National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for naphthas lubricants waxes

  1. 1994 lubricating oil and wax capacities of U. S. and Canadian refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The paper consists of several tables which list the names of US and Canadian refineries, their location, and their capacity for production of lubricating oil and waxes categorized by finishing operations and primary processing. A separate table lists US and Canadian re-refiners and their capacity for refining waste lubricating oils.

  2. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Lubricants Asphalt Waxes Special Naphtha Petrochem feedstocks Other Petro Prods Coal Net reconciliation error Total Consumption

  3. Coal liquefaction process with increased naphtha yields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Daniel F. (Friendswood, TX)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein the solid carbonaceous material is slurried with a suitable solvent and then subjected to liquefaction at elevated temperature and pressure to produce a normally gaseous product, a normally liquid product and a normally solid product. The normally liquid product is further separated into a naphtha boiling range product, a solvent boiling range product and a vacuum gas-oil boiling range product. At least a portion of the solvent boiling-range product and the vacuum gas-oil boiling range product are then combined and passed to a hydrotreater where the mixture is hydrotreated at relatively severe hydrotreating conditions and the liquid product from the hydrotreater then passed to a catalytic cracker. In the catalytic cracker, the hydrotreater effluent is converted partially to a naphtha boiling range product and to a solvent boiling range product. The naphtha boiling range product is added to the naphtha boiling range product from coal liquefaction to thereby significantly increase the production of naphtha boiling range materials. At least a portion of the solvent boiling range product, on the other hand, is separately hydrogenated and used as solvent for the liquefaction. Use of this material as at least a portion of the solvent significantly reduces the amount of saturated materials in said solvent.

  4. Process for removing polymer-forming impurities from naphtha fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kowalczyk, D.C.; Bricklemyer, B.A.; Svoboda, J.J.

    1983-12-27

    Polymer precursor materials are vaporized without polymerization or are removed from a raw naphtha fraction by passing the raw naphtha to a vaporization zone and vaporizing the naphtha in the presence of a wash oil while stripping with hot hydrogen to prevent polymer deposits in the equipment. 2 figs.

  5. Process for removing polymer-forming impurities from naphtha fraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kowalczyk, Dennis C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Bricklemyer, Bruce A. (Avonmore, PA); Svoboda, Joseph J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01

    Polymer precursor materials are vaporized without polymerization or are removed from a raw naphtha fraction by passing the raw naphtha to a vaporization zone (24) and vaporizing the naphtha in the presence of a wash oil while stripping with hot hydrogen to prevent polymer deposits in the equipment.

  6. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad model of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving five pseudo components, was presented) developed a more de- tailed model of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving 35 pseudo

  7. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving 35 pseudo compo- nents. They claimed that the simplified-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high

  8. Conversion of light naphthas over sulfided nickle erionite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heck, R.H.; Chen, Nai Y. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States). Central Research Laboratory)

    1993-06-01

    A natural erionite ore has been exchanged with ammonium and nickel salts to yield a Ni/H erionite catalyst that is active and stable for selectively hydrocracking only the n-paraffins from light straight-run naphthas. The primary product is a C[sup 5+] liquid that is 15-20 octane numbers higher than the feed and a propane- and butane-rich gas by-product. Results from a 110-day pilot plant run demonstrated that a catalyst life of more than 1 year should be possible. Naphthenes, aromatics, and isoparaffins are neither produced nor consumed in this process, resulting in a C[sup 5+] liquid product that is lower in benzene and total aromatics than attainable by catalytic reforming of these feeds. Although no further work is planned with this catalyst, a naphtha-upgrading process based on shape-selective zeolitic hydrocracking could provide an attractive alternative to catalytic reforming or isomerization for these hard to upgrade naphthas. It should be particularly attractive in areas where the by-product propane and butane have good value.

  9. Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils,...

  10. Soft lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Skotheim; L. Mahadevan

    2004-06-09

    We consider some basic principles of fluid-induced lubrication at soft interfaces. In particular, we show how the presence of a soft substrate leads to an increase in the physical separation between surfaces sliding past each other. By considering the model problem of a symmetric non-conforming contact moving tangentially to a thin elastic layer, we determine the normal force in the small and large deflection limit, and show that there is an optimal combination of material and geometric properties which maximizes the normal force. Our results can be generalized to a variety of other geometries which show the same qualitative behavior. Thus they are relevant in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication of soft elastic and poroelastic gels and shells, and in the context of bio-lubrication in cartilaginous joints.

  11. Tethered Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, Lynden

    2010-09-15

    We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical studies of interfacial friction, relaxation dynamics, and thermodynamics of polymer chains tethered to points, planes, and particles. A key result from our tribology studies using lateral force microscopy (LFM) measurements of polydisperse brushes of linear and branched chains densely grafted to planar substrates is that there are exceedingly low friction coefficients for these systems. Specific project achievements include: (1) Synthesis of three-tiered lubricant films containing controlled amounts of free and pendent PDMS chains, and investigated the effect of their molecular weight and volume fraction on interfacial friction. (2.) Detailed studies of a family of hairy particles termed nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) and demonstration of their use as lubricants.

  12. Engine lubrication oil aeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baran, Bridget A. (Bridget Anne)

    2007-01-01

    The lubrication system of an internal combustion engine serves many purposes. It lubricates moving parts, cools the engine, removes impurities, supports loads, and minimizes friction. The entrapment of air in the lubricating ...

  13. Simulating Wax Crayons Dave Rudolf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mould, David

    Simulating Wax Crayons Dave Rudolf dave.rudolf@usask.ca David Mould mould@cs.usask.ca Eric Neufeld a physically-inspired model of wax crayons, which synthesizes drawings from collections of user- specified that evolves as it interacts with the paper. The amount of wax deposition is computed based on the crayon

  14. Reaction kinetics of olefin saturation in the hydrodesulfurization of fluid catalytic cracked naphtha 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumann, Brian Herbert

    1995-01-01

    U.S. governmental agencies are calling for strict environmental regulations on the quality of gasoline. Fluid catalytic cracked naphtha is an important blending component of the gasoline pool. The majority of the sulfur in the gasoline pool comes...

  15. Lubricants for CFC alternates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spauschus, H.O.

    1995-12-01

    With the recent development and introduction of environmentally preferred refrigerants as substitutes for HCFC`s, a number of new classes of companion compressor lubricants also have been offered. In contrast to the former compressor lubricants which were derived from petroleum based stocks, the new lubricants are synthetic products, initially designed to provide miscibilities and solubilities similar to the CFC/mineral oil predecessors. Rather than review the classes of lubricants being evaluated and used for different types of refrigeration machinery, this paper will address longer term benefits and challenges related to the introduction of synthetic compressor lubricants such as polyesters, polyolesters, polyalkalene glycols and polycarbonates. Within these families of synthetic fluids, large selections of chemical structures are available, each with unique physical and chemical properties. Of course all of the lubricants must meet general requirements of compressor oils with respect to flammability, pour point, volatility, toxicity, etc., but beyond these minimum requirements, there are technical options for tailoring lubricant structures to optimize certain lubricant (and thus lubricant/refrigerant) properties such as vapor pressure, solubility, viscosity, viscosity index, miscibility, moisture absorption, additive response and biodegradability. Basic studies to predict lubricant/refrigerant mixture properties based on chemical structure of the components are recommended. A number of practical challenges in the selection and application of new lubricants and new working fluids will be discussed including standards for bench screening tests and compressor tests, guidelines for lubricant handling during recovery and servicing of equipment and the potential for reprocessing compressor lubricants.

  16. LIQUIDSLIQUIDS GISAXSGISAXSGISAXS/WAXS station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    LIQUIDSLIQUIDS GISAXSGISAXSGISAXS/WAXS station: * Energy range: 2.1 to 24 keV * Low divergence mode 60m 55m 50m 45m 40m 35m 30m SAXS SAXS SCD SSA VFM HFM DCMKB's Gi-SAXS/WAXS sample Liquids sample Gi

  17. Hydrocracking naphthas using mildly steamed, noble metal-containing zeolite beta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickey, K.J. Jr.; Morrison, R.A.

    1989-03-14

    A method is described for hydrocracking a naphtha which comprises contacting the naphtha with a noble metal-containing zeolite beta naphtha hydrocracking catalyst at a pressure of about 0 to about 2000 psig, a temperature of about 400/sup 0/ to about 650/sup 0/F, a hydrogen or hydrocarbon molar ratio of about 0.1 to 1 to about 15 to 1 and a weight hourly space velocity of about 0.5 to about 20. Naphtha hydrocracking activity of the catalyst is enhanced by mild steaming of the zeolite beta catalyst prior to the contacting, the mild steaming being accomplished by steaming the zeolite catalyst in its fresh state under controlled conditions of temperature, time and steam partial pressure so as to initially increase the alpha activity of the catalyst and produce a steamed catalyst having a peak alpha activity, and subsequently reduce the alpha activity from the peak alpha activity to an alpha activity substantially the same as the alpha activity of the fresh catalyst and no more than 25% below the initial alpha activity of the fresh catalyst.

  18. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  19. Engine Lubricants: Trends and Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This overview discusses how lubricant developers, lubricant marketers, and OEMs are working with the engine community to overcome performance challenges worldwide.

  20. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  1. Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in Petroleum Mixtures C. Lira-Galeana and A, Berkeley, CIA 94720 A thermodynamic pamework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum that precipitated wax consists of several solid phases; each solid phase is described as a pure component

  2. The CER3 wax biosynthetic gene from Arabidopsis thaliana is allelic to WAX2/YRE/FLP1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    The CER3 wax biosynthetic gene from Arabidopsis thaliana is allelic to WAX2/YRE/FLP1 Owen Rowlanda with waxes. The Arabidopsis CER3 gene is important for cuticular wax biosynthesis and was reported and instead corresponds to WAX2/ YRE/FLP1 (At5g57800), a gene of unknown function required for wax

  3. PARAFFIN WAX DEPOSITION AND FOULING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    hydrocarbons are cooled in heat exchangers they tend to deposit and cause fouling; increasing the overall heat by proper design and operation of pipelines and heat exchangers. This requires knowledge of the deposition at standard conditions. The crystalline nature of paraffin wax has been investigated by a number of workers(9

  4. Selective hydrocracking of heavy straight run naphtha bottoms for T90 reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsing, L.H.; Nelson, R.G. [Texaco Research and Development, Port Arthur, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Refiners are being presented with a major challenge to meet proposed stringent specifications for reformulated gasoline to lower auto exhaustive emissions. Among the specifications proposed to be regulated by EPA, the T90 boiling point of gasoline is found to have a great influence on hydrocarbon emissions. T90 reduction of naphtha streams by hydrocracking has been identified as a processing scheme to upgrade the heavy naphtha fraction before blending with other refining streams. In this paper, a commercially available catalyst was evaluated for the T90 reduction of the heavy fraction of heavy straight run naphtha with an ASTM D-86 boiling range of 275-386F (HSRN). The catalyst was found to be effective in lowering the T90 of HSRN from 344F to 300F under reaction conditions of 2 LHSV/1000 psig/650 F or 4 LHSV/1000 psig/695 F. The product yield shift by hydrocracking was from C9-C11 hydrocarbons to C4-C6 components, particularly C4 and C5 isoparaffins. Both RON and MON of the liquid products were increased significantly from 36 and 42 up to 78 and 74, respectively. The increase of octane numbers is a function of hydrocracking severity. The liquid product yield was about 75 vol% with a T90 of 300F. The liquid product sulfur and nitrogen contents were less than 30 and 0.15 wppm, respectively.

  5. Methods to improve lubricity of fuels and lubricants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

    2009-06-16

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  6. Wax Deposition and Aging in Flowlines from Irreversible Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Wax Deposition and Aging in Flowlines from Irreversible Thermodynamics Hussein Hoteit, Reza Banki of the wax deposit. However, most of these models assume that the wax-oil (gel) deposit has a constant wax content. In this work, we analyze wax deposition in laminar flow regime to predict the thickness

  7. Wax Segregation in Oils: A Multiscale Mario Primicerio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    Wax Segregation in Oils: A Multiscale Problem. Mario Primicerio Department of Mathematics "Ulisse the behaviour of a real oil. It is a mixture of a given standard "wax" and a "solvent" (decane). The wax we/dissolution of wax For any waxy crude oil, and in particular for our "ideal mixture" with a given wax concentration c

  8. Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Hydrocarbons and monoesters of propolis waxes from Brazil Giuseppina Negri* Maria; accepted 20 April 1998) Abstract - Waxes of 23 samples of propolis of Apis mellifera mostly from Brazil of propolis wax is similar to that of comb wax, which suggests that propolis waxes are probably secreted

  9. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagow, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

  10. Diesel lubrication and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The film describes the parts of diesel lubricating and cooling systems and how they work in relation to each other.

  11. Diesel lubrication and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The film describes the parts of diesel lubricating and cooling systems and how they work in relation to each other.

  12. AIR LUBRICATION IN HARD DISK DRIVE Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müftü, Sinan

    AIR LUBRICATION IN HARD DISK DRIVE Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Northeastern University Boston, MA 02115 ...................................................................................................................... 6 3. Lubrication

  13. Metal working lubricant compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andress, H.J.; Davis, R.H.; Schick, J.W.

    1981-08-11

    A lubricant concentrate for use in metal processing comprises a sulfur compound such as a sulfurized olefin or sulfurized mineral oil and an ester prepared from a fatty acid having 12 to 40 carbon atoms or the dimer thereof or a polyalkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride and a hydroxyl-containing amine.

  14. Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, G.L.; Suchanek, A.

    1996-12-01

    As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

  15. The effect of lubrication film thickness on thermoelastic instability under fluid lubricating condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Yun-Bo

    The effect of lubrication film thickness on thermoelastic instability under fluid lubricating online 14 March 2013 Keywords: Thermoelastic instability Wet clutches Fluid lubrication Critical speed by a thin layer of lubricating fluid is developed to investigate thermoelastic instability with fluid

  16. Lubricant selection criteria and the tribological system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauer, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    Before the proper lubricant selection can be made, the tribological system must be identified to its fullest extent. This system includes the type of motion, speeds, temperatures, loads and the environment that is specific to the application. Once these parameters are identified, lubrication engineers or tribo-engineers can use their knowledge of the different lubricant chemistries to make a lubricant selection that will optimize the performance of the application. In addition to lubricant chemistry knowledge, the lubrication engineer also must analyze the application based on the identified tribological system. This analysis includes such topics as speed factors, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, extreme pressure lubrication, emergency lubrication and various special application requirements.

  17. Rifts in Spreading Wax Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rolf Ragnarsson; J. Lewis Ford; Christian D. Santangelo; Eberhard Bodenschatz

    1995-10-19

    We report experimental results on the rift formation between two freezing wax plates. The plates were pulled apart with constant velocity, while floating on the melt, in a way akin to the tectonic plates of the earth's crust. At slow spreading rates, a rift, initially perpendicular to the spreading direction, was found to be stable, while above a critical spreading rate a "spiky" rift with fracture zones almost parallel to the spreading direction developed. At yet higher spreading rates a second transition from the spiky rift to a zig-zag pattern occurred. In this regime the rift can be characterized by a single angle which was found to be dependent on the spreading rate. We show that the oblique spreading angles agree with a simple geometrical model. The coarsening of the zig-zag pattern over time and the three-dimensional structure of the solidified crust are also discussed.

  18. Lubricant characterization by molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.D.; Cui, S.T.; Cummings, P.T.; Cochran, H.D.

    1997-12-01

    The authors have reported the calculation of the kinematic viscosity index of squalane from nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. This represents the first accurate quantitative prediction of this measure of lubricant performance by molecular simulation. Using the same general alkane potential model, this computational approach offers the possibility of predicting the performance of potential lubricants prior to synthesis. Consequently, molecular simulation is poised to become an important tool for future lubricant development.

  19. Lubrication by charged polymers , Suzanne Giasson2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Jacob

    .............................................................. Lubrication by charged polymers Uri lubricants between sliding charged surfaces8 . Here we show that brushes of charged polymers (polyelectro- lytes) attached to surfaces rubbing across an aqueous medium result in superior lubrication compared

  20. Tribological Characterization of Carbon Based Solid Lubricants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Carlos Joel

    2012-10-19

    High performance machines such as gas turbine engines demand efficient solid lubricants at high temperature and in vacuum. The current conventional solid lubricants need to be further improved. This research evaluates carbon based solid lubricants...

  1. Thermal Fly-height Control Slider Dynamics and Slider-Lubricant Interactions in Hard Disk Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vangipuram Canchi, Sripathi

    2011-01-01

    slider-lubricant contact . . . . . . . . . . . . .slider-lubricant contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 8.2.1 Lubricant behavior in

  2. Adjoint Error Estimation for Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimack, Peter

    Adjoint Error Estimation for Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication by Daniel Edward Hart Submitted elastohydro- dynamic lubrication (EHL) problems. A functional is introduced, namely the friction

  3. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L. (Bartlesville, OK); Reynolds, James W. (Bartlesville, OK); Goetzinger, John W. (Bartlesville, OK); Cotton, Faye O. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  4. Separate lubricating system for marine propulsion device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, K.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a lubricating system for a two-cycle internal combustion engine. This system consists of a relatively large remotely positioned lubricant storage tank a relatively small lubricant delivery tank positioned in proximity to the engine for delivering lubricant to its lubricating system and means responsive to the level of lubricant in the delivery tank for transferring lubricant to maintain a predetermined level of lubricant in the delivery tank. The improvement consists of means for providing a warning signal when the level of lubricant in the storage tank falls below a predetermined amount. The means for providing the warning signal operate further to discontinue the transfer of lubricant from the storage tank to the delivery tank. There also is a manual override for operating the means for transferring lubricant from the storage tank to the delivery tank under operator control even when the warning signal has been activated.

  5. Lubricated viscous gravity currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Worster, M. Grae

    2015-02-10

    ) at their base. The presence of subglacial meltwater can be attributed to geothermal heating, frictional heating from glacier sliding, and ice melting under pressure from the weight of the ice † Email address for correspondence: K.Kowal@damtp.cam.ac.uk 2 K. N... -fed and a constant head was maintained in the reservoir. To minimize the amount Lubricated viscous gravity currents 15 mirror syringe pump reservoir glass sheet perspex sheet screen Golden Syrup Salt Solution 1 m Figure 6: Schematic of our experimental...

  6. Coatings and films derived from clay/wax nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.; Leyva, Argentina A.

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for making clay/wax nanocomposites and coatings and films of same with improved chemical resistance and gas barrier properties. The invention further provides methods for making and using emulsions of such clay/wax nanocomposites. Typically, an organophillic clay is combined with a wax or wax/polymer blend such that the cohesion energy of the clay matches that of the wax or wax/polymer blend. Suitable organophilic clays include mica and phyllosilicates that have been surface-treated with edge or edge and surface modifying agents. The resulting nanocomposites have applications as industrial coatings and in protective packaging.

  7. InsideIllinoisFeb. 20, 2014 Vol. 33, No. 15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Jennifer

    of litter on land and at sea, can be converted into diesel, natural gas and other useful petroleum products and biodies- els. Other products, such as natural gas, naphtha (a solvent), gasoline, waxes and lubricating oils such as engine oil and hydraulic oil also can be obtained from shopping bags. A report of the new

  8. InsideIllinoisFeb. 20, 2014 Vol. 33, No. 15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    and biodies- els. Other products, such as natural gas, naphtha (a solvent), gasoline, waxes and lubricating to 55 percent fuel from the distillation of petroleum photo by L. Brian Stauffer From litter to fuel almost 80 percent fuel from it through distillation." Americans throw away about 100 billion plastic

  9. Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils, selected low-viscosity ionic liquids, used as neat lubricants or basestock, produced significantly lower friction and engine wear

  10. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

    2001-06-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is anticipated that these data will be used in the design of new production facilities and in the development of thermodynamic models that describe the behavior of wax-saturated petroleum.

  11. Synovial fluid homeostasis : bulk flow, lubricant transport, and biophysical restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarty, William Joseph

    2012-01-01

    of synovial fluid lubricants hyaluronan and proteoglycan 4HOMEOSTASIS: BULK FLOW, LUBRICANT TRANSPORT, AND BIOPHYSICALmodel of synovial fluid lubricant composition in normal and

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report The Fuel & Lubricant...

  13. Defining the role of elastic lubricants and micro textured surfaces in lubricated, sliding friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hupp, Sara J. (Sara Jean), 1979-

    2008-01-01

    Solutions for reducing friction in sliding, lubricated systems include modifying lubricant rheology using polymers and adding a micro-scale texture to the sliding surfaces, but the mechanism of how lubrication properties ...

  14. A Bidirectional Deposition Model of Wax Crayons Dave Rudolf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mould, David

    A Bidirectional Deposition Model of Wax Crayons Dave Rudolf dave.rudolf@usask.ca David Mould mould present a physically-inspired model of wax crayons, which synthesizes drawings from collections of user that evolves as it interacts with the paper. The amount of wax deposition is computed based on the crayon

  15. Preparation of Samples for Light Microscopy Simple Wax Seal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    Preparation of Samples for Light Microscopy Simple Wax Seal Materials - Slide - Cover Slip - Paraffin Wax Candle - Pasteur Pipette (suggested size 5 3/4 inch) - Matches Preparation of the Slide - You may want to protect the work surface from melted wax. We use a sheet of aluminum foil taped

  16. Original article Ultrastructure of the wax gland complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Ultrastructure of the wax gland complex and secretion of beeswax in the worker; accepted 22 September 1994) Summary — The wax gland complex of the honey bee worker consists of 3 cell types, epithelial cells, oenocytes and adipocytes, which act synergistically to secrete wax

  17. Original article Residues in wax and honey after Apilife VAR®

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Residues in wax and honey after Apilife VAR® treatment Stefan Bogdanov Anton and foundation were exposed to the air during storage. © Inra/DIB/AGIB/Elsevier, Paris honey / wax / residue to accumulation of these substances in beeswax and less so in honey [1, 17]. The accumulation in wax depends

  18. Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenseleers, Tom

    Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees PATRIZIA D'ETTORRE*, TOM WENSELEERS 2006; MS. number: 8465) Research has shown that the wax combs are important in the acquisition in the laboratory or under artificial conditions. We investigated the role of the wax combs in nestmate recognition

  19. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pendelton, Alice Mae

    2009-05-15

    approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are discussed in Chapter V, followed by summary...

  20. Active lubricant-impregnated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, Karim S. (Karim Samir)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and testing of actively controlled lubricant-impregnated surfaces for enhanced droplet mobility and manipulation. Droplet manipulation and mobility on non-wetting surfaces is of practical ...

  1. 2014 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels & Lubricants Technologies 2014 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants Technologies Merit review of DOE Vehicle Technologies research activities...

  2. Auto/Steel Partnership: Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant Lightweight Rear Chassis Structures Future Generation Passenger Compartment AutoSteel Partnership: Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant...

  3. Influence of rheological properties of a lubricant on power consumption and heat transfer in a hydrostatic lubricating layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yablonskii, V.O.; Tyabin, N.V.; Yashchuk, V.M.

    1995-06-01

    The influence of rheological properties of lubricants on power consumption for pumping the lubricant in a hydrostatic lubricating layer and heat transfer of the lubricant with the supporting surfaces of a bearing is studied.

  4. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  5. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, J.; Viola, M. B.

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  6. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  7. Method For Testing Properties Of Corrosive Lubricants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohi, James (Denver, CO); De La Cruz, Jose L. (San Antonio, TX); Lacey, Paul I. (Wexford, IE)

    2006-01-03

    A method of testing corrosive lubricating media using a wear testing apparatus without a mechanical seal. The wear testing apparatus and methods are effective for testing volatile corrosive lubricating media under pressure and at high temperatures.

  8. Tethered Lubricants for Small Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynden A. Archer

    2006-01-09

    The objective of this research project is two-fold. First, to fundamentally understand friction and relaxation dynamics of polymer chains near surfaces; and second, to develop novel self-lubricated substrates suitable for MEMS devices. During the three-year performance period of this study the PI and his students have shown using theory and experiments that systematic introduction of disorder into tethered lubricant coatings (e.g. by using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) mixtures or SAMs with nonlinear, branched architectures) can be used to significantly reduce the friction coefficient of a surface. They have also developed a simple procedure based on dielectric spectroscopy for quantifying the effect of surface disorder on molecular relaxation in lubricant coatings. Details of research accomplishments in each area of the project are described in the body of the report.

  9. Review Article Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    Review Article Engineering Lubrication in Articular Cartilage Sean M. McNary, B.S.,1 Kyriacos A will need to incorporate approaches and methods for functional lubrication. Steady progress in cartilage lubrication in native tissues has pushed the pendulum and warranted a shift in the articular cartilage tissue

  10. Theory and Simulation of Friction and Lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueser, Martin

    Theory and Simulation of Friction and Lubrication M.H. M¨user Department of Applied Mathematics and Simulation of Friction and Lubrication, Lect. Notes Phys. 704, 65­104 (2006) DOI 10.1007/3-540-35284-8 4 c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.2 Physics and Chemistry of Lubricant Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 References

  11. Wetting and lubricating film instabilities in microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    Wetting and lubricating film instabilities in microchannels Thomas Cubaud Department of Mechanical, and silicone oils . Dynamic wetting transitions: a pearl flow thick lubricating film , b spider flow thin lubricating film , c ghost flow metastable dewetting patches . Droplet-decorated streams: d droplets

  12. LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION WITH PRESCRIBED NONZERO CONTACT ANGLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otto, Felix

    LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION WITH PRESCRIBED NONZERO CONTACT ANGLE Felix Otto Department--time existence for a weak solution s(t; x) â?? 0 of the lubrication approximation @ t s + @ x (s @ 3 x s) = 0 in fs will later motivate the way we construct approximate solutions for the lubrication approximation we are going

  13. A manybody lubrication model Bertrand MAURY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maury, Bertrand

    A many­body lubrication model Bertrand MAURY Department of Mathematics, University of Houston expensive. In order to overcome this problem, we introduce here a lubrication model to handle those "near. Nevertheless, we will concentrate in the present paper on the lubrication model only. Indeed, the physical

  14. Wax and hydrate control with electrical power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    Electrical heating of subsea flowlines is an effective way to prevent wax and hydrate information, especially for long transportation distances and in low-temperature deep water. Systems are available for use in conjunction with bundles, pipe-in-pipe, and wet-thermal-insulation systems. These systems provide environmentally friendly fluid-temperature control without chemicals or flaring for pipeline depressurizing. Enhanced production is achieved because no time is lost by unnecessary depressurizing, pigging, heating-medium circulation, or removal of hydrate and wax blockages. The seabed temperature at 100-m and greater water depths may range from 7 to {minus}1.5 C, causing a rapid cooling of the hot well streams being transported in subsea flowlines. Under these supercooling conditions, vulnerable crude oils and multiphase compositions will deposit wax and asphalts; also the gas/water phase may freeze solid with hydrate particles. The paper discusses thermal-insulated flowlines, heat-loss compensation with electrical power, electrical power consumption and operation, and subsea electrical-power distribution system.

  15. Microbial production of wax esters from highly branched alkanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bogan, William W.; Sullivan, Wendy R.; Paterek, James R.

    2005-02-01

    A microbial culture and method for producing wax esters using highly branched alkanes. In accordance with one embodiment, the highly branched alkane is squalane.

  16. Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV) Using Parrafin-Wax on a Centrifugal Microfluidic CD Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    implementing two valves using a single VCV wax plug. This isvalves such that melted wax from a normally-closed valve (releases it when the wax is melted) is later transferred to

  17. USDOE Top-of-Rail Lubricant Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohumad F. Alzoubi; George R. Fenske; Robert A. Erck; Amrit S. Boparai

    2002-02-01

    Lubrication of wheel/rail systems has been recognized for the last two decades as a very important issue for railroads. Energy savings and less friction and wear can be realized if a lubricant can be used at the wheel/rail interface. On the other hand, adverse influences are seen in operating and wear conditions if improper or excessive lubrication is used. Also, inefficiencies in lubrication need to be avoided for economic and environmental reasons. The top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant concept was developed by Texaco Corporation to lubricate wheels and rails effectively and efficiently. Tranergy Corporation has been developing its SENTRAEN 2000{trademark} lubrication system for the last ten years, and this revolutionary new high-tech on-board rail lubrication system promises to dramatically improve the energy efficiency, performance, safety, and track environment of railroads. The system is fully computer-controlled and ensures that all of the lubricant is consumed as the end of the train passes. Lubricant quantity dispensed is a function of grade, speed, curve, and axle load. Tranergy also has its LA4000{trademark} wheel and rail simulator, a lubrication and traction testing apparatus. The primary task of this project was collecting and analyzing the volatile and semivolatile compounds produced as the lubricant was used. The volatile organic compounds were collected by Carbotrap cartridges and analyzed by adsorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The semivolatile fraction was obtained by collecting liquid that dripped from the test wheel. The collected material was also analyzed by GC/MS. Both of these analyses were qualitative. The results indicated that in the volatile fraction, the only compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund List of Analytes detected were contaminants either in the room air or from other potential contamination sources in the laboratory. Similarly, in the semivolatile fraction none of the detected compounds are on the EPA's Superfund List of Analytes. The major compound in the semivolatile fraction is 1,2-propanediol, which was also found as the major component of the TOR lubricant before testing. Other compounds found in trace quantities either were present in the TOR lubricant or were small fragments from the polymeric component of the TOR lubricant. The second task for Argonne in this project was to investigate the effects of axle load, angle of attack, and quantity of lubricant on lateral friction forces, as well as the consumption time of the TOR lubricant. The second task was to collect and qualitatively identify any volatile and semivolatile compounds produced upon use of the TOR lubricant.

  18. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

    1987-08-04

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

  19. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derr, Jr., W. Rodman (Vincentown, NJ); Garwood, William E. (Haddonfield, NJ); Kuo, James C. (Cherry Hill, NJ); Leib, Tiberiu M. (Voorhees, NJ); Nace, Donald M. (Woodbury, NJ); Tabak, Samuel A. (Wenonah, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel.

  20. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, April 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagow, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

  1. Water-based lubricants for metalworking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, D.S.; Jain, V.K.

    1997-05-01

    Metalworking fluids currently constitute 17% of the total US industrial lubricant market. Market forces favor semisynthetic and synthetic formulations because they are more economical, and trends differ substantially from those of other lubricant markets as demand patterns shift. Lubricant manufacturers continue to reduce the use of mineral oil as a component in their formulations because synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are more cost-effective. The introduction of new engineering materials also has increased the demand for tailor-made lubricants in industrial applications. Synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are favored for cutting and metalworking applications because they perform better than the existing commercial product does. The literature strongly supports the development of environmentally friendly synthetic and semisynthetic metalworking lubricants that have longer useful lives, therefore decreasing the amount of fluid for disposal. Future lubricant formulations will focus on environmental issues, process compatibility, and worker health and safety. Biological control of fluids, in use and in disposal, will also draw attention.

  2. Proteoglycan 4 metabolism and boundary lubrication of articular cartilage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Tannin A.

    2006-01-01

    ability to act as boundary lubricants. Ann Rheum Dis 43:641-load-bearing boundary lubricant in the joint. Br J Rheumatolof the cartilage and lubricant. Arthritis Rheum 11:674-82,

  3. A Reduced Basis Element Approach for the Reynolds Lubrication Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Reduced Basis Element Approach for the Reynolds Lubrication Equation Lösen der Reynolds Reynolds Lubrication Equation 8 2.1 Introduction of the application, background setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2 Reynolds Lubrication Equation

  4. Adaptive High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Solution of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimack, Peter

    Adaptive High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Solution of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Point Contact for the solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) point contact problems. These problems arise when modelling the thin lubricating film between contacts which are under sufficiently high pressure

  5. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  6. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  7. Low Reactivity SI Engine Lubricant Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Results showed that lubricant improvement allowed up to 4 degree improvement in spark advance at knock limited conditions resulting in potentially over 3 percent indicated efficiency improvement

  8. Lubrication Systems Market : Mining & Mineral Processing Industry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Groeneveld Groep B.V., SKF AB, Bijur Delimon, Castrol-Lubecon, Changzhou Huali Hydraulic Lubrication Equipment Co., Ltd., Changhua Chen Ying Oil Machine Co., Ltd., Equipment...

  9. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Heavy-duty engine and light-duty vehicle experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for lubricant dilution by fuel during DPF regeneration events.

  10. Lubricants - Pathway to Improving Fuel Efficiency of Legacy Fleet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    additives to reduce fuel consumption, and impact of such approaches on other critical lubricant metrics deer11fenske.pdf More Documents & Publications Lubricants Activities...

  11. High-Performance Renewable Base Oils for Industrial Lubricants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Performance Renewable Base Oils for Industrial Lubricants Plant-Based Synthetic Lubricant Base Stock Reduces Emissions Dependence on foreign oil is a growing concern, as is...

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Lubricant and Additive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theoretical Investigation of Lubricant and Additive Effects on Engine Friction Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Lubricant and Additive Effects on Engine Friction...

  13. Fuels and Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology Fuels and Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D Annual Progress Report The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies subprogram supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with...

  15. Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Under...

  16. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. ace046lawson2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions...

  17. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ace046lawson2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions...

  18. Smart Surface and Lubrication Engineering show Promise for Gearbox...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Surface and Lubrication Engineering show Promise for Gearbox Reliability Smart Surface and Lubrication Engineering show Promise for Gearbox Reliability May 20, 2011 - 1:10pm...

  19. The Role of Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission Reductions: Viscosity Effects The Role of Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission Reductions: Viscosity Effects...

  20. Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and...

  1. Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreatment Systems via an Oil Conditioning Filter Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission...

  2. Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on Crankcase Oil Properties Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant...

  3. Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel...

  4. Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Experiments on the Effects of LubricantAdditive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation Controlled Experiments on the Effects of LubricantAdditive (Low-Ash,...

  5. Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: 2005 Diesel Engine...

  6. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    component failure. Poor lubricant performance can cause significant energy and material losses. The already large global demand for lubricants is expected to continue growing in...

  7. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of...

  8. Acrinathrin, effective varroacide and its residues in stores, honey and wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Acrinathrin, effective varroacide and its residues in stores, honey and wax Synthetic pyrethroids in honey, stores and wax. Honey and stores were extracted by hexane, wax was dissolved in acetonitrile quantity of acrinathrin into the untreated honey and wax. After 25 d exposure of the preparation

  9. Biosynthesis and secretion of plant cuticular wax L. Kunst, A.L. Samuels*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    Review Biosynthesis and secretion of plant cuticular wax L. Kunst, A.L. Samuels* Department the aerial portions of land plants. It consists of amorphous intracuticular wax embedded in cutin polymer, and epicuticular wax crystalloids that coat the outer plant surface and impart a whitish appearance. Cuticular wax

  10. Lubricants | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervarLeeds,Asia-Pacific DevelopingLower Valley EnergyLubricants

  11. Double angle seal forming lubricant film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A lubricated piston rod seal which inhibits gas leaking from a high pressure chamber on one side of the seal to a low pressure chamber on the other side of the seal. A liquid is supplied to the surface of the piston rod on the low pressure side of the seal. This liquid acts as lubricant for the seal and provides cooling for the rod. The seal, which can be a plastic, elastomer or other material with low elastic modulus, is designed to positively pump lubricant through the piston rod/seal interface in both directions when the piston rod is reciprocating. The capacity of the seal to pump lubricant from the low pressure side to the high pressure side is less than its capacity to pump lubricant from the high pressure side to the low pressure side which ensures that there is zero net flow of lubricant to the high pressure side of the seal. The film of lubricant between the seal and the rod minimizes any sliding contact and prevents the leakage of gas. Under static conditions gas leakage is prevented by direct contact between the seal and the rod.

  12. Thin film deposition behavior of lubricants as a function of temperature - Lubricant stability maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaus, E.E.; Wang, J.C.; Duda, J.L. )

    1992-07-01

    The relative rates of evaporation and oxidative or thermal decomposition in lubricants are investigated experimentally at elevated temperatures. Thin films of lubricant are exposed to air at high temperatures, and attention is given to the amount of solid deposit rendered and the amount of evaporated material. The effects of volatility, oxidative stability, and thermal stability are assessed with the help of stability maps for liquid lubricants. The concept of fluid-stability maps based on deposit formation as a function of temperature is shown to be effective. At 200-425 C lubricant deposit formation in the presence of air is a function of lubricant volatility, oxidation rate, the rate of thermal degradation, and the effect of the bearing surface. Some materials are listed that can mitigate the effects of oxidation on lubricant performance which can be used for a range of aerospace applications. 16 refs.

  13. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01

    Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two naphthenic mineral oils (NMO), four polyolesters (POE), and two polyvinyl ether (PVE) fluids. These fluids represented viscosity grades of ISO 32 and ISO 68 and are shown in a table. Refrigerants studied included R-22, R-134a, and R-410A. Film thickness measurements were conducted at 23 C, 45 C, and 65 C with refrigerant concentrations ranging from zero to 60% by weight.

  14. Droplet mobility on lubricant-impregnated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Jonathan David

    Non-wetting surfaces containing micro/nanotextures impregnated with lubricating liquids have recently been shown to exhibit superior non-wetting performance compared to superhydrophobic surfaces that rely on stable air–liquid ...

  15. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH PIER Transportation, particulate matter emissions may become a significant barrier to deploying beneficial alternative fuel that particulate matter from sparkignition vehicles contributes significantly to particulate matter emissions

  16. Wax Blocks, Data Banks, and File #0467839: The Archive of Memory in William Gibson’s Science Fiction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanstrom, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    of three discrete layers—a wax slab at the bottom, a “as the system of perception, the wax slab as unconsciousand its protective shield, the wax slab with the unconscious

  17. Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, S.

    1998-05-07

    This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

  18. Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

    1987-03-03

    A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

  19. Lubricant analysis for gas turbine condition monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukas, M.; Anderson, D.P.

    1997-10-01

    Analysis of used lubricating oil is a fast-evolving technique for predictive maintenance with any closed-loop lubricating system such as those in gas and steam turbines, diesel and gasoline engines, transmissions, gearboxes, compressors, pumps, bearings, and hydraulic systems. Based on analysis of periodic oil samples, a laboratory diagnostic report is sent to the personnel responsible for the equipment to warn of any possible problem or to make a specific maintenance recommendation. The entire process, from sample taking to the diagnostic report, should take less than 48 hours to be effective. These reports, when combined with statistical analysis and trending, can provide an insight to management personnel on the effectiveness of the program, efficiency of the maintenance department, repair status of equipment, recurring problems, and even information on the performance of different lubricants. Condition monitoring by oil analysis can be broken down into two categories: debris monitoring to measure the trace quantities of wear particles carried by the lubricant away from the wearing surfaces and lubricant condition monitoring to determine whether the lubricant itself is fit for service based on physical and chemical tests.

  20. Solubility modeling of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    A general model for predicting the solubility properties of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures has been developed based on applicable theory for the excess Gibbs energy of non-ideal solutions. In our approach, flexible thermodynamic forms are chosen to describe the properties of both the gas and liquid phases of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. After an extensive study of models for describing non-ideal liquid effects, the Wohl-suffix equations, which have been extensively utilized in the analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures, have been developed into a general form applicable to mixtures where one component is a POE lubricant. In the present study we have analyzed several POEs where structural and thermophysical property data were available. Data were also collected from several sources on the solubility of refrigerant/lubricant binary pairs. We have developed a computer code (NISC), based on the Wohl model, that predicts dew point or bubble point conditions over a wide range of composition and temperature. Our present analysis covers mixtures containing up to three refrigerant molecules and one lubricant. The present code can be used to analyze the properties of R-410a and R-407c in mixtures with a POE lubricant. Comparisons with other models, such as the Wilson or modified Wilson equations, indicate that the Wohl-suffix equations yield more reliable predictions for HFC/POE mixtures.

  1. Foaming characteristics of refigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Shah, D.O.; Jotshi, C.K.; Bhagwat, S.; Leung, M.; Gregory, A.

    1997-04-01

    The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry has moved to HFC refrigerants which have zero ozone depletion and low global warming potential due to regulations on CFC and HCFC refrigerants and concerns for the environment. The change in refrigerants has prompted the switch from mineral oil and alkylbenzene lubricants to polyolester-based lubricants. This change has also brought about a desire for lubricant, refrigerant and compressor manufacturers to understand the foaming properties of alternative refrigerant/ lubricant mixtures, as well as the mechanisms which affect these properties. The objectives of this investigation are to experimentally determine the foaming absorption and desorption rates of HFC and blended refrigerants in polyolester lubricant and to define the characteristics of the foam formed when the refrigerant leaves the refrigerant/ lubricant mixture after being exposed to a pressure drop. The refrigerants being examined include baseline refrigerants: CFC-12 (R-12) and HCFC-22 (R-22); alternative refrigerants: HFC-32 (R-32), R-125, R-134a, and R-143a; and blended refrigerants: R-404A, R-407C, and R-410A. The baseline refrigerants are tested with ISO 32 (Witco 3GS) and ISO 68 (4GS) mineral oils while the alternative and blended refrigerants are tested with two ISO 68 polyolesters (Witco SL68 and ICI RL68H).

  2. Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants. Final report, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1997-07-01

    Part one of this research provides manufacturers of components of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment with a useful list of lubricant additives, sources, functional properties and chemical species. The list in part one is comprised of domestic lubricant additive suppliers and the results of a literature search that was specifically targeted for additives reported to be useful in polyolester chemistry.

  3. Using cuticular wax alkanes to estimate herbage intake in animals fed supplements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Using cuticular wax alkanes to estimate herbage intake in animals fed supplements H Dove RW Mayes M) of plant cuticular wax, in combination with orally-dosed, even-chain alkanes of adjacent chain length, can

  4. Can Psychophysical Identity Save Mental Causation? The popularity of psychophysical property identity has waxed and waned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habib, Ayman

    identity has waxed and waned since its presentation by the Australian materialists of the 1950s. It went

  5. Molecular Characterization of Wax Isolated from a Variety of Crude Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Molecular Characterization of Wax Isolated from a Variety of Crude Oils Barbara J. Musser and Peter Carolina 27695-7905 Received November 5, 1997 Petroleum waxes from sixteen different crude oils were to aid in the investigation of the effect of wax type and quantity on water-in-crude oil emulsion

  6. WAX DEPOSITION IN CRUDE OILS: A NEW APPROACH Antonio Fasano -Mario Primicerio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    WAX DEPOSITION IN CRUDE OILS: A NEW APPROACH Antonio Fasano - Mario Primicerio abstract. The complex phenomenon of solid wax deposition in wax sat- urated crude oils subject to thermal gradients has. Introduction Crude oils are complex mixtures containing parans, aromatics, naph- tenics, resins, asphaltenes

  7. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Malcolin T. SANFORD Alfred An electron microscopic study was initiated to elucidate the ultrastructure of the wax gland in an actively wax secreting worker honey bee. The investigation showed that the cuticle is penetrated by bundles

  8. Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based Microfluidics Emanuel a detailed study on wax printing, a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating microfluidic devices in paper using a commercially avail- able printer and hot plate. The printer prints patterns of solid wax

  9. Heat and mass transport in non-isothermal partially saturated oil-wax Antonio Fasano1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    Heat and mass transport in non-isothermal partially saturated oil-wax solutions Antonio Fasano1 Mario Primicerio1 Abstract Deposition of wax at the wall of pipelines during the flow of mineral oils of the main mechanisms at the origin of wax deposition, i.e. diffusion in non-isothermal solutions. We

  10. Effects of aridity and vegetation on plant-wax dD in modern lake sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polissar, Pratigya J.

    Effects of aridity and vegetation on plant-wax dD in modern lake sediments Pratigya J. Polissar Abstract We analyzed the deuterium composition of individual plant-waxes in lake sediments from 28 fractionation (ea) between plant-wax n-alkanes and precipitation differs with watershed ecosystem type

  11. Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Erika J.

    Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes Li Gao1 States of America Abstract Hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial plant leaf waxes (dD) have been widely in leaf wax dD values in different terrestrial vascular plants are still poorly understood, hampering

  12. A PHASE CHANGE MICROVALVE USING A MELTABLE MAGNETIC MATERIAL: FERRO-WAX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Kwang W.

    A PHASE CHANGE MICROVALVE USING A MELTABLE MAGNETIC MATERIAL: FERRO-WAX Kwang W. Oh, Kak Namkoong This paper presents a novel phase change microvalve using a paraffin-based ferrofluid plug (called "Ferro-Wax"). The Ferro-Wax plug is essentially leak-proof because of the phase change nature of the material; once

  13. Characterizing the molecular composition of epicuticular waxes of vegetation and in surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Characterizing the molecular composition of epicuticular waxes of vegetation and in surface MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 #12;Abstract: Epicuticular plant waxes are nearly omnipresent of origin. These waxes can provide that information in real time when collected in aerosols, or from

  14. CONTROL OF THE WAX MOTH GALLERIA MELLONELLA ON BEECOMB BY H-SEROTPYE V

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CONTROL OF THE WAX MOTH GALLERIA MELLONELLA ON BEECOMB BY H-SEROTPYE V BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS, England SUMMARY Mature broodcombs were protected from attack by larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella was much less in laboratory assays made directly on sheets of foundation wax. Dipicolinic acid, penicillin

  15. Environmental control on eastern broadleaf forest species' leaf wax distributions and D/H ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental control on eastern broadleaf forest species' leaf wax distributions and D/H ratios the degree to which an individual plant's leaf waxes D/H ratios are affected by these parameters remains- sitions of leaf wax n-alkanes, stem and surface waters were analyzed and compared against high

  16. Calorimetric investigations on thermoregula-tion and growth of wax moth larvae (Galleria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Calorimetric investigations on thermoregula- tion and growth of wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) The larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella are living in honeybee colonies where they feed on wax, honey, pollen and other organic matter. Mass-invasions of larvae can occur in weak bee colonies

  17. Mathematical formulation and numerical modeling of wax deposition in pipelines from enthalpyporosity approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Mathematical formulation and numerical modeling of wax deposition in pipelines from enthalpy in the layer composed of the two-phase wax and oil (that is the gel layer), and (3) use Fick's law to describe to temperature gradient. In this work, a rigorous math- ematical model for the prediction of wax deposition

  18. Hydrogen isotopic variability in leaf waxes among terrestrial and aquatic plants around Blood Pond, Massachusetts (USA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Hydrogen isotopic variability in leaf waxes among terrestrial and aquatic plants around Blood Pond interpretation of the hydrogen isotope ratios of plant leaf waxes extracted from sediments requires a thor- ough at a single site to determine how leaf wax hydro- gen isotope (D/H) ratios differ in different plant types

  19. Wax diffusivity under given thermal gradient: a mathematical model , A. Fasano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    Wax diffusivity under given thermal gradient: a mathematical model S. Correra , A. Fasano , L. Fusi , M. Primicerio , F. Rosso Abstract In this paper we describe how to obtain wax diffusivity and solubility in a saturated crude oil using the measurements of solid wax deposit in the experimental apparatus

  20. Environmental control on eastern broadleaf forest species' leaf wax distributions and D/H ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Environmental control on eastern broadleaf forest species' leaf wax distributions and D/H ratios plant's leaf waxes D/H ratios are affected by these parameters remains in question. Understanding Coast of the US, from Florida to Maine. Hydrogen isotopic compo- sitions of leaf wax n-alkanes, stem

  1. Bonding is carried out by building up Quartz Wax on the sample holder to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Tanya M.

    Bonding is carried out by building up Quartz Wax on the sample holder to support and bond the tooth that the Quartz Wax should cover as much of the sample face as possible to ensure a strong bond. Application Note Tooth Wax layer Figure 1 Sample holder Tooth Thin Section #12;B. Cutting - SIngle Selection Figure 2

  2. aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    aliphatic hydrocarbons constitute the largest fraction of cuticular wax in bees and cover a highly hydrocarbons in the cuticular waxes of bees are widely assumed to func- tion as recognition cues (for nestmate discriminate cuticular waxes based on esters and polar components Birgit FRÖHLICHa, Markus RIEDERERa, Jürgen

  3. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Plant cuticles shine: advances in wax biosynthesis and export

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Plant cuticles shine: advances in wax biosynthesis stresses. It is composed of cutin polymer matrix and waxes, produced and secreted by epidermal cells involved in fatty acid elongation and biosynthesis of wax components, as well as transporters required

  4. Asphaltenes and Waxes Do Not Interact Synergistically and Coprecipitate in Solid Organic Deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Asphaltenes and Waxes Do Not Interact Synergistically and Coprecipitate in Solid Organic Deposits Waxes and asphaltenes are the major components in organic deposits from petroleum fluids. A key unresolved issue is whether there are significant intermolecular interactions between wax and asphaltene

  5. Formation of bands and ridges on Europa by cyclic deformation: Insights from analogue wax experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manga, Michael

    Formation of bands and ridges on Europa by cyclic deformation: Insights from analogue wax perform a set of analogue wax experiments aimed at understanding the processes and conditions that lead to lineament formation on Europa. We heat a layer of wax from below and cool it from above so that a solid

  6. Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plantwater environment at leaf ush

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plant­water environment at leaf ush Brett J. Tipple1 , Melissa A, UT, and approved December 26, 2012 (received for review August 13, 2012) Leaf-wax n-alkanes 2 H/1 H the 2 H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes and of stem, leaf, stream, and atmospheric waters throughout

  7. A Core Subunit of the RNA-Processing/Degrading Exosome Specifically Influences Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    A Core Subunit of the RNA-Processing/Degrading Exosome Specifically Influences Cuticular Wax is an extracellular matrix composed of cutin polyester and waxes that covers aerial organs of land plants and protects them from environmental stresses. The Arabidopsis thaliana cer7 mutant exhibits reduced cuticular wax

  8. Biocides for lubricant rancidity and biofouling prevention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passman, F.J.

    1997-10-01

    Lubricant systems provide a good environment for microbial communities. Growing most abundantly on surfaces, microbes can change lubricant performance properties by selectively depleting functional additives. Moreover, microbial metabolites can stimulate corrosion and induce invert emulsion formation. The keys to microbial contamination control are good industrial hygiene, monitoring and timely treatment. There are more than 30 USEPA registered metalworking fluid biocides. Each has an application where it provides cost-effective protection. Biocides should be selected based on performance in a particular coolant and system. Most often, biocides with limited solubility in non-polar solvents work better in lubricants. Bench tests provide a relatively inexpensive method for evaluating alternative treatments. Bench test data need to be confirmed through field evaluations. Bioresistant additives that have no obvious functionality other than replacing registered biocides should be considered with care. Properly used as one component of a complete lubricant system management program, data-driven biocide use can extend lubricant life dramatically, reduce downtime and create a healthier work environment.

  9. Tribological Properties of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kheireddin, Bassem

    2013-08-02

    New nanomaterials and nanoparticles are currently under investigation as lubricants or lubricant additives due to their unusual properties compared to traditional materials. One of the objectives of this work is to investigate ...

  10. Lubricants- Pathway to Improving Fuel Efficiency of Legacy Fleet Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews recent studies on potential for low-viscosity lubricants and low-friction surfaces and additives to reduce fuel consumption, and impact of such approaches on other critical lubricant metrics

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report This report describes the...

  12. Turbine engine lubricant foaming due to silicone basestock used in non-specification spline lubricant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Centers, P.W.

    1995-05-01

    Dependent upon molecular weight and distribution, concentration, temperature, air flow, and test details or field application, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) may be neutral, profoamant or antifoamant in polyolesters. This understanding was critical in the solution of a turbine engine lubrication system foaming problem occurring at several military locations. Suspect turbine engine-accessory gearbox assembly materials gathered from several sites were evaluated. One non-specification PDMS-based spline lubricant caused copious foaming of the lubricant at less than ten parts-per-million concentration, while a specification polymethyl-phenylsiloxane (PMPS)-based lubricant required a concentration nearly 2000 times greater to generate equivalent foam. Use of the profoamant PDMS spline lubricant was then prohibited. Since prohibition, foaming of turbine engine lubricants used in the particular application has not been reported. PMPS impact on foaming of ester lubricants is similar to a much more viscous PDMS attributed to the reduced interaction of PMPS in esters due to pendant phenyl structure of PMPS absent in PDMS. These data provide significant additional insight and methodology to investigate foaming tendencies of partially miscible silicone-ester and other fluid systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Soft lubrication: The elastohydrodynamics of nonconforming and conforming contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahadevan, L.

    Soft lubrication: The elastohydrodynamics of nonconforming and conforming contacts J. M. Skotheim 13 May 2005; published online 2 September 2005 We study the lubrication of fluid-immersed soft reduced friction, further reductions were possible upon the introduction of a viscous lubricating fluid

  14. High Order Finite Element Solution of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimack, Peter

    High Order Finite Element Solution of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Problems by Hongqiang Lu-dimensional Elastohydro- dynamic Lubrication (EHL) problems (line contact and point contact). This thesis pro- vides an introduction to elastohydrodynamic lubrication, including some history, and a description of the underlying

  15. Call for Abstracts Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    1 Call for Abstracts Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers 70th Annual Meeting and colleagues, The Surface Engineering Technical Committee of the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication range of topics involving the surface engineering (includes hard coatings) and lubricating mechanisms

  16. Soft Lubrication J. M. Skotheim and L. Mahadevan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahadevan, L.

    Soft Lubrication J. M. Skotheim and L. Mahadevan Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical-induced lubrication at soft interfaces. In particular, we quantify how a soft substrate changes the geometry which show the same qualitative behavior. Thus, they are relevant in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication

  17. Boundary lubrication under water Wuge H. Briscoe1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Jacob

    LETTERS Boundary lubrication under water Wuge H. Briscoe1 , Simon Titmuss1 , Fredrik Tiberg1 {, Robert K. Thomas1 , Duncan J. McGillivray1 { & Jacob Klein1,2 Boundary lubrication, in which the rubbing. This process, wide- spread in engineering applications, is also predicted to occur in biological lubrication

  18. Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles David R. Worton to "fresh" lubricating oil. The gas chromatography retention time data indicates that the cycloalkane ring with lubricating oil being the dominant source from both gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, with an additional

  19. Peeling, healing and bursting in a lubricated elastic sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosoi, Anette "Peko"

    Peeling, healing and bursting in a lubricated elastic sheet A. E. Hosoi and L. Mahadevan August 10 in a lubricated elastic sheet A. E. Hosoi1, and L. Mahadevan2, 1 Hatsopoulos Microfluids Laboratory, Department 02138, USA (Dated: August 6, 2004) We consider the dynamics of an elastic sheet lubricated by the flow

  20. Lubricants under high local pressure: Liquids act like solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueser, Martin

    Lubricants under high local pressure: Liquids act like solids Schmierstoffe unter hohem lokalem Druck: Flu¨ ssigkeiten verhalten sich wie Fest- stoffe M. H. Mu¨ ser A lubricant layer solidifies when confining surfaces slide past each other induces flow in the lubricant layer that is akin of plastic flow

  1. FY2013 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    Annual progress report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies. The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Program supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle manufacturers and users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  2. Method for reclaiming waste lubricating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L. (Bartlesville, OK); Goetzinger, John W. (Bartlesville, OK); Cotton, Faye O. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1978-01-01

    A method for purifying and reclaiming used lubricating oils containing additives such as detergents, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure agents and the like and other solid and liquid contaminants by preferably first vacuum distilling the used oil to remove water and low-boiling contaminants, and treating the dried oil with a solvent mixture of butanol, isopropanol and methylethyl ketone which causes the separation of a layer of sludge containing contaminants, unspent additives and oxidation products. After solvent recovery, the desludged oil is then subjected to conventional lubricating oil refining steps such as distillation followed by decolorization and deodorization.

  3. Dear APUNSC Member, This sheet is to help get you started in ski waxing. As you become more proficient and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheel, David

    Dear APUNSC Member, This sheet is to help get you started in ski waxing. As you become more will need. This sheet includes the Swix waxes and tools that we use the most in Anchorage and Alaska. My in any condition. By using this sheet and attending our program wax clinics waxing should become a more

  4. NATURE PHYSICS | VOL 10 | FEBRUARY 2014 | www.nature.com/naturephysics 81 String and sealing wax --although probably

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    and sealing wax -- although probably no longer physicists' preferred ingredients for their experiments

  5. Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Summary Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated wax phase can exhibit retrograde phenomena similar of precipitated wax may first increase, then decrease, then increase again. The effect of pressure on wax

  6. CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-Forming Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-Forming Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax surfaces of land plants. It is composed of a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex and characterization of CER4, a wax bio- synthetic gene from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Arabidopsis cer4

  7. Diesel lubrication and cooling systems -- lubrication of the GM-71 series engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The film shows, by the use of animation, the course of the oil through the engine. It describes how it lubricates each component part and explains the principle of the ventilation system.

  8. Lubricants or lubricant additives composed of ionic liquids containing ammonium cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Jun (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Truhan, Jr.,; John J. (Cookeville, TN) [Cookeville, TN; Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Blau, Peter J. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    A lubricant or lubricant additive is an ionic liquid alkylammonium salt. The alkylammonium salt has the structure R.sub.xNH.sub.(4-x).sup.+,[F.sub.3C(CF.sub.2).sub.yS(O).sub.2].sub.2N.sup- .- where x is 1 to 3, R is independently C.sub.1 to C.sub.12 straight chain alkyl, branched chain alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkyl substituted cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl substituted alkyl, or, optionally, when x is greater than 1, two R groups comprise a cyclic structure including the nitrogen atom and 4 to 12 carbon atoms, and y is independently 0 to 11. The lubricant is effective for the lubrication of many surfaces including aluminum and ceramics surfaces.

  9. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  10. Lubrication properties of post-injury synovial fluid : the relationship between friction, wear and its biochemical contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harith, Hazreen Haizi

    2008-01-01

    of the load-bearing boundary lubricant in the joint. Br Jviscous fluid that acts as a lubricant facilitating smoothvaried fairly with test lubricants, the thickness decrease

  11. Effect of arthroscopic cartilage defect repair with bone marrow derived cells on the lubricant properties of synovial fluid :

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissom, Murray J.

    2011-01-01

    of loading time and lubricant on the friction of articulararticular cartilage boundary lubricant. J Orthop Res, 2001.viscous, elastic and lubricant properties. J Phys, 1953.

  12. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niranjana, A. R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Mahesh, S. S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Divakara, S., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com; Somashekar, R., E-mail: arnphysics@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  13. Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

    2012-02-28

    Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest portion of savings comes in Levelized Replacement Cost, which is dictated by the assumption on gearb

  14. Ionic Liquids with Ammonium Cations as Lubricants or Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Truhan, Jr., John J

    2006-01-01

    Friction and wear are estimated to cost 6% of the US gross national product, or around $700 billion annually. A new class of more effective lubricants could lead to huge energy savings. Limited recent literature has suggested potential for using room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants, however only a few out of millions (or more) of species have been evaluated. Recent ORNL work discovered a new category of ionic liquids with ammonium cations that have demonstrated promising lubricating properties as net lubricants or lubricant additives, particularly in lubricating difficult-to-lubricate metals like aluminum. More than 30% friction reduction has been observed on ammonium-based ionic liquids compared to conventional hydrocarbon oils. The inherent polarity of ionic liquids is believed to provide strong adhesion to contact surfaces and form a boundary lubricating film leading to friction and wear reductions. Other advantages of ionic liquids include (1) negligible volatility, (2) high thermal stability, (3) non-flammability, and (4) better intrinsic properties that eliminate the necessity of many expensive lubricant additives. With very flexible molecular structures, this new class of lubricants, particularly ammonium-based ionic liquids, can be tailored to fit a big variety of applications including but not limited to bearings, combustion engines, MEMS, and metal forming.

  15. Yieldably mounted lubricant control assemblies for piston rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijer, R.J.; Ziph, B. Godett, T.M.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes an engine having a housing comprising a cylinder within which a piston reciprocates and a piston rod extending from the piston through a bore which extends in the housing from the cylinder to a crankcase and a lubricant control assembly which is disposed within the bore in cooperative arrangement with the piston rod and functions to separate the cylinder from the crankcase while allowing the piston rod to reciprocate axially through a lubricant control portion of the lubricant control assembly which is in forceful contact around the piston rod, the improvement which comprises a compliant housing for mounting the lubricant control assembly on the engine housing. The compliant housing is operatively disposed between the engine housing and the lubricant control portion to allow the lubricant control portion to be radially displaced with respect to the bore and thereby comply with radial displacement of the reciprocating piston rod while maintaining substantially full effectiveness of the lubricant control portion acting on the piston rod. The lubricant control assembly consists of a tubular part, means attaching the tubular part to the compliant housing such that the tubular part can comply with radial displacement of the reciprocating piston rod, and force-applying means acting between the tubular part and the lubricant control portion for urging the lubricant control portion into forceful contact around the reciprocating piston rod.

  16. Use of Lubricants in the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourdin, W; Biltoft, P

    2006-07-06

    There are two principal concerns that govern the use of lubricants in NIF: (1) Airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs)--AMCs are known to seriously degrade the performance of sol-gel coated optics. AMCs are produced by the slow outgassing of residues (non-volatile residues or ''NVRs'') of high molecular weight compounds left on surfaces. Lubricants, particularly hydrocarbon lubricants, are a primary source of such NVRs. (2) Particulates--Particulates that accumulate on optical surfaces can cause permanent physical damage when exposed to high energy density laser light. Lubricant residues exposed to high energy density light will pyrolyze or decompose and produce carbon particulates. The NIF Approved Materials Database lists several lubricants that have been tested for use in NIF environments. Many of these lubricants were tested according to MELs 99-006 (oven outgassing test) or 99-007 (vacuum outgassing test). In these tests, the change in percent transmission of light through a sol-gel coated optic placed next to the sample under evaluation is used as the diagnostic. Samples that cause less than 0.1% change in optical transmission are deemed suitable for use inside beam enclosures. This testing, however, addresses only the concern associated with AMCs. To assess the issue of particle generation, a flashlamp or ''aerosol'' test is used. In this test a sample with residues is subjected to intense light from the main amplifier flashlamps. The number density of particles per unit volume is measure after each flash. A measurement of an average of fewer than 1000 particles >0.5{micro}m in diameter produced per square foot of exposed surface per flash for each of the last ten flashes in a series of 60 flashes of light is deemed to be acceptable for polymers. A measurement of an average of fewer than 100 particles >0.5{micro}m in diameter produced per square foot of exposed surface per flash for each of the last ten flashes in a series of 60 flashes of light is deemed to be acceptable for metals.

  17. Variability in the carbon isotopic composition of foliage carbon pools (soluble carbohydrates, waxes) and respiration fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    , waxes) and respiration fluxes in southeastern U.S. pine forests Behzad Mortazavi,1,2,3 Maureen H. ConteCSC), and waxes (dCW)) and respiratory carbon (foliage (dCFR), soil (dCSR) and ecosystem 13 CO2 (dCER)) for two-alkanoic acid wax molecular cluster was twice that observed for dCOM and the predominant C22­26 compound cluster

  18. A new thermodynamic model to predict wax deposition from crude oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loganathan, Narayanan

    1993-01-01

    . , 1926; Affens et al. , 1984), crystal morphology (Ferris and Cowles, 1945; Edwards, 1957), and physical properties of petroleum wax (Templin, 1956) have been studied in detail. Bem et ak (1980) studied wax deposition in North Sea submarine crude-oil...A NEW THERMODYNAMIC MODEL TO PREDICT WAX DEPOSITION FROM CRUDE OILS A Thesis by NARAYANAN LOGANATHAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fullillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  19. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-12-16

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  20. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-04-01

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles, for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs, or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  1. Characterization of Spray Lubricants for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2008-01-01

    During the die casting process, lubricants are sprayed in order to cool the dies and facilitate the ejection of the casting. The cooling effects of the die lubricant were investigated using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), heat flux sensors (HFS), and infrared imaging. The evolution of the heat flux and pictures taken using a high speed infrared camera revealed that lubricant application was a transient process. The short time response of the HFS allows the monitoring and data acquisition of the surface temperature and heat flux without additional data processing. A similar set of experiments was performed with deionized water in order to assess the lubricant effect. The high heat flux obtained at 300 C was attributed to the wetting and absorbant properties of the lubricant. Pictures of the spray cone and lubricant flow on the die were also used to explain the heat flux evolution.

  2. Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV) Using Parrafin-Wax on a Centrifugal Microfluidic CD Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    wax solidifies) by centrifugal force. Author ContributionsF, et al. (2007) The centrifugal microfluidic Bio-Diskswitching valves on a centrifugal microfluidic platform.

  3. Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mofidi; B. Prakash; B. N. J. Persson; O. Albohl

    2007-10-18

    We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short wavelength roughness, which may give the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the substrate surface asperities. The presented results are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

  4. Lubrication in a corner Roman Stocker and A. E. Hosoi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosoi, Anette "Peko"

    Lubrication in a corner Roman Stocker and A. E. Hosoi August 24, 2004 HML Report Number 04-P-03 Lubrication in a corner By R O M A N S T O C K E R1 A N D A. E. H O S O I2 1 Department of Mathematics coordinate system ( = x2 -y2 , = 2xy). Lubrication theory is applied to the governing equations written

  5. Acceptability and Use of the Diaphragm and Replens® Lubricant Gel for HIV Prevention in Southern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    G, et al. Diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention of HIVT, et al. The diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention ofDiaphragm and Replens Ò Lubricant Gel for HIV Prevention in

  6. On the linear finite element analysis of fully-coupled point contact elastohydrodynamic lubrication problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimack, Peter

    On the linear finite element analysis of fully-coupled point contact elastohydrodynamic lubrication lubrication (EHL) point contact problems requires the numerical solution of the elasticity prob- lem, technique is applied. KEYWORDS: elastohydrodynamic lubrication; finite element method; linear elasticity

  7. Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müftü, Sinan

    Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, temperature can be controlled, there are changes in the lubrication conditions, and combined radial and thrust and properties, steel cleanliness, hardening treatments, lubrication, dirt, mounting, manufacturing methods

  8. An adaptive finite element procedure for fully-coupled point contact elastohydrodynamic lubrication problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimack, Peter

    An adaptive finite element procedure for fully-coupled point contact elastohydrodynamic lubrication to control adaptivity in both the elasticity and the lubrication domains. The implementation is based levels grows. KEYWORDS: elastohydrodynamic lubrication; finite element method; linear elasticity; fully

  9. Boundary lubrication of articular cartilage : contribution of hyaluronan in health and injury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonacci, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    ability to act as boundary lubricants. Ann Rheum Dis 43:641-of the cartilage and lubricant. Arthritis Rheum 11:674-82,viscous, elastic and lubricant properties. J Phys 119:244-

  10. Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication ME5656 Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müftü, Sinan

    Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication ME5656 Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Northeastern University Fall 2011 Tribology of Journal Bearings Subjected to Boundary and Mixed Lubrication characteristics and issues related to journal bearings under boundary and mixed lubrication conditions during

  11. Adaptive High-order Finite Element Solution of Transient Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walkley, Mark

    Adaptive High-order Finite Element Solution of Transient Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Problems H a new numerical method to solve transient line contact elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) problems parameter dimensionless density 2 #12;1 Introduction Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) problems have

  12. Properties of carbon overcoats and perfluoro-polyether lubricants in hard disk drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunner, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    of perfluoropolyether lubricants with magnetic recordingof ultra-thin liquid lubricant and its control for thin-filmM.S. Jhon and H.J. Choi, "Lubricants in future data storage

  13. Biomechanics of cartilage articulation : effects of degeneration, lubrication, and focal articular defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    articular cartilage boundary lubricant. J Orthop Res 19:671-of loading time and lubricant on the friction of articularStrain Maps: Effects of Lubricant and Degeneration. 47

  14. An efficient preconditioned iterative solution of fully-coupled elastohydrodynamic lubrication problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimack, Peter

    An efficient preconditioned iterative solution of fully-coupled elastohydrodynamic lubrication elastohydrodynamic lubrication line and point contact problems. The new blockwise preconditioner that is presented that both grow linearly with the number of unknowns. Keywords: elastohydrodynamic lubrication; finite

  15. Scaling theory for hydrodynamic lubrication, with application to non-Newtonian lubricants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick B. Warren

    2015-02-04

    Scaling arguments are developed for the load balance in hydrodynamic lubrication, and applied to non-Newtonian lubricants with a shear-thinning rheology typical of a structured liquid. It is argued that the shear thinning regime may be mechanically unstable in lubrication flow, and consequently the Stribeck (friction) curve should be discontinuous, with possible hysteresis. Further analysis suggests that normal stress and flow transience (stress overshoot) do not destroy this basic picture, although they may provide stabilising mechanisms at higher shear rates. Extensional viscosity is also expected to be insignificant unless the Trouton ratio is large. A possible application to recent theories of shear thickening in non-Brownian particulate suspensions is indicated.

  16. A Novel Lubricant Formulation Strategy for 2% Fuel Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    demonstration of temporary shear thinning On Track 3. Nanoparticles in Lubricants and Characterization GoNo-go Decision: no severe wear Completion 4. Model-Assisted Optimal...

  17. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-Based Lubrication Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to design, develop, manufacture, and scale up boron-based nanoparticulate lubrication additives.

  18. 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2amr05.pdf More Documents & Publications 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Fuels Technologies...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A Novel Lubricant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    through Surface Modification (Agreement ID:23284) Project ID:18518 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Can hard coatings and lubricant anti-wear additives work together?...

  20. Examining Effects of Lubricant Composition in Engine Component...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal Combustion Engines Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress...

  1. The Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine Diesel Aftertreatment Systems development Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter...

  2. Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles · New and aged lubricants representative fuel, biodiesel, and CNG The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems

  3. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CLOSE) Project Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project Extensive chemical and physical characterization performed on emissions from normal and high...

  4. Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Development of High Performance Heavy Duty Engine Oils...

  5. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF/STB. The bubblepoint pressure for live oil samples varied between 1600 psi and 2100 psi. Wax precipitation is one of the most important phenomena in wax deposition and, hence, needs to be modeled. There are various models present in the literature. Won's model, which considers the wax phase as a non-ideal solution, and Pedersen's model, which considers the wax phase as an ideal solution, were compared. Comparison indicated that Pedersen's model gives better results, but the assumption of wax phase as an ideal solution is not realistic. Hence, Won's model was modified to consider different precipitation characteristics of the various constituents in the hydrocarbon fraction. The results obtained from the modified Won's model were compared with existing models, and it was found that predictions from the modified model are encouraging.

  6. Lubrication approximation for thin viscous films: asymptotic behavior of nonnegative solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tudorascu, Adrian

    Lubrication approximation for thin viscous films: asymptotic behavior of nonnegative solutions-order nonlinear de- generate parabolic equations of lubrication approximation for thin viscous film type. The weak

  7. MUSKHELISHVILI'S METHOD APPLIED TO ELLIPTICAL AND LUBRICATED CIRCULAR INCLUSIONS IN GENERAL SHEAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podladchikov, Yuri

    MUSKHELISHVILI'S METHOD APPLIED TO ELLIPTICAL AND LUBRICATED CIRCULAR INCLUSIONS IN GENERAL SHEAR and Elliptical Inclusions, Lubricated Inclusions, Mantled Inclusions, Pure and Simple Shear, Viscous Rheology

  8. Florida Wax Scales: Control Measures in Texas for Hollies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Reinert, James; Williams, Michael L.

    2006-11-30

    Experiment Station, The Texas A&M University System; Professor of Entomology, Department of Entomology/Plant Pathology, Auburn University H ollies have historically been good choices as landscape plant species in Texas and are well adapted to the state?s... wax scale nymphs. The nymphs feed and develop through three stages, which are known as the fi rst, second and third instars. First-instar nymphs (Fig. 3) hatch from eggs over 2 to 3 weeks. Then these nymphs, called crawlers, move to and settle...

  9. MODELLING WAX DIFFUSION IN CRUDE OILS: THE COLD FINGER , A. Fasano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    MODELLING WAX DIFFUSION IN CRUDE OILS: THE COLD FINGER DEVICE S. Correra , A. Fasano , L. Fusi , M. Primicerio Abstract In this paper we show how to obtain wax diffusivity and solubility in crude oils from obtained in simulations are in agreement with data of field experiments. 1 Introduction Waxy crude oils

  10. EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS Yang2hang1 Post February 2005) ABSTRACT Dimensional stability is an important property of wood composites. Both resin and wax are essential additives in the manufactureof composite panels such as OSB. Resin binds wood

  11. System and method for the mitigation of paraffin wax deposition from crude oil by using ultrasonic waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Brian F. (Laramie, WY)

    2007-09-04

    A method for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls. The method comprises positioning at least one ultrasonic frequency generating device adjacent the production tubing walls and producing at least one ultrasonic frequency thereby disintegrating the wax and inhibiting the wax from attaching to the production tubing walls. A system for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls is also provided.

  12. FY 2012 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, Kevin

    2013-06-28

    Annual progress report of the Fuel & Lubricant Technologies subprogram supporting fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  13. Hydrocracking and recovering polynuclear aromatic compounds in slop wax stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruia, A.J.

    1987-10-06

    This patent describes a catalytic hydrocracking process which comprises: (a) introducing a reduced crude into a fractionation zone to produce a vacuum gas oil stream having a propensity to form polynuclear aromatic compounds in a hydrocracking zone and a slop wax stream; (b) contacting the vacuum gas oil stream in a hydrocracking zone with added hydrogen and a metal promoted hydrocracking catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure sufficient to gain a substantial conversion to lower boiling products; (c) partially condensing the hydrocarbon effluent from the hydrocracking zone and separating the same into a low boiling hydrocarbon product stream and an unconverted hydrocarbon stream boiling above about 650/sup 0/F (343/sup 0/C) and containing trace quantities of polynuclear aromatic compounds; and (d) introducing at least a portion of the unconverted hydrocarbon stream containing polynuclear aromatic compounds into the fractionation zone thereby recovering a substantial portion of the polynuclear aromatic compounds in the slop wax stream which significantly minimizes the introduction of the polynuclear aromatic compounds into the hydrocracking zone.

  14. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

    1987-08-04

    A processor is described for converting synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons comprising the steps of: (a) charging the synthesis gas to a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis conversion zone containing a catalyst providing CO reducing characteristics to produce a waxy hydrocarbon liquid; (b) separating hydrocarbon wax from the waxy liquid; (c) catalytically cracking the wax in a fluidized bed of acid crystalline zeolite at cracking temperature under process conditions requiring a supply of heat to effect cracking, producing olefinic liquid hydrocarbon crackate in the gasoline and distillate boiling range along with olefinic light gas; (d) recovering distillate range hydrocarbons from the liquid crackate; (e) further converting the olefinic gasoline range hydrocarbon crackate and olefinic light gas under oligomerization conditions in contact with a shape selective medium pore acid oligomerization catalyst to upgrade at least a portion of the olefinic crackate and olefinic light gas to distillate range hydrocarbon product and producing by-product light fuel gas; (f) separating the light fuel gas from step (e) and passing the light fuel gas to cracking step (c) to supply heat.

  15. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis1,2[W][OA] Fengling Li, Xuemin Wu, Patricia Lam Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z1 (R.J.) Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids

  16. Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by adding Synthetic Wax C. Petita , A. Milliena , F. Canestrarib , V. Pannunziob , A. Virgilib a Université.petit@unilim.fr , Phone : +33555934519 Abstract Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax

  17. Wax Inhibition by Comb-like Polymers: Support of the Incorporation-Perturbation Mechanism from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Wax Inhibition by Comb-like Polymers: Support of the Incorporation-Perturbation Mechanism from ReceiVed: April 10, 2007; In Final Form: July 26, 2007 Deposition of wax on a cold surface is a serious problem in oil production. Progress in developing more effective wax inhibitors has been impeded

  18. Leaf epicuticular wax ultrastructure and trichome presence on Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) resistant and susceptible leaves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leaf epicuticular wax ultrastructure and trichome presence on Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia wax ultrastructure and leaf trichomes were examined on two Russian wheat aphid-susceptible wheat. Comparison of the scanning electron micrographs showed that the epicuticular wax structure was similar

  19. Evidence for water use efficiency as an important factor in determining the dD values of tree leaf waxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    leaf waxes Juzhi Hou, William J. D'Andrea, Dana MacDonald, Yongsong Huang * Department of Geological waxes can provide useful information about past climate change. However, factors con- trolling dD values of higher plant leaf waxes (dDwax) are poorly understood. Here we show that dDwax values are negatively

  20. International Journal of Odonatology 12 (2) 2009: 205-221 205 Crystalline wax coverage of the imaginal cuticle in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotiaho, Janne S.

    International Journal of Odonatology 12 (2) 2009: 205-221 205 Crystalline wax coverage words: Odonata, dragonfly, wax coverage, superhydrophobicity, cuticle, lantern. Abstract In this study we use high resolution SEM to describe the diversity of wax crystals and their distribution

  1. Journal of Virological Methods 132 (2006) 174180 A simple wax-embedding method for isolation of aphid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, W. Allen

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Virological Methods 132 (2006) 174­180 A simple wax-embedding method for isolation. This method uses warm melted wax to immobilize the aphid. Following removal of a hind leg, the hemolymph can in the hemolymph of individual aphids was developed. The wax-embedding hemolymph collection technique provides

  2. Significance of the Expression of the CER6 Condensing Enzyme for Cuticular Wax Production in Arabidopsis1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    Significance of the Expression of the CER6 Condensing Enzyme for Cuticular Wax Production condensing enzyme in Arabidopsis surface wax production, we determined CER6 transcription domains factors such as light and water deficit, which are known to stimulate wax accumulation, induce CER6

  3. POLISSAR & FREEMAN, EFFECTS OF ARIDITY AND VEGETATION ON PLANT-WAX D EA-1 ,Page 1 of 21

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polissar, Pratigya J.

    POLISSAR & FREEMAN, EFFECTS OF ARIDITY AND VEGETATION ON PLANT-WAX D EA-1 ,Page 1 of 21 Polissar & Freeman (2010) Effects of Aridity and Vegetation on Plant-wax D in Modern Lake Sediments Electronic annex. References 6. Supplemental Figures #12;POLISSAR & FREEMAN, EFFECTS OF ARIDITY AND VEGETATION ON PLANT-WAX D

  4. High-pressure lubricity at the meso- and nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vanossi; A. Benassi; N. Varini; E. Tosatti

    2013-01-11

    The increase of sliding friction upon increasing load is a classic in the macroscopic world. Here we discuss the possibility that friction rise might sometimes turn into a drop when, at the mesoscale and nanoscale, a confined lubricant film separating crystalline sliders undergoes strong layering and solidification. Under pressure, transitions from N to N-1 layers may imply a change of lateral periodicity of the crystallized lubricant sufficient to alter the matching of crystal structures, influencing the ensuing friction jump. A pressure-induced friction drop may occur as the shear gradient maximum switches from the lubricant middle, marked by strong stick-slip with or without shear melting, to the crystalline slider-lubricant interface, characterized by smooth superlubric sliding. We present high pressure sliding simulations to display examples of frictional drops, suggesting their possible relevance to the local behavior in boundary lubrication.

  5. Dry film lubricant for difficult drawing applications of galvanized steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakano, Shigeru; Sakane, Tadashi; Hirose, Yozou . Iron and Steel Research Lab.); Matsuda, Naomichi; Onodera, Show . Oleo Chemicals Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    Press formability of metals sheets is considered to depend on surface lubricity, press forming condition and mechanical properties of the metal sheets. In Zn and Zn-alloy plated steel sheets with heavy coatings, surface lubricity is the most important property. This is because the low melting temperature and low hardness of the plated layer occasionally cause microscopic galling through deformation at the beads of dies which may, consequently, result in sheet breakage. Press formability of Zn and Zn-alloy plated steel sheets with heavy coating weight has been improved by the use of a high viscosity lubricant oil and a Fe-Zn alloy flash-plating on galvannealed steel. However, the use of high viscosity lubricant oils created problems with oil staining and removal before painting. An alloy flash plating results in appreciably higher production costs. This article describes the characteristics of a thin film dry lubricant, Super S-coat, as a new countermeasure, which will overcome these problems.

  6. Water adsorption on lubricated a-CHx in humid environments Nisha Shuklaa,, Erik Svedberga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    Water adsorption on lubricated a-CHx in humid environments Nisha Shuklaa,Ã, Erik Svedberga , Rene lubricant. The lubricants used included Fomblin Z-03, Z-disoc, and Z-tetraol deposited on the surfaces of a independent of a-CHx film thickness. The presence of the lubricant reduces the amount of adsorbed water

  7. Viscoplastic lubrication theory with application to bearings and the washboard instability of a planing plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balmforth, Neil

    Viscoplastic lubrication theory with application to bearings and the washboard instability: Viscoplastic Yield stress Lubrication Instability a b s t r a c t We consider lubrication theory for a two Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction A wide variety of lubrication problems involve the flow

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of Pitch and Roll Static Angle on Lubricant Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Paul H.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of Pitch and Roll Static Angle on Lubricant Transfer Between Disk and Slider static angle on lubricant transfer between a disk and a slider in a hard disk drive. The lubricant- cant distribution on the disks was obtained using optical surface analysis. Lubricant transfer from

  9. Analysis of Oil Lubricated Thrust Collars for Application in Integrally Geared Compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cable, Travis Alexander

    2015-07-15

    coefficients are determined. In a lubricated thrust collar and bull gear, a hydrodynamic pressure builds in the lower half of the lubricated zone and lubricant cavitation occurs in the upper half. The minimum film thickness and peak pressure in the lubricated...

  10. Compressible pressure compensator within closed lubricant volume of an earth boring apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxman, W. C.; Parker, L. J.

    1985-04-09

    A compressible pressure compensating member is disposed within a sealed lubricant volume enclosing a bearing and seal system of an earth boring apparatus. Lubricant is maintained within the volume by metal face seals so that both the bearing and the seal structure are lubricated thereby. As the lubricant expands, due to thermal expansion under use, the increased pressure is accommodated by compression of the compressible member so that no lubricant is expelled through the seals. When the lubricant cools and contracts, the compensator expands to maintain the lubricant volume at the initially filled level.

  11. Soliton dynamics in a solid lubricant during sliding friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vigentini; B. Van Hattem; E. Diato; P. Ponzellini; T. Meledina; A. Vanossi; G. Santoro; E. Tosatti; N. Manini

    2014-02-27

    Recent highly idealized model studies of lubricated nanofriction for two crystalline sliding surfaces with an interposed thin solid crystalline lubricant layer showed that the overall relative velocity of the lubricant $v_{\\rm lub} / v_{\\rm slider}$ depends only on the ratio of the lattice spacings, and retains a strictly constant value even when system parameters are varied within a wide range. This peculiar "quantized" dynamical locking was understood as due to the sliding-induced motion of misfit dislocations, or soliton structures. So far, the practical relevance of this concept to realistic sliding three dimensional crystals has not been demonstrated. In this work, by means of classical molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical considerations, we realize a realistic three-dimensional crystal-lubricant-crystal geometry. Results show that the flux of lubricant particles associated to the advancing soliton lines gives rise here too to a quantized velocity ratio. Moreover, depending on the interface lattice spacing mismatch, both forward and backward quantized motion of the lubricant is predicted. The persistence under realistic conditions of the dynamically pinned state and quantized sliding is further investigated by varying sliding speed, temperature, load, and lubricant film thickness. The possibilities of experimental observation of quantized sliding are also discussed.

  12. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  13. Relationship of Viscosity, Surface Tensions, and Coefficient of Friction of Lubricating Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, Earl

    1914-01-01

    between the Coefficient of Friction and Viscosity. Relationship between Viscosity and Surface Tension. 6 B I B L I O G R A P H Y Lubrication and Lubricants, Archbutt & Deeley, London, 1900. * Friction, lubrication, Fats & Oils, Dietrichs. Steam... oils, is easily accounted for. Ilineral lubricating oils are not affected by high pressure steam or alkalies and these character- istics enable them to be used where other lubricants would be quite unfitted for the work. Animal Oils:-- These oils...

  14. CVD method of forming self-lubricating composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, T.M.; Blau, P.J.; Lee, W.Y.; Bae, Y.W.

    1998-12-01

    An article having a multiphase composite lubricant coating of a hard refractory matrix phase of titanium nitride dispersed with particles of a solid lubricating phase of molybdenum disulfide is prepared by heating the article to temperatures between 350 and 850 C in a reaction vessel at a reduced pressure and passing a gaseous mixture of Ti((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}N){sub 4}, MoF{sub 6}, H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} over the heated article forming a multiphase composite lubricant coating on the article. 1 fig.

  15. CVD method of forming self-lubricating composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blau, Peter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lee, Woo Y. (Knoxville, TN); Bae, Yong W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    An article having a multiphase composite lubricant coating of a hard refractory matrix phase of titanium nitride dispersed with particles of a solid lubricating phase of molybdenum disulfide is prepared by heating the article to temperatures between 350.degree. and 850.degree. C. in a reaction vessel at a reduced pressure and passing a gaseous mixture of Ti((CH.sub.3).sub.2 N).sub.4, MoF.sub.6, H.sub.2 S and NH.sub.3 over the heated article forming a multiphase composite lubricant coating on the article.

  16. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  17. Development and application of a lubricant composition model to study effects of oil transport, vaporization, fuel dilution, and soot contamination on lubricant rheology and engine friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Grace Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Engine oil lubricants play a critical role in controlling mechanical friction in internal combustion engines by reducing metal-on-metal contact. This implies the importance of understanding lubricant optimization at the ...

  18. Enhanced engine efficiency through subsystem lubricant viscosity investigations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martins, Tomás V

    2014-01-01

    This study initiates a three-year project to investigate the potential benefits in fuel efficiency, engine emissions, lubricant longevity, and engine durability. Two experimental testing platforms were designed and implemented ...

  19. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (ReFUEL). ReFUEL is a world-class research and testing facility dedicated to future fuels and advanced heavy-duty vehicle research, located in Denver, Colorado.

  20. Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A group of oil-miscible ionic liquids has been developed by an ORNL-GM team as candidate lubricant additives with promising physical/chemical properties and potential multiple functionalities.

  1. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Extensive chemical and physical characterization performed on emissions from normal and high emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles to evaluate relative contributions of fuel and lubricating oil on tailpipe emissions.

  2. Rheometry and direct flow observations of a model wax-oil system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitriou, Christopher (Christopher J.)

    2010-01-01

    Waxy crude oils are a commonly encountered type of crude oil which must be dealt with by oil production companies. They are characterized by a gel-like behavior at temperatures below their wax appearance temperature (Twa) ...

  3. Analysis of the Compositional Variation in the Epicuticular Wax Layer of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beecher, Francis Ward

    2013-05-08

    Epicuticular waxes form a layer on the outer surface of all land plants and play a fundamental role in their interaction with the environment. Development of a rapid and accurate method for the characterization of these ...

  4. Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV) Using Parrafin-Wax on a Centrifugal Microfluidic CD Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Volume 8 | Issue 3 | e58523 Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV)Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV) Using Parrafin-Wax on aThis paper introduces novel vacuum/compression valves (VCVs)

  5. Sensors and Actuators A 134 (2007) 194200 A latchable microvalve using phase change of paraffin wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Qiao

    2007-01-01

    to develop microvalves that are more energy-efficient than existing active valves. Paraffin waxes have been to direct fluid flow along required paths, and are an important building block in lab-on-a-chip systems

  6. Development of Screenable Wax Coatings and Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-10-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to design new formulations and production processes for water-based adhesives and wax coatings that can be easily screened from recycling operations.

  7. Low-cost selective deposition of wax onto textured solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Páez, Daýan

    2008-01-01

    The active regions of a solar cell must be inoculated with wax, while leaving the metal fingers and bus bars bare, in preparation for the electroplating step of a new solar panel manufacturing process. Different methods ...

  8. Influence of Epicuticular Wax on Heat and Drought Tolerance in TAM 112 X TAM 111 Populations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengodon, Padmavathi

    2015-08-10

    High temperature and drought are the major constraints to wheat production globally. However, plants cope with stress by manipulating their physiological processes. This study investigates the role of leaf and glume wax ...

  9. The role of lubricant molecular shape in microscopic friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg M. Braun; Nicola Manini; Erio Tosatti

    2008-10-10

    With the help of a simple two-dimensional model we simulate the tribological properties of a thin lubricant film consisting of linear (chain) molecules in the ordinary soft-lubricant regime. We find that friction generally increases with chain length, in agreement with their larger bulk viscosity. When comparing the tribological properties of molecules which stick bodily to the substrates with others carrying a single sticking termination, we find that the latter generally yield a larger friction than the former.

  10. Lubricant wear particle analysis by filter patch extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    Lubricating Oil Analysis (LOA) has become an important part of a comprehensive Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) program. However, knowing the condition of the lubricant alone does not provide a complete description of equipment reliability. Condition monitoring for equipment can be accomplished through Wear Particle Analysis (WPA). This usually involves separating suspended materials and wear products from the lubricant by magnetic (ferrographic) means. This paper will present a simple, low-cost, alternate method of particle acquisition called Filter Patch Extraction (FPE). This method removes solids, regardless of their composition, from the lubricant by vacuum filtration and deposits them onto a filter for microscopic examination similar to that of analytical ferrography. A large filter pore size retains suspended materials and permits rapid filtration of large volumes of lubricant thereby increasing the accuracy of the wear and cleanliness profile that can be established for a given machine. Qualitative trending of equipment wear and lubricant system cleanliness are easily performed with FPE. Equipment condition is determined by then characterizing the metal particles which are recovered. Examined filters are easily archived in filter holders for future reference. Equipment for FPE is inexpensive and readily available. The technique is field-portable, allowing WPA to be performed on-site, eliminating delays with remote laboratories while building customer participation and support. There are numerous advantages for using FPE in a machine condition monitoring program.

  11. Investigation of Flying-Height Stability of Thermal Fly-Height Control Sliders in Lubricant or Solid Contact with Roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Jinglin; Bogy, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Gonzaga, L. , Man, Y.J. : Lubricant-sur?ng recording and itsSlider dynamics in the lubricant-contact regime. IEEE Trans.Height Control Sliders in Lubricant or Solid Contact with

  12. Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2004-08-31

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  13. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spauschus, Hans O. (Stockbridge, GA); Starr, Thomas L. (Roswell, GA)

    1999-01-01

    A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

  14. Rotary seal with enhanced lubrication and contaminant flushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie L. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2000-01-01

    A resilient, ring shaped interference-type hydrodynamic rotary seal having waves on the lubricant side which provide increased film thickness and flushing action by creating contact pressure induced angulated restrictions formed by abrupt restrictive diverters. The angulated restrictions are defined by projecting ridges, corners at the trailing edge of the waves, or simply by use of a converging shape at the trailing edge of the waves which is more abrupt than the gently converging hydrodynamic inlet shape at the leading edge of the waves. The abrupt restrictive diverter performs two functions; a restricting function and a diverting function. The angulated restrictions cause a local film thickness restriction which produces a damming effect preventing a portion of the lubricant from leaking out of the dynamic sealing interface at the trailing edge of the wave, and results in a much thicker lubricant film thickness under the waves. This contributes to more film thickness in the remainder of the dynamic sealing interface toward the environment because film thickness tends to decay gradually rather than abruptly due to the relative stiffness of the seal material. Because of the angle of the abrupt restrictive diverter relative to the relative rotation direction, in conjunction with the restriction or damming effect, a strong diverting action is produced which pumps lubricant across the dynamic sealing interface toward the environment. The lubricant diversion is caused by the component of the rotational velocity tangent to the abrupt restrictive diverter. The component of rotational velocity normal to the abrupt restrictive diverter causes a portion of the lubricant film to be pumped past the abrupt restrictive diverter, thereby assuring adequate lubrication thereof.

  15. Performance of MOV Stem Lubricants at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWall, Kevin George; Nitzel, Michael Everett; Watkins, John Clifford

    2001-07-01

    This paper documents the results of recent tests sponsored by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These tests address the effectiveness of the lubricant used on the threaded portion of the valve stem, where the stem nut turns on the stem. Recent testing indicates that an elevated temperature environment can lead to significant increases in the friction coefficient at the stem/stem-nut interface. Most valve actuator qualification tests are performed at room temperature. Similarly, in-service tests are run at ambient plant temperatures, usually 70 to 100°F. Since design conditions can lead to valve operating temperatures in the 200 to 300°F range, it is important to know whether a temperature-induced increase in friction at the stem/stem-nut interface will prevent the required operation of critical valves. Lubricant aging is another phenomenon that might have deleterious effects on the thrust output of a valve actuator. Laboratory experience and field experience both indicate that after long periods in elevated temperature environments, the lubricants may lose their lubrication qualities. The scope of the current test program includes testing of five different lubricants on four different valve stems. Pending completion of the testing, results of the tests conducted using two of the four stems are discussed. The test series included collection of baseline data at room temperature, single step temperature tests where the temperature of the test setup was elevated directly to 250°F, and step testing where the temperature was elevated in steps to 130, 190, and 250°F, then returned to 70°F. All greases tested showed evidence of physical change after elevated temperature tests. Except for one particular lubricant, all of the greases tested showed increased coefficients of friction at elevated temperatures. Numerous other preliminary conclusions are presented. Recommendations for future research in the area of aged valve stem lubricant performance at elevated temperatures are also presented.

  16. Molecular-Scale Lubricants for Micromachine Applications: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, A.R.; Dugger, M.T.; Houston, J.E.; Lopez, G.P.; Mayer, T.M.; Michalske, T.A.; Miller, S.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Stevens, M.J.; Zhou, Y.

    1998-12-01

    The nature of this work was to develop the physics and chemistry base for understanding molecular-scale lubricants used to reduce of friction- and adhesion-induced failure in silicon micromachines (MEMS). We acquired this new knowledge by tailoring the molecular properties of the lubricants, applying local probes that can directly monitor the response of lubricants in contact conditions, and evaluating the performance of model lubricants MEMS devices. Model lubricants under investigation were the silane coupling agents that form monolayer films on native oxide silicon surfaces, which is the substrate in MEMS. These molecules bind via strong surface bonds and produce a layer of hydro- or fluoro-carbon chains normal to the substrate. "Tailoring" the lubricants entails modifying the chain length, the chain chemical reactivity (H or F), and the density of chain structures. Thus much effort went into understanding the surface chemistry of silane-silicon oxide coupling. With proximal probes such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), interracial force microscopy (FM), and shear force microscopy in combination with IFM, we examined the frictional and adhesive properties of the silane films with very high spatial resolution (< 100 nm) and sensitivity. MEMS structures are treated with silanes under identical conditions, and examined for friction and adhesion under operating conditions. Proper assessment of the lubricants required quantitative analysis of MEMS performance at high speeds and long operating times. Our proximal probe measurements and WS performance analyses form a very important link for future molecular dynamics simulations, that, in turn, should be able to predict MEMS performance under all conditions.

  17. Current issues in natural gas lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reber, J.

    1997-10-01

    Because of the ability of natural gas to burn completely relatively easily, supplying excess oxygen to promote complete reactions is a viable alternative to catalysts. Hence, lean burn technology has a natural fit for this industry. Lube oil is not adversely affected by lean burn operation. There is a slight tendency to cause more oil nitration than oxidation, but the real difference is not significant. Operators may notice somewhat more varnish (caramel color) and less sludge (black) as a result. Because the fuel is burned more completely, there is less problem with fuel-derived oil contamination. Also because of the excess air in the combustion chamber, overall cylinder temperature is lower, causing less stress on the oil. Oil life is generally lengthened. One common misconception that lean burn engines require different lubricants may stem from a change at Waukesha Engine Division--Dresser Industries. Waukesha has changed its lube oil requirements for VHP 3521, 5115, 7042, 9390 GL turbocharged and lean burn model engines. The lube oil specification for these engines is 1% to 1.7% ash with the same 0.10% zinc maximum. This change is not because of the lean burn nature of these engines, rather it is because of drastically decreased lube oil consumption. With less oil consumption, less ash is carried to the critical exhaust valve seat area to prevent valve recession.

  18. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2005-05-03

    A process for producing alkyl esters useful in biofuels and lubricants by transesterifying glyceride- or esterifying free fatty acid-containing substances in a single critical phase medium is disclosed. The critical phase medium provides increased reaction rates, decreases the loss of catalyst or catalyst activity and improves the overall yield of desired product. The process involves the steps of dissolving an input glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with an alcohol or water into a critical fluid medium; reacting the glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with the alcohol or water input over either a solid or liquid acidic or basic catalyst and sequentially separating the products from each other and from the critical fluid medium, which critical fluid medium can then be recycled back in the process. The process significantly reduces the cost of producing additives or alternatives to automotive fuels and lubricants utilizing inexpensive glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substances, such as animal fats, vegetable oils, rendered fats, and restaurant grease.

  19. In situ control of lubricant properties for reduction of power cylinder friction through thermal barrier coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molewyk, Mark Allen

    2014-01-01

    Lowering lubricant viscosity to reduce friction generally carries a side effect of increased metal-metal contact in mixed or boundary lubrication, for example near top ring reversal along the engine cylinder liner. A ...

  20. Development of a bench scale test to evaluate lubricants for use with methanol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, R.; Klaus, E.; Duda, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    In methanol-fueled diesel engines, the crankcase lubricant is used to lubricate both the engine and the fuel injector system. Crankcase lubricants including some designed for methanol-fueled engines are not completely compatible with the methanol fuel. In order to test the effect of methanol extraction on diesel engine lubricant performance, two extraction protocols were developed: one to simulate the fuel injector (1000 parts of methanol to one part of lubricant) and the other to simulate an extreme case of methanol contamination in the crank-case (one part of methanol to five parts of lubricant). The extracted samples of the lubricant were stripped to remove the methanol. The samples were then evaluated for changes in oxidative stability and lubricity. 12 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. DARCY'S FLOW WITH PRESCRIBED CONTACT ANGLE WELL-POSEDNESS AND LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DARCY'S FLOW WITH PRESCRIBED CONTACT ANGLE ­ WELL-POSEDNESS AND LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION HANS KN at the contact point. In the so called lubrication approximation (long-wave limit) we show that the solutions

  2. Lubricant additives, friend or foe: What the equipment design engineer needs to know

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, H.P.; Zantopulos, H.

    1995-10-01

    Lubricant formulations and lubricant additives have been slanted heavily toward protecting gear concentrated contacts from galling and wear. Much of the performance differentiation of these lubricants has been dependent on highly accelerated standardized laboratory testing. The area of contact fatigue has played a less important role in shaping lubricant formulations, but new test results for several commercially available gear lubricants suggest this area warrants a closer examination. The performance effects of fully and partially additized lubricants were studied using standard bearing industry rolling contact fatigue and wear testing procedures for tapered roller bearings. These test results indicate significant detrimental effects to wear, and fatigue life performance can occur with some additized lubricant formulations. Observations of functional surfaces, before and after testing, are made and examined for several lubricant formulations. The implications of these findings for equipment applications are discussed, and suggestions are made for ways to minimize or avoid potential detrimental performance effects. 10 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Enhanced engine mechanical efficiency through tailoring of lubricant formulations to localized power cylinder wall conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracey, Ian P

    2015-01-01

    Numerical and experimental studies were performed on an internal combustion engine power cylinder wall's lubricating oil film in order to assess the possibility of tailoring engine lubricants to specific engine configurations ...

  4. Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design Superhard and low-friction coatings and surface...

  5. Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In-cylinder fuel injection to produce rich exhaust for regeneration of lean NOx trap catalyst and diesel particulate filter results in substantial fuel dilution of lubricating oil cause changes of lubricating oil properties and scuffing of engine components.

  6. Naphtha | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation,MeregNIFESpinning Mills LtdNanotecture Ltd

  7. OpenEI Community - Naphtha

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to:InformationInformationOorjaen TheGeothermalCostmaintenance

  8. Simulation of Thermal Stability and Friction: A lubricant confined between Monolayers of Wear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã?agin, Tahir

    Simulation of Thermal Stability and Friction: A lubricant confined between Monolayers of Wear and the confined lubricant, hexadecane, to assess the shear stability of DTPs with different pendant groups. 1 is very impor­ tant for the oil industry. One might consider other lubricant additives which are presently

  9. Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication ME5656 Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müftü, Sinan

    1 Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication ­ ME5656 Department of Mechanical & Industrial the mechanics responsible for friction, wear and lubrication. Tribological characteristics such as these play such as friction, lubrication and wear that contribute to ECR. 2.0 OVERVIEW Surfaces, when viewed under

  10. Stability of Surface-Immobilized Lubricant Interfaces under Flow Caitlin Howell,*,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenberg, Joanna

    Stability of Surface-Immobilized Lubricant Interfaces under Flow Caitlin Howell,*,, Thy L. Vu-stabilized lubricant layers is a critical question in their application as low- and nonfouling slippery surface treatments in both industry and medicine. Here, we investigate lubricant loss from surfaces under flow

  11. Applied MathCAD Journal, Volume 2, Number 3, 1993 Lubrication Flow in a Narrow Gap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Applied MathCAD Journal, Volume 2, Number 3, 1993 Lubrication Flow in a Narrow Gap by M. Kostic in a narrow gap is a very characteristic problem in Fluid Mechanics, or more specifically in lubrication is reduced if a viscous fluid (lubricant) with viscosity Jl is allowed to move through a narrow but variable

  12. Conservative one-dimensional finite volume discretization of a new cavitation model for pistonring lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buscaglia, Gustavo C.

    ­ring lubrication Roberto F. Ausas a,n , Mohammed Jai b , Ionel S. Ciuperca c , Gustavo C. Buscaglia a a Instituto form 2 July 2012 Accepted 4 July 2012 Available online 17 July 2012 Keywords: Hydrodynamic lubrication implementation of a new cavitation model that is well suited for lubrication problems with cavitated regions

  13. Role of lubricin and boundary lubrication in the prevention of chondrocyte apoptosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Role of lubricin and boundary lubrication in the prevention of chondrocyte apoptosis Kimberly A, a mucinous glyco- protein encoded by the PRG4 gene, provides boundary lubrication in articular joints. Joint. In the bovine explant system, the addition of lubricin as a test lubricant signifi- cantly lowered the static

  14. Lubricants and greases: Properties and evaluation. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a variety of lubricants, including synthetic oils and greases. Topics include properties characterization, additives, rheological studies, and uses. Bearing and gear lubricants are discussed, and lubricant testing methods are described. Some attention is given to specific applications in industry. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. References and Notes 1. W. J. Bartz, Ed., Engines and Automotive Lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Nikolai

    References and Notes 1. W. J. Bartz, Ed., Engines and Automotive Lubrication (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993). 2. I. M. Hutchings, Ed., Friction, Lubrication and Wear of Artificial Joints (Professional of Lubricating Oils (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003). 12. This has led to stricter controls on the concen- trations

  16. Modification of boundary lubrication by oil-soluble friction modifier Yingxi Zhua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve

    Modification of boundary lubrication by oil-soluble friction modifier additives Yingxi Zhua in lubricants of the type used at the wet clutch interface in automatic transmissions has been studied using in the boundary lubrication regime and compared to a fully-formulated automatic transmission fluid (ATF). 1

  17. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer , E. Q. Li2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonito, Andrea

    Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer S. Lee1 , E. Q. Li2 , J. O. Marston2 , A. Bonito1 unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool lubricating between the jet and pool surfaces. Figure 1 shows a typical leaping shampoo jet along

  18. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 052304 (2013) Irreversibility and chaos: Role of lubrication interactions in sheared suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzger, Bloen

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 052304 (2013) Irreversibility and chaos: Role of lubrication interactions show that the chaotic dynamics arising from lubrication interactions are too weak to generate interactions. Nonetheless, we show that lubrication interactions must be included in the calculation to obtain

  19. Boundary lubrication with a glassy interface Anal Lematre1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    Boundary lubrication with a glassy interface Anaël Lemaître1,2 and Jean Carlson1 1 Department lubrication. The model is based on a generalization of the shear transformation zone (STZ) theory, in which mea- surements on a microscopically thin layer of lubricant, sepa- rating atomically smooth (typically

  20. THE LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION FOR THIN VISCOUS FILMS: REGULARITY AND LONG TIME BEHAVIOR OF WEAK SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pugh, Mary

    THE LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION FOR THIN VISCOUS FILMS: REGULARITY AND LONG TIME BEHAVIOR OF WEAK = - · (f(h) h) in one space dimension. This equation, derived from a `lubrication approximation', models from a `lubrication approximation', models surface tension dominated motion of thin viscous films

  1. THE LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION FOR THIN VISCOUS FILMS: REGULARITY AND LONG TIME BEHAVIOR OF WEAK SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pugh, Mary

    THE LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION FOR THIN VISCOUS FILMS: REGULARITY AND LONG TIME BEHAVIOR OF WEAK t = -# · (f(h)##h) in one space dimension. This equation, derived from a `lubrication approximation', models. This equation, derived from a `lubrication approximation', models surface tension dominated motion of thin

  2. Alkane Contamination Effects on PFPE Lubricant Bonding to a-CHx Overcoats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    Alkane Contamination Effects on PFPE Lubricant Bonding to a-CHx Overcoats Ryan Z. Lei and Andrew J contamination on the bonding of perfluoropolyalkyl ether (PFPE) lubricants to amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a, respectively, of the common disk lubricant Fomblin Zdol. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments were

  3. Finite-element discretization of a linearized 2 -D model for lubricated oil transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    Finite-element discretization of a linearized 2 - D model for lubricated oil transportation V is devoted to the numerical simulation of a linearized model for the lubricated trans- portation of heavy acts as a lubricant by coating the wall of the pipeline, thus preventing the oil from adhering

  4. Application of the Adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Method to Problems in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimack, Peter

    Lubrication H. Lu , M. Berzins+ and P.K. Jimack School of Computing, University of Leeds, UK + School an introduction is provided to both elastohydrodynamic lubrication and the discontinuous Galerkin method before results using only hundreds of computational degrees of freedom. Keywords: elastohydrodynamic lubrication

  5. DFD 2001, November 20 (San Diego) [KQ.1] Lubrication-correction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ichiki, Kengo

    APS DFD 2001, November 20 (San Diego) [KQ.1] Lubrication-correction for many-particle systems-correction (APS DFD 2001) What is the lubrication-correction? a method to describe nearly touching particles expansion method" November 20, 2001 Page 2 #12;Introduction ­ Goal Goal of this work formulate a lubrication

  6. Lubricants and greases: Properties and evaluation. (Latest citations from FLUIDEX data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a variety of lubricants, including synthetic oils and greases. Topics include properties characterization, additives, rheological studies, and uses. Bearing and sea lubricants are discussed, and lubricant testing methods are described. Some attention is given to specific applications in industry. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Sliding contacts: Wear and lubrication. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning friction wear and the behavior and properties of sliding and sliding-roll contact lubricants. Topics include lubrication mechanism descriptions, failure reduction of mechanical components for specific contacts, and lubricant performance evaluations. Both electrical and mechanical contact applications are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Free surface flows with large slopes: beyond lubrication theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snoeijer, J H

    2006-01-01

    The description of free surface flows can often be simplified to thin film (or lubrication) equations, when the slopes of the liquid-gas interface are small. Here we present a long wavelength theory that remains fully quantitative for steep interface slopes, by expanding about Stokes flow in a wedge. For small capillary numbers, the variations of the interface slope are slow and can be treated perturbatively. This geometry occurs naturally for flows with contact lines: we quantify the difference with ordinary lubrication theory through a numerical example and analytically recover the full Cox-Voinov asymptotic solution.

  9. GAMMA IRRADIATION TESTING OF MONTAN WAX FOR USE IN WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SOO,P.; HEISER,J.; HART,A.

    1996-09-08

    A field demonstration was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to quantify the potential use of montan wax as a subsurface barrier material for nuclear waste management applications. As part of that demonstration, a study was completed to address some of the characteristics of the wax. Of particular interest is its resistance to chemical and structural changes that would influence its integrity as a barrier to minimize the migration of contaminants from their storage or disposal locations. Properties that were evaluated included hardness, melting point, molecular weight, and biodegradation as a function of gamma radiation dose. Based on the data obtained to date the wax is extremely resistant to radiation-induced change. Coupled with low permeability, the material shows promise as a subsurface barrier material.

  10. Volunteering at Research and Cultural Collections From Egyptian shabti figures to nineteenth century medical waxes, from West African Masks to modern British

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    century medical waxes, from West African Masks to modern British landscape paintings, the Research: Basic cleaning and conservation of objects e.g. cleaning and waxing outdoor sculpture Basic remedial

  11. Bubble size and gas-liquid interfacial area measurements using molten paraffin waxes in bubble columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukur, D.B.; Patel, S.A.; Daly, J.G.; Raphael, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in 0.05 m ID and 0.23 m ID by 3 m tall bubble columns with different types of molten waxes as the liquid medium and nitrogen as the gas, under processing conditions typical or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over iron catalysts (i.e. gas velocities up to 0.15 m s, and temperatures between 200 and 270/sup 0/C) to estimate gas liquid interfacial area from measured values of average gas hold-up and Sauter mean bubble diameter. The gas hold-up was estimated from visual observations of the expanded and static liquid heights, and the Sauter was estimated from bubble size measurements obtained by photography and dynamic gas disengagement. The paraffin wax (FT-300) used in the authors' studies is non-coalescing and has a tendency to foam. The amount of foam is greater for runs conducted in the order of increasing gas velocities, than in runs with decreasing velocities. Thus, two values of hold-up are possible and the start-up procedure determines which one will be attained. At higher gas velocities (> 0.05 m/s) the foam disappears and a transition to the slug flow, churn-turbulent regime takes place. Reactor waxes are coalescing in nature and do not produce foam. Despite similar hold-ups for the different waxes at higher gas velocities, the Sauters are significantly different and this is reflected in the specific gas-liquid interfacial areas, with larger values obtained with the paraffin wax compared to values with reactor waxes.

  12. 168 nature neuroscience volume 2 no 2 february 1999 Sleep spindle oscillations consist of waxing-and-waning field poten-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazhenov, Maxim

    of waxing-and-waning field poten- tials of 7 to 14 Hz, which last 1 to 3 seconds and recur every 5 to 15) and thalamocortical (TC) cells1­4. The waxing phase of spindle oscillations is associated with recruitment of neurons

  13. Development of a drop-on-demand inkjet system for stroboscopic SAXS/WAXS experiments tel-00446582,version1-13Jan2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Development of a drop-on-demand inkjet system for stroboscopic SAXS/WAXS experiments 1 FOURIER SAXS/WAXS experiments 2 The cover picture rapresents two inkjet heads working at a frequency of 2k for stroboscopic SAXS/WAXS experiments 3 FOURIER tel-00446582,version1-13Jan2010 #12

  14. Aridity and vegetation composition are important determinants of leaf-wax dD values in southeastern Mexico and Central America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aridity and vegetation composition are important determinants of leaf-wax dD values in southeastern September 2012 Abstract Leaf-wax hydrogen isotope composition (dDwax) is increasingly applied as a proxy remain poorly understood. We measured dDwax and the stable carbon isotope composition of leaf-waxes (d13

  15. By studying the mechanisms of wax and oil production in plants and genetically manipulating their fatty acids chains, Ljerka Kunst hopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karczmarek, Joanna

    By studying the mechanisms of wax and oil production in plants and genetically manipulating, locally- produced seed oils for industrial applications. All land plants produce a thin wax coating and altering the complex array of enzy- matic reactions involved in wax production is an integral part of plant

  16. Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids Lubricants Containing Nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Wei

    2014-05-14

    lubrication. In their studies, alkyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate in steel/steel, steel/aluminium, steel/copper, steel/SiO2, steel/Si(100), steel/sialon and Si3N4/sialon ceramic contacts shows excellent friction reduction and has a low friction coefficient...

  17. Frictional anisotropy under boundary lubrication: effect of surface texture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Erck, R. A.; Lorenzo-Martin, C.; Fenske, G. R.; Energy Systems

    2009-06-15

    The friction coefficient was measured under boundary lubrication with a ball-on-flat contact configuration in unidirectional sliding. The ball was smooth and hardened 52100 steel. Discs were made from case-carburized and hardened 4620, annealed 1080, and 1018 steels with directionally ground surfaces. A synthetic lubricant of stock polyalphaolefin was used for testing. During testing with each material, a frictional spike was observed whenever the ball slid parallel to the grinding ridge on the disc surface. The average friction coefficient for all tests was about 0.1, which is typical for the boundary lubrication regime. The magnitude of the frictional spikes, which reached as high as a friction coefficient of 0.25, and their persistence depended on the hardness of the disc surface. On the basis of elastohydrodynamic theory, coupled with the observation of severe plastic deformation on the ridges parallel to the sliding direction, the frictional spike could be due to localized plastic deformation on the disc surface at locations of minimal thickness for the lubricant fluid film. This hypothesis was further supported by lack of frictional spikes in tests using discs coated with a thin film of diamond-like carbon, in which plastic deformation is minimal.

  18. Fuel, lubricant and additive effects in combustion chamber deposit formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Homan, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    CCD causes octane requirement increase (ORI) and can potentially contributes to exhaust emissions and combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI). Experiments were conducted to identify the separate fuel, lubricant and additive contributions to the amount and composition of CCD. CCD originates from multiple sources. Gasoline hydrocarbon components, gasoline additives, engine lubricant, and atmospheric nitrogen contribute to CCD in different ways. With some fuels the engine lubricant is the main contributor to CCD and this is shown by the high ash level in the CCD. For other fuels CCD is predominantly organic. Significant amounts of nitrogen were found in the CCD even when the fuel and lubricant were nitrogen free. The pyrolysis reactivity of different CCDs was studied to gain an understanding about the transformations that potentially happen over longer times and lower temperatures on the combustion chamber walls. In all cases during mild pyrolysis (375{degrees}C) there was a substantial increase in the level of aromatic carbon and a decrease in the level of organic oxygen. The largest increases in the amount of aromatic carbon occurred for CCDs that were the least aromatic.

  19. Project Report Friction Measurement and Lubricating of Rotary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müftü, Sinan

    ME5656 Project Report Friction Measurement and Lubricating of Rotary Silicon MEMS Device Yifeng Lu and fascinating topic in both mechanical and electrical engineering domains for decades with the revolutionary property of silicon wafer is not such admired as its other features aforesaid. Rotary MEMS device based

  20. Use of Textured Surfaces to Mitigate Sliding Friction and Wear of Lubricated and Non-Lubricated Contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2012-03-01

    If properly employed, the placement of three-dimensional feature patterns, also referred to as textures, on relatively-moving, load-bearing surfaces can be beneficial to their friction and wear characteristics. For example, geometric patterns can function as lubricant supply channels or depressions in which to trap debris. They can also alter lubricant flow in a manner that produces thicker load-bearing films locally. Considering the area occupied by solid areas and spaces, textures also change the load distribution on surfaces. At least ten different attributes of textures can be specified, and their combinations offer wide latitude in surface engineering. By employing directional machining and grinding procedures, texturing has been used on bearings and seals for well over a half century, and the size scales of texturing vary widely. This report summarizes past work on the texturing of load-bearing surfaces, including past research on laser surface dimpling of ceramics done at ORNL. Textured surfaces generally show most pronounced effects when they are used in conformal or nearly conformal contacts, like that in face seals. Combining textures with other forms of surface modification and lubrication methods can offer additional benefits in surface engineering for tribology. As the literature and past work at ORNL shows, texturing does not always provide benefits. Rather, the selected pattern and arrangement of features must be matched to characteristics of the proposed application, bearing materials, and lubricants.

  1. Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Carter, Ernest E.; Son, Jaime Santos; Bai, Taixu; Khoda Verdian, Mohamad Fereydoon

    2010-04-27

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. A material including wax may be introduced into one or more wellbores. The material introduced into two or more wells may mix in the formation and congeal to form a barrier to fluid flow.

  2. Preliminary Results of Cleaning Process for Lubricant Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.

    2006-03-06

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used for aviation and other components for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. Prior to FPI, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. There are a variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. To assess the effectiveness of typical cleaning processes on removal of these contaminants, a study was initiated at an airline overhaul facility. Initial results of the cleaning study for lubricant contamination in nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys will be presented.

  3. Self-lubricating carbon nanotube reinforced nickel matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharf, T. W.; Neira, A.; Hwang, J. Y.; Banerjee, R.; Tiley, J.

    2009-07-01

    Nickel (Ni)--multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have been processed in a monolithic form using the laser-engineered net shape (LENS) processing technique. Auger electron spectroscopy maps determined that the nanotubes were well dispersed and bonded in the nickel matrix and no interfacial chemical reaction products were determined in the as-synthesized composites. Mechanisms of solid lubrication have been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy spatial mapping of the worn surfaces to determine the formation of tribochemical products. The Ni-CNT composites exhibit a self-lubricating behavior, forming an in situ, low interfacial shear strength graphitic film during sliding, resulting in a decrease in friction coefficient compared to pure Ni.

  4. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-05-04

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  5. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

    1999-03-30

    A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  6. Notes 01. The fundamental assumptions and equations of lubrication theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Safety Data Sheet for further information. Note: This product is not controlled under Canadian WHMIS legislation. The Mobil logotype and the Pegasus design are trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation, or one of its subsidiaries. ExxonMobil Lubricants... & Specialties All products may not be available locally. For more information, contact your local sales office or visit www.exxonmobil.com. ExxonMobil is comprised of numerous affiliates and subsidiaries, many with names that include Esso, Mobil, or ExxonMobil...

  7. Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie (Houston, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

    1993-07-27

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.

  8. Defining the Molecular and Physiological Role of Leaf Cuticular Waxes in Reproductive Stage Heat Tolerane in Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mondal, Suchismita

    2012-07-16

    environments. For the first objective, thirteen wheat cultivars were subjected to a 2-day heat treatment at 38 degrees C at 10 days after pollination (DAP). Leaf cuticular waxes, canopy temperature depression and stomatal conductance were estimated during...

  9. Near Zero Friction from Nanoscale Lubricants | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Near Zero Friction from Nanoscale Lubricants Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy...

  10. Offshore Lubricants to Exhibit 7.07% CAGR from 2014 to 2020 Due...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    segmented the global offshore lubricants market into gear oil, grease, engine oil, hydraulic oil, and others (such as circulating oil, turbine oil, and compressor oil). Among...

  11. The Impact of Lubricant on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress Report...

  12. Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitacre, S. D.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the impact of lubricant formulation on the performance of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) Adsorber Catalysts, including background/motivation for study, experimental design, and results.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A Novel Lubricant Formulation Scheme for 2% Fuel Efficiency Improvement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Northwestern University at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about a novel lubricant...

  14. Development of a heat-balance model for the characterization of wax blockage in flowlines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ombu, Ebiaye Valerie

    2006-04-12

    . 5 BACKGROUND The issue of blockages is critical in all installations but more so in offshore locations with installations of greater complexity, typically subsea completions tied back to existing platforms via flowlines of extensive lengths... the flowline and into the wellbore to cut wax deposits. Though TFL is not yet a common practice, it has the advantage of being able to remediate subsea flowlines and wellbores from a distant platform. It was used in the Pompano Paraffin Calibration Field...

  15. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Adam Crawford; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-09-30

    In the previous reporting period, modifications were completed for integrating a continuous wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor. During the current reporting period, a shakedown of the system was completed. Several problems were encountered with the progressive cavity pump used to circulate the wax/catalyst slurry though the cross-flow filter element and reactor. During the activation of the catalyst with elevated temperature (> 270 C) the elastomer pump stator released sulfur thereby totally deactivating the iron-based catalyst. Difficulties in maintaining an acceptable leak rate from the pump seal and stator housing were also encountered. Consequently, the system leak rate exceeded the expected production rate of wax; therefore, no online filtration could be accomplished. Work continued regarding the characterization of ultra-fine catalyst structures. The effect of carbidation on the morphology of iron hydroxide oxide particles was the focus of the study during this reporting period. Oxidation of Fe (II) sulfate results in predominantly {gamma}-FeOOH particles which have a rod-shaped (nano-needles) crystalline structure. Carbidation of the prepared {gamma}-FeOOH with CO at atmospheric pressure produced iron carbides with spherical layered structure. HRTEM and EDS analysis revealed that carbidation of {gamma}-FeOOH particles changes the initial nano-needles morphology and generates ultrafine carbide particles with irregular spherical shape.

  16. Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plumley, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

  17. Antioxidants and stabilizers for lubricants and fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and evaluation of antioxidants and stabilizers used in lubricants and fuels. The synthesis, stability, degradation, and storage life of lubricant and fuel additives are discussed. Additives used in jet engine, turbine, natural-gas, and coal-water fuels are examined. (Contains a minimum of 129 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Aging of HDPE Pipes Exposed to Diesel Lubricant Amelia H. U. Torres1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Aging of HDPE Pipes Exposed to Diesel Lubricant Amelia H. U. Torres1 , José R. M. d'Almeida1 behavior of high-density polyethylene pipes by exposure to a diesel lubricant were investigated that diesel, which can be regarded as a model fluid to analyze the effects caused by aromatic unities present

  19. THE LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION FOR THIN VISCOUS FILMS: THE MOVING CONTACT LINE WITH A `POROUS MEDIA' CUT OFF OF VAN DER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pugh, Mary

    THE LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION FOR THIN VISCOUS FILMS: THE MOVING CONTACT LINE WITH A `POROUS MEDIA ) in one space dimension. The equation without the second order term is derived from a `lubrication where f(h) = hn , n > 0. The fourth order term comes from a `lubrication approximation' and models

  20. Bifurcations from steady sliding to stick slip in boundary lubrication A. A. Batista and J. M. Carlson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    Bifurcations from steady sliding to stick slip in boundary lubrication A. A. Batista and J. M in models for boundary lubrication introduced in J. M. Carlson and A. A. Batista, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4153 1996 distinguishing features associated with surfaces separated by a few molecular layers of lubricant. Here we find

  1. Transverse Shear Oscillator Investigation of Boundary Lubrication in Weakly Adhered Films J. Leopolde`s* and X. Jia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université

    Transverse Shear Oscillator Investigation of Boundary Lubrication in Weakly Adhered Films J. Le received 16 October 2010; published 20 December 2010) We investigate the boundary lubrication in weakly, or lubrication. As the thickness of the thin film h is decreased down to a characteristic length scale relevant

  2. Humidity Effects on PFPE Lubricant Bonding to a-CHx Ryan Z. Lei and Andrew J. Gellman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    Humidity Effects on PFPE Lubricant Bonding to a-CHx Overcoats Ryan Z. Lei and Andrew J. Gellman will place severe stress on the lubricant and overcoat used to protect the surfaces of magnetic media the lubricant-overcoat interactions become increasingly important to the tribological performance of the head

  3. Microstructure of cosputter-deposited metal-and oxide-MoS2 solid lubricant thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    Microstructure of cosputter-deposited metal- and oxide-MoS2 solid lubricant thin films M. R of cosputtering small amounts of Ni (3%, 9%) and SbOx (20%) on the final microstructure of MoS2 lubricant thin performance is discussed. I. INTRODUCTION Sputter-deposited films of MoS2 have been used as solid lubricants

  4. Gas-Phase Lubrication of ta-C by Glycerol and Hydrogen Peroxide. Experimental and Computer Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Gas-Phase Lubrication of ta-C by Glycerol and Hydrogen Peroxide. Experimental and Computer Modeling lubrication conditions at 80 °C in presence of OH-containing molecules. To understand the mechanism of ultralow friction, we performed gas-phase lubrication experiments followed by time-of-flight secondary ion

  5. THE LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION FOR THIN VISCOUS FILMS: THE MOVING CONTACT LINE WITH A `POROUS MEDIA' CUT OFF OF VAN DER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pugh, Mary

    THE LUBRICATION APPROXIMATION FOR THIN VISCOUS FILMS: THE MOVING CONTACT LINE WITH A `POROUS MEDIA ) in one space dimension. The equation without the second order term is derived from a `lubrication the case where f(h) = h n , n > 0. The fourth order term comes from a `lubrication approximation

  6. Tribology Letters Vol. 12, No. 2, February 2002 ( 2002) 105 Effect of humidity on lubricated carbon overcoats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    Tribology Letters Vol. 12, No. 2, February 2002 ( 2002) 105 Effect of humidity on lubricated carbon to measure the adsorption of contaminants on the surfaces of lubricated carbon overcoats such as those used) of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-CHx) that is then covered with an even thinner film (10 Å) of lubricants

  7. Proceedings of ANTEC `95, Boston, MA, May 7-11, 1995. MEASUREMENT OF THE FRICTION AND LUBRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    Proceedings of ANTEC `95, Boston, MA, May 7-11, 1995. 1 MEASUREMENT OF THE FRICTION AND LUBRICITY role in patient comfort, it is useful to study the friction and lubricity properties of contact lenses and of the effects of lubricants, such as tear fluid, on the sliding motion. This paper describes a custom

  8. An Adaptive Finite Element Startegy for Analysis of Air Lubrication in the Head-Disk Interface of a Hard Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müftü, Sinan

    An Adaptive Finite Element Startegy for Analysis of Air Lubrication in the Head-Disk Interface, interface de tête-disque KEYWORDS: air lubrication, finite elements, adaptive mesh, head-disk interface #12). Air lubrication between the rotating disk and the slider is critical to maintain this gap; a delicate

  9. Tribology Letters Vol. 12, No. 2, February 2002 ( 2002) 111 Desorption kinetics of polyether lubricants from surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    lubricants from surfaces Andrew J. Gellman , Kris R. Paserba and Nithya Vaidyanathan Department of Chemical of the mechanisms for loss of perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPE) lubricants from the surfaces of data storage media. One approach to minimizing PFPE loss to desorption is the use of lubricants with increasing molecular weight

  10. Tribology Letters Vol. 10, No. 3, 2001 179 Activation of the SiC surface for vapor phase lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA E-mail: ag4b(ad), which then decompose by -hydride elimination resulting in H2, CO, H2CO, and CH3OH desorption phase lubrication in high temperature engines. KEY WORDS: lubrication; vapor phase lubrication; SiC; Fe

  11. Measurement of solubility, viscosity, and density of R-410A refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schafer, W.R.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements of the refrigerant vapor/liquid lubricant equilibrium viscosity reduction of four polyolester lubricants, viscosity grades 32 and 68 ISO VG, with the refrigerant R-410A were taken between {minus}13 F and 257 F and up to 700 psia. A high and low miscibility grade polyolester was analyzed for each viscosity. The viscosity, density, and composition of the solubilized gas mixture in solution with the lubricant was obtained with constant gas vapor composition in the viscometer head space. This refrigerant has a very small temperature glide but is considered a zeotropic blend nonetheless. The fractionation data presented were obtained from individual isothermal measurements. The isotherm for each temperature detailed the composition of the equilibrium gas fractionation of R-32 and R-125 in the lubricant, mixed vapor pressure, concentration of the total mixed blend (percent by weight) in the lubricant, and viscosity in centipoise (cP) and centistokes (cSt).

  12. Real-time determination of lubricant concentrations dissolved in alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schafer, W.R.

    1999-07-01

    A methodology was developed and used to measure both polyolester lubricant concentrations in solution with R-134a and R-407C and mineral oils in solution with R-123. This method is unaffected by changes in pressure, temperature, refrigerant type, and lubricant type. The concentration of dissolved lubricant was measured in three alternative refrigerants with two different synthetic polyolesters and two different mineral oils over a temperature range of 68 F (20 C) to 140 F (60 C) and a concentration range of 0 to 6% w/w. The evaluation methods included density, viscosity, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Measurements of viscosity and density were performed on an oscillating body viscometer. Lubricant concentrations determined by HPLC compared favorably with the ASHRAE Standard 41.1 method (ASHRAE 1984). Circulating lubricant, miscible and immiscible, concentration in identical R-407C operating systems was also measured to demonstrate the practical application of the test method.

  13. On-Line Measurement of Lubricant Film Thickness Using Ultrasonic Reflection Coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drinkwater, B.W.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.; Harper, P.

    2004-02-26

    The ultrasonic reflectivity of a lubricant layer between two solid bodies depends on the ultrasonic frequency, the acoustic properties of the liquid and solid, and the layer thickness. In this paper, ultrasonic reflectivity measurements are used as a method for determining the thickness of lubricating films in bearing systems. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned on the outside of a bearing shell such that the wave is focused on the lubricant film layer. For a particular lubricant film the reflected pulse is processed to give a reflection coefficient spectrum. The lubricant film thickness is then obtained from either the layer stiffness or the resonant frequency. The method has been validated using static fluid wedges and the elastohydrodynamic film formed between a ball sliding on a flat. Film thickness values in the range 50-500 nm were recorded which agreed well with theoretical film formation predictions.

  14. The toxicity of two crude oils and kerosine to cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowe, Loyd Douglas

    1972-01-01

    in this study: c (1) a west Texas raw sour crude oil relatively low in gasoline, naphtha, and kerosine and relatively high in gas oil, lubricating distillates, residue, and sulfur; (2) a west Texas raw sweet d crude oil relatively high in gasoline, naphtha... and Kerosine Administered to Cattle* Characteristic Sweet crude Sour crude Kerosine Light gasoline (/) 14. 2 9. 6 Total gasoline plus naphtha (%) 43. 0 31. 6 Kerosine (/) Gas oil Lubricating distillates (%) Residue (%) Distillation loss (%%d) Sulfur...

  15. Elongation of discotic liquid crystal strands and lubricant effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surjya Sarathi Bhattacharyya; Yves Galerne

    2014-05-22

    After a short review on the physics of pulled threads and their mechanical properties, the paper reports and discusses on the strand elongation of disordered columnar phases, hexagonal or lamello-columnar, of small molecules or polymers. The mechanical properties appear to be relevant to the length of the columns of molecules compared to the thread length, instead of the usual correlation length. When short, the column entanglement being taken into account, the strand exhibits rather fluid properties that may even look like nematic at a macroscopic scale. Then, the Plateau-Rayleigh instability soon breaks the thread. However, the hydrodynamic objects being the columns instead of the molecules, the viscosity is anomalously large. The observations show that the strands of columnar phases are made of filaments, or fibrils, that indeed are bundles of columns of molecules. They both explain the grooves and rings observed on the antenna or bamboo-like strand profiles. On pulling a strand, the elongation stress eventually exceeds the plasticity threshold, thus breaking columns and filaments. Cracks, more exactly, giant dislocations are thus formed. They change the strand thickness by steps of different birefringence colours. Interestingly, adding a solute may drastically change the effective viscosity of the columnar phase and its mechanical properties. Some solutes as alcanes, exhibit lubricant and detangling properties, while others as triphenylene, are quite anti-lubricant.

  16. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak -Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. However we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  17. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shillingford, C; MacCallum, N; Wong, TS; Kim, P; Aizenberg, J

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e. g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. Herein we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  18. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak -Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and whenmore »exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. However we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.« less

  19. Specifically, articular cartilage covering bone surfaces is a soft and specialized hyaline cartilage that exhibits superior lubrication, wear, and low friction properties; it also reduces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    cartilage that exhibits superior lubrication, wear, and low friction properties; it also reduces stresses

  20. Triboelectric charging of a perfluoropolyether lubricant J. V. Wasem, B. L. LaMarche, S. C. Langford, and J. T. Dickinsona)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, J. Thomas

    Triboelectric charging of a perfluoropolyether lubricant J. V. Wasem, B. L. LaMarche, S. C extensively to lubricate hard disks for high density information storage. Some PFPE lubricants have been shown generated during sliding contact may generate quasi-free electrons capable of degrading the lubricant. We

  1. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1992-12-31

    To avoid methane production in F-T synthesis on Fe catalysts, efforts are being made on conversion of synthesis gas to high molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as waxes. Strong acidity of sulfated zirconium oxides, ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}, is being used to pretreat long-chain paraffins with carbon numbers greater than n-C{sub 32}. Progress during this period is reported on reactivity of Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} for hydrocracking n-C{sub 32} and on effects of hydride donor solvent on hydrocracking of n-C{sub 32}. 5 figs.

  2. Comparison of hydrocracking Fischer-Tropsch wax with VGO hydrocracking and pure component mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekwall, G.R.; Yuh, E.; McArdle, J.C.; Steigleder, K.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrocracking pilot plant tests have been conducted on Fischer-Tropsch wax. Analytical results show that the feedstock is less complex than typical hydrocracking feedstocks, hence the test results can be used to gain understanding of the reaction mechanisms of hydrocracking normal paraffins. Data from process variable surveys changing pressure, combined feed ratio, liquid hourly space velocity and recycle hydrogen rate all support the carbonium ion mechanism of normal paraffin hydrocracking. The data show a consistent relationship between the degree of secondary vs. primary cracking proposed in the mechanism and product distribution.

  3. Low severity upgrading of F-T waxes with solid superacids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

    1995-09-30

    The use of solid acids, especially Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}, to convert long chain alkanes and Fischer-Tropsch waxes to liquid fuels under mild reaction conditions was explored in this work. Anion and/or hydrogenation metal modified zirconium oxides were synthesized, characterized, and tested for hydrocracking and hydroisomerization. of model compounds, chiefly with n-hexadecane. The relationship between catalytic activity and acidic character of the bifunctional Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} catalyst was investigated.

  4. Determining Genetic Overlap between Staygreen, Leaf Wax and Canopy Temperature Depression in Sorghum RILs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awika, Henry

    2012-07-16

    major reduction in water demand by crops for food, bioenergy and feed. Enhanced manipulation and selection for drought resistance therefore becomes imperative. From the water loss perspective, high leaf wax has been positively correlated with a... with area 3.85cm 2. For 1dm2 = EWL*100/3.85, where: UA590 = absorbance of sample (unknown optical density). 2.2.4 Canopy temperature depression Temperature was taken from the flag leaves between 11.45 am and 1.45pm when correlation of CTD at anthesis...

  5. Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petit, Christophe; Canestrari, Francesco; Pannunzio, Valter; Virgili, Amadeo

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

  6. Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christophe Petit; Anne Millien; Francesco Canestrari; Valter Pannunzio; Amadeo Virgili

    2012-03-13

    Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

  7. System for lubrication of a brake air compressor associated with a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.C.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a system for use with a vehicle which includes a turbocharged internal combustion engine having a lubricating system wherein lubricating oil from an engine oil reservoir is circulated within the engine and also to and from an associated brake system air compressor which supplies compressed air for operation of the vehicle air braking system. This patent describes improvement in passing supercharged air to an oil crankcase of the air compressor to cause lubricating oil to drain therefrom and return to the engine oil reservoir.

  8. SAXS/WAXS/DSC Study of Temperature Evolution in Nanopolymer Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksandra Turkovic; Mario Rakic; Pavo Dubcek; Magdy Lucic-Lavcevic; Sigrid Bernstorff

    2008-09-03

    Electrolytes as nanostructured materials are very attractive for batteries or other types of electronic devices. (PEO)8ZnCl2 polymer electrolytes and nanocomposites (PEO)8ZnCl2/TiO2 were prepared from PEO and ZnCl2 and with addition of TiO2 nanograins. The influence of TiO2 nanograins was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) simultaneously recorded with wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at the synchrotron ELETTRA. It was shown by previous impedance spectroscopy (IS) that the room temperature conductivity of nanocomposite polymer electrolyte increased more than two times above 65oC, relative to pure composites of PEO and salts. The SAXS/DSC measurements yielded insight into the temperature-dependent changes of the grains of the electrolyte as well as to differences due to different heating and cooling rates. The crystal structure and temperatures of melting and crystallization of the nanosize grains was revealed by the simultaneous WAXS measurements.

  9. Low-pressure hydrocracking of coal-derived Fischer-Tropsch waxes to diesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

    2007-06-15

    Coal-derived low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) wax was hydrocracked at pressures of 3.5-7.0 MPa using silica-alumina-supported sulfided NiW/NiMo and an unsulfided noble metal catalyst, modified with MoO{sub 3}. A low-pressure operation at 3.5 MPa produced a highly isomerized diesel, having low cloud points (from -12 to -28{sup o}C) combined with high cetane numbers (69-73). These properties together with the extremely low sulfur ({lt}5 ppm) and aromatic ({lt}0.5%) contents place coal/liquid (CTL) derived distillates as highly valuable blending components to achieve Eurograde diesel specifications. The upgrading of coal-based LTFT waxes through hydrocracking to high-quality diesel fuel blend components in combination with commercial-feasible coal-integrated gasification combined cycle (coal-IGCC) CO{sub 2} capture and storage schemes should make CTL technology more attractive. 28 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick C. Joyce; Mark C. Thies

    1999-03-31

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, is to be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Aspen Plus{trademark} was used to perform process simulation studies on the proposed extraction process, with Redlich-Kwong-Soave (RKS) being used for the thermodynamic property model. In summary, we have made comprehensive VLE measurements for short alkane + long alkane systems over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, dramatically increasing the amount of high-quality data available for these simple, yet highly relevant systems. In addition, our work has demonstrated that, surprisingly, no current thermodynamic model can adequately predict VLE behavior for these systems. Thus, process simulations (such as those for our proposed SCF extraction process) that incorporate these systems can currently only give results that are qualitative at best. Although significant progress has been made in the past decade, more experimental and theoretical work remain to be done before the phase equilibria of asymmetric alkane mixtures can be predicted with confidence.

  11. Patel S. et al. 2001. Chemical and Physical Analyses of Wax Ester Properties. 8 pp. Journal of Insect Science, 1.4. Available online: insectscience.org/1.4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Patel S. et al. 2001. Chemical and Physical Analyses of Wax Ester Properties. 8 pp. Journal.org Chemical and Physical Analyses of Wax Ester Properties Sejal Patel1 , Dennis R. Nelson2 and Allen G. Gibbs3 Abstract Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods

  12. 1. c) For all five types, the distribution is quite symmetric. Hearthlog typically burns the longest, with a mean of about 2:40. Wax Logs and Duraflame have a mean about 10 minutes lower. Hot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preston, Scott

    the longest, with a mean of about 2:40. Wax Logs and Duraflame have a mean about 10 minutes lower. Hot Logs:15. For all but Wax Logs, the distributions have similar variability ­ each has a standard deviation around 9 minutes. Wax Logs burn more consistently near the mean time ­ the standard deviation is just over 5

  13. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  14. Dependence of boundary lubrication on the misfit angle between the sliding surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. M. Braun; Nicola Manini

    2010-12-29

    Using molecular dynamics based on Langevin equations with a coordinate- and velocity-dependent damping coefficient, we study the frictional properties of a thin layer of "soft" lubricant (where the interaction within the lubricant is weaker than the lubricant-substrate interaction) confined between two solids. At low driving velocities the system demonstrates stick-slip motion. The lubricant may or may not be melted during sliding, thus exhibiting either the "liquid sliding" (LS) or the "layer over layer sliding" (LoLS) regimes. The LoLS regime mainly operates at low sliding velocities. We investigate the dependence of friction properties on the misfit angle between the sliding surfaces and calculate the distribution of static frictional thresholds for a contact of polycrystalline surfaces.

  15. Development of high temperature solid lubricant coatings. Final report, 15 August 1997--14 August 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, R.S.; Keller, S.

    1999-01-29

    The primary research objective of this work was to develop a solid lubricant coating that can function over a broad temperature range. The approach investigated consisted of developing adaptive lubricant coating from materials that undergo chemical change with increasing temperature by reacting together and with the environment. To test this approach, UES and Cleveland State University have conducted experiments to form cesium oxythiotungstate, a high temperature lubricant, on Inconel 718 surface from composite coatings of cesium tungstate and tungsten sulfide. The coatings were deposited by RF sputtering and characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that sulfur escapes from the composite coating upon exposure to temperature above 5000C in air. Thus, the desired adaptive lubricant phase, cesium oxythiotungstate could not be formed. However, cesium oxythiotungstate phase has been found to form upon annealing at high temperature in vacuum. The friction coefficients of sputtered cesium oxythiotungstate and cesium tungstate coatings have been measured.

  16. Effects of lubricant viscosity and surface texturing on ring-pack performance in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takata, Rosalind (Rosalind Kazuko), 1978-

    2006-01-01

    The piston ring-pack contributes approximately 25% of the mechanical losses in an internal combustion engine. Both lubricant viscosity and surface texturing were investigated in an effort to reduce this ring-pack friction ...

  17. Global Synthetic & Bio-Based Lubricants Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    picture Submitted by John55364(100) Contributor 14 May, 2015 - 05:53 Expansion of Automotive Industries to Boost the Global Synthetic and Bio-Based Lubricants Market Global...

  18. Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Haijie

    2011-01-01

    Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

  19. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with electrical sheet insulation under retrofit conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-11-01

    To determine whether exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of sheet insulation with alternative refrigerant/lubricant after retrofit, sheet insulation was exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Most of the sheet insulation materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) appeared to be compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concern was delamination and blistering of the sheet insulation containing Nomex, especially after removal of absorbed refrigerant at high temperature. This was attributed to incompatibility of the adhesive and not to the Nomex itself. Embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet was initially observed, but 2048 subsequent tests under extremely dry conditions showed that embrittlement of the PET materials was attributed to moisture present during the exposure.

  20. Effects of Y_(2)O_(3) and ?-ZrP Additives on Lubrication of Grease 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chung Jwa

    2014-07-28

    lubricants is 40% ~50%. The objective of this research is to 1) develop novel nanomaterials as grease additives, and 2) obtain understanding in tribological performances of the same. The research focuses on zirconium phosphate and yttrium oxide nanoparticles...

  1. High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  2. A tribological study of the interaction between surface micro texturing and viscoelastic lubricants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hupp, Sara J. (Sara Jean), 1979-

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study is performed on micro textured surfaces using both elastic and Newtonian fluids in order to understand the effect of surface texturing and fluid rheology on sliding friction under lubricated conditions. ...

  3. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M

    2009-01-01

    The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

  4. Thermal reactivity of mixtures of VDDT lubricant and simulated Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D.; Panisko, F.E.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    To predict whether the Polywater G lubricant residue remaining in the velocity, density, and temperature tree (VDTT) and the waste in Tank 241-SY-101 (101SY) will be chemically compatible with wastes in 101SY when two VDTTs are removed from 101SY, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory measured the thermal reaction sensitivity of the lubricant residue. This residue is a simulated 101SY waste containing the organic surrogate trisodium hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate (Na{sub 3}HEDTA) and two simulated potential waste and lubricant residue mixtures containing 10 and 90 percent lubricant residue. These studies using accelerating rate calorimetry found that the residue did not react at a rate exceeding 0.1 J/min/g mixture up to 190 degrees C with simulated 101SY waste containing Na{sub 3}HEDTA as the organic surrogate. Also, the dried lubricant residue did not decompose exothermically at a rate exceeding 0.1 J/min/g. Using guidelines used by the chemical industry, these results indicate that the lubricant residue should not react as a significant rate with the waste in 101SY when added to the waste at 60 degrees C or when the mixture cools to the waste`s temperature of 48 degrees C.

  5. Aging model for solid lubricants used in weapon stronglinks: tribological performance and hardware review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, M.T.; Peebles, D.E.; Sorroche, E.H.; Varga, K.S.; Bryan, R.M.

    1997-09-01

    The solid lubricant used most extensively in strong links throughout the enduring stockpile contains MoS{sub 2}, which is known to react with oxygen and water vapor resulting in a change in the material`s friction and wear behavior. The authors have examined the frictional behavior of this lubricant as a function of oxidation, in support of efforts to quantify the impact of changes in the material on the dynamic behavior of the MC2969 strong link. Their results show that the friction response of oxidized lubricant is strongly influenced by the amount of burnishing performed on the lubricant after deposition. Low levels of burnish leave a thick film, of which only the near surface degrades during oxidation. Rapid wear of the oxidized material leaves a surface whose properties are the same as non-oxidized material. Higher levels of burnish leave a thinner film of lubricant such that the entire film may be oxidized. The friction coefficient on this surface reaches a steady state value greater than that of non oxidized material. In addition to these fundamental differences in steady state behavior, they have shown that the initial friction coefficient on oxidized surfaces is related to the amount of sulfide converted to sulfate, regardless of the oxidation conditions used. Measurements on parts returned from the stockpile show that the friction behavior of aged hardware is consistent with the behavior observed on controlled substrates containing thin lubricant films.

  6. Laser-induced short time scale thermal chemistry of perfluoropolyether lubricant films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, J.; Mate, C.J.; Poon, C.C.; Tam, A.C.

    1999-11-09

    The authors investigate the effect of heating a perfluoropolyether lubricant film in a localized area for relatively short time periods using laser irradiation versus conventional oven heating. These experiments help provide understanding on how flash temperatures generated at frictional contacts affect the thermal chemistry of lubricant films. In these experiments, a CO{sub 2} laser heats a 50 {micro}m wide area of a silicon wafer for time periods ranging from 0.1 to 60 s. The surface temperature within the heated area (up to 280 C in these experiments) is monitored with a second laser by measuring the change in reflectivity near the center of the heated area. A major difference observed for laser heating compared to oven heating is that the effective evaporation rate is orders of magnitude higher for laser heating. If the lubricant film is heated for sufficiently long enough time at high temperatures, the authors are able to observe thermal bonding of the lubricant via its alcohol end groups to the silicon oxide surface, followed by thermal decomposition of the lubricant molecules. After laser heating, the authors are able to observe the diffusion of lubricant back into the localized heated area using a combination of optical microscopy and imaging ellipsometry.

  7. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

  8. Examining Effects of Lubricant Composition in Engine Component Systems in Pursuit of Enhanced Efficiency under Environmental Constraints

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Four lubricant technical themes are presented that aim to work synergistically with advanced engine technologies to meet a goal of improving mechanical efficiency by 10 percent.

  9. Design and prototype of dual loop lubricant system to improve engine fuel economy, emissions, and oil drain interval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plumley, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Regulations aimed at improving fuel economy and reducing harmful emissions from internal combustion engines place constraints on lubricant formulations necessary for controlling wear and reducing friction. Viscosity reduction ...

  10. Lubrication effects on the flow of wet granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qing Xu; Ashish V. Orpe; Arshad Kudrolli

    2007-06-25

    We investigate the dynamics of a partially saturated grain-liquid mixture with a rotating drum apparatus. The drum is partially filled with the mixture and then rotated about its horizontal axis. We focus on the continous avalanching regime and measure the impact of volume fraction and viscosity of the liquid on the dynamic surface angle. The inclination angle of the surface is observed to increase sharply to a peak and then decrease as a function of liquid volume fraction. The height of the peak is observed to increase with rotation rate. For higher liquid volume fractions, the inclination angle of the surface can decrease with viscosity before increasing. The viscosity where the minima occurs decreases with the rotation rate of the drum. Limited measurements of the flow depth were made, and these were observed to show only fractional changes with volume fraction and rotation speeds. We show that the qualitative features of our observations can be understood by analyzing the effect of lubrication forces on the timescale over which particles come in contact.

  11. Friction of different monolayer lubricants in MEMs interfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Street, Mark D.; Ashurst, William Robert; Corwin, Alex David

    2006-01-01

    This report details results from our last year of work (FY2005) on friction in MEMS as funded by the Campaign 6 program for the Microscale Friction project. We have applied different monolayers to a sensitive MEMS friction tester called the nanotractor. The nanotractor is also a useful actuator that can travel {+-}100 {micro}m in 40 nm steps, and is being considered for several MEMS applications. With this tester, we can find static and dynamic coefficients of friction. We can also quantify deviations from Amontons' and Coulomb's friction laws. Because of the huge surface-to-volume ratio at the microscale, surface properties such as adhesion and friction can dominate device performance, and therefore such deviations are important to quantify and understand. We find that static and dynamic friction depend on the monolayer lubricant applied. The friction data can be modeled with a non-zero adhesion force, which represents a deviation from Amontons' Law. Further, we show preliminary data indicating that the adhesion force depends not only on the monolayer, but also on the normal load applied. Finally, we also observe slip deflections before the transition from static to dynamic friction, and find that they depend on the monolayer.

  12. MIL-L-87177 and CLT:X-10 Lubricants Improve Electrical Connector Fretting Corrosion Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AUKLAND,NEIL R.; HANLON,JAMES T.

    1999-10-12

    We have conducted a fretting research project using MIL-L-87177 and CLT: X-10 lubricants on Nano-miniature connectors. When they were fretted without lubricant, individual connectors first exceeded our 0.5 ohm failure criteria from 2,341 to 45,238 fretting cycles. With additional fretting, their contact resistance increased to more than 100,000 ohms. Unmodified MIL-L-87177 lubricant delayed the onset of first failure to between 430,000 and over 20,000,000 fretting cycles. MIL-L-87177 modified by addition of Teflon powder delayed first failure to beyond 5 million fretting cycles. Best results were obtained when Teflon was used and also when both the straight and modified lubricants were poured into and then out of the connector. CLT: X-10 lubricant delayed the onset of first failure to beyond 55 million cycles in one test where a failure was actually observed and to beyond 20 million cycles in another that was terminated without failure. CLT: X-10 recovered an unlubricated connector driven deeply into failure, with six failed pins recovering immediately and four more recovering during an additional 420 thousand fretting cycles. MIL-L-87177 was not able to recover a connector under similar conditions.

  13. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerr, R.; Waite, T.

    1995-01-12

    Motor materials were exposed to original refrigerants R-11, R-12, R-22 and R-502 in the presence of mineral oil for 500 hours. These same materials were then exposed to alternative refrigerants R-123, R-134a, R-407C (R-32/R-125/R-134a) and R-404A (R-125/R-143a/R-134a), respectively, in the presence of the appropriate lubricant for 500 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1,000 hours. These tests were conducted to determine whether exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials with the alternative refrigerant/lubricant after retrofit. Motor materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) appeared to be compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concerns were embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet and sleeving insulations, and delamination and blistering of the Nomex sheet insulation in the R-22, R-502, and R-12. Embrittlement of the PET materials was attributed to moisture present during the exposure. Separation of the 475 varnish from metal surfaces in the R-123 was also a concern. The sheet and sleeving insulations were affected by the original refrigerant/mineral oil to a greater extent than by the alternative refrigerant and lubricant.

  14. Lubricant effect of copper nanoclusters on the dislocation core in -Fe Zhengzheng Chen,1 Nicholas Kioussis,1 Nasr Ghoniem,2 and Tadashi Hasebe3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Lubricant effect of copper nanoclusters on the dislocation core in -Fe Zhengzheng Chen,1 Nicholas lubricant effect in facilitating the shear of atomic rows and the contrasting effects of Cu and Cr

  15. Accelerated screening methods for determining chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures, Part II: Experimental comparison and verification of methods. Volume 2, In situ conductivity data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, R.

    1995-09-01

    Data are presented for the accelerated screening methods for determining chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures.

  16. Z .Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B 128 2001 575 595 Novel wax esters and hydrocarbons in the cuticular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Deborah

    and hydrocarbons in the cuticular surface lipids of the red harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus Dennis R. Nelsona, hydrocarbons. The wax esters ranged in carbon number from C19 to C31 and consisted of esters of both odd. The hydrocarbons consisted of: n-alkanes, C23 to C33; odd-numbered n-alkenes, C27 to C35; and the major components

  17. Formation damage studies of lubricants used with drill-in fluids systems on horizontal open-hole wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez, Fernando A

    2000-01-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of lubricants in formation damage. Two types of lubricants were tested along with two types of drill-in fluids. The DIF's tested included a sized-calcium carbonate (SCC) and a sized-salt (SS). Also a set...

  18. Temperature activated self-lubrication in CrN/Mo2N nanolayer coatings Robin Abraham Koshy 1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    . Introduction Hard coatings for cutting tools have been in use for many decades , [1­6], and have evolved from coatings Tool coatings Self lubrication Multi-layers Magnetron Sputtering Reactive sputtering CrN Mo2N CrTemperature activated self-lubrication in CrN/Mo2N nanolayer coatings Robin Abraham Koshy 1

  19. Electrowetting on dielectrics on lubricating fluid based slippery surfaces with negligible hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jitesh Barman; Arun Kumar Nagarajan; Krishnacharya Khare

    2015-07-09

    Low voltage electrowetting on dielectrics on substrates with thin layer of lubricating fluid to reduce contact angle hysteresis is reported here. On smooth and homogeneous solid surfaces, it is extremely difficult to reduce contact angle hysteresis (contact angle difference between advancing and receding drop volume cycle) and the electrowetting hysteresis (contact angle difference between advancing and receding voltage cycle) below 10{\\deg}. On the other hand, electrowetting hysteresis on rough surfaces can be relatively large (>30{\\deg}) therefore they are of no use for most of the fluidic devices. In the present report we demonstrate that using a thin layer of dielectric lubricating fluid on top of the solid dielectric surface results in drastic reduction in contact angle hysteresis as well as electrowetting hysteresis (lubricating fluid layer is only responsible for smooth movement of the three phase contact line of the liquid drop and does not affect the effective specific capacitance of the system.

  20. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with R-134a and polyolester lubricant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schooley, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report includes a broad list of processing fluids that are known to be used to manufacture air conditioning and refrigeration products. Sixty-four process fluids from this list were selected for compatibility studies with R-134a and ICI EMKARATE RL32H (32 ISO) polyolester lubricant. Solutions or suspensions of the process fluid residues in polyolester lubricant were heated for 14 days at 175{degrees}C (347{degrees}F) in evacuated sealed glass tubes containing only valve steel coupons. Miscibility tests were performed at 90 wt.% R-134a, 10 wt.% polyolester lubricant with process fluid residue contaminate and were scanned in 10{degrees}C (18{degrees}F) increments over a temperature range of ambient to -40{degrees}C (-40{degrees}F). Any sign of turbidity, haze formation or oil separation was considered the immiscibility point.

  1. Identification of tribological research and development needs for lubrication of advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehrenbacher, L.L.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    The continuous evolution of higher power density propulsion systems has always fueled the search for materials and lubricants with improved thermal and/or durability characteristics. Tribology of the upper cylinder region is the major technology roadblock in the path of the adiabatic diesel engine which has an energy reduction potential that exceeds that of all other engine development types. This tribology assessment resulted in the following major conclusions: a low friction and a low wear seal between the ring belt and cylinder bore are the most critical tribology functions in the diesel combustion chamber; development of solid lubrication systems will not satisfy the simultaneous low friction and low wear requirements in the upper cylinder area; development of separate upper cylinder liquid lubrication systems offers the most attractive design alternative for meeting the operational goals of future ''minimum cooled'' diesel engines.

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 47, NO. 7, JULY 2011 1849 Enhanced Photo-Thermal Stability of Modified PFPE Lubricants Under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Paul H.

    of Modified PFPE Lubricants Under Laser Beam Exposure M. Gauvin1, H. Zheng1, B. Suen1, J. Lee2, H. J. Kang2 of Zdol lubricant, modified by substituting the OH groups with benzophenone, were investigated under laser beam exposure. The change of reflectance of the modified Zdol lubricant films induced by laser beam ex

  3. A NEW CAVITATION MODEL IN LUBRICATION: THE CASE OF TWOZONE CAVITATION GUSTAVO C. BUSCAGLIA, IONEL CIUPERCA, ERIC DALISSIER, AND MOHAMMED JAI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buscaglia, Gustavo C.

    A NEW CAVITATION MODEL IN LUBRICATION: THE CASE OF TWO­ZONE CAVITATION GUSTAVO C. BUSCAGLIA, IONEL of cavitation in lubricated devices is proposed, such that the translation velocity V for the saturation field are included to illustrate the model. 1. INTRODUCTION Cavitation in lubricated bearings is a classic subject

  4. Proceedings of the 1993 American Control Conference, San Francisco, CA, June 1993, pp. 1910-1914. 1910 Friction Modeling and Control in Boundary Lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dupont, Pierre

    -1914. 1910 Friction Modeling and Control in Boundary Lubrication Pierre E. Dupont and Eric P. Dunlap and lubricated line contacts of hardened tool steel are described and a state variable friction model possessing and on the lubricant between them. In general, the friction-velocity curves for hard ma- terials separated by liquid

  5. Simulation of ultrathin lubricant films spreading over various carbon Stephen J. Vinay, David M. Phillips, Young Sil Lee, Charles M. Schroeder, Xiaoding Ma et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Charles

    Simulation of ultrathin lubricant films spreading over various carbon surfaces Stephen J. Vinay://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Simulation of ultrathin lubricant films spreading over various carbon surfaces Stephen J. Vinay surface composition and lubricant endgroup functionality, is described. Theoretical development based

  6. Effects of temperature on desiccant catalysis of refrigerant and lubricant decomposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, N.D.T.

    1998-06-01

    Accelerated aging at high temperatures (149 C) for short aging times (28 days) is effective in screening the compatibility of different materials in refrigeration systems. However, in actual applications temperatures are usually lower and operating times much longer. Therefore plots to allow for interpolation or extrapolation of experimental data to actual operating conditions are needed. In the current study, aging of refrigerant/lubricant/desiccant/metal systems was conducted at five different temperatures, and for each temperature at four different aging times. The data collected from this study provided plots relating refrigerant or lubricant decomposition to aging time, aging temperature, and type of desiccant, which can be used for interpolation or extrapolation.

  7. In situ measurement of the bonded film thickness of Z-Tetraol lubricant on magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Lei; Li Feng

    2010-10-15

    Currently, the bonded film thickness of perfluoropolyether lubricant on top of magnetic recording media is measured by a two-step process. First, the media disk has to be rinsed thoroughly using a fluorocarbon solvent (for instance, Vetrel) to remove the mobile lubricant. Second, the thickness of the remaining lubricant on the media surface which is regarded as the bonded lubricant thickness is then measured either by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. As the total lubricant thickness approaches single molecular dimension ({approx}10 A), current methods face tremendous challenge on the accuracy and sensitivity of the measurement. We studied the spectral characteristics responding to the lubricant bonding with the carbon overcoat by the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectra and proposed to use the peak area ratio (C{sub 3}H{sub 2}F/C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O/C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}) to characterize the bonded Z-Tetraol lubricant that produces a direct bonded lubricant thickness measurement without the need to remove the mobile lubricant with a solvent. After taking the background signal of disks prior to bonding by UV irradiation into account, this method becomes independent of the total lubricant thickness as well as shows good correlation linearity (R{sup 2{approx}}87%) with the current FTIR method for the ratio of C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O/C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}.

  8. On the presence of ultra-fast outflows in the WAX sample of Seyfert galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tombesi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The study of winds in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is of utmost importance as they may provide the long sought-after link between the central black hole and the host galaxy, establishing the AGN feedback. Recently, Laha et al. (2014) reported the X-ray analysis of a sample of 26 Seyferts observed with XMM-Newton, which are part of the so-called warm absorbers in X-rays (WAX) sample. They claim the non-detection of Fe K absorbers indicative of ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) in four observations previously analyzed by Tombesi et al. (2010). They mainly impute the Tombesi et al. detections to an improper modeling of the underlying continuum in the E=4-10 keV band. We therefore re-address here the robustness of these detections and we find that the main reason for the claimed non-detections is likely due to their use of single events only spectra, which reduces the total counts by 40%. Performing a re-analysis of the data in the whole E=0.3-10 keV energy band using their models and spectra including also double event...

  9. Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs): High density polyethylene and hydrocarbon waxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mu, Mulan, E-mail: mmu01@qub.ac.uk, E-mail: m.basheer@qub.ac.uk; Basheer, P. A. M., E-mail: mmu01@qub.ac.uk, E-mail: m.basheer@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Bai, Yun, E-mail: yun.bai@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); McNally, Tony, E-mail: t.mcnally@warwick.ac.uk [WMG, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) with high (HPW, T{sub m}=56-58 °C) and low (L-PW, T{sub m}=18-23 °C) melting point waxes were prepared by melt-mixing in a twin-screw extruder and their potential in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications for housing assessed. The structure and morphology of these blends were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both H-PW and L-PW were uniformly distributed throughout the HDPE matrix. The melting point and latent heat of the SSPCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results demonstrated that both H-PW and L-PW have a plasticisation effect on the HDPE matrix. The tensile and flexural properties of the samples were measured at room temperature (RT, 20±2 °C) and 70 °C, respectively. All mechanical properties of HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends decreased from RT to 70 °C. In all instances at RT, modulus and stress, irrespective of the mode of deformation was greater for the HDPE/H-PW blends. However, at 70 °C, there was no significant difference in mechanical properties between the HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends.

  10. WAXS fat subtraction model to estimate differential linear scattering coefficients of fatless breast tissue: Phantom materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Robert Y.; Laamanen, Curtis McDonald, Nancy; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to subtract fat tissue contributions to wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) signals of breast biopsies in order to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficients ?{sub s} of fatless tissue. Cancerous and fibroglandular tissue can then be compared independent of fat content. In this work phantom materials with known compositions were used to test the efficacy of the WAXS subtraction model. Methods: Each sample 5 mm in diameter and 5 mm thick was interrogated by a 50 kV 2.7 mm diameter beam for 3 min. A 25 mm{sup 2} by 1 mm thick CdTe detector allowed measurements of a portion of the ? = 6° scattered field. A scatter technique provided means to estimate the incident spectrum N{sub 0}(E) needed in the calculations of ?{sub s}[x(E, ?)] where x is the momentum transfer argument. Values of ?{sup ¯}{sub s} for composite phantoms consisting of three plastic layers were estimated and compared to the values obtained via the sum ?{sup ¯}{sub s}{sup ?}(x)=?{sub 1}?{sub s1}(x)+?{sub 2}?{sub s2}(x)+?{sub 3}?{sub s3}(x), where ?{sub i} is the fractional volume of the ith plastic component. Water, polystyrene, and a volume mixture of 0.6 water + 0.4 polystyrene labelled as fibphan were chosen to mimic cancer, fat, and fibroglandular tissue, respectively. A WAXS subtraction model was used to remove the polystyrene signal from tissue composite phantoms so that the ?{sub s} of water and fibphan could be estimated. Although the composite samples were layered, simulations were performed to test the models under nonlayered conditions. Results: The well known ?{sub s} signal of water was reproduced effectively between 0.5 < x < 1.6 nm{sup ?1}. The ?{sup ¯}{sub s} obtained for the heterogeneous samples agreed with ?{sup ¯}{sub s}{sup ?}. Polystyrene signals were subtracted successfully from composite phantoms. The simulations validated the usefulness of the WAXS models for nonlayered biopsies. Conclusions: The methodology to measure ?{sub s} of homogeneous samples was quantitatively accurate. Simple WAXS models predicted the probabilities for specific x-ray scattering to occur from heterogeneous biopsies. The fat subtraction model can allow ?{sub s} signals of breast cancer and fibroglandular tissue to be compared without the effects of fat provided there is an independent measurement of the fat volume fraction ?{sub f}. Future work will consist of devising a quantitative x-ray digital imaging method to estimate ?{sub f} in ex vivo breast samples.

  11. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoult, D.P.

    1985-09-10

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal. 4 figs.

  12. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoult, David P. (Box 89, Wellesley, MA 02181)

    1985-01-01

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal.

  13. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-10-01

    The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

  14. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a methodmore »for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.« less

  15. Multifractal analysis of stress time series during ultrathin lubricant film melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Khomenko; I. A. Lyashenko; V. N. Borisyuk

    2010-07-20

    Melting of an ultrathin lubricant film confined between two atomically flat surfaces is we studied using the rheological model for viscoelastic matter approximation. Phase diagram with domains, corresponding to sliding, dry, and two types of $stick-slip$ friction regimes has been built taking into account additive noises of stress, strain, and temperature of the lubricant. The stress time series have been obtained for all regimes of friction using the Stratonovich interpretation. It has been shown that self-similar regime of lubricant melting is observed when intensity of temperature noise is much larger than intensities of strain and stress noises. This regime is defined by homogenous distribution, at which characteristic stress scale is absent. We study stress time series obtained for all friction regimes using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. It has been shown that multifractality of these series is caused by different correlations that are present in the system and also by a power-law distribution. Since the power-law distribution is related to small stresses, this case corresponds to self-similar solid-like lubricant.

  16. Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication, ME5656 Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müftü, Sinan

    Mechanics of Contact and Lubrication, ME5656 Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Northeastern University Fall 2009 MECHANICS AND TRIBOLOGY OF THIN COATINGS (FILMS) Qian R. Sheng Northeastern University sheng.q@husky.neu.edu Abstract The investigation on mechanics and tribology of thin-film coatings

  17. Accelerated aging of solid lubricants for the W76-1 TSL : effects of polymer outgassing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Wallace, William O.; Huffman, Elizabeth M.

    2006-09-01

    The behavior of MoS{sub 2} lubricants intended for the W76-1 TSL was evaluated after 17 and 82 thermal cycles, each lasting seven days and including a low temperature of -35 C and a high temperature of 93 C, in a sealed container containing organic materials. The MoS{sub 2} was applied by tumbling with MoS{sub 2} powder and steel pins (harperized), or by spraying with a resin binder (AS Mix). Surface composition measurements indicated an uptake of carbon and silicon on the lubricant surfaces after aging. Oxidation of the MoS{sub 2} on harperized coupons, where enough MoS{sub 2} was present at the surface to result in significant Mo and S concentrations, was found to be minimal for the thermal cycles in an atmosphere of primarily nitrogen. Bare steel surfaces showed a reduction in friction for exposed coupons compared to control coupons stored in nitrogen, at least for the initial cycles of sliding until the adsorbed contaminants were worn away. Lubricated surfaces showed no more than a ten percent increase in steady-state friction coefficient after exposure. Initial coefficient of friction was up to 250 percent higher than steady-state for AS Mix films on H950 coupons after 82 thermal cycles. However, the friction coefficient exhibited by lubricated coupons was never greater than 0.25, and more often less than 0.15, even after the accelerated aging exposures.

  18. Mechanical face seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from FLUIDEX data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development and applications of mechanical face seals relative to antifriction behavior, improved materials, lubricant effects, and accelerated model wear tests. Performance evaluations in mining, gas turbine engines, and pumps are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  20. MIL-L-87177 Lubricant Bulletproofs Connectors Against Chemical and Fretting Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HANLON, JAMES T.; DE MARQUIS, VIRGINIA K.; TAYLOR, RONALD DEAN

    2002-05-01

    Electrical connectors corrode. Even our best SA and MC connectors finished with 50 to 100 microinches of gold over 50 to 100 microinches of nickel corrode. This work started because some, but not all, lots of connectors held in KC stores for a decade had been destroyed by pore corrosion (chemical corrosion). We have identified a MIL-L-87177 lubricant that absolutely stops chemical corrosion on SA connectors, even in the most severe environments. For commercial connectors which typically have thinner plating thicknesses, not only does the lubricant significantly retard effects of chemical corrosion, but also it greatly prolongs the fretting life. This report highlights the initial development history and use of the lubricant at Bell Labs and AT&T, and the Battelle studies and the USAF experience that lead to its deployment to stop dangerous connector corrosion on the F-16. We report the Sandia, HFM&T and Battelle development work, connector qualification, and material compatibility studies that demonstrate its usefulness and safety on JTA and WR systems. We will be applying MIL-L-87177 Connector Lubricant to all new connectors that go into KC stores. We recommend that it be applied to connectors on newly built cables and equipment as well as material that recycles through manufacturing locations from the field.

  1. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  2. Simultaneous wireline operations from a floating rig with a subsea lubricator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopper, C.T. )

    1990-08-01

    In 1987, and extensive wireline program was completed on two subsea wells in the highlander field in the central North Sea with a subsea lubricator deployed from a drilling rig that was drilling and working over adjacent wells. This paper reports how working on two wells concurrently is a way to reduce the operating costs of a subsea development significantly.

  3. TiN-Coating Effects on Stainless Steel Tribological Behavior Under Dry and Lubricated Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    deposition (PVD) on cutting tools and other material surfaces susceptible to wear help extending the life highlighted their advantages over uncoated tools (Ref 2-4). TiN coatings wear can change dramaticallyTiN-Coating Effects on Stainless Steel Tribological Behavior Under Dry and Lubricated Conditions

  4. MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael T.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2008-01-01

    Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

  5. Performance requirements and case histories for a specialized industrial gear lubricant for use in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    The recent release of a new gear lubricant specification by an original equipment manufacturer from the mining industry is an indication that the need for a new specification is recognized in other segments of the mining industry. unfortunately, this new specification appears too ambitious in at least one of it`s performance requirements and not ambitious enough in some of it`s other requirements. This new specification requires that the lubricant be able to emulsify 50% (by volume) water for at least 24 hours. It is technically difficult to achieve this goal and at the same time retain some of the other properties that are essential to the success of a specialized lubricant for underground mining applications. The ability to maintain excellent anti-wear and extreme pressure performance even when water and solid contamination is present is one such property. This effort to incorporate contamination tolerance into a gear lubricant specification should be applauded but it also needs to be recognized that any new gear lubricant specification that attempts to do so should be based on and evolved from existing specialized gear lubricants. A review of the data presented leads to the conclusion that there needs to be a better benchmark available to insure that the enclosed gear lubricants used in underground mining will provide the best service possible. It is more than a matter of upgrading the US Steel 224 lubricant specification. A new enclosed gear lubricant benchmark specification which deals with the important contamination issues that are found in the mining environment is needed.

  6. Crystal chemistry and self-lubricating properties of monochalcogenides gallium selenide and tin selenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, A.

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes the fundamentals of the crystal chemistry and self-lubricating mechanisms of two monochalcogenides; tin selenide and gallium selenide. Specifically, it enumerates their inter-atomic array and bond structure in crystalline states, and correlates this fundamental knowledge with their self-lubricating capacity. Friction tests assessing the self-lubricating performance of gallium and tin selenides were carried out on a pin-on-disk machine. Specifically, large crystalline pieces of gallium selenide and tin selenide were cut and cleaved into flat squares and subsequently rubbed against the sapphire balls. In another case, the fine powders (particle size {approx} 50--100 {mu}m) of gallium selenide and tin selenide were manually fed into the sliding interfaces of 440C pins and 440C disks. For the specific test conditions explored, it was found that the friction coefficients of the sapphire/gallium selenide and sapphire/tin selenide pairs were {approx} 0.23 and {approx} 0.35, respectively. The friction coefficients of 440C pin/440C disk test pairs with gallium selenide and tin selenide powders were on the orders of {approx} 0.22 and {approx} 0.38, respectively. For comparison, a number of parallel friction tests were performed with MoS{sub 2} powders and compacts and the results of these tests were also reported. The friction data together with the crystal-chemical knowledge and the electron microscopic evidence supported the conclusion that the lubricity and self-lubricating mechanisms of these solids are closely related to their crystal chemistry and the nature of interlayer bonding.

  7. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst using supercritical fluid extraction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of SCF extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer- Tropsch (F-T) slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. The wax will be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300{degrees}C. Initial work is being performed using n-hexane as the solvent. The success of the project depends on two major factors. First, the supercritical solvent must be able to dissolve the F-T wax; furthermore, this must be accomplished without entraining the solid catalyst. Second, the extraction must be controlled so as not to favor the removal of the low molecular weight wax compounds, i.e., a constant carbon-number distribution of the alkanes in the wax slurry must be maintained at steady-state column operation. To implement our objectives, the following task structure is being implemented: Task 1 equilibrium solubility measurements; Task 2 thermodynamic modeling; and Task 3 process design studies. Progress reports are presented for each task.

  8. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst by supercritical extraction. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, P.C.; Thies, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    One of the major objectives of this research project is to predict the phase behavior of model wax compounds in dense supercritical fluids such as hexane. Because initial results with the SAFT equation have been less promising than expected, the group at North Carolina State University has focused their recent attention on cubic equations of state, in particular the Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong versions. The focus of this work has been on developing correlations that can be used to predict binary interaction parameters (i.e., k{sub ij}s) for a given binary wax-solvent system. As a first step, k{sub ij}s were first calculated from experimental data on systems containing alkanes between nC{sub 4} and nC{sub 23} at temperatures between 25 and 357{degrees} C. Attempts were then made to correlate these parameters with specific pure component properties of the alkanes of interest. Reasonably good agreement between experimental and predicted k{sub ij}s was found using a correlation that incorporates both temperature and the molecular size of the alkanes. As phase equilibrium data becomes available for higher molecular weight model wax compounds, the ability of the correlation to handle such systems will need to be tested. The phase equilibrium apparatus is currently undergoing modifications that will allow the system to run components that are solids at ambient temperatures. Some problems are still being resolved, as the heavy component tends to precipitate in the sample lines. Modifications have been made that should allow the system to operate reliably.

  9. Design of a dry sump lubrication system for a Honda® CBR 600 F4i engine for Formula SAE applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farkhondeh, Ehsan

    2006-01-01

    A dry sump lubrication system for a Formula SAE race car was designed and manufactured in order to gain the various advantages this type of system affords. A dry sump system stores oil in an external tank and pumps it ...

  10. Vapor-liquid equilibria for an R134a/lubricant mixture: Measurements and equation-of-state modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, M.L.; Holcomb, C.D.; Outcalt, S.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    2000-07-01

    The authors measured bubble point pressures and coexisting liquid densities for two mixtures of R-134a and a polyolester (POE) lubricant. The mass fraction of the lubricant was approximately 9% and 12%, and the temperature ranged from 280 K to 355 K. The authors used the Elliott, Suresh, and Donohue (ESD) equation of state to model the bubble point pressure data. The bubble point pressures were represented with an average absolute deviation of 2.5%. A binary interaction parameter reduced the deviation to 1.4%. The authors also applied the ESD model to other R-134a/POE lubricant data in the literature. As the concentration of the lubricant increased, the performance of the model deteriorated markedly. However, the use of a single binary interaction parameter reduced the deviations significantly.

  11. Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Effects of lubricant additive chemistries and exhaust conditions on ash properties affecting diesel particulate filter performance. Comparison of ash characteristics such as packing density and elemental composition in field and laboratory aged DPFs.

  12. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  13. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Robert Y.; McDonald, Nancy Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (?{sup ¯}{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ?{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient ?{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ?{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ?{sup ¯}{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10{sup ?5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, ?{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the ?{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to ?{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ?{sup ¯}{sub fat}=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of ?{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and ?{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the differences did not vary from zero in a statistically significant way thereby validating the methods. Conclusions: The methodology to estimate ?{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a ROI of a tissue sample via CCD x-ray imaging was quantitatively accurate. The WAXS fat subtraction model allowed ?{sub s} of fibrous tissue to be obtained from a ROI which had some fat. The fat estimation method coupled with the WAXS models can be used to compare ?{sub s} coefficients of fibroglandular and cancerous breast tissue.

  14. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oil)residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oilOil Lubricants Naphtha Petroleum feedstocks Natural Gas Liquids Municipal Solid Waste

  15. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    authoritative source of oil product data). This studyof China’s products—chemical light oil and naphtha— map to aLubricant base oil Miscellaneous petroleum products Pentanes

  16. The determination of performance characteristics of a small two-stroke-cycle engine operated with various fuel-lubricant mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doolittle, James Harold

    1968-01-01

    THE DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL TWO-STROKE-CYCLE ENGINE OPERATED WITH VARIOUS FUEL-LUBRICANT MIXTURES A Thesis by JAMES HAROLD DOOLITTLE III Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AFM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1968 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL TWO-STROKE-CYCLE ENGINE OPERATED WITH VARIOUS FUEL-LUBRICANT MIXTURES A...

  17. Non-Newtonian temperature and pressure effects of a lubricant slurry in a rotating hydrostatic step bearing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J.; Finn, W.E.; Dareing, D.W. |

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the pressure and temperature effects of graphite powder lubricant when added to a Newtonian carrier fluid and applied in a rotating hydrostatic step bearing. Temperature and pressure profiles were determined both analytically and experimentally. The rheological behavior of the non-Newtonian lubricant was modeled using a power law model previously shown to approximate experimental data for this fluid. Ethylene glycol was used as the Newtonian lubricant, providing a check on the test apparatus and a base line for comparison with the non-Newtonian graphite slurry. Data revealed a temperature increase with bearing rotational speed for both fluids and compared favorably with the mathematical predictions. A significantly higher temperature rise was seen in the non- Newtonian lubricant due to the higher shear rates. The pressure profile was not directly dependent on bearing rotational speed in the mathematical model, but experimental data demonstrated a reduction in pressure at higher rotation speeds. This loss was greater for the non-Newtonian lubricant and attributed to temperature dependence of power law constants. It was concluded that the effects of operating speed and temperature on a non-Newtonian lubricant should be considered as well as their greater load-carrying capacity.

  18. 3/11/13 9:17 AMResearcher says interest in zombies waxes, wanes to mirror societal dissatisfaction -The Washington Post Page 1 of 5http://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/tv/researcher-says-inte...faction/2013/03/11/8a5d0472-8a2e-11e2-a88e-461ffa2e34e

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    3/11/13 9:17 AMResearcher says interest in zombies waxes, wanes to mirror societal dissatisfaction in zombies waxes, wanes to mirror societal dissatisfaction Seth Wenig, File/Associated Press - FILE to care. 3. Researcher says interest in zombies waxes, wanes to mirror societal dissatisfaction 4. Joy

  19. Investigation of slippery behaviour of lubricating fluid coated smooth hydrophilic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeta Pant; Pritam Kumar Roy; Arun Kumar Nagarajan; Krishnacharya Khare

    2015-08-04

    In the recent years many research groups have studied slippery properties on lubricating fluid infused rough surfaces using hydrophobic substrates. These surfaces show excellent slippery behaviour for water and other liquids. Here we demonstrate a simple method to fabricate stable slippery surfaces based on silicone oil coated hydrophilic samples. At room temperature, as prepared samples exhibit non-slippery behaviour due to sinking of water drops inside silicone oil layer because of inherently hydrophilic silicon substrate. Subsequent annealing at higher temperatures provides covalent bonding of silicone molecules at silicon surface making the surface hydrophobic which was confirmed by lubricant wash tests. So the silicone oil coated annealed samples show excellent water repellency, very low contact angle hysteresis and very good slippery behavior. But these surfaces show poor oil stability against drops flow due to cloaking of the oil around water drops which can be prevented by using drops of larger volume or continuous flow of water.

  20. Stick-Slip Control in Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication by Surface Wettability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Chen; Adam S. Foster; Mikko J. Alava; Lasse Laurson

    2015-02-13

    We study the effect of atomic scale surface-lubricant interactions on nanoscale boundary-lubricated friction, by considering two example surfaces - hydrophilic mica and hydrophobic graphene - confining thin layers of water in molecular dynamics simulations. We observe stick-slip dynamics for thin water films confined by mica sheets, involving periodic breaking-reforming transitions of atomic scale capillary water bridges formed around the potassium ions of mica. However, only smooth sliding without stick-slip events is observed for water confined by graphene, as well as for thicker water layers confined by mica. Thus, our results illustrate how atomic scale details affect the wettability of the confining surfaces, and consequently control the presence or absence of stick-slip dynamics in nanoscale friction.

  1. Tribocharging phenomena in hard disk amorphous carbon coatings with and without perfluoropolyether lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van den Oetelaar, Ronald J.A.; Xu, Lei; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Tang, Hung; Gui, Jing

    2000-08-01

    Scanning polarization force microscopy was used to study changes in surface potential (tribocharging) caused by the contact between a tungsten carbide tip and the amorphous carbon coating of a hard disk,both when bare and when covered with Zdol-TX lubricant. The surface potential change produced by tip contact decays with time at a rate that is strongly dependent on lubricant coverage, and on the presence of oxygen and water vapor in the environment. Two different charging mechanisms are proposed. One involves chemical modification of the surface by removal of oxygen bound to the surface. This gives rise to a potential change that decays with time. Another mechanism involves trapping of charge in states within the energy gap of the insulating carbon film. The potential change due to this trapped charge does not decay over periods much greater than 1 hour.

  2. Lubricant return comparison of naphthenic and polyol ester oils in R-134a household refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes-Gavilan, J.L.; Flak, G.T.; Tritcak, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents mineral oils and polyol esters as possible lubricant options for domestic refrigeration applications employing R-134a as the heat exchange fluid. A performance comparison, based on data presented, is made between the mineral oils and polyol esters evaluated. To more closely examine lubricant return with N-70 and R-134a and ensure that the oil is not contributing to any deterioration in efficiency due to its accumulation in evaporators, a special test unit was designed with a difficult oil return configuration and its performance carefully monitored. Oil return with a hydrofluorocarbon-miscible polyol ester, R-133-O was also evaluated in this setup and its performance results compared to those obtained with the naphthenic refrigeration oil.

  3. Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation: A Literature Search and Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Ngoc Dung T.

    2001-08-08

    An extensive literature search and a confidential survey were critically analyzed to determine the effects of water on the stability of hydrofluorocarbon/synthetic lubricant systems and to identify key areas requiring further investigation. Following are highlights from the analysis: Clathrate hydrates are solid solutions formed when water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding creating cavities that can enclose various guest molecules from hydrate formers, such as hydrofluorocarbons R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-407C and R-410A. The four methods for preventing clathrate formation were drying the gas, heating it, reducing its pressure, or using inhibitors. The hydrolysis of polyolester lubricants was mostly acid-catalyzed and its reaction rate constant typically followed the Arrhenius equation of an activated process. Hydrolytic stability improved with hindered molecular structures, and with the presence of acid catcher additives and desiccants. Water vapor can effect the adsorption of long-chain fatty acids and the chemistry of formation of protective oxide film. However, these effects on lubrication can be either positive or negative. Fifty to sixty percent of the moisture injected into an air-conditioning system remained in the refrigerant and the rest mixed with the compressor oil. In an automotive air-conditioning system using R-134a, ice would form at 0 C evaporating temperature when the water content in the vapor refrigerant on the low-pressure side was more than 350 ppm. Moisture would cause the embrittlement of polyethylene terephthalate and the hydrolysis of polyesters, but would reduce the effect of amine additives on fluoroelastomer rubbers. The reactions of water with refrigerants and lubricants would cause formicary and large-pit corrosion in copper tubes, as well as copper plating and sludge formation. Moreover, blockage of capillary tubes increased rapidly in the presence of water. Twenty-four companies responded to the survey. From the responses, the water concentrations specified and expected for different refrigerant/lubricant systems varied depending on the products, their capacities and applications, and also on the companies. Among the problems associated with high moisture level, lubricant breakdown was of greatest concern, followed by acid formation, compressor failure and expansion valve sticking. The following research topics are suggested: 1. The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry needs to measure and record the water content and total acid number of the lubricant of newly installed systems as well as operating systems that are shutdown for service or repair. The reason for the shutdown needs to be documented. A database can then be established to correlate water content with type and cause of breakdown. 2. Detailed studies on the distribution of water in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems should be conducted to pinpoint problem areas associated with free water. 3. Research is needed to validate the current theories and mechanisms of formicary corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors need to be developed. 4. The conditions for clathrate formation and decomposition of other alternative refrigerants, such as R-23, R-41, R-116, R-125, R-143a, R-404A and R-507C, and water should be determined to avoid possible problems associated with tube plugging. The mechanism by which water facilitates or hinders lubrication needs to be studied.

  4. Synergistic Effects Between Phosphonium-Alkylphosphate Ionic Liquids and Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as Lubricant Additives

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qu, Jun; Barnhill, William C.; Luo, Huimin; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Landauer, Alexander K.; Kheireddin, Bassem; Gao, Hong; Papke, Brian L; Dai, Sheng

    2015-07-14

    Unique synergistic effects between phosphonium-alkylphosphate ionic liquids and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) are discovered when used together as lubricant additives, resulting in significant friction and wear reduction along with distinct tribofilm composition and mechanical properties. The synergism is attributed to the 30-70× higher-than-nominal concentrations of hypothetical new compounds (via anion exchange between IL and ZDDP) on the fluid surface/interface.

  5. Poiseuille flow past a nanoscale cylinder in a slit channel: Lubrication theory versus molecular dynamics analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir M. Rahmani; Yang Shao; Mehlam Jupiterwala; Carlos E. Colosqui

    2015-04-13

    Plane Poiseuille flow past a nanoscale cylinder that is arbitrarily confined (i.e., symmetrically or asymmetrically confined) in a slit channel is studied via hydrodynamic lubrication theory and molecular dynamics simulations, considering cases where the cylinder remains static or undergoes thermal motion. Lubrication theory predictions for the drag force and volumetric flow rate are in close agreement with molecular dynamics simulations of flows having molecularly thin lubrication gaps, despite the presence of significant structural forces induced by the crystalline structure of the modeled solid. While the maximum drag force is observed in symmetric confinement, i.e., when the cylinder is equidistant from both channel walls, the drag decays significantly as the cylinder moves away from the channel centerline and approaches a wall. Hence, significant reductions in the mean drag force on the cylinder and hydraulic resistance of the channel can be observed when thermal motion induces random off-center displacements. Analytical expressions and numerical results in this work provide useful insights into the hydrodynamics of colloidal solids and macromolecules in confinement.

  6. Accurate lubrication corrections for spherical and non-spherical particles in discretized fluid simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian Janoschek; Jens Harting; Federico Toschi

    2013-08-29

    Discretized fluid solvers coupled to a Newtonian dynamics method are a popular tool to study suspension flow. As any simulation technique with finite resolution, the lattice Boltzmann method, when coupled to discrete particles using the momentum exchange method, resolves the diverging lubrication interactions between surfaces near contact only insufficiently. For spheres, it is common practice to account for surface-normal lubrication forces by means of an explicit correction term. A method that additionally covers all further singular interactions for spheres is present in the literature as well as a link-based approach that allows for more general shapes but does not capture non-normal interactions correctly. In this paper, lattice-independent lubrication corrections for aspherical particles are outlined, taking into account all leading divergent interaction terms. An efficient implementation for arbitrary spheroids is presented and compared to purely normal and link-based models. Good consistency with Stokesian dynamics simulations of spheres is found. The non-normal interactions affect the viscosity of suspensions of spheres at volume fractions \\Phi >= 0.3 but already at \\Phi >= 0.2 for spheroids. Regarding shear-induced diffusion of spheres, a distinct effect is found at 0.1 <= \\Phi <= 0.5 and even increasing the resolution of the radius to 8 lattice units is no substitute for an accurate modeling of non-normal interactions.

  7. Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Stanford, Malcolm K.; Persinger, Justin A.; Khorsandi, Behrooz; Blue, Thomas E.

    2007-01-30

    The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1013 to 1015 n/cm2. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1015 to 1016 n/cm2 with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions.

  8. Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Bo; Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

  9. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dirk, Shawn M.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2010-10-01

    The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. With a sufficient concentration of pentanol vapor present, sliding of a silica ball on an oxidized silicon wafer can proceed with no measurable wear. The initial results of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of wear surfaces revealed a reaction product having thickness on the order of a monolayer, and with an ion spectrum that included fragments having molecular weights of 200 or more that occurred only inside the wear tracks. The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that reactions of adsorbed alcohols on the wearing surfaces allowed polymerization of the alcohols to form higher molecular weight species. In addition to pin-on-disk studies, lubrication of silicon surfaces with pentanol vapors has also been demonstrated using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices. Recent investigations of the reaction mechanisms of the alcohol molecules with the oxidized silicon surfaces have shown that wearless sliding requires a concentration of the alcohol vapor that is dependent upon the contact stress during sliding, with higher stress requiring a greater concentration of alcohol. Different vapor precursors including those with acid functionality, olefins, and methyl termination also produce polymeric reaction products, and can lubricate the silica surfaces. Doping the operating environment with oxygen was found to quench the formation of the polymeric reaction product, and demonstrates that polymer formation is not necessary for wearless sliding.

  10. US Synthetic Corp (TRL 4 Component)- The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings for use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    US Synthetic Corp (TRL 4 Component) - The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings for use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

  11. The Plant Cell, Vol. 11, 825838, May 1999, www.plantcell.org 1999 American Society of Plant Physiologists CUT1, an Arabidopsis Gene Required for Cuticular Wax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada b National Research Council of Canada, Plant. Michael Giblin,b David C. Taylor,b and Ljerka Kunsta,2 a Department of Botany, University of British is species dependent, but typically they are 26 to 34 carbons long. VLCFAs, the precursors for wax

  12. Synthesis of monodispersed ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and their tribology properties as lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Shaohua; Zhang, Jun; Li, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Cao, Bingqiang

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? The preparation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was realized by hydrothermal method. ? After surface modification, ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles of narrow size distribution can disperse in lubricating oil stably. ? The modified ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives exhibit good tribology properties. -- Abstract: Monodispersed spherical zinc aluminate spinel (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were synthesized via a solvothermal method and modified by oleic acid in cyclohexanol solution. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and infrared spectrum (IR). The dispersion ability of nanoparticles in lubricant oil was measured with optical absorbance spectrum. The results show that the modified nanoparticles are nearly monodispersed and can stably disperse in lubricant oil. The tribological properties of the ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as an additive in lubricant oil were evaluated with four-ball test and thrust-ring test. For comparison, ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as additive in lubricant oil were also tested respectively. The results show that ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibit better tribology properties in terms of anti-wear and anti-friction than ZnO or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The anti-friction and anti-wear mechanisms were discussed and the lubricating effect of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be attributed to nano-bearings effect and tribo-sintering mechanism.

  13. Heat transfer of R-134a in single-tube spray evaporation including lubricant effects and enhanced surface results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A.; Huebsch, W.W.; Pate, M.B.

    1995-08-01

    Single-tube spray evaporation experimental tests were conducted in order to evaluate the average wall heat transfer coefficients for seven different commercially available tubes. Liquid film supply rates were held constant in order to evaluate the effects of the enhancement on shell-side heat transfer under similar conditions. Because the spray evaporation phenomenon is so different from pool boiling, both condensation-type and evaporation-type enhanced surfaces were evaluated. A comparison of the results for all of the tubes showed that the enhanced condensation surfaces performed better than the enhanced boiling surfaces. In addition, the 26-fpi surface tested marginally better than the 40-fpi surface. Small concentrations of a polyol-ester lubricant cause a foaming effect that increases the heat transfer performance. This tendency was seen with both 32-cs and 68-cs polyol-ester oils. The 68-cs lubricant was tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 with the W-40 fpi and Tu-Cii surfaces. Results with this lubricant show the performance continues to increase through the 3% concentration for most of the heat flux range tested At the upper end of the range tested, the 1.0% mass fraction yielded the best performance. The 32-cs lubricant generated trends similar to those of the 68-cs lubricant. Lubricant concentrations of 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% were evaluated with plain, W-40 fpi, and Tu-Cii surfaces. The 2.0% concentration, not the 1.0 %, generated the best performance at the highest heat flux tested. This difference must be attributed to the difference in the lubricant viscosity.

  14. Time-Resolved SAXS/WAXS Study of the Phase Behavior and Microstructural Evolution of Drug/PEG Solid Dispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Qing; Harris, Michael T.; Taylor, Lynne S. (Purdue)

    2013-03-07

    Simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) was employed to elucidate the physical state and location of various small molecule drugs blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG), as well as the time dependent microstructural evolution of the systems. Samples were prepared by comelting physical mixtures of the drug and PEG, followed by solidification at 25 C. The model drugs selected encompassed a wide variety of physicochemical properties in terms of crystallization tendency and potential for interaction with PEG. It was observed that compounds which crystallized rapidly and had weak interactions with PEG tended to be excluded from the interlamellar region of the PEG matrix. In contrast, drugs which had favorable interactions with PEG were incorporated into the interlamellar regions of the polymer up until the point at which the drug crystallized whereby phase separation occurred. These factors are likely to impact the effectiveness of drug/PEG systems as drug delivery systems.

  15. Health assessment for Vogel Paint and Wax, Maurice, Sioux County, Iowa, Region 7. CERCLIS No. IAD980630487. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-29

    The Vogel Paint and Wax National Priority List site is situated in northwest Iowa in Sioux County. Contaminants found at the site consist of heavy metals (particularly cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury) and volatile organic compounds (benzene, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylene). Two towns, Maurice and Struble, and the Southern Sioux County Rural Water System well field are located within three miles of the site, and two families live within 1600 feet of the waste-disposal site. Environmental pathways include contaminated soil and ground water, as well as potential surface water and air contamination. Although there does not appear to be any immediate public health threat, the site is of potential health concern because of the possibility for further off-site migration of contaminants into the ground water aquifer and for direct on-site contact.

  16. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly MCLR Program technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szymurski, S.R.; Hourahan, G.C.; Godwin, D.S.; Amrane, K.

    1995-10-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. This report summarizes the research conducted during the third quarter of calendar year 1995 on the following projects: Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives; Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with HFC refrigerants and ester lubricants; Compatibility of motor materials used in air-conditioning for retrofits with alternative refrigerants and lubricants; Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants; Products of motor burnouts; Accelerated test methods for predicting the life of motor materials exposed to refrigerant-lubricant mixtures; Investigation of flushing and clean-out methods; Investigation into the fractionation of refrigerant blends; Lean flammability limits as a fundamental refrigerant property; Effect of selected contaminants in AC and R equipment; Study of foaming characteristics; Study of lubricant circulation in systems; Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers; Infrared analysis of refrigerant mixtures; Refrigerant database; Refrigerant toxicity survey; Thermophysical properties of HFC-32, HFC-123, HCFC-124 and HFC-125; Thermophysical properties of HFC-143a and HFC-152a; Theoretical evaluations of R-22 alternative fluids; Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals; Miscibility of lubricants with refrigerants; Viscosity, solubility and density measurements of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures; Electrohydrodynamic enhancement of pool and in-tube boiling of alternative refrigerants; Accelerated screening methods; and more.

  17. A comparison of the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of R-134a-lubricant mixtures in different diameter smooth tubes and micro-fin tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    The average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during evaporation and condensation are reported for mixtures of R-134a and an ester lubricant in tubes of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the R-134a-lubricant mixtures in these tubes and determine the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube. The performance benefits of the tubes with 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter are compared to those of smaller tubes with 9.52 mm (3/8 in.) outer diameter. The lubricant used was a 169 SUS penta erythritol ester mixed-acid lubricant. The lubricant concentration was varied from 0--5.1% in the mixture. The average heat transfer coefficients in the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) micro-fin tube were 50--150% higher than those for the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) smooth tube, while pressure drops in the micro-fin tube were 5% to 50% higher than in the smooth tube. The addition of lubricant degraded the average heat transfer coefficients in all cases except during evaporation at low lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops were always increased with the addition of lubricant. The experimental results also indicate that tube diameter has some effect on the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube over that of the smooth tube.

  18. Harold and Inge Marcus Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Fall 2010 Lubrication and Tool Wear in the Turning of Powdered Metal M2 Steel Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Lubrication and Tool Wear in the Turning of Powdered Metal M2 Steel Valve Seats Final Report Overview) cutting insert on M2 steel valve seats. Two parameters were collected in order to perform a statistical was to analyze tool wear and the effect of select lubricants in the turning operation of powdered M2 metal valve

  19. Lubricating bacteria model for the growth of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Shengli; Zhang Lei; Liang Run; Zhang Erhu; Liu Yachao; Zhao Shumin

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we study the morphological transition of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation by modifying the bacteria model proposed by Delprato et al. Our model considers four factors: the lubricant fluid generated by bacterial colonies, a chemotaxis initiated by the ultraviolet radiation, the intensity of the ultraviolet radiation, and the bacteria's two-stage destruction rate with given radiation intensities. Using this modified model, we simulate the ringlike pattern formation of the bacterial colony exposed to uniform ultraviolet radiation. The following is shown. (1) Without the UV radiation the colony forms a disklike pattern and reaches a constant front velocity. (2) After the radiation is switched on, the bacterial population migrates to the edge of the colony and forms a ringlike pattern. As the intensity of the UV radiation is increased the ring forms faster and the outer velocity of the colony decreases. (3) For higher radiation intensities the total population decreases, while for lower intensities the total population increases initially at a small rate and then decreases. (4) After the UV radiation is switched off, the bacterial population grows both outward as well as into the inner region, and the colony's outer front velocity recovers to a constant value. All these results agree well with the experimental observations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 158102 (2001)]. Along with the chemotaxis, we find that lubricant fluid and the two-stage destruction rate are critical to the dynamics of the growth of the bacterial colony when exposed to UV radiation, and these were not previously considered.

  20. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, N; Belisle, RA; Hatton, B; Wong, TS; Aizenberg, J

    2013-07-31

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show how this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.

  1. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Hatton, Benjamin; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-07-31

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show howmore »this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.« less

  2. Microphase separation in copolymers of hydrophilic PEG blocks and hydrophobic tyrosine-derived segments using simultaneous SAXS/WAXS/DSC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murthy, N.S.; Wang, W.; Kohn, J. (Rutgers); (Vermont)

    2010-10-22

    Hydration- and temperature-induced microphase separations were investigated by simultaneous small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in a family of copolymers in which hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blocks are inserted randomly into a hydrophobic polymer made of either desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester (DTE) or iodinated I{sub 2}DTE segments. Iodination of the tyrosine rings in I{sub 2}DTE increased the X-ray contrast between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments in addition to facilitating the study of the effect of iodination on microphase separation. The formation of phase-separated, hydrated PEG domains is of considerable significance as it profoundly affects the polymer properties. The copolymers of DTE (or I{sub 2}DTE) and PEG are a useful model system, and the findings presented here may be applicable to other PEG-containing random copolymers. In copolymers of PEG and DTE and I{sub 2}DTE, the presence of PEG depressed the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of the copolymer relative to the homopolymer, poly(DTE carbonate), and the DTE/I{sub 2}DTE segments hindered the crystallization of the PEG segments. In the dry state, at large PEG fractions (>70 vol%), the PEG domains self-assembled into an ordered structure with 14-18 nm distance between the domains. These domains gave rise to a SAXS peak at all temperatures in the iodinated polymers, but only above the T{sub g} in non-iodinated polymers, due to the unexpected contrast-match between the crystalline PEG domains and the glassy DTE segments. Irrespective of whether PEG was crystalline or not, immersion of these copolymers in water resulted in the formation of hydrated PEG domains that were 10-20 nm apart. Since both water and the polymer chains must be mobile for the phase separation to occur, the PEG domains disappeared when the water froze, and reappeared as the ice began to melt. This transformation was reversible, and showed hysteresis as did the melting of ice and freezing of the water incorporated into the polymer. PEG-water complexes and PEG-water eutectics were observed in WAXS and DSC scans, respectively.

  3. Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

  4. Study of fractionation of refrigerant blends in contact with lubricants and measurement of the solubility, density, and viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Falconi, E.A.

    1999-07-01

    The fractionation of two refrigerant blends was studied using the gas equilibrium method. The amount of fractionation was measured by maintaining a constant composition of the refrigerant gas vapor over the lubricant, which was equal in composition to the liquid refrigerant gas blend introduced into the viscometer. Specifically, the concentration of the dissolved refrigerant gas in the lubricant ranges from 0.6% to 78% by weight in the specified temperature range of {minus}25 C to 125 C and within the highest test pressure of 500 psia (3.45 MPa). The polyolester chosen for this study was a 32 ISO VG complex branched acid pentaerythritol product. Smoothed graphical data presented were obtained from individual isothermal measurements. These individual isothermal measurement temperatures detail the composition of the equilibrium gas fractionation of R-32 and R-134a in the lubricant, mixed vapor pressure, concentration of the total mixed blend as percent by weight in the lubricant and viscosity in centipoise (cP) and centistokes (cSt). The raw data are presented in a smoothed graphical form based on a fixed vapor composition.

  5. Effect of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance of R-134a and R-22 in tube bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A.; Pate, M.B.

    1996-11-01

    This study evaluates the effects of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance. Tests were conducted with refrigerant R-134a and triangular-pitch tube bundles made from enhanced-condensation, enhanced-boiling, low-finned, and plain-surface tubes. A 340-SUS polyol-ester (POE) oil was used for the R-134a testing because this lubricant is being integrated into industry for use with this refrigerant. Refrigerant was sprayed onto the tube bundles with low-pressure-drop, wide-angle nozzles located directly above the bundle. Collector testing was conducted with both R-134a and R-22 to determine the percentage of refrigerant contacting the tue bundle. It was found that small concentrations of the polyol-ester lubricant yielded significant improvement in the heat transfer performance of R-134a. The shell-side heat transfer coefficient was more dependent on lubricant concentration than on film-feed supply rate within the range of the respective parameters evaluated in this study. As expected, pure R-22 results show higher heat transfer coefficients than those obtained with pure R-134a at the same saturation temperature of 2.0 C (35.6 F).

  6. Building a better snail: Lubrication and adhesive locomotion Hatsopoulos Microfluids Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balmforth, Neil

    Building a better snail: Lubrication and adhesive locomotion Brian Chan Hatsopoulos Microfluids gastropods, such as slugs and snails, crawl via an unusual mechanism known as adhesive locomotion. We of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2102927 I. INTRODUCTION Understanding adhesive locomotion, the crawling mechanism

  7. Does the Use of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating and Organophosphate Lubricant Additive Together Cause Excessive Tribochemical Material Removal?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.; Luo, Huimin; Qu, Jun

    2015-08-22

    We observe unexpected wear increase on a steel surface that rubbed against diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings only when lubricated by phosphate-based antiwear additives. Contrary to the literature hypothesis of a competition between zinc dialkyldithiophosphate produced tribofilms and DLC-induced carbon transfer, here a new wear mechanism based on carbon-catalyzed tribochemical interactions supported by surface characterization is proposed

  8. Inferring orientation distributions in anisotropic powders of nano-layered crystallites from a single two-dimensional WAXS image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yves Meheust; Kenneth Dahl Knudsen; Jon Otto Fossum

    2006-02-01

    The wide-angle scattering of X-rays by anisotropic powders of nano-layered crystallites (nano-stacks) is addressed. Assuming that the orientation distribution probability function f of the nano-stacks only depends on the deviation of the crystallites' orientation from a fixed reference direction, we derive a relation providing f from the dependence of a given diffraction peak's amplitude on the azimuthal angle. The method is applied to two systems of Na-fluorohectorite (NaFH) clay particles, using synchrotron radiation and a WAXS setup with a two-dimensional detector. In the first system, which consists of dry-pressed NaFH samples, the orientation distribution probability function corresponds to a classical uniaxial nematic order. The second system is observed in bundles of polarized NaFH particles in silicon oil; in this case, the nanostacks have their directors on average in a plane normal to the reference direction, and f is a function of the angle between a nano-stack's director and that plane. In both cases, a suitable Maier-Saupe function is obtained for the distributions, and the reference direction is determined with respect to the laboratory frame. The method only requires one scattering image. Besides, consistency can be checked by determining the orientation distribution from several diffraction peaks independently.

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Vogel Paint and Wax, Maurice, IA. (First remedial action), September 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-20

    The Vogel Paint and Wax (VPW) site is an approximately two-acre disposal area two miles southwest of the town of Maurice, in Sioux County, Iowa. Adjacent land uses are primarily agricultural; however, several private residences are within one-quarter mile of the site. A surficial sand and gravel aquifer underlies the site and supplies nearby private wells and the Southern Sioux County Rural Water System, located a mile and one half southeast of the site. Paint sludge, resins, solvents, and other paint-manufacturing wastes were disposed of at the site between 1971 and 1979. VPW records indicate that approximately 43,000 gallons of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and 6,000 pounds of metals waste were buried at the site. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; and metals including chromium and lead. The selected remedial action for this site includes excavation of contaminated soil and separation of solid and liquid wastes; onsite bioremediation of 3,000 cubic yards of the contaminated soil in a fully contained surface impoundment unit, or onsite thermal treatment if soil contains high metal content; and stabilization of treated soil, if necessary to prevent leaching of metals, followed by disposal in the excavated area.

  10. Lubricant-infused micro/nano-structured surfaces with tunable dynamic omniphobicity at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Daniel; Max, Mankin N.; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-06-12

    Omniphobic surfaces that can repel fluids at temperatures higher than 100 #2;°C are rare. Most stateof- the-art liquid-repellent materials are based on the lotus effect, where a thin air layer is maintained throughout micro/nanotextures leading to high mobility of liquids. However, such behavior eventually fails at elevated temperatures when the surface tension of test liquids decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate a class of lubricant-infused structured surfaces that can maintain a robust omniphobic state even for low-surface-tension liquids at temperatures up to at least 200 °#2;C. We also demonstrate how liquid mobility on such surfaces can be tuned by a factor of 1000.

  11. Lubricant-infused micro/nano-structured surfaces with tunable dynamic omniphobicity at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, D; Mankin, MN; Belisle, RA; Wong, TS; Aizenberg, J

    2013-06-10

    Omniphobic surfaces that can repel fluids at temperatures higher than 100 degrees C are rare. Most state-of-the-art liquid-repellent materials are based on the lotus effect, where a thin air layer is maintained throughout micro/nanotextures leading to high mobility of liquids. However, such behavior eventually fails at elevated temperatures when the surface tension of test liquids decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate a class of lubricant-infused structured surfaces that can maintain a robust omniphobic state even for low-surface-tension liquids at temperatures up to at least 200 degrees C. We also demonstrate how liquid mobility on such surfaces can be tuned by a factor of 1000. (C) 2013 Author(s).

  12. Effects of self-assembled monolayer and PFPE lubricant on wear characteristics of flat silicon tips.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H. J.; Jang, C. E.; Kim, D. E.; Kim, Y. K.; Choa, S. H.; Hong, S.; Materials Science Division; Yonsei Univ.; Samsung Adv. Inst. Science and Technology; Seoul National Univ. of Technology

    2009-01-01

    The effects of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant on the wear characteristics of flat silicon tips were investigated. The wear test consisted of sliding the silicon tips fabricated on a flat silicon specimen against SAM and PFPE (Z-tetraol) coated silicon (100) wafer. The tips were slid at a low speed for about 15 km under an applied load of 39.2 {micro}N. The wear volume of the tip was obtained by measuring the tip profile using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). It was found that the coatings were effective in reducing the wear of the tips by an order of magnitude from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7}.

  13. Theory of a Possible Mechanism for Lubrication and Surface Protection by an Electrically Neutral Hydrogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. B. Sokoloff

    2014-09-18

    It is demonstrated that polymers sticking out of the surface of a neutral hydrogel are capable of preventing adhesive forces from pulling a hydrogel into close contact with a surface against which it is pressed. The proposed mechanism for lubrication or surface protection suggests a possible mechanism for protecting the cornea from a contact lens, which is held against the eye by Laplace pressure. This mechanism, however, is only able to keep a gel coated surface from sticking to a surface against which it is pressed, if the gel and surface are bathed in fluid. Expected optical properties of the gel-surface interface are discussed, in order to suggest possible ways to study the gel-solid interface experimentally.

  14. Synchronized molecular-dynamics simulation for the thermal lubrication of a polymeric liquid between parallel plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasuda, Shugo

    2015-01-01

    The Synchronized Molecular-Dynamics simulation which was recently proposed by authors [Phys. Rev. X {\\bf 4}, 041011 (2014)] is applied to the analysis of polymer lubrication between parallel plates. The rheological properties, conformational change of polymer chains, and temperature rise due to the viscous heating are investigated with changing the values of thermal conductivity of the polymeric liquid. It is found that at a small applied shear stress on the plate, the temperature of polymeric liquid only slightly increases in inverse proportion to the thermal conductivity and the apparent viscosity of polymeric liquid is not much affected by changing the thermal conductivity. However, at a large shear stress, the transitional behaviors of the polymeric liquid occur due to the interplay of the shear deformation and viscous heating by changing the thermal conductivity. This transition is characterized by the Nahme-Griffith number $Na$ which is defined as the ratio of the viscous heating to the thermal conducti...

  15. Lubricating system for thermal medium delivery parts in a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Cooling steam delivery tubes extend axially along the outer rim of a gas turbine rotor for supplying cooling steam to and returning spent cooling steam from the turbine buckets. Because of the high friction forces at the interface of the tubes and supporting elements due to rotor rotation, a low coefficient of friction coating is provided at the interface of the tubes and support elements. On each surface, a first coating of a cobalt-based alloy is sprayed onto the surface at high temperature. A portion of the first coating is machined off to provide a smooth, hard surface. A second ceramic-based solid film lubricant is sprayed onto the first coating. By reducing the resistance to axial displacement of the tubes relative to the supporting elements due to thermal expansion, the service life of the tubes is substantially extended.

  16. Scuffing initiation in metals sliding against copper under non-lubricated conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovalchenko, A M; Blau, Peter Julian; Qu, Jun; Danyluk, S

    2011-01-01

    Metallic components in sliding contact are sometimes subjected to high-loads with little or no lubrication. Such starved conditions can lead to a phenomenon called scuffing. Various definitions exist for this term, but in the present case, three criteria were used to signal its onset: changes in friction, vibrations, and noise, coupled with surface examination. On this basis, scuffing initiation was determined for seven technically pure metals (Al, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, Cu) and stainless steel, all rubbing against Cu. A flat-ended pin-on-disk test configuration was used with normal loads of 1-3 N, and with step-wise increases in sliding speed from 0.16 to 2.56 m/s. Al was only weakly resistant to scuffing, presumably due to its solubility in Cu, its high ductility and its relatively low elastic modulus. Niobium provided satisfactory sliding behavior at low speeds and loads, presumably due to protective oxides; however, it scuffed at higher loads when the oxide broke through. Stainless steel, Mo, and Ta had higher friction coefficients than Al and Nb, presumably because the relatively high strengths of the former prevented severe wear even when their oxide films failed. Like Al, Ti scuffs on Cu, probably because of its high relative solubility; however, Ti's higher elastic modulus resists the more severe forms of surface damage than does Al. Of all the materials slid against Cu, W displayed the least scuffing, even under maximum speed and load. Tungsten's negligible solubility in Cu may have reduced its adhesion, and W's high elastic modulus resisted shear-deformation, even at high frictional heating. Self-mated Cu couple scuffed when the speed was increased. The oxides on the Cu surface serve as solid lubricant avoiding scuffing at lower speeds.

  17. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    and power via biomass gasification. Biomass and Bioenergyrenewables Integrated coal gasification combined cycle withLubricants Waxes Naptha Gasification Ethane, Benzene, and

  18. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    and power via biomass gasification. Biomass and Bioenergyrenewables Integrated coal gasification combined cycle withLubricants Waxes Naptha Gasification Ethane, Benzene, and

  19. Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops for R-134a and an ester lubricant mixture in a smooth tube and a micro-fin tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during the evaporation and condensation of mixtures of R-134a and a 150 SUS penta erythritol ester branched-acid lubricant. The smooth tube and micro-fin tube tested in this study had outer diameters of 9.52 mm (3/8 in.). The micro-fin tube had 60 fins, a fin height of 0.2 mm (0.008 in), and a spiral angle of 18{degree}. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the micro-fin tube with R-134a and to determine the effect of circulating lubricant. The experimental results show that the micro-fin tube has distinct performance advantages over the smooth tube. For example, the average heat transfer coefficients during evaporation and condensation in the micro-fin tube were 50--200% higher than those for the smooth tube, while the average pressure drops were on average only 10--50% higher. The experimental results indicate that the presence of a lubricant degrades the average heat transfer coefficients during both evaporation and condensation at high lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops during evaporation increased with the addition of a lubricant in both tubes. For condensation, pressure drops were unaffected by the addition of a lubricant.

  20. Accelerated screening methods for determining chemical and thermal stability of refreigerant-lubricant mixtures. Part II: Experimental comparison and verification of methods. Final report, volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, R.

    1995-09-01

    The research reported herein was performed to develop an accelerated screening method for determining the chemical and thermal stabilities of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. The developed screening method was designed to be safe and to produce accelerated stability rankings that are in agreement with the rankings determined by the current test, Sealed Glass Tube Method to Test the Chemical Stability of Material for Use Within Refrigerant Systems, ANSI/ASHRAE Method 97-1989. The accelerated screening test developed was designed to be independent of refrigerant and lubricant compositions and to be used with a wide variety of construction materials. The studied refrigerants included CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-22, HFC-134a, and HFC-32/HFC-134a (zeotrope 30:70 by weight). The studied lubricants were selected from the chemical classes of mineral oil, alkylbenzene oil, polyglycols, and polyolesters. The work reported herein was performed in three phases. In the first phase, previously identified thermal analytical techniques were evaluated for development into an accelerated screening method for refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. The identified thermal analytical techniques used in situ measurements of color, temperature, or conductivity to monitor the degradation of the heated refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. The identified thermal analytical techniques also used catalysts such as ferric fluoride to accelerate the degradation of the heated refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. The thermal analytical technique employing in situ conductivity measurements was determined to be the most suitable for development into an accelerated screening method.

  1. Tribological properties of self-lubricating NiAl/Mo-based composites containing AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Eryong; Gao, Yimin; Bai, Yaping; Yi, Gewen; Wang, Wenzhen; Zeng, Zhixiang; Jia, Junhong

    2014-11-15

    Silver vanadate (AgVO{sub 3}) nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal method and self-lubricating NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The composition and microstructure of NiAl/Mo-based composites were characterized and the tribological properties were investigated from room temperature to 900 °C. The results showed that NiAl/Mo-based composites were consisted of nanocrystalline B2 ordered NiAl matrix, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mo{sub 2}C, metallic Ag and vanadium oxide phase. The appearance of metallic Ag and vanadium oxide phase can be attributed to the decomposition of AgVO{sub 3} during sintering. Wear testing results confirmed that NiAl/Mo-based composites have excellent tribological properties over a wide temperature range. For example, the friction coefficient and wear rate of NiAl/Mo-based composites containing AgVO{sub 3} were significantly lower than the composites containing only metallic Mo or AgVO{sub 3} lubricant when the temperature is above 300 °C, which can be attributed to the synergistic lubricating action of metallic Mo and AgVO{sub 3} lubricants. Furthermore, Raman results indicated that the composition on the worn surface of NiAl-based composites was self-adjusted after wear testing at different temperatures. For example, Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} lubricants were responsible for the improvement of tribological properties at 500 °C, AgVO{sub 3}, Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and molybdate for 700 °C, and AgVO{sub 3} and molybdate for 900 °C of NiAl-based composites with the addition of metallic Mo and AgVO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} nanocomposites were prepared by mechanical alloying and sintering. • AgVO{sub 3} decomposed to metallic Ag and vanadium oxide during the sintering process. • NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} exhibited superior tribological properties at a board temperature range. • Phase composition on the worn surface was varied with temperatures. • Self-adjusted action was responsible for the improvement of tribological properties.

  2. Practical Error Estimates for Reynolds' Lubrication Approximation and its Higher Order Corrections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jon Wilkening

    2010-06-09

    Reynolds' lubrication approximation is used extensively to study flows between moving machine parts, in narrow channels, and in thin films. The solution of Reynolds' equation may be thought of as the zeroth order term in an expansion of the solution of the Stokes equations in powers of the aspect ratio $\\epsilon$ of the domain. In this paper, we show how to compute the terms in this expansion to arbitrary order on a two-dimensional, $x$-periodic domain and derive rigorous, a-priori error bounds for the difference between the exact solution and the truncated expansion solution. Unlike previous studies of this sort, the constants in our error bounds are either independent of the function $h(x)$ describing the geometry, or depend on $h$ and its derivatives in an explicit, intuitive way. Specifically, if the expansion is truncated at order $2k$, the error is $O(\\epsilon^{2k+2})$ and $h$ enters into the error bound only through its first and third inverse moments $\\int_0^1 h(x)^{-m} dx$, $m=1,3$ and via the max norms $\\big\\|\\frac{1}{\\ell!} h^{\\ell-1} \\partial_x^\\ell h\\big\\|_\\infty$, $1\\le\\ell\\le2k+2$. We validate our estimates by comparing with finite element solutions and present numerical evidence that suggests that even when $h$ is real analytic and periodic, the expansion solution forms an asymptotic series rather than a convergent series.

  3. Rolling contact fatigue in high vacuum using ion plated nickel-copper-silver solid lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2011-01-15

    Ion plated, nickel-copper-silver coated steel ball bearings that were tested in rolling contact fatigue (RCF) experiments in high vacuum are presented in this article. ANSI T5 ball bearings were coated with approximately 10 nm of nickel-copper followed by 100 nm of silver using a dc ion plating process. The balls were then tested for RCF in vacuum in the 10{sup -7} Torr range at 130 Hz rotational speed and at 4.1 GPa Hertzian contact stress. The significance of this work is in the extension of RCF testing to an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application using silver as a lubricant instead of oil. The effects of pressure and voltage on the ion plating process were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and RCF life testing in UHV. Test results with a ball size of 5/16 in. in UHV show that deposition at voltages greater than 2.5 kV shortens the RCF life and introduces a unique failure mode. Voltage and pressure fluctuations during the deposition process result in significant thickness monitor measurement errors as well. A regulator control scheme that minimizes the process pressure overshoot is also simulated.

  4. Electrotunable friction with ionic liquid lubricants: how important is the molecular structure of the ions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Y. Fajardo; Fernando Bresme; Alexei A. Kornyshev; Michael Urbakh

    2015-08-23

    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and a coarse grained model of ionic liquids, we have investigated the impact that the shape and the intramolecular charge distribution of the ions have on the electrotuneable friction with ionic-liquid nanoscale films. We show that the electric-field induces significant structural changes in the film, leading to dramatic modifications of the friction force. Comparison of the present work with previous studies using different models of ionic liquids indicate that the phenomenology presented here applies to a wide range of ionic liquids. In particular, the electric-field-induced shift of the slippage plane from the solid-liquid interface to the interior of the film and the non-monotonic variation of the friction force are common features of ionic lubricants under strong confinement. We also demonstrate that the molecular structure of the ions plays an important role in determining the electrostriction and electroswelling of the confined film, hence showing the importance of ion-specific effects in electrotuneable friction.

  5. Synchronized molecular-dynamics simulation for the thermal lubrication of a polymeric liquid between parallel plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shugo Yasuda; Ryoichi Yamamoto

    2015-03-25

    The Synchronized Molecular-Dynamics simulation which was recently proposed by authors [Phys. Rev. X {\\bf 4}, 041011 (2014)] is applied to the analysis of polymer lubrication between parallel plates. The rheological properties, conformational change of polymer chains, and temperature rise due to the viscous heating are investigated with changing the values of thermal conductivity of the polymeric liquid. It is found that at a small applied shear stress on the plate, the temperature of polymeric liquid only slightly increases in inverse proportion to the thermal conductivity and the apparent viscosity of polymeric liquid is not much affected by changing the thermal conductivity. However, at a large shear stress, the transitional behaviors of the polymeric liquid occur due to the interplay of the shear deformation and viscous heating by changing the thermal conductivity. This transition is characterized by the Nahme-Griffith number $Na$ which is defined as the ratio of the viscous heating to the thermal conduction at a characteristic temperature. When the Nahme-Griffith number exceeds the unity, the temperature of polymeric liquid increases rapidly and the apparent viscosity also exponentially decreases as the thermal conductivity decreases. The conformation of polymer chains is stretched and aligned by the shear flow for $Na1$.

  6. Synchronized molecular dynamics simulation via macroscopic heat and momentum transfer: an application to polymer lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shugo Yasuda; Ryoichi Yamamoto

    2014-07-16

    The synchronized molecular dynamics simulation via macroscopic heat and momentum transfer is proposed for the non-isothermal flow behaviors of complex fluids. In this method, the molecular dynamics simulations are assigned to small fluid elements to calculate the local stresses and temperatures and are synchronized at certain time intervals to satisfy the macroscopic heat- and momentum- transport equations. This method is applied to the lubrication of a polymeric liquid composed of short chains with ten beads between parallel plates. The rheological properties and conformation of polymer chains coupled with the local viscous heating are investigated with a non-dimensional parameter, i.e., the Nahme-Griffith number, which is defined by the ratio of the viscous heating to the thermal conduction at the characteristic temperature required to sufficiently change the viscosity. The present simulation demonstrates that strong shear thinning and transitional behavior of the conformation of the polymer chains occur with a rapid temperature rise when the Nahme-Griffith number exceeds unity. The results also clarify that the reentrant transition of the linear stress-optical relation occurs for large shear stresses due to the coupling of the conformation of polymer chains and heat generation under shear flows.

  7. Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sunny, Steffi; Vogel, Nicolas; Howell, Caitlin; Vu, Thy L.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introducemore »sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. As a result, the LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.« less

  8. Generation of defects in model lubricant monolayers and their contribution to energy dissipation in friction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmeron, Miquel

    2000-06-15

    The structural, mechanical (friction) and spectroscopic properties of model lubricant films made of self-assembled and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers on quartz, mica and gold have been investigated with atomic force microscopy, surface forces apparatus and sum frequency generation. In these films, the molecules tend to form densely packed structures, with the alkane chains mostly vertical and parallel to each other. The SFG results suggest that under moderate pressures of a few tens of MPa, the methyl end group of the alkane chains is rotated to accommodate a terminal gauche distortion. The molecule,however, retains its upright close packed structure with a lattice periodicity when ordered, which can be resolved by AFM. At pressures above 0.1 GPa, changes in the form of collective molecular tilts take place that lower the height of the monolayer. Only certain angles of tilt are allowed that are explained by the interlocking of methylene units in neighboring chains. The discrete angular tilts are accompanied by increases in friction. A model based on the van derWaals attractive energy between chains is used to explain the stability of the films and to estimate the cohesive energy changes during tilt and, from that, the increases in friction force.

  9. Cold starting capabilities of petroleum and syntehetic lubricants in heavy-duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margeson, M.A.; Belmesch, B.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the work described in this paper was to compare the cold weather starting ability of diesel engines lubricated with SAE 15W-40 petroleum and SAE 5W-30 synthetic motor oil. Laboratory bench tests were used to compare rhelogical features such as borderline pumping temperature and cold cranking simulator profiles. A cold box provided a well controlled environment in which cranking and starting studies were carried out on the two oils in a turbocharged diesel engine. The SAE 5W-30 synthetic exhibited higher cranking speeds, lower starter amperage draw and immediate oil pressure readings when compared to the SAE l5W-40 petroleum. The SAE 5W-30 synthetic oil was safely started at {minus} l0 {sup 0}F oil temperature without auxiliary heaters. The comparative cylinder turbocharged diesel engines representing conditions commonly found in the commercial and off-highway sectors, These studies indicate that combining high capacity cold cranking amperage batteries, high pressure ether aid injection, and SAE 5W-30 synthetic oil resulted in a system that safely starts diesel engines down to actual oil temperatures of at least {minus} 10 {sup 0}F.

  10. New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Julfikar; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2011-01-17

    In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub x}) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoS{sub x} coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoS{sub x} coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoS{sub x} based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoS{sub x} coating (2)MoS{sub x} layer on hard coating and (3)MoS{sub x} addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoS{sub x} based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

  11. Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, Steffi; Vogel, Nicolas; Howell, Caitlin; Vu, Thy L.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introduce sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. As a result, the LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.

  12. Lubricant-Infused Nanoparticulate Coatings Assembled by Layer-by-Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, S; Vogel, N; Howell, C; Vu, TL; Aizenberg, J

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introduce sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. The LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.

  13. Influence of steel type on the propensity for tribochemical wear in boundary lubrication with a wind turbine gear oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Ryan D.; Doll, Gary L.; Hager, C H; Howe, Jane Y

    2010-01-01

    Tribochemical wear may occur at the interface between a surface and a lubricant as a result of chemical and mechanical interactions in a tribological contact. Understanding the onset of tribochemical wear damage on component surfaces requires the use of high resolution techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this study, two steel types, case carburized AISI 3310 and through-hardened AISI 52100, were wear tested using a ball-on-disk rolling/sliding contact tribometer in fully formulated commercial wind turbine gearbox oil under boundary lubrication conditions with 10% slip. With the exception of steel type, all other test conditions were held constant. Conventional tribofilm analysis in the wear tracks was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and no significant composition differences were detected in the tribofilms for the different steel disk types. However, TEM analysis revealed significant tribochemical wear differences between the two steel types at multiple length scales, from the near-surface material microstructure (depth < 500 nm) to the tribofilm nanostructure. Nanometer-scale interfacial cracking and surface particle detachment was observed for the AISI 52100 case, whereas the tribofilm/substrate interface was abrupt and undamaged for the AISI 3310 case. Differences in tribofilm structure, including the location and orientation of MoS{sub 2} single sheet inclusions, were observed as a function of steel type as well. It is suggested that the tribochemical wear modes observed in these experiments may be origins of macroscopic surface-initiated damage such as micropitting in bearings and gears.

  14. Study of lubricant circulation in HVAC systems. Volume 1: Description of technical effort and results; Final technical report, March 1995--April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biancardi, F.R.; Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.; Pandy, D.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this program was to conduct experimental and analytical efforts to determine lubricant circulation characteristics of new HFC/POE pairs and HFC/mineral oil pairs in a representative central residential HVAC system and to compare their behavior with the traditional HCFC-22/mineral oil (refrigerant/lubricant) pair. A dynamic test facility was designed and built to conduct the experimental efforts. This facility provided a unique capability to visually and physically measure oil circulation rates, on-line, in operating systems. A unique on-line ultraviolet-based measurement device was used to obtain detailed data on the rate and level of lubricant oil circulated within the operating heat pump system. The experimental and analytical data developed during the program are presented as a function of vapor velocity, refrigerant/lubricant viscosity, system features and equipment. Both visual observations and instrumentation were used to understand ``worst case`` oil circulation situations. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 contains a complete description of the program scope, objective, test results summary, conclusions, description of test facility and recommendations for future effort. Volume 2 contains all of the program test data essentially as taken from the laboratory dynamic test facility during the sequence of runs.

  15. In-tube heat transfer and pressure drop of R-134a and ester lubricant mixtures in a smooth tube and a micro-fin tube. Part 1: Evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1994-12-31

    In-tube heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during evaporation are reported for mixtures of refrigerant R-134a and a penta erythritol ester mixed-acid lubricant. The ester lubricant was tested at viscosities of 169 SUS and 369 SUS over a lubricant concentration range of 0% to 5% in both a smooth tube and a micro-fine tube. The average saturation temperature used was 1 C (33.8 F). Measurements were taken for the refrigerant-lubricant mixture over a mass flux range of 85 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s (62,700 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h) to 375 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s (276,640 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h) in test tubes with an outer diameter of 9.52 mm (3/8 in.). Heat transfer coefficients during evaporation increased at low concentrations of the 169-SUS ester lubricant and then dropped off at high lubricant concentrations in both the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube. The higher viscosity 369-SUS lubricant decreased the heat transfer coefficients in both tubes over the range of lubricant concentrations tested. Pressure drops during evaporation increased in both the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube with the addition of ester lubricant of either viscosity. The heat transfer coefficients for the micro-fin tube were 100% to 50% higher than those for the smooth tube, with the higher values occurring at low mass fluxes. Pressure drops in the micro-fin tube were 10% to 20% higher than those in the smooth tube.

  16. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous operation under DPF regeneration events. During the second stage of HD testing, the ULSD lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.5% to 0.8%, while for B20, lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.6% to 1.0%, but the fuel in the oil was 36% biodiesel. For the LD vehicle tests, the frequency of DPF regeneration events was observed to be the same for both ULSD and B20. No significant difference between the two fuels' estimated soot loading was detected by the engine control unit (ECU), although a 23% slower rate of increase in differential pressure across DPF was observed with B20. It appears that the ECU estimated soot loading is based on the engine map, not taking advantage of the lower engine-out particulate matter from the use of biodiesel. After 4,000 miles of LD vehicle operation with ULSD, fuel dilution in the lube-oil samples showed total dilution levels of 4.1% diesel. After 4,000 miles of operation with B20, total fuel in oil dilution levels were 6.7% consisting of 3.6% diesel fuel and 3.1% biodiesel. Extrapolation to the 10,000-mile oil drain interval with B20 suggests that the total fuel content in the oil could reach 12%, compared to 5% for operation on ULSD. Analysis of the oil samples also included measurement of total acid number, total base number, viscosity, soot, metals and wear scar; however, little difference in these parameters was noted.

  17. The Development of Open Water-lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Thrust Bearings for Use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, Craig, H.; Khonsari, Michael,, M; Lingwall, Brent

    2012-11-28

    Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluating the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.

  18. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bunting, Bruce G; Blau, Peter Julian; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  20. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  1. Additive for lubricants and hydrocarbon fuels comprising reaction products of olefins, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen containing polymeric compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horodysky, A.G.; Law, D.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for making an additive for lubricant compositions comprising co-reacting: a monoolefin selected from the group consisting of butenes, propenes, pentenes, and mixtures of two or more thereof; sulfur; hydrogen sulfide; polymeric nitrogen-containing compound selected from the group consisting of succinimides, amides, imides, polyoxyazoline polymers and alkyl imidazoline compounds; and a catalytic amount of an amine selected from the group consisting of polyethylene amines and hydroxyl-containing amines; at a temperature between about 130/sup 0/C and about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure of about 0 psig to about 900 psig, the reactants being reacted in a molar ratio of olefin, polymeric nitrogen-containing compound, and hydrogen sulfide to sulfur of 2 to 0.5, 0.001 to 0.4, and 0.5 to 0.7, respectively, and the concentration of amine being between 0.5 and 10 percent of the total weight of reactants.

  2. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne?s research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions was also a major reason. The transportation sector alone consumes about 13 million barrels of crude oil per day (nearly 60% of which is imported) and is responsible for about 30% of the CO{sub 2} emission. When we consider manufacturing and other energy-intensive industrial processes, the amount of petroleum being consumed due to friction and wear reaches more than 20 million barrels per day (from official energy statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration). Frequent remanufacturing and/or replacement of worn parts due to friction-, wear-, and scuffing-related degradations also consume significant amounts of energy and give rise to additional CO{sub 2} emission. Overall, the total annual cost of friction- and wear-related energy and material losses is estimated to be rather significant (i.e., as much as 5% of the gross national products of highly industrialized nations). It is projected that more than half of the total friction- and wear-related energy losses can be recovered by developing and implementing advanced friction and wear control technologies. In transportation vehicles alone, 10% to 15% of the fuel energy is spent to overcome friction. If we can cut down the friction- and wear-related energy losses by half, then we can potentially save up to 1.5 million barrels of petroleum per day. Also, less friction and wear would mean less energy consumption as well as less carbon emissions and hazardous byproducts being generated and released to the environment. New and more robust anti-friction and -wear control technologies may thus have a significant positive impact on improving the efficiency and environmental cleanliness of the current legacy fleet and future transportation systems. Effective control of friction in other industrial sectors such as manufacturing, power generation, mining and oil exploration, and agricultural and earthmoving machinery may bring more energy savings. Therefore, this project was timely and responsive to the energy and environmental objectives of DOE and our nation. In this project, most of the boron-based mater

  3. Influence of process parameters on rolling-contact-fatigue life of ion plated nickel-copper-silver lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present a connection between argon ion flux, element-mixing, and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of a thin film nickel-copper-silver lubricant on ball bearings. The film is deposited on the balls using an ion plating process and tested for RCF in high vacuum. The ion flux is measured using a Langmuir probe and the plane stress within the film during deposition is calculated using a thin film model. Experiments reveal that there is an inverse relationship between ion flux and RCF life for most deposition voltage and pressure combinations tested, specifically, 15.5-18.5 mTorr and 1.5-3.5 kV. For voltages up to 2.5 kV, RCF life decreases as ion flux increases due to increased compressive stress within the film, reaching as high as 2.6 GPa. For voltages between 2.5 and 3.5 kV, interlayer mixing of nickel and copper with the silver layer reduces RCF life due to contamination, even as ion flux and corresponding film compressive stress are reduced. A Monte Carlo-based simulation tool, SRIM is used to track collision cascades of the argon ions and metal atoms within the coating layers. At process voltages above 2.5 kV we observe elemental mixing of copper and nickel with the silver layer using Auger electron spectroscopy of coated steel and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls. The authors conclude that an ion flux greater than 5.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} leads to reduced RCF life due to high film stress. In addition, process voltages greater than 2.5 kV also reduce RCF life due to contamination and interlayer mixing of nickel and copper within the silver layer.

  4. Oxygen Diffusion Enables Anti-Wear Boundary Film Formation on Titanium Surfaces in Zinc-Dialkyl-Dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-Containing Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer III, Harry M

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a wear reduction by up to six orders of magnitude for Ti-6Al-4V alloy when treated by an oxygen diffusion (OD) process and subsequently tested in a zinc-dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-containing lubricant. In addition to case hardening, it is discovered that OD enables the formation of an anti-wear boundary film on the titanium surface. Transmission electron microscopy and surface chemical analyses revealed that this boundary film has a two-layer structure comprising an amorphous oxide interlayer and a ZDDP-based top film with complex compounds.

  5. The Deodorizing and Decolorizing of Degras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grignard, Emily E.

    1913-02-07

    and also traces of sulphuric acid. This Degras is of inferior quality to that obtained by the "solvent process" that is now so much in use in this country. The greasy wool is treated with solvent naphtha, generally petroleum-naphtha, in closed kiers...-called degras. But it is condemned as a lubricant for wool fiber. 11 The "Degras" with which I experimented with is known as Domestic Degras, and was purchased from the oil firm of Harden, Orth, & Hastings, of Chic­ ago, 111. This "Degras" is a dark brown...

  6. Lubricated boride surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, A.; Bindal, C.; Fenske, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    Ultralow friction properties are available through the annealation and subsequent cooling of various boron-containing substrates, articles and/or components. 16 figs.

  7. Research on Fuels & Lubricants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Penn State University, Tribology Group, Chemical Engineering Dept.

  8. Case History of Reapplication of a 2500 KW Steam Turbine/Gear Drive Generator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, S.

    1991-01-01

    OF REAPPLICATION OF A 2500 KW STEAM TURBINE/GEAR DRIVE GENERATOR SAMUEL V. SMITH Manager, Technical Sales and ~ervice Revak Turbomachinery SerVlces La Porte, Texas Abstract In today' s equipment market more and more projects are turning toward..., naphtha and a high grade of wax. The plant requires a steam turbine generator set to produce electrical power for its base load operation. This paper covers the history of how the turbine, gear and generator were selected, along with the highlights...

  9. Bataan naphtha cracker project. Final report prepared for PNOC Petrochemical Development Corporation (PPDC). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The study, conducted by Chem Systems, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency. The final report determines the feasibility of an ethylene/polyethylene facility in the Philippines. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Technical Description; (3) Implementation Plan; (4) Feasibility Study; (5) Licensor Status; (6) Recommended Contract Principles; (7) Recommended Olefins Pricing Basis; (8) Clarifications/Discussion of Issues; (9) Appendix.

  10. New industrial heat pump applications to naphtha splitter and deisobutanizer column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-11-01

    Application of pinch technology to the US industries in an early screening study has identified potential for heat pumps in several of the industrial sectors. The site selected for this study is Kerr-McGee Refining Co. in Wynnewood, Oklahoma and the participating utility is Oklahoma Gas and Electric Co. The objective of this study is to further identify the energy savings potential through advanced heat pumps and other energy conservation methods developed in the context of pinch technology. Three units: hydrocracker, deisobutanizer and splitters were selected for this study. Three energy conservation retrofit options as described below, are identified with a combined total savings of about $493,930/year in a payback period of 2.2 years. These savings represent from about 44% reduction of current energy consumption of all the three units. The hydrocracker does not provide a good opportunity for heat pumping; however, it has good potential for heat exchange. The heat exchange option calls for increasing the process interchanger area in the hydrocracker unit by 3079 ft{sup 2}. The splitters provide a good opportunity for heat pumping. The splitters' semi-open cycle (mechanical vapor recompression) heat pump option compresses the overhead vapors of the 100W splitter and condenses it to partially supply the heat for the {number sign}2 splitter reboiler. The second heat pump opportunity was identified in the deisobutanizer unit. This mechanical vapor recompression heat pump compresses the overhead vapors of the deisobutanizer and condenses it to completely supply the reboiler duty of the same column. 20 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Leaf wax d2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briner, Jason P.

    , Baffin Island, Arctic Canada Elizabeth K. Thomas · Sean McGrane · Jason P. Briner · Yongsong Huang, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA e-mail: elizabeth_thomas@brown.edu S. McGrane Á J. P. Briner

  12. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories News Events Find More Like This...

  13. Notes 02. Classical Lubrication Theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Derivation of Reynolds equation for laminar flow bearings. Boundary conditions and types of liquid cavitation....

  14. Mechanisms of mesothelial tissue lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Judy Li-Wen

    2006-01-01

    In the pleural space, sliding between the lung and chest wall induces shear stress that could damage the delicate mesothelial cells covering the tissue surfaces. Normally, the pleural space, which is filled with fluid, is ...

  15. OpenEI Community - Lubricants

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to:InformationInformationOorjaen TheGeothermalCost BreakdownWrap-up

  16. Lubricants Activities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership onProtonConcentrators0 DOE VehicleEast6

  17. Regulatory impact analysis for the petroleum refineries neshap. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The report analyzes the regulatory impacts of the Petroleum Refinery National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which is being promulgated under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CCA). This emission standard would regulate the emissions of certain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from petroleum refineries. The petroleum refineries industry group includes any facility engaged in the production of motor gasoline, naphthas, kerosene, jet fuels, distillate fuel oils, residual fuel oils, lubricants, or other products made from crude oil or unfinished petroleum derivatives. The report analyzes the impact that regulatory action is likely to have on the petroleum refining industry.

  18. a buyer's guide Trees for Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..................................................................................9 Wax currant..............................................................................10 Green

  19. Wear modeling with sensitivity to lubricant chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Benjamin C. (Benjamin Carl)

    2007-01-01

    The life of an automotive engine is often limited by the ability of its components to resist wear. Zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDDP) is an engine oil additive that reduces wear in an engine by forming solid antiwear films ...

  20. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).