the difference in path length as compared to the reference phase to produce an electrical output signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track. The output signal is generated by means of a phase detector that includes a first photodetector in the path of the recombined components and a second photodetector in the path of the reference phase. The output signal is dependent on the phase difference of the two photodetector signals. A polarizer, a quarter-wave plate and a half-wave plate are in series in the path of the reference phase. Rotation of the half-wave plate can be used for phase adjustment over a full 360.degree. range for initial calibration of the apparatus.

  6. Surface tension of spherical drops from surface of tension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homman, A.-A.; Bourasseau, E.; Malfreyt, P.; Strafella, L.; Ghoufi, A.

    2014-01-21

    The determination of surface tension of curved interfaces is a topic that raised many controversies during the last century. Explicit liquid-vapor interface modelling (ELVI) was unable up to now to reproduce interfacial behaviors in drops due to ambiguities in the mechanical definition of the surface tension. In this work, we propose a thermodynamic approach based on the location of surface of tension and its use in the Laplace equation to extract the surface tension of spherical interfaces from ELVI modelling.

  7. Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy Authors: Mason, H E ; Harley, S J ; Maxwell, R S ; Carroll, S A Publication Date: 2011-12-07 OSTI Identifier: 1107317 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-520237

  8. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the HTML: Surface/Sub-surface

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    dislocation density analysis of forming samples using advanced characterization techniques | Department of Energy HTML: Surface/Sub-surface dislocation density analysis of forming samples using advanced characterization techniques Materials Characterization Capabilities at the HTML: Surface/Sub-surface dislocation density analysis of forming samples using advanced characterization techniques 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and

  9. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  10. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

  11. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

  12. Method for lubricating contacting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugger, Michael T. (Tijeras, NM); Ohlhausen, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Asay, David B. (Boalsburg, PA); Kim, Seong H. (State College, PA)

    2011-12-06

    A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

  13. ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil surface temperature The temperature of the soil measured near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  14. ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    skin temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface skin temperature The radiative surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view. Categories Radiometric, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the

  15. Tunable surface plasmon devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaner, Eric A. (Rio Rancho, NM); Wasserman, Daniel (Lowell, MA)

    2011-08-30

    A tunable extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) device wherein the tunability derives from controlled variation of the dielectric constant of a semiconducting material (semiconductor) in evanescent-field contact with a metallic array of sub-wavelength apertures. The surface plasmon resonance wavelength can be changed by changing the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. In embodiments of this invention, the dielectric material is a semiconducting material. The dielectric constant of the semiconducting material in the metal/semiconductor interfacial region is controllably adjusted by adjusting one or more of the semiconductor plasma frequency, the concentration and effective mass of free carriers, and the background high-frequency dielectric constant in the interfacial region. Thermal heating and/or voltage-gated carrier-concentration changes may be used to variably adjust the value of the semiconductor dielectric constant.

  16. Laser heterodyne surface profiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, G.E.

    1984-06-26

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for testing the deviation of the face of an object from a flat smooth surface using a laser beam having two plane-polarized components, one of a frequency greater than the other to produce a difference frequency with a phase to be used as a reference. The beam also is split into its two components which are directed onto spaced apart points on the face of the object. The object is rotated on an axis coincident with one component as a reference. The other component follows a circular track on the face of the object as the object is rotated. The two components are recombined after reflection to produce a difference frequency having a phase that is shifted in an amount that is proportional to the difference in path length as compared to the reference phase to produce an electrical output signal proportional to the deviation of the height of the surface along the circular track. The output signal is generated by means of a phase detector that includes a first photodetector in the path of the recombined components and a second photodetector in the path of the reference phase. The output signal is dependent on the phase difference of the two photodetector signals. A polarizer, a quarter-wave plate and a half-wave plate are in series in the path of the reference phase. Rotation of the half-wave plate can be used for phase adjustment over a full 360[degree] range for initial calibration of the apparatus. 12 figs.

  17. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  18. Tools for measuring surface cleanliness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  19. Surface mount component jig

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Beech Island, SC)

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  20. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  1. Summary of Training Workshop on the Use of NASA tools for Coastal Resource Management in the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Chaeli; Judd, Kathleen S.; Gulbransen, Thomas C.; Thom, Ronald M.

    2009-03-01

    A two-day training workshop was held in Xalapa, Mexico from March 10-11 2009 with the goal of training end users from the southern Gulf of Mexico states of Campeche and Veracruz in the use of tools to support coastal resource management decision-making. The workshop was held at the computer laboratory of the Institute de Ecologia, A.C. (INECOL). This report summarizes the results of that workshop and is a deliverable to our NASA client.

  2. Overview of the 1986 free-piston Stirling SP-100 activities at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center SP-100 free-piston Stirling engine activities is presented. These activities include a free-piston Stirling space-power technology feasibility demonstration project as part of the SP-100 program being conducted in support of the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), and NASA. The space-power Stirling advanced technology effort, under SP-100, addresses the status of the 25 kWe Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) including test results. Future space-power projections are presented along with a description of a study that will investigate the feasibility of scaling a single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space-power module to the 150 kW power range. Design parameters and conceptual design features will be presented for a 25 kWe, single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space-power converter. A description of a hydrodynamic gas bearing concept will be presented whereby the displacer of a 1 kWe free-piston Stirling engine is modified to demonstrate the bearing concept. And finally the goals of a conceptual design for a 25 kWe Solar Advanced Stirling Conversion System capable of delivering electric power to an electric utility grid will be discussed. The solar work is under an interagency agreement between DOE/Sandia National Laboratory and NASA Lewis.

  3. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  4. Method of modifying a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renk, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sorensen, Neil R. (Albuquerque, NM); Senft, Donna Cowell (Albuquerque, NM); Buchheit, Jr., Rudolph G. (Columbus, OH); Thompson, Michael O. (Ithaca, NY); Grabowski, Kenneth S. (Alexandria, VA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a surface modification method that provides beneficial changes in surface properties, can modify a surface to a greater depth than previous methods, and that is suitable for industrial application. The present method comprises applying a thin-film coating to a surface of a substrate, then subjecting the coated surface to an ion beam. The ion beam power pulse heats the coated surface, leading to alloying between the material in the coating and the material of the substrate. Rapid cooling of the alloyed layer after an ion beam pulse can lead to formation of metastable alloys and microstructures not accessible by conventional alloying methods or intense ion beam treatment of the substrate alone.

  5. ARM - Lesson Plans: Surface Currents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Currents Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Surface Currents Objective The objective is to demonstrate the simple surface currents and to calculate the speed of current. Materials Each student or group of students will need the following: Books Pencil/pen

  6. ARM - Measurement - Surface energy balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy balance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface energy balance The energy balance at the earth's surface between the net radiation and the sensible and latent heat fluxes and ground heat flux. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  7. ARM - Surface Aerosol Observing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009-2010 Shouxian, China, 2008 Black Forest, Germany, 2007 Niamey, Niger, 2006 Point Reyes, California, 2005 Surface Aerosol Observing System The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is...

  8. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the HTML: Surface...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HTML: SurfaceSub-surface dislocation density analysis of forming samples using advanced characterization techniques Materials Characterization Capabilities at the HTML: Surface...

  9. Section 18

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of the Temperature Dependence of Low Cloud Optical Thickness Using ARM Data and the GISS GCM A. D. Del Genio NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York A. B. Wolf Science Systems and Applications, Inc. New York, New York G. Tselioudis Columbia University New York, New York One of the larger uncertainties in global climate model C The Belfort Laser Ceilometer (BLC) measures cloud base estimates of sensitivity to external perturbations is the height projected climate

  10. Simulating Arctic mixed-phase clouds: Sensitivity to environmental

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions and cloud microphysics processes Simulating Arctic mixed-phase clouds: Sensitivity to environmental conditions and cloud microphysics processes Sednev, Igor Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Menon, Surabi Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory McFarquhar, Greg University of Illinois Category: Field Campaigns The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate are evaluated using the NASA GISS single column model (SCM) and cloud microphysics and radar

  11. lacis-98.p;df

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Treatment in the GISS GCM A. A. Lacis, V. Oinas, and B. Cairns NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York Introduction The primary role of radiative transfer calculations in climate general circulation models (GCMs) is to provide accurate heating and cooling rates for the radiative energy terms in the fundamental equations. A secondary role is to represent GCM physical processes in terms of radiative quantities that can be effectively compared to satellite and

  12. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  13. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  14. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features PDF icon...

  15. Embedded fiducials in optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Embedded fiducials are provided in optical surfaces and a method for embedding the fiducials. Fiducials, or marks on a surface, are important for optical fabrication and alignment, particularly when individual optical elements are aspheres. Fiducials are used during the course of the polishing process to connect interferometric data, and the equation describing the asphere, to physical points on the optic. By embedding fiducials below the surface of the optic and slightly outside the clear aperture of the optic, the fiducials are not removed by polishing, do not interfere with the polishing process, and do not affect the performance of the finished optic.

  16. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the...

  17. Surface treatment of ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.

    1998-12-22

    A process is disclosed for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article. 15 figs.

  18. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  19. Surface treatment of ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); Wei, Bo (Daly City, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Bhatia, C. Singh (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article.

  20. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of...

  1. Accelerated Aging of Roofing Surfaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated aging of roofing surfaces Hugo Destaillats, Ph.D. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory HDestaillats@LBL.gov (510) 486-5897 http://HeatIsland.LBL.gov April 4, 2013 Development of Advanced Building Envelope Surface Materials & Integration of Artificial Soiling and Weathering in a Commercial Weatherometer New York Times, 30 July 2009 2010 2012 Challenge: speed the development of high performance building envelope materials that resist soiling, maintain high solar reflectance, and

  2. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  3. Rulison Site Surface Closure Report

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Nevada Operations Office DOE/NV- -510 UC-700 Nevada Environmental Restoration Project Rulison Site Surface Closure Report July 1998 Environmental Restoration Division DOE/NV--510 UC-700 RULISON SITE SURFACE CLOSURE REPORT DOE Nevada Operations Office Las Vegas, Nevada July 1998 This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; prices available from

  4. Surface and groundwater management in surface mined-land reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evoy, B.; Holland, M.

    1990-06-01

    This report provides information on surface water and groundwater management for use in the mined-land reclamation planning process in California. Mined-land reclamation, as defined by the California Surface Mining and Reclamation Act, is the combination of land treatments which prevent or minimize water degradation, air pollution, damage to aquatic or wildlife habitat, and erosion resulting from a surface mining operation. Surface water and groundwater management play an integral role in nearly every reclamation plan. Groundwater and surface water runoff (both onto and off of the site) must often be evaluated (1) to design flooding and erosion protection measures such as drainage channels, levees, culverts, or riprap; (2) to prepare and carry out a successful revegetation program; (3) to design stable final slopes; (4) to maximize potential available water for the operation and reclamation stages; (5) to prevent the discharge of contaminants from mine processes or from mined areas; and (6) to limit long-term leachate formation and movement from tailings, pit, or waste rock disposal areas. This report is a guide for mine operators, local government, planners, and plan reviewers.

  5. Device for inspecting vessel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Appel, D. Keith (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A portable, remotely-controlled inspection crawler for use along the walls of tanks, vessels, piping and the like. The crawler can be configured to use a vacuum chamber for supporting itself on the inspected surface by suction or a plurality of magnetic wheels for moving the crawler along the inspected surface. The crawler is adapted to be equipped with an ultrasonic probe for mapping the structural integrity or other characteristics of the surface being inspected. Navigation of the crawler is achieved by triangulation techniques between a signal transmitter on the crawler and a pair of microphones attached to a fixed, remote location, such as the crawler's deployment unit. The necessary communications are established between the crawler and computers external to the inspection environment for position control and storage and/or monitoring of data acquisition.

  6. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-10-21

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means. 2 figs.

  7. Surface Passivation of Germanium Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Hemant; Sun, Shiyu; Pianetta, Piero; Chidsey, Chirstopher E.D.; McIntyre, Paul C.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-13

    The surface of single crystal, cold-wall CVD-grown germanium nanowires was studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) and also by conventional XPS. The as-grown germanium nanowires seem to be hydrogen terminated. Exposure to laboratory atmosphere leads to germanium oxide growth with oxidation states of Ge{sup 1+}, Ge{sup 2+}, Ge{sup 3+}, while exposure to UV light leads to a predominance of the Ge{sup 4+} oxidation state. Most of the surface oxide could be removed readily by aqueous HF treatment which putatively leaves the nanowire surface hydrogen terminated with limited stability in air. Alternatively, chlorine termination could be achieved by aq. HCl treatment of the native oxide-coated nanowires. Chlorine termination was found to be relatively more stable than the HF-last hydrogen termination.

  8. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk fluid.

  9. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  10. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  11. Method for generating surface plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Aragon, Ben P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-05-27

    A method for generating a discharge plasma which covers a surface of a body in a gas at pressures from 0.01 Torr to atmospheric pressure, by applying a radio frequency power with frequencies between approximately 1 MHz and 10 GHz across a plurality of paired insulated conductors on the surface. At these frequencies, an arc-less, non-filamentary plasma can be generated to affect the drag characteristics of vehicles moving through the gas. The plasma can also be used as a source in plasma reactors for chemical reaction operations.

  12. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  13. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, Michael S. (New Ellenton, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  14. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the

  15. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  16. Method of surface preparation of niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY); Schill, John F. (Ridge, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

  17. Composite, ordered material having sharp surface features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2006-12-19

    A composite material having sharp surface features includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a sharp surface feature. The sharp surface features can be coated to make the surface super-hydrophobic.

  18. Surface property detection apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Sorensen, Neil R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting, determining, and imaging surface resistance corrosion, thin film growth, and oxide formation on the surface of conductors or other electrical surface modification. The invention comprises a modified confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor, conductor, dielectric, or semiconductor.

  19. Surface property detection apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, J.S.; Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1995-08-08

    Apparatus and method for detecting, determining, and imaging surface resistance corrosion, thin film growth, and oxide formation on the surface of conductors or other electrical surface modification. The invention comprises a modified confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor, conductor, dielectric, or semiconductor. 4 figs.

  20. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Koss, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  1. Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine technology activities applicable to space power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space-power application. One of the major elements of the program is the development of advanced power conversion concepts of which the Stirling cycle is a viable candidate. Under this program the research findings of the 25 kWe opposed-piston Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) are presented. Included in the SPDE discussion are initial differences between predicted and experimental power outputs and power output influenced by variations in regenerators. Projections are made for future space-power requirements over the next few decades. A cursory comparison is presented showing the mass benefits that a Stirling system has over a Brayton system for the same peak temperature and output power.

  2. Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Mercury Geochemistry Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Abstract...

  3. Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2013-07-16

    A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

  4. proposed surface and subsurface marker designs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Images of proposed markers for the surface and subsurface Large Surface Marker - Proposed Design with Plaques of Text and Images Small Subsurface Marker - Proposed Design

  5. MHL Free Surface Channel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Free Surface Channel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name MHL Free Surface Channel Overseeing Organization University of Michigan Hydrodynamics...

  6. Correction of localized shape errors on optical surfaces by altering the localized density of surface or near-surface layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, John S.; Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude

    2005-01-18

    Figure errors are corrected on optical or other precision surfaces by changing the local density of material in a zone at or near the surface. Optical surface height is correlated with the localized density of the material within the same region. A change in the height of the optical surface can then be caused by a change in the localized density of the material at or near the surface.

  7. Development of a Silicon Drift Detector Array: An X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Remote Surface Mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaskin, J.A.; De Geronimo, G.; Carini, G.A.; Chen, W.; Elsner, R.F.; Kramer, G.; Keister, J.W.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Rehak, P.; Siddons, D.P.

    2009-09-11

    Over the past three years NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been collaborating with Brookhaven National Laboratory to develop a modular Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) intended for fine surface mapping of the light elements of the moon. The value of fluorescence spectrometry for surface element mapping is underlined by the fact that the technique has recently been employed by three lunar orbiter missions; Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, and Chang'e. The SDD-XRS instrument we have been developing can operate at a low energy threshold (i.e. is capable of detecting Carbon), comparable energy resolution to Kaguya (<150 eV at 5.9 keV) and an order of magnitude lower power requirement, making much higher sensitivities possible. Furthermore, the intrinsic radiation resistance of the SDD makes it useful even in radiation-harsh environments such as that of Jupiter and its surrounding moons.

  8. Method for protecting a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2006-06-27

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from 2–7 additional elements including at lease one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a power, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  9. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  10. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C. (Aiken, SC)

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning method for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  11. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKenzie, D.; Odell, C.

    1994-03-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figures.

  12. Tritium on Metal Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on Metal Surfaces Tritium on Metal Surfaces Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Idaho Falls, Idaho on September 23-25, 2014. PDF icon Tritium on Metal Surfaces More Documents & Publications Modeling Tritium on Metal Surfaces Tritium Plasma Experiment and Its Role in PHENIX Program Light Water Detritiation using the CECE Process

  13. Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL.

  14. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  15. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION - COMPENDIUM DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUCKER DF; MYERS DA

    2011-10-04

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  16. Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2007-07-17

    A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.

  17. Surface coatings. Science and technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the coating field from the latest industry developments to current energy and pollution regulations. It explains the composition of coatings, how they are prepared and applied and the factors that control their ultimate performance. The author discusses the synthesis of polymeric binders, industrial resins, pigments, paints and paint properties, types of coatings, and new technologies. CONTENTS: Binders: Synthesis of Polymeric Binders; Industrial Resins; Pigments; Paints and Paint Properties: Pigment Dispersion; Surface Preparation and Paint Application; Paint Properties and Their Evaluation; Types of Coatings; New Technolgies.

  18. Surface-micromachined microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Montague, Stephen (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Redmond, WA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Krygowski, Thomas W. (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Nichols, Christopher A. (Hauppauge, NY); Jakubczak, II, Jerome F. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2003-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are disclosed which can be manufactured using surface-micromachining. These devices utilize an electroosmotic force or an electromagnetic field to generate a flow of a fluid in a microchannel that is lined, at least in part, with silicon nitride. Additional electrodes can be provided within or about the microchannel for separating particular constituents in the fluid during the flow based on charge state or magnetic moment. The fluid can also be pressurized in the channel. The present invention has many different applications including electrokinetic pumping, chemical and biochemical analysis (e.g. based on electrophoresis or chromatography), conducting chemical reactions on a microscopic scale, and forming hydraulic actuators.

  19. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  20. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  1. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  2. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  3. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  4. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  5. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided

  6. Surface mine regulations complicate reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seltz-Patrash, A.

    1980-09-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 is a landmark environmental law intended to protect U.S. lands from stripmining effects. However, coal mine operators claim that some SMCRA regulations are misguidedcosting time and money, but yielding no substantial environmental benefit. Unlike other environmental acts, SMCRA details specifically the goals of reclamation and the methods that must be implemented to meet these goals. Coal industry representatives believe that this discourages innovation, promotes inefficiency by ignoring regional differences among sites, and results in unnecessary expense to the industry. Reclamation practices and progress among western coal mining companies are evaluated. (1 map, 5 photos)

  7. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  8. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion.

  9. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, C.H. Jr.

    1984-02-14

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion. 4 figs.

  10. Surface-Micromachined Microfluidic Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James H.; Paul, Phillip H.; Krygowski, Thomas W.; Allen, James J.; Nichols, Christopher A.; Jakubczak, II, Jerome F.

    2004-09-28

    Microfluidic devices are disclosed which can be manufactured using surface-micromachining. These devices utilize an electroosmotic force or an electromagnetic field to generate a flow of a fluid in a microchannel that is lined, at least in part, with silicon nitride. Additional electrodes can be provided within or about the microchannel for separating particular constituents in the fluid during the flow based on charge state or magnetic moment. The fluid can also be pressurized in the channel. The present invention has many different applications including electrokinetic pumping, chemical and biochemical analysis (e.g. based on electrophoresis or chromatography), conducting chemical reactions on a microscopic scale, and forming hydraulic actuators. Microfluidic devices are disclosed which can be manufactured using surface-micromachining. These devices utilize an electroosmotic force or an electromagnetic field to generate a flow of a fluid in a microchannel that is lined, at least in part, with silicon nitride. Additional electrodes can be provided within or about the microchannel for separating particular constituents in the fluid during the flow based on charge state or magnetic moment. The fluid can also be pressurized in the channel. The present invention has many different applications including electrokinetic pumping, chemical and biochemical analysis (e.g. based on electrophoresis or chromatography), conducting chemical reactions on a microscopic scale, and forming hydraulic actuators.

  11. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Dirk; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2013-11-14

    NREL has developed a device to test one of the most challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries -- a battery internal short circuit. Many members of the technical community believe that this type of failure is caused by a latent flaw that results in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries for energy storage, solving the short circuit problem becomes more important. To date, no reliable and practical method exists to create on-demand internal shorts in Li-ion cells that produce a response that is relevant to the ones produced by field failures. NREL and NASA have worked to establish an improved ISC cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, is capable of triggering the four types of cell internal shorts, and produces consistent and reproducible results. Internal short circuit device design is small, low-profile and implantable into Li-ion cells, preferably during assembly. The key component is an electrolyte-compatible phase change material (PCM). The ISC is triggered by heating the cell above PCM melting temperature (presently 40 degrees C 60 degrees C). In laboratory testing, the activated device can handle currents in excess of 300 A to simulate hard shorts (< 2 mohms). Phase change from non-conducting to conducting has been 100% successful during trigger tests.

  12. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2003-12-23

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  13. Contoured Surface Eddy Current Inspection System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzinger, Thomas James; Fulton, James Paul; Rose, Curtis Wayne; Perocchi, Lee Cranford

    2003-04-08

    Eddy current inspection of a contoured surface of a workpiece is performed by forming a backing piece of flexible, resiliently yieldable material with a contoured exterior surface conforming in shape to the workpiece contoured surface. The backing piece is preferably cast in place so as to conform to the workpiece contoured surface. A flexible eddy current array probe is attached to the contoured exterior surface of the backing piece such that the probe faces the contoured surface of the workpiece to be inspected when the backing piece is disposed adjacent to the workpiece. The backing piece is then expanded volumetrically by inserting at least one shim into a slot in the backing piece to provide sufficient contact pressure between the probe and the workpiece contoured surface to enable the inspection of the workpiece contoured surface to be performed.

  14. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  15. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Surface Albedo IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    02.09 - 2004.02.13 Lead Scientist : Alexander Trishchenko For data sets, see below. Abstract Purpose of this field campaign was to collect surface albedo spectra for representative surface types in the ARM SGP CART site area, to gather information useful for conducting surface type classification from aerial/satellite remote sensing data, to develop the detailed spectral model of surface reflectance over the ARM SGP CART site area for conditions in winter time (February) Campaign Data Sets IOP

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Surface Albedo IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10.20 - 2004.10.26 Lead Scientist : Alexander Trishchenko For data sets, see below. Abstract Purpose of this field campaign was to collect surface albedo spectra for representative surface types in the ARM SGP CART site area during the autumn conditions, to gather information useful for conducting surface type classification from aerial/satellite remote sensing data, to develop the detailed spectral model of surface reflectance over the ARM SGP CART site area for the autumn conditions.

  18. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components ... ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM ...

  19. Heterogeneous Catalysis and Surface Science - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heterogeneous Catalysis and Surface Science / Part I: Surface Science in JCAP Laboratories Heterogeneous Catalysis and Surface Science research in JCAP focuses on the basic understanding of the relationships among the structure, composition, and reactivity of electrocatalysts. Knowledge gained from surface science experimentation can be implemented toward the discovery of better heterogeneous catalysts for solar-fuel production from carbon dioxide and water. REFERENCE Soriaga, M. P. et al.

  20. Superhydrophobic surfaces (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Superhydrophobic surfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Superhydrophobic surfaces Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template. Authors: Wang, Evelyn N ; McCarthy, Matthew ; Enright, Ryan ;

  1. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  2. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  3. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, Regan W. (1033 Tramway La. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); VanDevender, J. Pace (7604 Lamplighter NE., Albuquerque, NM 87109)

    1999-01-01

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications.

  4. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  5. Polymer surface treatment with particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinnett, R.W.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-05-04

    A polymer surface and near surface treatment process produced by irradiation with high energy particle beams is disclosed. The process is preferably implemented with pulsed ion beams. The process alters the chemical and mechanical properties of the polymer surface in a manner useful for a wide range of commercial applications. 16 figs.

  6. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water With High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program: Best Management Practice Case Study #6 - Toilets and Urinals (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding, successful sustainability program that focuses on energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. Because MSFC was built in the 1960s, most of the buildings house outdated, inefficient restroom fixtures. The facility engineering team at MSFC developed an innovative efficiency model for replacing these older toilets and urinals.

  7. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Revised) (Fact Sheet), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is located in Huntsville, Alabama, adjacent to Redstone Arsenal. MSFC has over 4.5 million square feet of building space occupied by 7,000 personnel, and consumes approximately 240 million gallons of potable water annually, supplied through the City of Huntsville. MSFC has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. In 2005,

  8. Nanostructured surfaces for microfluidics and sensing applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picraux, Samuel Thomas (Arizona State University); Piech, Marcin (United Technologies Corp.); Schneider, John F.; Vail, Sean (Arizona State University); Hayes, Mark A. (Arizona State University); Garcia, Anthony A.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Gust, D (Arizona State University); Yang, Dongqing (Arizona State University)

    2007-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the use of light to move liquids on a photoresponsive monolayer, providing a new method for delivering analyses in lab-on-chip environments for microfluidic systems. The light-driven motion of liquids was achieved on photoresponsive azobenzene modified surfaces. The surface energy components of azobenzene modified surfaces were calculated by Van Oss theory. The motion of the liquid was achieved by generation of a surface tension gradient by isomerization of azobenzene monolayers using UV and Visible light, thereby establishing a surface energy heterogeneity on the edge of the droplet. Contact angle measurements of various solvents were used to demonstrate the requirement for fluid motion.

  9. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David

    2012-12-17

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  10. Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Parent, P.; Reinholdtsen, P.A.

    1991-02-26

    An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method are described in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respect to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations. 7 figures.

  11. Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. (Palo Alto, CA); Parent, Philippe (Chilly-Mazarin, FR); Reinholdtsen, Paul A. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respected to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations.

  12. Airborne measurements of total sulfur gases during NASA global tropospheric experiment/chemical instrumentation test and evaluation 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; MacTaggart, D.L.; Chatham, W.H.

    1995-04-20

    A metal foil collection/flash desorption/flame photometric detection (MFC/FD/FPD) technique was used by investigators from the University of Idaho (UI) to measure ambient total sulfur gas concentrations from an aircraft platform during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (GTE/CITE 3) program. The MFC/FD/FPD technique allowed rapid quantitation of tropospheric background air masses using sample integration times of 1-3 min with little or no gap between measurements. The rapid and continual sampling nature of this technique yielded data covering approximately 75% of the entire CITE 3 program`s air track. Ambient air measurement data obtained during northern hemisphere (NH) flights often exhibited relatively high total sulfur gas values (up to 19 ppb) and an extremely high degree of sample heterogeneity, especially in coastal locations. Data from southern hemisphere (SH) flights typically exhibited relatively low total sulfur gas concentrations and a low degree of sample heterogeneity. A bimodal interhemispheric total sulfur gas gradient was observed using data obtained during transit flights between the two CITE 3 program ground bases. Comparisons were made of UI total sulfur gas measurements with composite sulfur gas values generated using speciated sulfur gas measurements from other CITE 3 participants. Only a relatively small number of overlap periods for comparison were obtained from all the available CITE 3 data because of large differences in measurement integration times and lack of synchronization of sample start/stop times for the various investigators. These effects were compounded with extreme sample heterogeneity in the NH and the speed at which the aircraft traversed the air masses being sampled. Comparison of NH UI total with composite sulfur gas values showed excellent correlation and linear curve fit, indicating substantial qualitative agreement. 20 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. C. O'Brien; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

    2011-11-01

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  14. Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA); Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

  15. NASA technical baseline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technical baseline - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  16. 2005 Chemical Reactions at Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cynthia M. Friend

    2006-03-14

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2005 Chemical Reactions at Surfaces was held at Ventura Beach Marriott, Ventura California from February 13, 2005 through February 18, 2005. The Conference was well-attended with 124 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, 'free time' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  17. Extensibility of the fission surface power (FSP) system from the moon to Mars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, David Irvin

    2011-01-28

    Fission reactors have great near-term potential to power human and robotic missions/outposts on the surface of the Moon and Mars (and potentially other planets, moons, and asteroids). The ability to provide a power-rich environment that is independent of solar intensity, nights, dust storms, etc., is of significant (perhaps enabling) importance to the further expansion of humans into our solar system. NASA's Reference Fission Surface Power (FSP) System is a 40 kWe system that has been primarily designed for lunar applications. This paper examines the extensibility of the FSP design and technology for potential missions on Mars. Possible impacts include the effects of changes in heat sink, gravity, day-night cycles, mission transit time, communication delay, and the chemistry of the regolith and atmosphere. One of the biggest impacts might be differences in the potential utilization of in-situ materials for shielding. Another major factor is that different missions will likely require different performance requirements, e.g. power, lifetime and mass. This paper concludes that the environmental differences between potential mission locations will not require significant changes in design and technologies, unless performance requirements for a specific mission are substantially different than those adopted for the FSP The primary basis for this conclusion is that the FSP has been designed with robust materials and design margins.

  18. Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2001-01-01

    A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

  19. Automated position control of a surface array relative to a liquid microjunction surface sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J. (Clinton, TN); Kertesz, Vilmos (Knoxville, TN); Ford, Michael James (Little Rock, AR)

    2007-11-13

    A system and method utilizes an image analysis approach for controlling the probe-to-surface distance of a liquid junction-based surface sampling system for use with mass spectrometric detection. Such an approach enables a hands-free formation of the liquid microjunction used to sample solution composition from the surface and for re-optimization, as necessary, of the microjunction thickness during a surface scan to achieve a fully automated surface sampling system.

  20. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  1. Explosives screening on a vehicle surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parmeter, John E.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Davis, Jerry D.; Linker, Kevin L.; Hannum, David W.

    2005-02-01

    A system for detecting particles on the outer surface of a vehicle has a housing capable of being placed in a test position adjacent to, but not in contact with, a portion of the outer surface of the vehicle. An elongate sealing member is fastened to the housing along a perimeter surrounding the wall, and the elongate sealing member has a contact surface facing away from the wall to contact the outer surface of the vehicle to define a test volume when the wall is in the test position. A gas flow system has at least one gas inlet extending through the wall for providing a gas stream against the surface of the vehicle within the test volume. This gas stream, which preferably is air, dislodges particles from the surface of the vehicle covered by the housing. The gas stream exits the test volume through a gas outlet and particles in the stream are detected.

  2. Overview of surface engineering and wear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budinski, K.G.

    1996-12-31

    Surface engineering is a multidiscipline activity aimed at tailoring the properties or surfaces of engineering materials to improve their function or service life. As applied to metals, surface engineering includes processes such as plating, diffusion treatment, physical and chemical vapor deposition, ion implantation, thermal spray coatings, selective hardening, hardfacing, and a variety of less-used and proprietary processes. These processes will be described briefly and it is shown that each process has a niche where it works better or is more cost effective than competing surface engineering treatments or bulk materials. This paper reviews the various forms of wear that occur in industrial environments. Techniques are described to match available surface engineering processes with wear situations. The goal is to present selection guidelines for machine designers and industrial operating personnel on the use of surface engineering to solve wear problems.

  3. Wetting of a Chemically Heterogeneous Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frink, L.J.D.; Salinger, A.G.

    1998-11-20

    Theories for inhomogeneous fluids have focused in recent years on wetting, capillary conden- sation, and solvation forces for model systems where the surface(s) is(are) smooth homogeneous parallel plates, cylinders, or spherical drops. Unfortunately natural systems are more likely to be hetaogeneous both in surt%ce shape and surface chemistry. In this paper we discuss the conse- quences of chemical heterogeneity on wetting. Specifically, a 2-dimensional implementation of a nonlocal density functional theory is solved for a striped surface model. Both the strength and range of the heterogeneity are varied. Contact angles are calculated, and phase transitions (both the wetting transition and a local layering transition) are located. The wetting properties of the surface ase shown to be strongly dependent on the nature of the surface heterogeneity. In addition highly ordered nanoscopic phases are found, and the operational limits for formation of ordered or crystalline phases of nanoscopic extent are discussed.

  4. Space Nuclear MIssion History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Apollo 14 1971 NASA Moon Surface Apollo 15 1971 NASA Moon Surface Pioneer 10 1971 NASA Jupiter Apollo 16 1972 NASA Moon Surface Triad-01-1X 1972 Navy Earth - Navigation Satelitte...

  5. Interfacial and Surface Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interfacial and Surface Science Image of irregular-outlined, light-colored shapes on a dark background. Represents a tapping-mode atomic force microscope image of gallium phosphide on silicon. NREL researchers have developed an integrated set of experimental capabilities to address a broad range of fundamental and applied issues in surface and interfacial science that are critical for advancing sustainable-energy technologies. Surface and interface phenomena often control the opto-electronic,

  6. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  7. Method of generating a surface mesh

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Jason F. (Albuquerque, NM); Benzley, Steven (Provo, UT); Grover, Benjamin T. (Tracy, CA)

    2008-03-04

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to generate and modify a quadrilateral finite element surface mesh using dual creation and modification. After generating a dual of a surface (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to generate and modify a surface mesh of quadrilateral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of generating two-dimensional cell regions in dual space, determining existing nodes in primal space, generating new nodes in the dual space, and connecting nodes to form the quadrilateral elements (faces) for the generated and modifiable surface mesh.

  8. Surface Power Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Surface Power Technologies Place: Ireland Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: An Irish company supplying solar and micro-wind energy systems and...

  9. Ball assisted device for analytical surface sampling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    ElNaggar, Mariam S; Van Berkel, Gary J; Covey, Thomas R

    2015-11-03

    A system for sampling a surface includes a sampling probe having a housing and a socket, and a rolling sampling sphere within the socket. The housing has a sampling fluid supply conduit and a sampling fluid exhaust conduit. The sampling fluid supply conduit supplies sampling fluid to the sampling sphere. The sampling fluid exhaust conduit has an inlet opening for receiving sampling fluid carried from the surface by the sampling sphere. A surface sampling probe and a method for sampling a surface are also disclosed.

  10. Surface Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Water Sampling Details Activities (3) Areas (2) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field...

  11. International Conference on Surface Transportation System Resilience...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    practices and state of the art research results on how to adapt surface transportation networks to the potential impacts of climate change and extreme weather events. Learn More......

  12. Surface Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In The Past 20 Years- Geochemistry In Geothermal Exploration Resource Evaluation And Reservoir Management Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff &...

  13. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  14. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  15. Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V.

    2014-02-18

    The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

  16. An Improved MUSIC Model for Gibbsite Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Scott C.; Bickmore, Barry R.; Tadanier, Christopher J.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2004-06-01

    Here we use gibbsite as a model system with which to test a recently published, bond-valence method for predicting intrinsic pKa values for surface functional groups on oxides. At issue is whether the method is adequate when valence parameters for the functional groups are derived from ab initio structure optimization of surfaces terminated by vacuum. If not, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of solvated surfaces (which are much more computationally expensive) will have to be used. To do this, we had to evaluate extant gibbsite potentiometric titration data that where some estimate of edge and basal surface area was available. Applying BET and recently developed atomic force microscopy methods, we found that most of these data sets were flawed, in that their surface area estimates were probably wrong. Similarly, there may have been problems with many of the titration procedures. However, one data set was adequate on both counts, and we applied our method of surface pKa int prediction to fitting a MUSIC model to this data with considerable successseveral features of the titration data were predicted well. However, the model fit was certainly not perfect, and we experienced some difficulties optimizing highly charged, vacuum-terminated surfaces. Therefore, we conclude that we probably need to do AIMD simulations of solvated surfaces to adequately predict intrinsic pKa values for surface functional groups.

  17. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Surface Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distributions Analyze a wide range of materials, including photovoltaics, microelectronics, polymers, and biological specimens. Our Surface Analysis group wants to work...

  18. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films withmore(100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.less

  19. Category:Surface Gas Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Gas Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Surface Gas Sampling page? For detailed information on Surface...

  20. Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the surface structure of divalent transition metals using surface specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the surface...

  1. Surface modification of polyethylene by functionalized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, S.; Marchant, R.E.

    1993-12-31

    The surface of low density polyethylene(PE) has been modified by functionalized plasma-polymerized N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PPNVP) and allyl alcohol(PPAA) thin films, PPNVP and PPAA(approx. 100 nm). The surface structure and functional groups of modified surfaces were characterized by water contact angle, ATR/FTIR and ESCA techniques. Plasma polymer modified PE surfaces exhibited significant water contact angle hysteresis and a much lower value of advancing water contact angle than that of unmodified polyethylene. Reduction of PPNVP and PPAA modified surfaces by sodium borohydride coverted into hydroxyl groups. The determined concentrations of hydroxyl groups on the reduced PPNVP and PPAA modified surfaces by ESCA after gas-phase derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) were about 25% and 30% of total oxygen content, respectively. Finally, the amine containing molecules such as amine-terminated polyethylene oxide (PEO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) were coupled to the hydroxylated surfaces. These novel modified PE surfaces are suitable for immobilization of biomolecules.

  2. Surfaces of Intermetallics: Quasicrystals and Beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuen, Chad

    2012-10-26

    The goal of this work is to characterize surfaces of intermetallics, including quasicrystals. In this work, surface characterization is primarily focused on composition and structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) performed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions.

  3. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.

    1998-11-17

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances. 22 figs.

  4. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); Wei, Bo (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Bhatia, C. Singh (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances.

  5. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); Wei, Bo (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Bhatia, Singh C. (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances.

  6. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1995-12-19

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances. 15 figs.

  7. Conformal coating of highly structured surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S.; Perkins, John; Berry, Joseph; Gennett, Thomas

    2012-12-11

    Method of applying a conformal coating to a highly structured substrate and devices made by the disclosed methods are disclosed. An example method includes the deposition of a substantially contiguous layer of a material upon a highly structured surface within a deposition process chamber. The highly structured surface may be associated with a substrate or another layer deposited on a substrate. The method includes depositing a material having an amorphous structure on the highly structured surface at a deposition pressure of equal to or less than about 3 mTorr. The method may also include removing a portion of the amorphous material deposited on selected surfaces and depositing additional amorphous material on the highly structured surface.

  8. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodmansee, Donald E. (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  9. Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions Surface-immobilized heterogeneous organometallic compounds have varying activity compared to homogeneous analogues -...

  10. Improved polymeric surface for adhesion through electron stimulated chemical modification of polymeric surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelber, J.A.

    1987-04-08

    Treating polymer surfaces, e.g., Teflon, particularly very thin surfaces, e.g., 50-10,000 A, with low energy electron radiation, e.g., 100-1000 eV, in a high vacuum environment, e.g., less than 10 /sup /minus/6/ Torr, to enhance the ability of the surface to be adhered to a variety of substrates.

  11. Stability of Surface and Subsurface Hydrogen on and in Au/Ni Near-Surface Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celik, Fuat E.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2015-10-01

    Periodic, self-consistent DFT-GGA (PW91) calculations were used to study the interaction of hydrogen atoms with the (111) surfaces of substitutional near-surface alloys (NSAs) of Au and Ni with different surface layer compositions and different arrangements of Au atoms in the surface layer. The effect of hydrogen adsorption on the surface and in the first and second subsurface layers of the NSAs was studied. Increasing the Au content in the surface layer weakens hydrogen binding on the surface, but strengthens subsurface binding, suggesting that the distribution of surface and subsurface hydrogen will be different than that on pure Ni(111). While the metal composition of the surface layer has an effect on the binding energy of hydrogen on NSA surfaces, the local composition of the binding site has a stronger effect. For example, fcc hollow sites consisting of three Ni atoms bind H nearly as strongly as on Ni(111), and fcc sites consisting of three Au atoms bind H nearly as weakly as on Au(111). Sites with one or two Au atoms show intermediate binding energies. The preference of hydrogen for three-fold Ni hollow sites alters the relative stabilities of different surface metal atom arrangements, and may provide a driving force for adsorbate-induced surface rearrangement.

  12. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  13. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  14. DROPWISE CONDENSATION ON MICRO- AND NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enright, R; Miljkovic, N; Alvarado, JL; Kim, K; Rose, JW

    2014-07-23

    In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface-enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro-and nanoscale using both bottom-up and top-down approaches has led to increased study of complex interfacial phenomena. In the heat transfer community, researchers have been extensively exploring the use of advanced surface structuring techniques to enhance phase-change heat transfer processes. In particular, the field of vapor-to-liquid condensation and especially that of water condensation has experienced a renaissance due to the promise of further optimizing this process at the micro-and nanoscale by exploiting advances in surface engineering developed over the last several decades.

  15. Integrated Surface Geophysical Methods for Characterization of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Integrated Surface Geophysical Methods for Characterization of the Naval Air Warfare Center, New Jersey Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site:...

  16. Clean Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. Surface Orbital 'Roughness' in Colossal Magnetoresistive Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    containing a mixed-valence of Mn3+ and Mn4+, known as manganites, represent an ideal system to address the role of the surface, because all the relevant degrees of freedom -...

  18. Method for determining surface properties of microparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B. (Ridgewood, NJ)

    2000-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG) can be used for surface analysis or characterization of microparticles having a non-metallic surface feature. The microparticles can be centrosymmetric or such that non-metallic molecules of interest are centrosymmetrically distributed inside and outside the microparticles but not at the surface of the microparticles where the asymmetry aligns the molecules. The signal is quadratic in incident laser intensity or proportional to the product of two incident laser intensities for SFG, it is sharply peaked at the second harmonic wavelength, quadratic in the density of molecules adsorbed onto the microparticle surface, and linear in microparticles density. In medical or pharmacological applications, molecules of interest may be of drugs or toxins, for example.

  19. ARM - Sea Surface and Sea Level

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... On the other hand, under the changes in the level of the ocean surface, melting glaciers and ice sheets, ocean currents, daily tides, expansion or contraction of water based upon ...

  20. PID Control Effectiveness for Surface Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, David D.; Marsh, Christopher L.; Poston, David I.

    2007-01-30

    Control of space and surface fission reactors should be kept as simple as possible, because of the need for high reliability and the difficulty to diagnose and adapt to control system failures. Fortunately, compact, fast-spectrum, externally controlled reactors are very simple in operation. In fact, for some applications it may be possible to design low-power surface reactors without the need for any reactor control after startup; however, a simple proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller can allow a higher performance concept and add more flexibility to system operation. This paper investigates the effectiveness of a PID control scheme for several anticipated transients that a surface reactor might experience. To perform these analyses, the surface reactor transient code FRINK was modified to simulate control drum movements based on bulk coolant temperature.

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - DelGenio_ARM_STM_2007.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONVECTIVE REGIMES DURING TWP ICE DURING TWP-ICE Tony Del Genio (NASA/GISS) Jingbo Wu and Audrey Wolf (Columbia U.) Jingbo Wu and Audrey Wolf (Columbia U.) Effect of moist convection on cloud feedback depends on convection strength depends on convection strength SW ↘↗ ↑LW "thermostat" "adaptive iris" (Zipser 1977) (Zipser, 1977) "thermostat" → detrainment control "adaptive iris" → precipitation control Almost all lightning occurs over land - a

  2. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elsholz, W.E.

    1982-09-30

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  3. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate modelmore » projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m⁻² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m⁻², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.« less

  4. Superconducting surface impedance under radiofrequency field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Binping P.; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2013-04-26

    Based on BCS theory with moving Cooper pairs, the electron states distribution at 0K and the probability of electron occupation with finite temperature have been derived and applied to anomalous skin effect theory to obtain the surface impedance of a superconductor under radiofrequency (RF) field. We present the numerical results for Nb and compare these with representative RF field-dependent effective surface resistance measurements from a 1.5 GHz resonant structure.

  5. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 ?m, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate model projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.82.0 W m? difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2K, 10 W m?, and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.

  6. Surface and Volume Contamination | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Surface and Volume Contamination Surface and Volume Contamination (Questions Posted to ERAD in May 2012) Will there be volume contamination/activation guides as well as updated contamination guides? The only guidance being developed for volumetric contamination is a Technical Standard for accelerator facilities. However, a revised version of ANSI N13.12-1999 is expected in the future and it will be assessed to determine its acceptability for use as a pre-approved authorized limit. It is noted

  7. Coal surface structure and thermodynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.W.; Wernett, P.C.; Glass, A.S.; Quay, D.; Roberts, J.

    1994-05-01

    Coals surfaces were studied using static surface adsorption measurements, low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS), inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and a new {sup 13}C NMR relaxation technique. A comparison of surface areas determined by hydrocarbon gas adsorption and LAXS led to the twin conclusions that the hydrocarbons had to diffuse through the solid to reach isolated pores and that the coal pores do not form interconnected networks, but are largely isolated. This conclusion was confirmed when IGC data for small hydrocarbons showed no discontinuities in their size dependence as usually observed with porous solids. IGC is capable of providing adsorption thermodynamics of gases on coal surfaces. The interactions of non-polar molecules and coal surfaces are directly proportioned to the gas molecular polarizability. For bases, the adsorption enthalpy is equal to the polarizability interaction plus the heat of hydrogen bond formation with phenol. Amphoteric molecules have more complex interactions. Mineral matter can have highly specific effects on surface interactions, but with most of the molecules studied is not an important factor.

  8. Surface-electronic-state effects in electron emission from the Be(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archubi, C. D.; Gravielle, M. S.; Silkin, V. M.

    2011-07-15

    We study the electron emission produced by swift protons impinging grazingly on a Be(0001) surface. The process is described within a collisional formalism using the band-structure-based (BSB) approximation to represent the electron-surface interaction. The BSB model provides an accurate description of the electronic band structure of the solid and the surface-induced potential. Within this approach we derive both bulk and surface electronic states, with these latter characterized by a strong localization at the crystal surface. We found that such surface electronic states play an important role in double-differential energy- and angle-resolved electron emission probabilities, producing noticeable structures in the electron emission spectra.

  9. Chemically directing d-block heterometallics to nanocrystal surfaces as molecular beacons of surface structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosen, Evelyn L.; Gilmore, Keith; Sawvel, April M.; Hammack, Aaron T.; Doris, Sean E.; Aloni, Shaul; Altoe, Virginia; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Cohen, Bruce E.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Milliron, Delia J.; Prendergast, David; Helms, Brett A.

    2015-07-28

    Our understanding of structure and bonding in nanoscale materials is incomplete without knowledge of their surface structure. Needed are better surveying capabilities responsive not only to different atoms at the surface, but also their respective coordination environments. We report here that d-block organometallics, when placed at nanocrystal surfaces through heterometallic bonds, serve as molecular beacons broadcasting local surface structure in atomic detail. This unique ability stems from their elemental specificity and the sensitivity of their d-orbital level alignment to local coordination environment, which can be assessed spectroscopically. Re-surfacing cadmium and lead chalcogenide nanocrystals with iron- or ruthenium-based molecular beacons is readily accomplished with trimethylsilylated cyclopentadienyl metal carbonyls. For PbSe nanocrystals with iron-based beacons, we show how core-level X-ray spectroscopies and DFT calculations enrich our understanding of both charge and atomic reorganization at the surface when beacons are bound.

  10. Chemically directing d-block heterometallics to nanocrystal surfaces as molecular beacons of surface structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosen, Evelyn L.; Gilmore, Keith; Sawvel, April M.; Hammack, Aaron T.; Doris, Sean E.; Aloni, Shaul; Altoe, Virginia; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; et al

    2015-07-28

    Our understanding of structure and bonding in nanoscale materials is incomplete without knowledge of their surface structure. Needed are better surveying capabilities responsive not only to different atoms at the surface, but also their respective coordination environments. We report here that d-block organometallics, when placed at nanocrystal surfaces through heterometallic bonds, serve as molecular beacons broadcasting local surface structure in atomic detail. This unique ability stems from their elemental specificity and the sensitivity of their d-orbital level alignment to local coordination environment, which can be assessed spectroscopically. Re-surfacing cadmium and lead chalcogenide nanocrystals with iron- or ruthenium-based molecular beacons ismore » readily accomplished with trimethylsilylated cyclopentadienyl metal carbonyls. For PbSe nanocrystals with iron-based beacons, we show how core-level X-ray spectroscopies and DFT calculations enrich our understanding of both charge and atomic reorganization at the surface when beacons are bound.« less

  11. Toward A National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Phenology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HargroveJr., William Walter; Spruce, Joe; Gasser, Gerry; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2009-12-01

    We are using a statistical clustering method for delineating homogeneous ecoregions as a basis for identifying disturbances in forests through time over large areas, up to national and global extents. Such changes can be shown relative to past conditions, or can be predicted relative to present conditions, as with forecasts of future climatic change. This quantitative ecoregion approach can be used to predict destinations for populations whose local environments are forecast to become unsuitable and are forced to migrate as their habitat shifts, and is also useful for predicting the susceptibility of new locations to invasive species like Sudden Oak Death. EFETAC and our sister western center WWETAC, along with our NASA and ORNL collaborators, are designing a new national-scale early warning system for forest threats, called FIRST. Envisioned as a change-detection system, FIRST will identify all land surface cover changes at the MODIS observational scale, and then try to discriminate normal, expected seasonal changes from locations having unusual activity that may represent potential forest threats. As a start, we have developed new national data sets every 16 days from 2002 through 2008, based on land surface phenology, or timing of leaf-out in the spring and brown-down in the fall. Changes in such phenological maps will be shown to contain important information about vegetation health status across the United States. The standard deviation of the duration of fall can be mapped, showing places where length of fall is relatively constant or is variable in length from year to year.

  12. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Shea Rose, Leanna

    2007-06-14

    Data on materials and surface types that comprise a city, i.e. urban fabric, are needed in order to estimate the effects of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and urban-fabric makeup using aerial color orthophotography, for four metropolitan areas of Chicago, IL, Houston, TX, Sacramento, CA, and Salt Lake City, UT. The digital high resolution (0.3 to 0.5-m) aerial photographs for each of these metropolitan areas covers representative urban areas ranging from 30 km{sup 2} to 52 km{sup 2}. Major land-use types examined included: commercial, residential, industrial, educational, and transportation. On average, for the metropolitan areas studied, vegetation covers about 29-41% of the area, roofs 19-25%, and paved surfaces 29-39%. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the tree canopies, vegetation covers about 20-37% of the area, roofs 20-25%, and paved surfaces 29-36%.

  13. Thermodynamics and surface structure of coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, A.S.; Larsen, J.W.; Quay, D.M.; Roberts, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    NMR relaxation and shift reagents are being deposited on the surface of coals. The dipolar coupling of the unpaired electron spin of the relaxation agent and the carbon atom should significantly shorten the carbon T, which should broaden it away. We propose to record the NMR spectrum of a coal before and after deposition and subtract the spectra. The difference spectra will arise from the functionalities within approximately one nanometer of the surface and reveal the surface composition of the coal. In order to determine the surface concentration of the dysprosium in the coal, we are using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). XPS is a surface technique that can be used for the elucidation of chemical structure. The binding energy for each electron in each element is unique. The measurement of the binding energy in XPS allows the identification of the element and its oxidation state. The relative atomic concentrations of each element can also be determined using XPS spectra.

  14. Surface-controlled deuterium-palladium interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wampler, W.R.; Richards, P.M. )

    1990-04-15

    Measurements were made of the uptake of deuterium (D) into traps within the bulk of palladium, and the release of D back to the gas phase. The study was done with bare metal surfaces under UHV conditions using a novel method based on ion-beam analysis. The D uptake rate was proportional to gas pressure and about a factor of 3 less than the rate of impingement onto the surface from the gas. The release of D was limited by molecular recombination at the surface. A model for surface-limited release of D is presented which shows how the difference in energy between D in traps and recombination sites is a critical parameter in determining the time dependence of the D release. The observed kinetics of the D release from Pd lead to the conclusion that D in recombination sites is less strongly bound than D in traps which in turn is less strongly bound than D in the low-coverage surface chemisorption sites. Molecular recombination must therefore occur from sites with weaker binding, while the low-coverage chemisorption sites with stronger binding are nearly fully occupied, but do not contribute significantly to the release because of the strong binding.

  15. Method of boronizing transition metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koyama, Koichiro (Hyogo, JP); Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for preparing a boride layer on a transition metal substrate for use in corrosive environments or as a harden surface in machine applications. This method is particularly useful in treating current collectors for use within a high temperature and corrosive electrochemical cell environment. A melt of a alkali metal boride tetrafluoride salt including such as KF to lower its melting point is prepared including a dissolved boron containing material, for instance NiB, MnB.sub.2, or CrB.sub.2. A transition metal to be coated is immersed in the melt at a temperature of no more than 700.degree. C. and a surface boride layer of that transition metal is formed within a period of about 24 hours on the substrate surface.

  16. High temperature low friction surface coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

  17. Zero dead volume tube to surface seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Folta, James A.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for connecting a tube to a surface that creates a dead volume seal. The apparatus is composed of three components, a body, a ferrule, and a threaded fitting. The ferrule is compressed onto a tube and a seal is formed between the tube and a device retained in the body by threading the fitting into the body which provides pressure that seals the face of the ferrule to a mating surface on the device. This seal can be used at elevated temperatures depending on the materials used. While the invention has been developed for use with micro-machined silicon wafers used in Capillary Gas Chromatograph (GC), it can be utilized anywhere for making a gas or fluid face seal to the surface of a device that has near zero dead volume.

  18. Method of boronizing transition metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koyama, Koichiro; Shimotake, Hiroshi.

    1983-08-16

    A method is presented for preparing a boride layer on a transition metal substrate for use in corrosive environments or as a harden surface in machine applications. This method is particularly useful in treating current collectors for use within a high temperature and corrosive electrochemical cell environment. A melt of a alkali metal boride tetrafluoride salt including such as KF to lower its melting point is prepared including a dissolved boron containing material, for instance NiB, MnB[sub 2], or CrB[sub 2]. A transition metal to be coated is immersed in the melt at a temperature of no more than 700 C and a surface boride layer of that transition metal is formed within a period of about 24 hours on the substrate surface. 4 figs.

  19. Renewable Surface Biosensors With Optical Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Holman, David A.; Grate, Jay W.

    2001-12-01

    One major challenge in the development of biosensors is the limited lifetime of a chemically selective surface that includes biomolecules. Renewable surface biosensors address this issue by using fresh aliquots of derivatized microbeads for each analysis. The analyte detection can then occur on the microbeads, or downstream from the microbeads. In this paper, we will describe two types of renewable surface biosensors. The first renewable biosensor system includes on-column optical detection for monitoring the binding of biomolecules onto protein or DNA-derivatized Sepharose beads. The second renewable biosensor system includes detection downstream from the microparticles and is based on the use of derivatized magnetic particles for selective binding. The magnetic particles are fluidically captured and released in a sequential injection system to allow the automation of an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.

  20. Renewable Surface Biosensors with Optical Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Holman, David A.; Grate, Jay W.

    2001-04-30

    One major challenge in the development of biosensors is the limited lifetime of a chemically selective surface that includes biomolecules. Renewable surface biosensors address this issue by using fresh aliquots of derivatized microbeads for each analysis. The analyte detection can then occur on the microbeads, or downstream from the microbeads. In this paper, we will describe two types of renewable surface biosensors. The first renewable biosensor system includes on-column optical detection for monitoring the binding of biomolecules onto protein or DNA-derivatized Sepharose beads. The second renewable biosensor system includes detection downstream from the microparticles and is based on the use of derivatized magnetic particles for selective binding. The magnetic particles are fluidically captured and released in a sequential injection system to allow the automation of an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.

  1. Surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopic waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lascola, Robert J; McWhorter, Christopher S; Murph, Simona H

    2015-04-14

    A waveguide for use with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is provided that includes a base structure with an inner surface that defines a cavity and that has an axis. Multiple molecules of an analyte are capable of being located within the cavity at the same time. A base layer is located on the inner surface of the base structure. The base layer extends in an axial direction along an axial length of an excitation section. Nanoparticles are carried by the base layer and may be uniformly distributed along the entire axial length of the excitation section. A flow cell for introducing analyte and excitation light into the waveguide and a method of applying nanoparticles may also be provided.

  2. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  3. Bidirectional reflection functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Max, N.; Springmeyer, R.

    1987-04-29

    The Torrance-Sparrow model for calculating bidirectional reflection functions contains a geometrical attenuation factor to account for shadowing and occlusions in a hypothetical distribution of grooves on a rough surface. Using an efficient table-based method for determining the shadows and occlusions, we calculate the geometric attenuation factor for surfaces defined by a specific table of bump heights. Diffuse and glossy specular reflection of the environment can be handled in a unified manner by using an integral of the bidirectional reflection function times the environmental illumination, over the hemisphere of solid angle above a surface. We present a method of estimating the integral, by expanding the bidirectional reflection coefficient in spherical harmonics, and show how the coefficients in this expansion can be determined efficiently by reorganizing our geometric attenuation calculation.

  4. Surface segregation effects in electrocatalysis: Kinetics ofoxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Schmidt, T.J.; Ross, P.N.; Markovic, N.M.

    2002-11-01

    Effects of surface segregation on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been studied on a polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy in acid electrolyte using ultra high vacuum (UHV) surface sensitive probes and the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) method. Preparation, modification and characterization of alloy surfaces were done in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Depending on the preparation method, two different surface compositions of the Pt3Ni alloy are produced: a sputtered surface with 75 % Pt and an annealed surface (950 K ) with 100 % Pt. The latter surface is designated as the 'Pt-skin' structure, and is a consequence of surface segregation, i.e., replacement of Ni with Pt atoms in the first few atomic layers. Definitive surface compositions were established by low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS). The cyclic voltammetry of the 'Pt-skin' surface as well as the pseudocapacitance in the hydrogen adsorption/desorption potential region is similar to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. Activities of ORR on Pt3Ni alloy surfaces were compared to polycrystalline Pt in 0.1M HClO4 electrolyte for the observed temperature range of 293 < T < 333 K. The order of activities at 333 K was: 'Pt-skin' > Pt3Ni (75% Pt) > Pt with the maximum catalytic enhancement obtained for the 'Pt-skin' being 4 times that for pure Pt. Catalytic improvement of the ORR on Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces was assigned to the inhibition of Pt-OHad formation (on Pt sites) versus polycrystalline Pt. Production of H2O2 on both surfaces were similar compared to the pure Pt. Kinetic analyses of RRDE data confirmed that kinetic parameters for the ORR on the Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces are the same as on pure Pt: reaction order, m=1, two identical Tafel slopes, activation energy, {approx} 21-25 kJ/mol. Therefore the reaction mechanism on both Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces is the same as one proposed for pure Pt i.e. 4e{sup -} reduction pathway.

  5. Surface selective membranes for carbon dioxide separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

    2005-09-01

    In this study, hybrid membranes have been developed for the selective separation of CO2 from mixtures containing H2. Beginning with commercially available Pall alumina membrane tubes with nominal pore diameter of 5 nm, hybrids were produced by silation with a variety of functionalities designed to facilitate the selective adsorption of CO2 onto the pore surface. The goal is to produce a membrane which can harness the power of surface diffusion to give the selectivity of polymer membranes with the permeance of inorganic membranes.

  6. Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-14

    A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes.

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Surface spectral albedo

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSurface spectral albedo ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Surface spectral albedo 2002.08.14 - 2002.08.20 Lead Scientist : Alexander Trishchenko Data Availability Analysis of the data collected during IOP is not completed yet. Preliminary results will be presented during the IRF workshop on 8-10 October, 2002. Data will be available at the following URL (

  8. Mimicking the Moon's surface in the basement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mimicking the Moon's surface Mimicking the Moon's surface in the basement The table-top simulation helped confirm that the Moon is inherently dry. August 4, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in

  9. Are surface coal mine sediment ponds working

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poe, M.L.; Betson, R.P.

    1985-12-09

    Flowrates and storm generated water quality data were collected at sedimentation ponds on four surface mines in the states of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia. The water quality data were analyzed for suspended solids and settleable solids content, and particle size distribution. The results were compared to the effluent limitations guidelines for total suspended solids as promulgated under the Clean Water Act for Coal Mining Point Source Category and adopted under the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 and the resulting state regulatory programs. 3 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  10. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Surface Meteorology (williams-surfmet)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  11. Investigation of the texture surface silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rongqiang, C.; Huilan, Q.

    1983-10-01

    The optical and electrical properties of the texture surface silicon solar cell are analyzed and discussed. A new method of etching a texture surface by LiOH is presented and the mechanism of etching a texture surface is investigated.

  12. Shale Gas Development Challenges: Surface Impacts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Surface Impacts Shale Gas Development Challenges: Surface Impacts PDF icon Shale Gas Development Challenges: Surface Impacts More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Challenges associated with shale gas production Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids

  13. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features Enhanced Boiling, Condensation, and Water Repellency through the Fabrication of Structured Surfaces In nature, extremely hydrophobic surfaces such as the lotus plant leaf are called superhydrophobic (SHP). These surfaces appear to be macroscopically smooth, but are actually composed of nano- and micro-structured surfaces, the key to their SHP prop- erties. The industrial production of SHP surfaces, which are not yet available commercially, would

  14. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Ralph; Burger, Arnold; Chen, Kuo-Tong; Chang, Henry

    1999-01-01

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface.

  15. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, R.; Burger, A.; Chen, K.T.; Chang, H.

    1999-08-03

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal is disclosed that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface. 3 figs.

  16. Surface figure control for coated optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Spence, Paul A.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  17. Geotechnical considerations in surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Most attention in surface mine reclamation is given to agronomic soils and revegetation, but reclamation success depends on the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying earth. If the soil and rock that underline the surface are not stable, surface treatments lack the dependable foundation needed for them to succeed. Reclamation practioners need to understand those geotechnical considerations--material properties, structure, and processes--that affect stability. properties of rock and soil are altered by mining, and those altered materials together with water and processing waste form often-complex mixtures of materials that must be stabilized in reclamation. Surface mining alters existing landforms and creates new ones such as pit walls, spoil and waste rock piles, tailings impoundments, and earthfills. those structures need to be constructed or stabilized so that they can endure and support successful reclamation. processes that affect material properties and landforms include mechanical breakage, accelerated weathering, erosion, and mass movements. Mechanical breakage and the resulting accelerated weathering combine to change material properties, usually expressed as degraded strength, that can lead to instability of landforms. Erosion, especially that related to extreme storm events, and mass movements in the form of slop failures are the most problematic processes that must be taken into account in reclaiming mined lands. These geotechnical considerations are essential in successful reclamation, and practioners who overlook them may find their work literally sliding down a slippery slope.

  18. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined core set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg).

  19. Vacuum magnetic fields with dense flux surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cary, J R

    1982-05-01

    A procedure is given for eliminating resonances and stochasticity in nonaxisymmetric vacuum toroidal magnetic field. The results of this procedure are tested by the surface of section method. It is found that one can obtain magnetic fields with increased rotational transform and decreased island structure while retaining basically the same winding law.

  20. Surface modification: advantages, techniques, and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    2000-03-01

    Adequate performance of materials at elevated temperatures is a potential problem in many systems within the chemical, petroleum, process, and power-generating industries. Degradation of materials occurs because of interaction between the structural material and the exposure environment. These interactions are generally undesired chemical reactions that can lead to accelerated wastage and alter the functional requirements and/or structural integrity of the materials. Therefore, material selection for high-temperature applications must be based not only on a material strength properties but also on resistance to the complex environments prevalent in the anticipated exposure environment. As plants become larger, the satisfactory performance and reliability of components play a greater role in plant availability and economics. However, system designers are becoming increasingly concerned with finding the least expensive material that will satisfactorily perform the design function for the desired service life. This present paper addresses the benefits of surface modification and identified several criteria for selection and application of modified surfaces in the power sector. A brief review is presented on potential methods for modification of surfaces, with the emphasis on coatings. In the final section of the paper, several examples address the requirements of different energy systems and surface modification avenues that have been applied to resolve the issues.

  1. Surface coating for prevention of crust formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A flexible surface coating which promotes the removal of deposits as they reach the surface by preventing adhesion and crust formation. Flexible layers are attached to each side of a flexible mesh substrate comprising of a plurality of zones composed of one or more neighboring cells, each zone having a different compressibility than its adjacent zones. The substrate is composed of a mesh made of strands and open cells. The cells may be filled with foam. Studs or bearings may also be positioned in the cells to increase the variation in compressibility and thus the degree of flexing of the coating. Surface loading produces varying amounts of compression from point to point causing the coating to flex as deposits reach it, breaking up any hardening deposits before a continuous crust forms. Preferably one or more additional layers are also used, such as an outer layer of a non-stick material such as TEFLON, which may be pigmented, and an inner, adhesive layer to facilitate applying the coating to a surface.

  2. SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER ...

  3. Enhanced Pool-Boiling Heat Transfer Using Nanostructured Surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    creates optimal surface wettability characteristics that allow better capillary flow of water on the liquid boiling surfaces often used to cool electronics. the dense...

  4. Probing surface & transport phenomena in energy materials under...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Probing surface & transport phenomena in energy materials under operating conditions. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing surface & transport phenomena in energy...

  5. Multifunctional thin film surface (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multifunctional thin film surface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multifunctional thin film surface You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  6. Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave microsensor for Class...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave microsensor for Class A viral and bacterial detection. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave...

  7. Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman, Et Al.,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Gas Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Norman, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At...

  8. Surface Morphology and Magnetic Anisotropy (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Surface Morphology and Magnetic Anisotropy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface Morphology and Magnetic Anisotropy Authors: Lukaszew, R.A. ; Zhang, Z. ;...

  9. Impact of small changes in particle surface chemistry for unentangled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    particle surface chemistry for unentangled polymer nanocomposites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of small changes in particle surface chemistry for unentangled ...

  10. Category:Surface Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Water Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Surface Water Sampling page? For detailed information on...

  11. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil Friday, G. P. 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SOILS; SURFACE WATERS; SEDIMENTS; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ENVIRONMENTAL...

  12. Surface plasmon sensing of gas phase contaminants using optical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface plasmon sensing of gas phase contaminants using optical fiber. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface plasmon sensing of gas phase contaminants using optical...

  13. Probing the surface structure of divalent transition metals using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structure of divalent transition metals using surface specific solid-state NMR spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the surface structure of...

  14. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - STM for Oxide Surfaces,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Assemblies and Electrical Transport STM for Oxide Surfaces, Molecular Assemblies and Electrical Transport STM for Oxide Surfaces, Molecular Assemblies and Electrical Transport

  15. Advanced Multivariate Analysis Tools Applied to Surface Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advanced Multivariate Analysis Tools Applied to Surface Analysis. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced Multivariate Analysis Tools Applied to Surface Analysis. No...

  16. Correlation Of Surface Heat Loss And Total Energy Production...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal systems lose their heat by a site-specific combination of conduction (heat flow) and advection (surface discharge). The conductive loss at or near the surface (shallow...

  17. Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and Diffusion-Limited Regimes Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and...

  18. Dispersion control of NIR surface plasmon polariton using hyperbolic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Dispersion control of NIR surface plasmon polariton using hyperbolic metamaterials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dispersion control of NIR surface plasmon ...

  19. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density Prev Next Title: Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high...

  20. RRC - Surface Waste Management Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Waste Management Manual Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: RRC - Surface Waste Management...

  1. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  2. Method for large-scale fabrication of atomic-scale structures on material surfaces using surface vacancies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lim, Chong Wee (Urbana, IL); Ohmori, Kenji (Urbana, IL); Petrov, Ivan Georgiev (Champaign, IL); Greene, Joseph E. (Champaign, IL)

    2004-07-13

    A method for forming atomic-scale structures on a surface of a substrate on a large-scale includes creating a predetermined amount of surface vacancies on the surface of the substrate by removing an amount of atoms on the surface of the material corresponding to the predetermined amount of the surface vacancies. Once the surface vacancies have been created, atoms of a desired structure material are deposited on the surface of the substrate to enable the surface vacancies and the atoms of the structure material to interact. The interaction causes the atoms of the structure material to form the atomic-scale structures.

  3. A comparison of several surface finish measurement methods as applied to ground ceramic and metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Riester, L.

    1996-01-01

    Surface finish is one of the most common measures of surface quality of ground ceramics and metal parts and a wide variety of methods and parameters have been developed to measure it. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the surface roughness parameters obtained on the same two specimens from three different types of measuring instruments: a traditional mechanical stylus system, a non-contact laser scanning system, and the atomic force microscope (two different AFM systems were compared). The same surface-ground silicon nitride and Inconel 625 alloy specimens were used for all measurements in this investigation. Significant differences in arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square roughness, and peak-to-valley roughness were obtained when comparing data from the various topography measuring instruments. Non-contact methods agreed better with the others on the metal specimen than on the ceramic specimen. Reasons for these differences include the effective dimensions and geometry of the probe with respect to the surface topography; the reflectivity of the surface, and the type of filtering scheme Results of this investigation emphasize the importance of rigorously specifying the manner of surface roughness measurement when either reporting roughness data or when requesting that roughness data be provided.

  4. Cleaning and passivation of copper surfaces to remove surface radioactivity and prevent oxide formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Seifert, Allen; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bachelor, Paula P.; Day, Anthony R.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Litke, Kevin E.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schulte, Shannon M.; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2007-08-21

    High-purity copper is an attractive material for constructing ultra-low-background radiation measurement devices. Many low-background experiments using high-purity copper have indicated surface contamination emerges as the dominant background. Radon daughters plate out on exposed surfaces, leaving a residual 210Pb background that is difficult to avoid. Dust is also a problem; even under cleanroom conditions, the amount of U and Th deposited on surfaces can represent the largest remaining background. To control these backgrounds, a copper cleaning chemistry has been developed. Designed to replace an effective, but overly aggressive concentrated nitric acid etch, this peroxide-based solution allows for a more controlled cleaning of surfaces. The acidified hydrogen peroxide solution will generally target the Cu+/Cu2+ species which are the predominant surface participants, leaving the bulk of copper metal intact. This preserves the critical tolerances of parts and eliminates significant waste disposal issues. Accompanying passivation chemistry has also been developed that protects copper surfaces from oxidation. Using a high-activity polonium surface spike, the most difficult-to-remove daughter isotope of radon, the performance of these methods are quantified. 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  5. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA] [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements. Acknowledgements This work was funded by Sandia National Laboratory's Laboratory Directed Research & Development program (LDRD). Some coating processes were conducted in the cleanroom facility located at the University of New Mexico's Center for High Technology Materials (CHTM). SEM images were performed at UNM's Center for Micro-Engineering on equipment funded by a NSF New Mexico EPSCoR grant. 4

  6. Unidirectional propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves at a magnetic film surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Kin L.; Bao, Mingqiang E-mail: caross@mit.edu; Lin, Yen-Ting; Wang, Kang L.; Bi, Lei; Wen, Qiye; Zhang, Huaiwu; Chatelon, Jean Pierre; Ross, C. A. E-mail: caross@mit.edu

    2014-12-08

    An analytical expression for the amplitudes of magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) propagating in opposite directions at a magnetic film surface is presented. This shows that for a given magnetic field H, it is forbidden for an independent MSSW to propagate along the direction of ?H{sup ?}n{sup ?}, where n{sup ?} is the surface normal. This unidirectional propagation property is confirmed by experiments with both permalloy and yttrium iron garnet films of different film thicknesses, and has implications in the design of spin-wave devices such as isolators and spin-wave diodes.

  7. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  8. Unconventional Fermi surface in an insulating state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Neil; Tan, B. S.; Hsu, Y. -T.; Zeng, B.; Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Zhu, Z.; Hartstein, M.; Kiourlappou, M.; Srivastava, A.; Johannes, M. D.; Murphy, T. P.; Park, J. -H.; Balicas, L.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Balakrishnan, G.; Sebastian, Suchitra E.

    2015-07-17

    Insulators occur in more than one guise; a recent finding was a class of topological insulators, which host a conducting surface juxtaposed with an insulating bulk. Here, we report the observation of an unusual insulating state with an electrically insulating bulk that simultaneously yields bulk quantum oscillations with characteristics of an unconventional Fermi liquid. We present quantum oscillation measurements of magnetic torque in high-purity single crystals of the Kondo insulator SmB6, which reveal quantum oscillation frequencies characteristic of a large three-dimensional conduction electron Fermi surface similar to the metallic rare earth hexaborides such as PrB6 and LaB6. As a result, the quantum oscillation amplitude strongly increases at low temperatures, appearing strikingly at variance with conventional metallic behavior.

  9. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1988-02-12

    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  10. Umbral moonshine and K3 surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Harrison, Sarah

    2015-06-25

    Recently, 23 cases of umbral moonshine, relating mock modular forms and finite groups, have been discovered in the context of the 23 even unimodular Niemeier lattices. One of the 23 cases in fact coincides with the so-called Mathieu moonshine, discovered in the context of K3 non-linear sigma models. In this paper we establish a uniform relation between all 23 cases of umbral moonshine and K3 sigma models, and thereby take a first step in placing umbral moonshine into a geometric and physical context. In addition, this is achieved by relating the ADE root systems of the Niemeier lattices to themore » ADE du Val singularities that a K3 surface can develop, and the configuration of smooth rational curves in their resolutions. A geometric interpretation of our results is given in terms of the marking of K3 surfaces by Niemeier lattices.« less

  11. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), is part of that agency's study of residential LP-gas systems. Another study is currently underway by an NLPGA task force headed by Bob Reid of Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.). It may not be finished until the end of next year. Recently, the Propane Gas Association of Canada completed a study of odorant fade with the conclusion that much more study is needed on the subject. In addition to the cylinder surface problem, the CPSC study indicated that ambient temperatures might also affect the presence of odorant in product. This article reviews some of the results.

  12. Method for making mirrored surfaces comprising superconducting material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, J.T.; Hargrove, R.S.

    1989-12-12

    Superconducting mirror surfaces are provided by forming a mirror surface from a material which is superconductive at a temperature above about 40 K and adjusting the temperature of the surface to that temperature at which the material is superconducting. The mirror surfaces are essentially perfect reflectors for electromagnetic radiation with photon energy less than the superconducting band gap.

  13. Modeling Tritium on Metal Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tritium on Metal Surfaces Modeling Tritium on Metal Surfaces Presentation from the 36th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, November 3-5, 2015. PDF icon Modeling Tritium on Metal Surfaces More Documents & Publications Tritium on Metal Surfaces DOE-HDBK-1079-94 Overview of tritium activity in Japan

  14. Apparatus and method for measuring and imaging surface resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Hohenwarter, Gert K. G. (Madison, WI)

    1993-08-24

    Apparatus and method for determining and imaging superconductor surface resistance. The apparatus comprises modified Gaussian confocal resonator structure with the sample remote from the radiating mirror. Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface impurities, non-stoichiometry, and the like, in the surface of the superconductor.

  15. Photoelectrochemical Semiconductor Surface Fortification via Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implantation - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Photoelectrochemical Semiconductor Surface Fortification via Ion Implantation National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Producing hydrogen from clean sources of energy has been one of the major

  16. New Surface Meteorological Measurements at SGP,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NM, March 22 - 26, 2004 1 New Surface Meteorological Measurements at SGP, and Their Use for Assessing Radiosonde Measurement Accuracy L.M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado B.M. Lesht and M. Ritche Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Several recent ARM investigations have been directed toward characterizing and improving the accuracy of ARM radiosonde water vapor measurements. Tobin et al. (2002) showed that calculating the downwelling

  17. Failure modes in surface micromachined microelectromechanical actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.L.; Rodgers, M.S.; LaVigne, G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Clews, P.; Tanner, D.M.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-03-01

    In order for the rapidly emerging field of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) to meet its extraordinary expectations regarding commercial impact, issues pertaining to how they fail must be understood. The authors identify failure modes common to a broad range of MEMS actuators, including adhesion (stiction) and friction induced failures caused by improper operational methods, mechanical instabilities, and electrical instabilities. Demonstrated methods to mitigate these failure modes include implementing optimized designs, model based operational methods, and chemical surface treatments.

  18. Method for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Purohit, Ankur (Darien, IL); Kaminski, Michael D. (Lockport, IL); Nunez, Luis (Elmhurst, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A method of decontaminating a radioactively contaminated oxide on a surface. The radioactively contaminated oxide is contacted with a diphosphonic acid solution for a time sufficient to dissolve the oxide and subsequently produce a precipitate containing most of the radioactive values. Thereafter, the diphosphonic solution is separated from the precipitate. HEDPA is the preferred diphosphonic acid and oxidizing and reducing agents are used to initiate precipitation. SFS is the preferred reducing agent.

  19. Recommended tritium surface contamination release guides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.R.; Draper, D.G.; Foulke, J.D.; Hafner, R.S.; Jalbert, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E.; Myers, D.S.; Strain, C.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This document was prepared to provide scientific basis for recommended changes in specific limits for tritium surface contamination in DOE Order 5480.11. A summary of the physical and biological characteristics of tritium has been provided that illustrate the unique nature of this radionuclide when compared to other pure beta emitters or to beta-gamma emitting radionuclides. This document is divided into nine sections. The introduction and the purpose and scope are addressed in Section 1.0 and Section 2.0, respectively. Section 3.0 contains recommended interpretation of terms used in this document. Section 4.0 addresses recommended methods for evaluating surface contamination. Biological and physical characteristics of tritium compounds are discussed in Section 5.0, as they relate to tritium radiotoxicity. Scenarios and dose calculations for selected, conservatively limiting cases of tritium intake are given and discussed in Section 6.0 and Section 7.0. Section 8.0 provides conclusions on the information given and recommendations for changes in the surface contamination limits for total tritium to 1 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm per 100 cm{sup 2}. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Molecular beam surface analysis. 1993 Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Groenewold, G.S.; Dahl, D.A.; Delmore, J.E.

    1993-09-01

    The Molecular Beam Surface Analysis (MBSA) program is developing both laboratory-based and potentially field-portable chemical analyses systems taking advantage of new surface analysis technology developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The objective is to develop the means to rapidly detect and identify, with high specificity and high sensitivity, nonvolatile and low volatile organics found in Chemical Weapons (CW) and High Explosives (HE) feedstocks, agents, and decomposition products on surfaces of plants, rocks, paint chips, filters, smears of buildings, vehicles, equipment, etc.. Ideally, the method would involve no sample preparation and no waste generation, and would have the potential for being implemented as a field-portable instrument. In contrast to existing analytical methods that rely on sample volatility, MBSA is optimized for nonvolatile and low volatile compounds. This makes it amenable for rapidly screening field samples for CW agent decomposition products and feedstock chemicals and perhaps actual agents. In its final configuration (benchtop size) it could be operated in a non-laboratory environment (such as an office building) requiring no sample preparation chemistry or chemical supplies. It could also be included in a mobile laboratory used in on-site, ore remote site cooperative surveys, or in a standard laboratory, where it would provide fast screening of samples at minimal cost.

  1. Nanoparticle-based etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, Howard (Boulder, CO); Duda, Anna (Denver, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Yost, Vernon (Littleton, CO); Meier, Daniel (Atlanta, GA); Ward, James S. (Golden, CO)

    2011-12-13

    A method (300) of texturing silicon surfaces (116) such to reduce reflectivity of a silicon wafer (110) for use in solar cells. The method (300) includes filling (330, 340) a vessel (122) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface 116) of a wafer or substrate (112). The etching solution (124) is made up of a catalytic nanomaterial (140) and an oxidant-etchant solution (146). The catalytic nanomaterial (140) may include gold or silver nanoparticles or noble metal nanoparticles, each of which may be a colloidal solution. The oxidant-etchant solution (146) includes an etching agent (142), such as hydrofluoric acid, and an oxidizing agent (144), such as hydrogen peroxide. Etching (350) is performed for a period of time including agitating or stirring the etching solution (124). The etch time may be selected such that the etched silicon surface (116) has a reflectivity of less than about 15 percent such as 1 to 10 percent in a 350 to 1000 nanometer wavelength range.

  2. Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ardary, Z.L.; Benton, S.T.

    1987-07-08

    The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

  3. Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ardary, Z.L.; Benton, S.T.

    1988-11-22

    The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

  4. Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ardary, Zane L. (Lenoir City, TN); Benton, Samuel T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

  5. Surface cleaning for enhanced adhesion to packaging surfaces: Effect of oxygen and ammonia plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaddam, Sneha; Dong, Bin; Driver, Marcus; Kelber, Jeffry; Kazi, Haseeb

    2015-03-15

    The effects of direct plasma chemistries on carbon removal from silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) and oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) surfaces have been studied by in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ contact angle measurements. The data indicate that O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} capacitively coupled plasmas are effective at removing adventitious carbon from silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) and Si oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment results in the formation of a silica overlayer. In contrast, the exposure to NH{sub 3} plasma results in negligible additional oxidation of the SiN{sub x} or SiO{sub x}N{sub y} surface. Ex-situ contact angle measurements show that SiN{sub x} and SiO{sub x}N{sub y} surfaces exposed to oxygen plasma are initially more hydrophilic than surfaces exposed to NH{sub 3} plasma, indicating that the O{sub 2} plasma-induced SiO{sub 2} overlayer is highly reactive toward ambient. At longer ambient exposures (?10 h), however, surfaces treated by either O{sub 2} or NH{sub 3} plasma exhibit similar steady state contact angles, correlated with rapid uptake of adventitious carbon, as determined by XPS. Surface passivation by exposure to molecular hydrogen prior to ambient exposure significantly retards the increase in contact angle upon exposure to ambient. The results suggest a practical route to enhancing the time available for effective bonding to surfaces in microelectronics packaging applications.

  6. Surface Modification Agents Increase Safety, Security of Lithium-Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal Surface Modification Agents Increase Safety, Security of Lithium-Ion Batteries New Process to Modify the Surface of the Active Material Used in Lithium-Ion Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <em>Surface Modification Schematic </em> Surface Modification Schematic Technology Marketing Summary Argonne National Laboratory has developed a process to modify the surface of the active material used in lithium-ion

  7. Physisorption and Chemisorption Methods for Evaluating the Total Surface

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Area and Active Surface Area of Two Types of Carbon Materials | Department of Energy Physisorption and Chemisorption Methods for Evaluating the Total Surface Area and Active Surface Area of Two Types of Carbon Materials Physisorption and Chemisorption Methods for Evaluating the Total Surface Area and Active Surface Area of Two Types of Carbon Materials TSA is a gross indicator of soot reactivity and does not always correlate well with the real reactivity. This research shows that a more

  8. An Integrated Surface Technology for Optimum Performance | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Integrated Surface Technology for Optimum Performance An Integrated Surface Technology for Optimum Performance 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: National Institute of Standards and Technology PDF icon 2004_deer_hsu.pdf More Documents & Publications An integrated surface technology for friction reduction in vehicles Low-Friction Engineered Surfaces Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Friction Reduction through Surface Modification

  9. Process for leveling film surfaces and products thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birkmire, R.W.; McCandless, B.E.

    1990-03-20

    Semiconductor films and photovoltaic devices prepared therefrom are provided wherein the semiconductor films have a specular surface with a texture less than about 0.25 micron greater than the average planar film surface and wherein the semiconductor films are surface modified by exposing the surface to an aqueous solution of bromine containing an acid or salt and continuing such exposure for a time sufficient to etch the surface. 8 figs.

  10. Surface chemistry and bonding configuration of ultrananocrystalline diamond surfaces and their effects on nanotribological properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Grierson, D. S.; Carpick, R. W.; Gerbi, J. E.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.

    2007-12-15

    We present a comprehensive study of surface composition and nanotribology for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces, including the influence of film nucleation on these properties. We describe a methodology to characterize the underside of the films as revealed by sacrificial etching of the underlying substrate. This enables the study of the morphology and composition resulting from the nucleation and initial growth of the films, as well as the characterization of nanotribological properties which are relevant for applications including micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems. We study the surface chemistry, bonding configuration, and nanotribological properties of both the topside and the underside of the film with synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to identify the bonding state of the carbon atoms, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the surface chemical composition, Auger electron spectroscopy to further verify the composition and bonding configuration, and quantitative atomic force microscopy to study the nanoscale topography and nanotribological properties. The films were grown on SiO{sub 2} after mechanically polishing the surface with detonation synthesized nanodiamond powder, followed by ultrasonication in a methanol solution containing additional nanodiamond powder. The sp{sup 2} fraction, morphology, and chemistry of the as-etched underside are distinct from the topside, exhibiting a higher sp{sup 2} fraction, some oxidized carbon, and a smoother morphology. The nanoscale single-asperity work of adhesion between a diamond nanotip and the as-etched UNCD underside is far lower than for a silicon-silicon interface (59.2{+-}2 vs 826{+-}186 mJ/m{sup 2}, respectively). Exposure to atomic hydrogen dramatically reduces nanoscale adhesion to 10.2{+-}0.4 mJ/m{sup 2}, at the level of van der Waals' interactions and consistent with recent ab initio calculations. Friction is substantially reduced as well, demonstrating a direct link between the surface chemistry and nanoscale friction. The proposed mechanism, supported by the detailed surface spectroscopic analysis, is the elimination of reactive (e.g., C*-), polar (e.g., C=O), and {pi}-bonded (C=C) surface groups, which are replaced by fully saturated, hydrogen-terminated surface bonds to produce an inert surface that interacts minimally with the contacting counterface.

  11. Surface chemistry and bonding configuration of ultrananocrystalline diamond surfaces and their effects on nanotribological properties.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Grierson, D. S.; Gerbi, J. E.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Carpick, R. W.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison

    2007-12-01

    We present a comprehensive study of surface composition and nanotribology for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) surfaces, including the influence of film nucleation on these properties. We describe a methodology to characterize the underside of the films as revealed by sacrificial etching of the underlying substrate. This enables the study of the morphology and composition resulting from the nucleation and initial growth of the films, as well as the characterization of nanotribological properties which are relevant for applications including micro-/nanoelectromechanical systems. We study the surface chemistry, bonding configuration, and nanotribological properties of both the topside and the underside of the film with synchrotron-based x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy to identify the bonding state of the carbon atoms, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the surface chemical composition, Auger electron spectroscopy to further verify the composition and bonding configuration, and quantitative atomic force microscopy to study the nanoscale topography and nanotribological properties. The films were grown on SiO{sub 2} after mechanically polishing the surface with detonation synthesized nanodiamond powder, followed by ultrasonication in a methanol solution containing additional nanodiamond powder. The sp{sup 2} fraction, morphology, and chemistry of the as-etched underside are distinct from the topside, exhibiting a higher sp{sup 2} fraction, some oxidized carbon, and a smoother morphology. The nanoscale single-asperity work of adhesion between a diamond nanotip and the as-etched UNCD underside is far lower than for a silicon-silicon interface (59.2 {+-} 2 vs 826 {+-} 186 mJ/m{sup 2}, respectively). Exposure to atomic hydrogen dramatically reduces nanoscale adhesion to 10.2 {+-} 0.4 mJ/m{sup 2}, at the level of van der Waals interactions and consistent with recent ab initio calculations. Friction is substantially reduced as well, demonstrating a direct link between the surface chemistry and nanoscale friction. The proposed mechanism, supported by the detailed surface spectroscopic analysis, is the elimination of reactive (e.g., C*-), polar (e.g., C-O), and {pi}-bonded (C-C) surface groups, which are replaced by fully saturated, hydrogen-terminated surface bonds to produce an inert surface that interacts minimally with the contacting counterface.

  12. THE NASA AMES PAH IR SPECTROSCOPIC DATABASE VERSION 2.00: UPDATED CONTENT, WEB SITE, AND ON(OFF)LINE TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boersma, C.; Mattioda, A. L.; Allamandola, L. J.; Bauschlicher, C. W. Jr.; Ricca, A.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; De Armas, F. Snchez; Saborido, G. Puerta; Hudgins, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    A significantly updated version of the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database, the first major revision since its release in 2010, is presented. The current version, version 2.00, contains 700 computational and 75 experimental spectra compared, respectively, with 583 and 60 in the initial release. The spectra span the 2.5-4000 ?m (4000-2.5 cm{sup -1}) range. New tools are available on the site that allow one to analyze spectra in the database and compare them with imported astronomical spectra as well as a suite of IDL object classes (a collection of programs utilizing IDL's object-oriented programming capabilities) that permit offline analysis called the AmesPAHdbIDLSuite. Most noteworthy among the additions are the extension of the computational spectroscopic database to include a number of significantly larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the ability to visualize the molecular atomic motions corresponding to each vibrational mode, and a new tool that allows one to perform a non-negative least-squares fit of an imported astronomical spectrum with PAH spectra in the computational database. Finally, a methodology is described in the Appendix, and implemented using the AmesPAHdbIDLSuite, that allows the user to enforce charge balance during the fitting procedure.

  13. Method for producing functionally graded nanocrystalline layer on metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O. (Oswego, IL); Hershberger, Jeffrey G. (Berwyn, IL)

    2010-03-23

    An improved process for the creation or formation of nanocrystalline layers on substrates' surfaces is provided. The process involves "prescuffing" the surface of a substrate such as a metal by allowing friction to occur on the surface by a load-bearing entity making rubbing contact and moving along and on the substrate's surface. The "prescuffing" action is terminated when the coefficient of friction between the surface and the noise is rising significantly. Often, the significant rise in the coefficient of friction is signaled by a change in pitch of the scuffing action sound emanating from the buffeted surface. The "prescuffing" gives rise to a harder and smoother surface which withstands better any inadequate lubrication that may take place when the "prescuffed" surface is contacted by other surfaces.

  14. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welp, Ulrich (Lisle, IL); Koshelev, Alexei E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Evanston, IL); Kwok, Wai-Kwong (Evanston, IL); Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii (Downers Grove, IL)

    2009-10-27

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  15. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welp, Ulrich; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Gray, Kenneth E.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii

    2010-05-11

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  16. Probes for anionic cell surface detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    2013-03-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally directed to compositions comprising a class of molecular probes for detecting the presence of anionic cell surfaces. Embodiments include compositions that are enriched for these compositions and preparations, particularly preparations suitable for use as laboratory/clinical reagents and diagnostic indicators, either alone or as part of a kit. An embodiment of the invention provides for a highly selective agent useful in the discernment and identification of dead or dying cells, such as apoptotic cells, in a relatively calcium-free environment. An embodiment of the invention provides a selective agent for the identification of bacteria in a mixed population of bacterial cells and nonbacterial cells.

  17. Portable spotter for fluorescent contaminants on surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuresko, Daniel D.

    1980-01-01

    A portable fluorescence-based spotter for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on personnel and work area surfaces under ambient lighting conditions is provided. This instrument employs beam modulation and phase sensitive detection for discriminating between fluorescence from organic materials from reflected background light and inorganic fluorescent material. The device uses excitation and emission filters to provide differentiation between classes of aromatic organic compounds. Certain inorganic fluorescent materials, including heavy metal compounds, may also be distinguished from the organic compounds, despite both having similar optical properties.

  18. Surface plasmon-enhanced photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostecki, Robert; Mao, Samuel

    2014-10-07

    Photovoltaic devices are driven by intense photoemission of "hot" electrons from a suitable nanostructured metal. The metal should be an electron source with surface plasmon resonance within the visible and near-visible spectrum range (near IR to near UV (about 300 to 1000 nm)). Suitable metals include silver, gold, copper and alloys of silver, gold and copper with each other. Silver is particularly preferred for its advantageous opto-electronic properties in the near UV and visible spectrum range, relatively low cost, and simplicity of processing.

  19. WEATHER PREDICTIONS AND SURFACE RADIATION ESTIMATES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ARLV - 3 51 - 4 / WEATHER PREDICTIONS AND SURFACE RADIATION ESTIMATES for the RULISON EVENT Final Report Albert H . S t o u t , Ray E . White, and V i r g i l E. Quinn Environmental Science Services Administration A i r Resources Laboratory - Las Vegas PROPERW OF U. S. GOVERNMENT Prepared Under Contract SF-54-351 f o r the Nevada Operations O f f i c e U . ' S . Atomic Energy Commission January 1970 LEGAL NOTSCCE ; L *U . . . . . - . T h i s r e p o r t w a s prepared a s an account o f

  20. Surface Structure Dependence of SO2 Interaction with Ceria Nanocrystals with Well-defined Surface Facets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluri, Uma; Li, Meijun; Cook, Brandon G.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Dai, Sheng; Wu, Zili

    2015-12-02

    The effects of the surface structure of ceria (CeO2) on the nature, strength, and amount of species resulting from SO2 adsorption were studied using in situ IR and Raman spectroscopies coupled with mass spectrometry, along with first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). CeO2 nanocrystals with different morphologies, namely, rods (representing a defective structure), cubes (100 facet), and octahedra (111 facet), were used to represent different CeO2 surface structures. IR and Raman spectroscopic studies showed that the structure and binding strength of adsorbed species from SO2 depend on the shape of the CeO2 nanocrystals. SO2 adsorbs mainly as surfacemore » sulfites and sulfates at room temperature on CeO2 rods, cubes, and octahedra that were either oxidatively or reductively pretreated. The formation of sulfites is more evident on CeO2 octahedra, whereas surface sulfates are more prominent on CeO2 rods and cubes. This is explained by the increasing reducibility of the surface oxygen in the order octahedra < cubes < rods. Bulk sulfites are also formed during SO2 adsorption on reduced CeO2 rods. The formation of surface sulfites and sulfates on CeO2 cubes is in good agreement with our DFT results of SO2 interactions with the CeO2(100) surface. CeO2 rods desorb SO2 at higher temperatures than cubes and octahedra nanocrystals, but bulk sulfates are formed on CeO2 rods and cubes after high-temperature desorption whereas only some surface sulfates/sulfites are left on octahedra. This difference is rationalized by the fact that CeO2 rods have the highest surface basicity and largest amount of defects among the three nanocrystals, so they bind and react with SO2 strongly and are the most degraded after SO2 adsorption cycles. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work on the effects of the surface structure and defects on the interaction of SO2 with CeO2 provides insights for the design of more sulfur-resistant CeO2-based catalysts.« less

  1. Molecular Modeling of Diffusion on a Crystalline PETN Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, P; Khare, R; Gee, R H; Weeks, B L

    2007-07-13

    Surface diffusion on a PETN crystal was investigated by treating the surface diffusion as an activated process in the formalism of transition state theory. In particular, surface diffusion on the (110) and (101) facets, as well as diffusion between these facets, were considered. We successfully obtained the potential energy barriers required for PETN surface diffusion. Our results show that the (110) surface is more thermally active than the (101) surface and PETN molecules mainly diffuses from the (110) to (101) facet. These results are in good agreement with experimental observations and previous simulations.

  2. Method for providing adhesion to a metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrah, L.A.; Allred, R.E.; Wilson, K.V. Jr.

    1992-02-18

    A process for treating metal surfaces to obtain improved susceptibility to bonding with adhesive compositions is disclosed. A metal surface is oxidized with a halogen to form a monolayer of halide ions on the surface. The halide ions are then exchanged with azide ions to form an azide monolayer on the metal surface. Upon contact of the treated surface with an adhesive composition, the azide layer may be thermally or photochemically decomposed to form active nitrene species, which react to bond the adhesive composition to the metal surface.

  3. Method for providing adhesion to a metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrah, Larry A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allred, Ronald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Wilson, Jr., Kennard V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process for treating metal surfaces to obtain improved susceptibility to bonding with adhesive compositions is disclosed. A metal surface is oxidized with a halogen to form a monolayer of halide ions on the surface. The halide ions are then exchanged with azide ions to form an azide monolayer on the metal surface. Upon contact of the treated surface with an adhesive composition, the azide layer may be thermally or photochemically decomposed to form active nitrene species, which react to bond the adhesive composition to the metal surface.

  4. Slip length crossover on a graphene surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel

    2015-04-07

    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flow of argon fluid above the critical temperature in a planar nanochannel delimited by graphene walls. We observe that, as a function of pressure, the slip length first decreases due to the decreasing mean free path of gas molecules, reaches the minimum value when the pressure is close to the critical pressure, and then increases with further increase in pressure. We demonstrate that the slip length increase at high pressures is due to the fact that the viscosity of fluid increases much faster with pressure than the friction coefficient between the fluid and the graphene. This behavior is clearly exhibited in the case of graphene due to a very smooth potential landscape originating from a very high atomic density of graphene planes. By contrast, on surfaces with lower atomic density, such as an (100) Au surface, the slip length for high fluid pressures is essentially zero, regardless of the nature of interaction between fluid and the solid wall.

  5. Design of Surface Micromachined Compliant MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-12-31

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMs, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focused on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  6. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-08-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  7. High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

  8. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.more » For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.« less

  9. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.moreFor ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.less

  10. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences. For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.

  11. Influence of surface contamination on the wettability of heat transfer surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Forrest, Eric Christopher; Schulze, Roland; Liu, Cheng; Dombrowski, David

    2015-08-08

    In this study, the wettability of heat transfer surfaces plays an important role in liquid–vapor phase change phenomena, including boiling incipience, the critical heat flux, the Leidenfrost transition, and condensation. The influence of adsorbed surface contamination at the nanoscale, though seldom considered, can have a profound impact on wetting behavior. This study quantitatively investigates the impact of contaminant layer thickness on wettability. Various cleaning treatments are explored on zirconium and 6061 aluminum to determine the effect on contaminant and oxide layer thickness. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to measure the thickness of oxide and contaminant layers, which ismore » then correlated to wettability by measuring the equilibrium contact angle. Results indicate that even after solvent cleaning, the contact angle of water on practical heat transfer surfaces is dominated by a hydrocarbon contaminant overlayer around five nanometers thick.« less

  12. Comparison of glass surfaces as a countertop material to existing surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turo, Laura A.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-09-01

    Gleen Glass, a small production glass company that creates countertops, was selected for the Technology Assistance Program through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Gleen Glass was seeking material property analysis comparing glass as a countertop material to current surfaces (i.e. marble, granite and engineered stone). With samples provided from Gleen Glass, testing was done on granite, marble, and 3 different glass surfaces ('Journey,' 'Pebble,' and 'Gleen'). Results showed the glass surfaces have a lower density, lower water absorption, and are stronger in compressive and flexural tests as compared to granite and marble. Thermal shock tests showed the glass failed when objects with a high thermal mass are placed directly on them, whereas marble and granite did not fracture under these conditions.

  13. Influence of surface contamination on the wettability of heat transfer surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrest, Eric Christopher; Schulze, Roland; Liu, Cheng; Dombrowski, David

    2015-08-08

    In this study, the wettability of heat transfer surfaces plays an important role in liquid–vapor phase change phenomena, including boiling incipience, the critical heat flux, the Leidenfrost transition, and condensation. The influence of adsorbed surface contamination at the nanoscale, though seldom considered, can have a profound impact on wetting behavior. This study quantitatively investigates the impact of contaminant layer thickness on wettability. Various cleaning treatments are explored on zirconium and 6061 aluminum to determine the effect on contaminant and oxide layer thickness. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to measure the thickness of oxide and contaminant layers, which is then correlated to wettability by measuring the equilibrium contact angle. Results indicate that even after solvent cleaning, the contact angle of water on practical heat transfer surfaces is dominated by a hydrocarbon contaminant overlayer around five nanometers thick.

  14. Scratching the surface: State implementation of the Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheberle, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The implementation of the Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act of 1977 has been criticized as sporadic, lackluster, and dependent upon the political proclivities of primacy states. This dissertation explores the effect of national-level and state-level variables on implementation patterns in Colorado, Wyoming, and Virginia. Surveys and personal interviews, combined with longitudinal analyses of implementation performances of the Office of Surface Mining and individual state agencies, provide the heart of the research data. The research findings suggest the importance of considering state variables when explaining implementation performance. Moreover, support for both national and state variables as important determinants of the implementation process are provided by the research results.

  15. Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

    2002-01-01

    An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

  16. Diamond Shaving of Contaminated Concrete Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, Lisa K.

    2008-01-15

    Decommissioning and decontamination of existing facilities presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of surface contamination from concrete floors and walls while eliminating the spread of contamination and volumetric reduction of the waste stream. Numerous methods have been tried with a varying degree of success. Recent technology has made this goal achievable and has been used successfully. This new technology is the Diamond Floor Shaver and Diamond Wall shaver. The Diamond Floor Shaver is a self-propelled, walk behind machine that literally shaves the contaminated concrete surface to specified depths. This is accomplished by using a patented system of 100 dry cutting diamond blades with offset diamond segments that interlock to provide complete shaving of the concrete surface. Grooves are eliminated which allows for a direct frisk reading to analyze results. When attached to an appropriate size vacuum, the dust produced is 100% contained. Dust is collected in drums ready for disposition and disposal. The waste produced in shaving 7,500 square feet at 1/8 inch thickness would fill a single 55 gallon drum. Production is dependent on depth of shaving but averages 100 square feet per hour. The wall shaver uses the same patented diamond drum and blades but is hydraulically driven and is deployed using a robotic arm allowing its operation to be to totally remote. It can reach ceilings as high as 20 feet. Numerous small projects were successfully completed using this technology. Large scale deployment came in 2003. Bluegrass, in conjunction with Bartlett Services, deployed this technology to support decontamination activities for closing of the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons site. Up to six floor shavers and one wall shaver were deployed in buildings B371 and B374. These buildings had up to one half-inch, fixed plutonium and beryllium contamination. Hundred-thousands of square feet of floors and walls were shaved successfully to depths of up to one half inch. Decontamination efforts were so successful the balance of the buildings could be demolished using conventional methods. The shavers helped keep the project on schedule while the vacuum system eliminated the potential for contaminants becoming airborne.

  17. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and reclamation practice. In addition, experiments were integrated within the reforestation effort to address specific questions pertaining to sequestration of carbon (C) on these sites.

  18. TNRC 51 - Land, Timber and Surface Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    51 - Land, Timber and Surface Resources Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: TNRC 51 - Land, Timber and Surface...

  19. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface...

  20. Controlling Surface Properties of Transparent Conducting Oxides | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Controlling Surface Properties of Transparent Conducting Oxides Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Controlling Surface Properties of Transparent Conducting Oxides

  1. Surface control alloy substrates and methods of manufacture therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Mendon, MA); Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA); Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA); Annavarapu, Suresh (Brookline, MA); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-05-04

    Methods and articles for controlling the surface of an alloy substrate for deposition of an epitaxial layer. The invention includes the use of an intermediate layer to stabilize the substrate surface against oxidation for subsequent deposition of an epitaxial layer.

  2. Role of carbon surface diffusion and strain on the epitaxial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Role of carbon surface diffusion and strain on the epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC(0001). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Role of carbon surface diffusion and strain...

  3. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Saves Water With High-Efficiency Toilet and Urinal Program: Best Management Practice Case Study #6 „ Toilets and Urinals (Fact Sheet), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding, successful sustainability program that focuses on energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC's key operations include propulsion and transportation systems for the space shuttle and Ares rockets. MSFC also provides advanced engineering and operations for International Space Station systems. Located in Huntsville, Alabama, adjacent to Redstone Arsenal, MSFC

  4. PNNL Enhanced Pool-Boiling Heat Transfer Using Nanostructured Surfaces

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-31

    Close-up video of boiling taking place on a nanostructured surface in a controlled laboratory experiment.

  5. Surface Modification Agents for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Surface Modification Agents for Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: A process to modify the surface of the active material used in an electrochemical device that increases safety and security of batteries Substantially reduces power fade and potential for explosions. Increases safety and life of batteries, as the surface modification prevents a catalytic reaction in lithium-ion cells that generates hydrogen gas. PDF icon surface_modification_agents

  6. Characterization of monolayer surface treatments for MEMS exposed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; SURFACE TREATMENTS; MICROELECTRONIC CIRCUITS; MEMBRANES

  7. Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth modelled over...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 ... MAGNETRONS; MATERIALS; MOLECULAR DYNAMICS ... FAULTS; SURFACES; THIN FILMS; VACANCIES Word Cloud More ...

  8. An integrated surface technology for friction reduction in vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy integrated surface technology for friction reduction in vehicles An integrated surface technology for friction reduction in vehicles 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pmp_08_hsu.pdf More Documents & Publications An Integrated Surface Technology for Optimum Performance Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Friction Reduction through Surface

  9. Layered devices having surface curvature and method of constructing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodbury, Richard C. (Provo, UT); Perkins, Raymond T. (Provo, UT); Thorne, James M. (Provo, UT)

    1989-01-01

    A method of treating a substrate having first and second sides with corresponding oppositely facing first and second surfaces, to produce curvature in the first surface. The method includes the steps of removing material, according to a predetermined pattern, from the second side of the substrate, and applying a stress-producing film of material to at least one surface of the substrate to thereby cause the substrate to bend to produce the desired curvature in the first surface.

  10. Changing Surface Shapes with Temperature | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Changing Surface Shapes with Temperature For the first time, a temperature-driven contour change in an electron behavioral map-known as the Fermi surface-has been reported. The key properties of conducting materials are determined by the behavior of the electrons that reside on so called "Fermi surface." Changes in the shape of this surface, known as Lifshitz transitions, previously were seen only when substantial pressure was applied or the chemical composition of the material was

  11. New Structure found at Ionic Liquid Surface | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Structure found at Ionic Liquid Surface

  12. A direct evidence of vibrationally delocalized response at ice surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Morita, Akihiro

    2014-11-14

    Surface-specific vibrational spectroscopic responses at isotope diluted ice and amorphous ice are investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. The intense response specific to the ordinary crystal ice surface is predicted to be significantly suppressed in the isotopically diluted and amorphous ices, demonstrating the vibrational delocalization at the ordinary ice surface. The collective vibration at the ice surface is also analyzed with varying temperature by the MD simulation.

  13. SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STRUCTURING (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CARBON FIBER POLYMER COMPOSITES AFTER LASER STRUCTURING The increasing use of Carbon Fiber Polymer Composite (CFPC) as a lightweight material in automotive and aerospace industries requires the control of surface morphology. In this study, the composites surface was prepared by ablating the resin

  14. Self-Replenishing Vascularized Fouling-Release Surfaces (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES Self-Replenishing Vascularized Fouling-Release Surfaces « Prev Next » Title: Self-Replenishing Vascularized Fouling-Release Surfaces Inspired by the long-term effectiveness of living antifouling materials, we have developed a method for the selfreplenishment of synthetic biofouling-release surfaces. These surfaces are created by either molding or directly embedding 3D vascular systems into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and filling them with a silicone oil to generate a nontoxic

  15. Surface sampling concentration and reaction probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Elnaggar, Mariam S

    2013-07-16

    A method of analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen is described. The method can include providing a probe comprising an outer capillary tube and an inner capillary tube disposed co-axially within the outer capillary tube, where the inner and outer capillary tubes define a solvent capillary and a sampling capillary in fluid communication with one another at a distal end of the probe; contacting a target site on a surface of a specimen with a solvent in fluid communication with the probe; maintaining a plug volume proximate a solvent-specimen interface, wherein the plug volume is in fluid communication with the probe; draining plug sampling fluid from the plug volume through the sampling capillary; and analyzing a chemical composition of the plug sampling fluid with an analytical instrument. A system for performing the method is also described.

  16. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophicmore » microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.« less

  17. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined core set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: Winds: 10 meters Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

  18. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-23

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  19. Photonic surfaces for designable nonlinear power shaping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Roshni Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-02-09

    We propose a method for designing nonlinear input-output power response based on absorptive resonances of nanostructured surfaces. We show that various power transmission trends can be obtained by placing a photonic resonance mode at the appropriate detuning from the laser wavelength. We demonstrate our results in a silicon photonic crystal slab at a laser wavelength of 808 nm. We quantify the overall spectral red shift as a function of laser power. The shift results from absorptive heating and the thermo-optic effect. We then demonstrate devices with increasing, decreasing, and non-monotonic transmission as a function of laser power. The transmission changes are up to 7.5 times larger than in unpatterned silicon. The strong nonlinear transmission is due to a combination of resonantly enhanced absorption, reduced thermal conductivity, and the resonant transmission lineshape. Our results illustrate the possibility of designing different nonlinear power trends within a single materials platform at a given wavelength of interest.

  20. Visible light surface emitting semiconductor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olbright, Gregory R. (Boulder, CO); Jewell, Jack L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1993-01-01

    A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is disclosed comprising a laser cavity sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser cavity comprises a pair of spacer layers surrounding one or more active, optically emitting quantum-well layers having a bandgap in the visible which serve as the active optically emitting material of the device. The thickness of the laser cavity is m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer, .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the laser radiation and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the cavity. Electrical pumping of the laser is achieved by heavily doping the bottom mirror and substrate to one conductivity-type and heavily doping regions of the upper mirror with the opposite conductivity type to form a diode structure and applying a suitable voltage to the diode structure. Specific embodiments of the invention for generating red, green, and blue radiation are described.

  1. Fracture of surface cracks loaded in bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Y.J.; Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical background of the constraint effect in brittle fracture of solids is reviewed. Fracture test data from D6-aC, a high strength steel, using three-point-bend (SE(B)) specimens and surface cracked plate (SC(B)) specimens under bending are presented. It is shown that the SE(B) data has an elevated fracture toughness for increasing a/W, i.e., a crack geometry with a larger T/K corresponds to a higher K{sub c} which is consistent with the theoretical prediction. The fundamental fracture properties, i.e., the critical strain and the critical distance, determined from the SE(B) test data are then applied to the interpretation and prediction of the SC(B) test data. Reasonable agreement is achieved for the crack growth initiation site and the load.

  2. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  3. Surface Induced Magnetism in Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meulenberg, R W; Lee, J I

    2009-08-20

    The study of nanometer sized semiconductor crystallites, also known as quantum dots (QDs), has seen rapid advancements in recent years in scientific disciplines ranging from chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and engineering. QD materials of CdSe, ZnSe, InP, as well as many others, can be prepared in the size range of 1-10 nm producing uniform, nearly monodisperse materials that are typically coated with organic molecules [1-3]. The strength of charge carrier confinement, which dictates the size-dependent properties, in these QDs depends on the nature of the material and can be correlated to the Bohr radius for the system of interest. For instance, the Bohr radius for CdSe is {approx} 5 nm, while in the more covalent structure of InP, the Bohr radius approaches {approx} 10 nm. The study of CdSe QDs has been particularly extensive during the last decade because they exhibit unique and tunable optical properties and are readily synthesized with high-crystallinity and narrow size dispersions. Although the core electronic properties of CdSe are explained in terms of the quantum confinement model, experimental efforts to elucidate the surface structure of these materials have been limited. Typically, colloidal CdSe QDs are coated with an organic surfactant, which typically consists of an organo-phosphine, -thiol, or -amine, that has the function of energetically relaxing defect states via coordination to partially coordinated surface atoms. The organic surfactant also acts to enhance carrier confinement and prevent agglomeration of the particles. Chemically, it has been shown that the bonding of the surfactant to the CdSe QD occurs through Cd atoms resulting cleavage of the Se atoms and formation of a Cd-rich (i.e. non-stoichiometric) particle [5].

  4. Surface Binding and Organization of Sensitizing Dyes on Metal Oxide Single Crystal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, Bruce

    2010-06-04

    Even though investigations of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors in solar cells has dominated research on dye-sensitized semiconductors over the past two decades. Single crystal electrodes represent far simpler model systems for studying the sensitization process with a continuing train of studies dating back more than forty years. Even today single crystal surfaces prove to be more controlled experimental models for the study of dye-sensitized semiconductors than the nanocrystalline substrates. We analyzed the scientific advances in the model sensitized single crystal systems that preceded the introduction of nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes. It then follows the single crystal research to the present, illustrating both their striking simplicity of use and clarity of interpretation relative to nanocrystalline electrodes. Researchers have employed many electrochemical, photochemical and scanning probe techniques for studying monolayer quantities of sensitizing dyes at specific crystallographic faces of different semiconductors. These methods include photochronocoulometry, electronic spectroscopy and flash photolysis of dyes at potential-controlled semiconductor electrodes and the use of total internal reflection methods. In addition, we describe the preparation of surfaces of single crystal SnS2 and TiO2 electrodes to serve as reproducible model systems for charge separation at dye sensitized solar cells. This process involves cleaving the SnS2 electrodes and a photoelectrochemical surface treatment for TiO2 that produces clean surfaces for sensitization (as verified by AFM) resulting in near unity yields for electron transfer from the molecular excited dyes into the conduction band.

  5. Modeled heating and surface erosion comparing motile (gas borne) and stationary (surface coating) inert particle additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckingham, A.C.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1982-09-27

    The unsteady, non-similar, chemically reactive, turbulent boundary layer equations are modified for gas plus dispersed solid particle mixtures, for gas phase turbulent combustion reactions and for heterogeneous gas-solid surface erosive reactions. The exterior (ballistic core) edge boundary conditions for the solutions are modified to include dispersed particle influences on core propellant combustion-generated turbulence levels, combustion reactants and products, and reaction-induced, non-isentropic mixture states. The wall surface (in this study it is always steel) is considered either bare or coated with a fixed particle coating which is conceptually non-reactive, insulative, and non-ablative. Two families of solutions are compared. These correspond to: (1) consideration of gas-borne, free-slip, almost spontaneously mobile (motile) solid particle additives which influence the turbulent heat transfer at the uncoated steel surface and, in contrast, (2) consideration of particle-free, gas phase turbulent heat transfer to the insulated surface coated by stationary particles. Significant differences in erosive heat transfer are found in comparing the two families of solutions over a substantial range of interior ballistic flow conditions. The most effective influences on reducing erosive heat transfer appear to favor mobile, gas-borne particle additives.

  6. Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

    2014-04-29

    A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

  7. The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xie,Shaocheng; Qi, Tang

    The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set merges together key surface measurements at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate data application. Data from the original site locations can be found in the ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set.

  8. Surface characterization based on optical phase shifting interferometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mello, Michael (Pasadena, CA), Rosakis; Ares J. (Altadena, CA)

    2011-08-02

    Apparatus, techniques and systems for implementing an optical interferometer to measure surfaces, including mapping of instantaneous curvature or in-plane and out-of-plane displacement field gradients of a sample surface based on obtaining and processing four optical interferograms from a common optical reflected beam from the sample surface that are relatively separated in phase by .pi./2.

  9. Method For Passivating Crystal Silicon Surfaces - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Method For Passivating Crystal Silicon Surfaces National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Silicon Surface and Heterojunction Interface Passivation Studies by Lifetime Measurements (395 KB) PDF Document Publication High-Throughput Approaches to Optimization of Crystal Silicon Surface Passivation and Heterojunction Solar Cells (837 KB) Technology Marketing

  10. The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie,Shaocheng; Qi, Tang

    2015-06-15

    The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set merges together key surface measurements at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate data application. Data from the original site locations can be found in the ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set.

  11. Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-08

    The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

  12. Surface functionalized mesoporous material and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Xiangdong [West Richland, WA; Liu, Jun [West Richland, WA; Fryxell, Glen E. [Kennewick, WA

    2001-12-04

    According to the present invention, an organized assembly of functional molecules with specific interfacial functionality (functional group(s)) is attached to available surfaces including within mesopores of a mesoporous material. The method of the present invention avoids the standard base soak that would digest the walls between the mesopores by boiling the mesoporous material in water for surface preparation then removing all but one or two layers of water molecules on the internal surface of a pore. Suitable functional molecule precursor is then applied to permeate the hydrated pores and the precursor then undergoes condensation to form the functional molecules on the interior surface(s) of the pore(s).

  13. System and method for extracting a sample from a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary; Covey, Thomas

    2015-06-23

    A system and method is disclosed for extracting a sample from a sample surface. A sample is provided and a sample surface receives the sample which is deposited on the sample surface. A hydrophobic material is applied to the sample surface, and one or more devices are configured to dispense a liquid on the sample, the liquid dissolving the sample to form a dissolved sample material, and the one or more devices are configured to extract the dissolved sample material from the sample surface.

  14. Resolution-independent surface rendering using programmable graphics hardware

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loop, Charles T.; Blinn, James Frederick

    2008-12-16

    Surfaces defined by a Bezier tetrahedron, and in particular quadric surfaces, are rendered on programmable graphics hardware. Pixels are rendered through triangular sides of the tetrahedra and locations on the shapes, as well as surface normals for lighting evaluations, are computed using pixel shader computations. Additionally, vertex shaders are used to aid interpolation over a small number of values as input to the pixel shaders. Through this, rendering of the surfaces is performed independently of viewing resolution, allowing for advanced level-of-detail management. By individually rendering tetrahedrally-defined surfaces which together form complex shapes, the complex shapes can be rendered in their entirety.

  15. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jian; Sabau, Adrian S; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Hackett, Alexandra C.; Daniel, Claus; Warren, Charles David

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of lightweight materials, such as aluminum alloys, in auto body structures requires more effective surface cleaning and texturing techniques to improve the quality of the structural components. The present work introduces a novel surface treatment method using laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface structures. The influences of beam size, laser fluence, wavelength, and pulse number per spot are investigated. High resolution optical profiler images reveal the change of the peak-to-valley height on the laser-treated surface.

  16. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-05-18

    A method for preparing reactive metal surfaces, particularly uranium surfaces is disclosed, whereby the metal is immediately reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The metal surfaces are first pretreated by exposure to an acid which forms an adherent hydride-bearing composition on the metal surface. Subsequent heating of the pretreated metal at a temperature sufficient to decompose the hydride coating in vacuum or inert gas renders the metal surface instantaneously reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure.

  17. Evaluation of flyash surface phenomena and the application of surface analysis technology. Summary report: Phase I. [44 elements; 86 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    The factors governing the formation of flyash surfaces during and following coal combustion are reviewed. The competing chemical and physical processes during the evolution of inorganic material in coal during combustion into flyash are described with respect to various surface segregation processes. Two mechanisms leading to surface enrichment are volatilization-condensation processes and diffusion processes within individual flyash particles. The experimental evidence for each of these processes is reviewed. It is shown that the volatilization-condensation process is the major factor leading to trace element enrichment in smaller flyash particles. Evidence also exists from surface analyses of flyash and representative mineral matter that diffusion processes may lead to surface enrichment of elements not volatilized or cause transport of surface-condensed elements into the flyash matrix. The semiquantitative determination of the relative importance of these two processes can be determined by comparison of concentration versus particle size profiles with surface-depth profiles obtained using surface analysis techniques. A brief description of organic transformations on flyash surfaces is also presented. The various surface analytical techniques are reviewed and the relatively new technique of Static-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy is suggested as having significant advantages in studies of surfaces and diffusion processes in model systems. Several recommendations are made for research relevant to flyash formation and processes occurring on flyash surfaces.

  18. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  19. Surface modification of active material structures in battery electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Michael; Tikhonov, Konstantin

    2016-02-02

    Provided herein are methods of processing electrode active material structures for use in electrochemical cells or, more specifically, methods of forming surface layers on these structures. The structures are combined with a liquid to form a mixture. The mixture includes a surface reagent that chemically reacts and forms a surface layer covalently bound to the structures. The surface reagent may be a part of the initial liquid or added to the mixture after the liquid is combined with the structures. In some embodiments, the mixture may be processed to form a powder containing the structures with the surface layer thereon. Alternatively, the mixture may be deposited onto a current collecting substrate and dried to form an electrode layer. Furthermore, the liquid may be an electrolyte containing the surface reagent and a salt. The liquid soaks the previously arranged electrodes in order to contact the structures with the surface reagent.

  20. ANALYZING SURFACE ROUGHNESS DEPENDENCE OF LINEAR RF LOSSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.; Xu, Chen

    2012-09-01

    Topographic structure on Superconductivity Radio Frequency (SRF) surfaces can contribute additional cavity RF losses describable in terms of surface RF reflectivity and absorption indices of wave scattering theory. At isotropic homogeneous extent, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of roughness is introduced and quantifies the random surface topographic structure. PSD obtained from different surface treatments of niobium, such Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP), Electropolishing (EP), Nano-Mechanical Polishing (NMP) and Barrel Centrifugal Polishing (CBP) are compared. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate the additional rough surface RF losses based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor becomes normal conducting at fields higher than transition field. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range from linear loss mechanisms.

  1. Chemical method for producing smooth surfaces on silicon wafers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

    2003-01-01

    An improved method for producing optically smooth surfaces in silicon wafers during wet chemical etching involves a pre-treatment rinse of the wafers before etching and a post-etching rinse. The pre-treatment with an organic solvent provides a well-wetted surface that ensures uniform mass transfer during etching, which results in optically smooth surfaces. The post-etching treatment with an acetic acid solution stops the etching instantly, preventing any uneven etching that leads to surface roughness. This method can be used to etch silicon surfaces to a depth of 200 .mu.m or more, while the finished surfaces have a surface roughness of only 15-50 .ANG. (RMS).

  2. Process for laser machining and surface treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2004-10-26

    An improved method and apparatus increasing the accuracy and reducing the time required to machine materials, surface treat materials, and allow better control of defects such as particulates in pulsed laser deposition. The speed and quality of machining is improved by combining an ultrashort pulsed laser at high average power with a continuous wave laser. The ultrashort pulsed laser provides an initial ultrashort pulse, on the order of several hundred femtoseconds, to stimulate an electron avalanche in the target material. Coincident with the ultrashort pulse or shortly after it, a pulse from a continuous wave laser is applied to the target. The micromachining method and apparatus creates an initial ultrashort laser pulse to ignite the ablation followed by a longer laser pulse to sustain and enlarge on the ablation effect launched in the initial pulse. The pulse pairs are repeated at a high pulse repetition frequency and as often as desired to produce the desired micromachining effect. The micromachining method enables a lower threshold for ablation, provides more deterministic damage, minimizes the heat affected zone, minimizes cracking or melting, and reduces the time involved to create the desired machining effect.

  3. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  4. Plasma-Surface Interaction Research At The Cambridge Laboratory Of Accelerator Studies Of Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, G. M.; Barnard, H. S.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Stahle, P. W.; Sullivan, R. M.; Woller, K. B.; Whyte, D. G.

    2011-06-01

    The material requirements for plasma-facing components in a nuclear fusion reactor are some of the strictest and most challenging facing us today. These materials are simultaneously exposed to extreme heat loads (20 MW/m{sup 2} steady-state, 1 GW/m{sup 2} in millisecond transients) and particle fluxes (>10{sup 24} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) while also undergoing high neutron irradiation (10{sup 18} neutrons/m{sup 2} s). At the Cambridge Laboratory of Accelerator Studies of Surfaces (CLASS), many of the most important issues in plasma-surface interaction research, such as plasma-driven material erosion and deposition, material transport and irradiation and hydrogenic retention are investigated with the use of a 1.7 MV tandem ion accelerator. Ion-Beam Analysis (IBA) is used to investigate and quantify changes in materials due to plasma exposure and ion irradiation is used as a proxy for neutron irradiation to investigate plasma-surface interactions for irradiated materials. This report will outline the capabilities and current research activities at CLASS.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF BREAKDOWN INDUCED SURFACE DAMAGE ON 805 MHZ PILLBOX CAVITY INTERIOR SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, M.R.; Chung, M.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Tollestrup,A.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.; Torun, Y.; Bowring, D.; Flanagan, G.

    2013-09-25

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab is a facility to develop the technology required for ionization cooling for a future Muon Collider and/or Neutrino Factory. As part of this research program, we have tested two 805 MHz vacuum RF cavities in a multi-Tesla magnetic field to study the effects of the static magnetic field on the cavity operation. This study gives useful information on field emitters in the cavity, dark current, surface conditioning, breakdown mechanisms and material properties of the cavity. All these factors determine the maximum accelerating gradient in the cavity. This paper discusses the image processing technique for quantitative estimation of spark damage spot distribution on cavity interior surfaces. The distribution is compared with the electric field distribution predicted by a computer code calculation. The local spark density is proportional to probability of surface breakdown and shows a power law dependence on the maximum electric field (E). This E dependence is consistent with the dark current calculated from the Fowler-Nordheim equation.

  6. Effect of surface adsorption and non-stoichiometry on the workfunction of ZnO surfaces: A first principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Yun; Jha, Jitendra Kumar; Shepherd, Nigel D.; Du, Jincheng

    2015-04-28

    ZnO has been actively studied for potential usage as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) for a variety of applications including organic light emitting diodes and solar cells. In these applications, fine-tuning the workfunction of ZnO is critical for controlling interfacial barriers and improving the charge injection (or outcoupling) efficiencies. We have performed plane wave periodic density functional theory calculations to investigate the effect of different surface absorbents and surface defects (including surface non-stoichiometry) on the workfunction of ZnO. The aim was to understand the underlying mechanism of workfunction changes, in order to engineer specific workfunction modifications. Accurate calculations of workfunctions of polar surfaces were achieved by introducing balancing pseudo charges on one side of the surface to remove the dipolar effect. It was found that increasing the surface coverage of hydrocarbons (-CH{sub 3}) decreased the workfunction, while adsorption of highly electronegative-F and -CF{sub 3} groups and increases in surface O/Zn ratio increased the workfunction of ZnO. The increase of workfunction was found to be directly correlated to the enhancement variation of surface dipole moment due to adsorptions or other surface modifications. Introducing surface absorbents that increase surface dipole moment can be an effective way to increase workfunction in ZnO TCOs.

  7. Technique for the Estimation of Surface Temperatures from Embedded Temperature Sensing for Rapid, High Energy Surface Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott A.

    2014-07-01

    Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, high-energy surface deposition process can be di#14;fficult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves fitting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature {+-}~20#14;{degrees}C.

  8. Toward tuning the surface functionalization of small ceria nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xing; Wang, Binghui; Grulke, Eric A.; Beck, Matthew J.

    2014-02-21

    Understanding and controlling the performance of ceria nanoparticle (CNP) catalysts requires knowledge of the detailed structure and property of CNP surfaces and any attached functional groups. Here we report thermogravimetric analysis results showing that hydrothermally synthesized ?30 nm CNPs are decorated with 12.9 hydroxyl groups per nm{sup 2} of CNP surface. Quantum mechanical calculations of the density and distribution of bound surface groups imply a scaling relationship for surface group density that balances formal charges in the functionalized CNP system. Computational results for CNPs with only hydroxyl surface groups yield a predicted density of bound hydroxyl groups for ?30 nm CNPs that is ?33% higher than measured densities. Quantitative agreement between predicted and measured hydroxyl surface densities is achieved when calculations consider CNPs with both OH and O{sub x} surface groups. For this more general treatment of CNP surface functionalizations, quantum mechanical calculations predict a range of stable surface group configurations that depend on the chemical potentials of O and H, and demonstrate the potential to tune CNP surface functionalizations by varying temperature and/or partial pressures of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.

  9. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  10. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard

    2015-03-31

    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  11. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Schaich, C.R.; Foster, D. Jr.

    1997-06-03

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface. 7 figs.

  12. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Schaich, Charles R. (Lenoir City, TN); Foster, Jr., Don (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface.

  13. Effect of Surface Oxidation on Interfacial Water Structure at a Pyrite (100) Surface as Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.; Wick, Collin D.

    2015-06-01

    In the first part of this paper, a Scanning Electron Microscopy and contact angle study of a pyrite surface (100) is reported describing the relationship between surface oxidation and the hydrophilic surface state. In addition to these experimental results, the following simulated surface states were examined using Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS): fresh unoxidized (100) surface; polysulfide at the (100) surface; elemental sulfur at the (100) surface. Crystal structures for the polysulfide and elemental sulfur at the (100) surface were simulated using Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum chemical calculations. The well known oxidation mechanism which involves formation of a metal deficient layer was also described with DFT. Our MDS results of the behavior of interfacial water at the fresh and oxidized pyrite (100) surfaces without/with the presence of ferric hydroxide include simulated contact angles, number density distribution for water, water dipole orientation, water residence time, and hydrogen-bonding considerations. The significance of the formation of ferric hydroxide islands in accounting for the corresponding hydrophilic surface state is revealed not only from experimental contact angle measurements but also from simulated contact angle measurements using MDS. The hydrophilic surface state developed at oxidized pyrite surfaces has been described by MDS, on which basis the surface state is explained based on interfacial water structure. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES.

  14. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microscale Features | Department of Energy Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features PDF icon superhydrophobic_surfaces.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials, January 2011 Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Coatings for CSP Collectors Advanced Heat/Mass

  15. Modification of surface properties of copper-refractory metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

    1993-10-12

    The surface properties of copper-refractory metal (CU-RF) alloy bodies are modified by heat treatments which cause the refractory metal to form a coating on the exterior surfaces of the alloy body. The alloys have a copper matrix with particles or dendrites of the refractory metal dispersed therein, which may be niobium, vanadium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, or tungsten. The surface properties of the bodies are changed from those of copper to that of the refractory metal.

  16. Automated Surface Sampling Probe for Mass Spectrometry - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Automated Surface Sampling Probe for Mass Spectrometry Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Drug Discovery and Pharmaceutical Research Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryDr. Gary Van Berkel and colleagues have developed a liquid microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ?SSP). The LMJ?SSP provides mass spectrometry with a simple and efficient ambient surface

  17. Prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis for impervious surface

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mapping (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis for impervious surface mapping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis for impervious surface mapping In this study, we developed a prior-knowledge-based spectral mixture analysis (PKSMA) to map impervious surfaces by using endmembers derived separately for high- and low-density urban regions. First, an

  18. Combined surface analytical methods to characterize degradative processes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in anti-stiction films in MEMS devices. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Combined surface analytical methods to characterize degradative processes in anti-stiction films in MEMS devices. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combined surface analytical methods to characterize degradative processes in anti-stiction films in MEMS devices. The performance and reliability of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices can be highly dependent on the control of the surface energetics in

  19. Considerations for Implementation of MARSSIM/MARSAME Surface Radioactivity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surveys within FUSRAP - 12330 (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Considerations for Implementation of MARSSIM/MARSAME Surface Radioactivity Surveys within FUSRAP - 12330 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Considerations for Implementation of MARSSIM/MARSAME Surface Radioactivity Surveys within FUSRAP - 12330 Surveys for residual surface radioactivity support the release of buildings under MARSSIM and the release of materials and equipment under MARSAME consensus guidance.

  20. Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems | Department of Energy Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_angel.pdf More Documents &