National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for naph tha boiling

  1. Requirement of a Tha4-conserved Transmembrane Glutamate in Thylakoid Tat Translocase Assembly Revealed by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is dispensable and the amphipathic helix essential for transport. We then investigated a conserved Tha4 that serves as a protein- conducting channel and SecA, an ATP-driven motor that ``pushes'' proteins

  2. A study of electrowetting-assisted boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bralower, Harrison L. (Harrison Louis)

    2011-01-01

    The classical theory of boiling heat transfer based on bubble dynamics is explained and includes a full derivation of the Rohsenow boiling correlation. An alternative, more accurate correlation for determining boiling heat ...

  3. Bubble growth rates in boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1956-01-01

    The conditions determining the growth rate of a bubble on a surface in boiling are considered and a mathematical model framed in the light of these conditions. The growth rate is then calculated for bubbles growing under ...

  4. Subcooled flow boiling of fluorocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Richard Walter

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted of heat transfer and hydrodynamic behavior for subcooled flow boiling of Freon-113, one of a group of fluorocarbons suitable for use in cooling of high-power-density electronic components. Problems ...

  5. Pool boiling on nano-finned surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sriraman, Sharan Ram

    2008-10-10

    The effect of nano-structured surfaces on pool boiling heat transfer is explored in this study. Experiments are conducted in a cubical test chamber containing fluoroinert coolant (PF5060, Manufacturer: 3M Co.) as the working fluid. Pool boiling...

  6. Efficient Cooling in Engines with Nucleate Boiling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Nucleate Boiling Principal Investigator: Wenhua Yu Coworkers: D. France and R. Smith Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory OVT Merit Review February 28, 2008...

  7. ADVANCED POWER PLANT MODELING WITH APPLICATIONS TO THE ADVANCED BOILING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, John E.

    ADVANCED POWER PLANT MODELING WITH APPLICATIONS TO THE ADVANCED BOILING WATER REACTOR AND THE HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor - General Description . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ii #12;4. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 4

  8. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer in Confined Space 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-05-05

    Pool boiling is an effective method used in many technical applications for a long time. Its highly efficient heat transfer performance results from not only the convection effect but also the phase change process in pool boiling. Pool boiling...

  9. Boiling Water CanningProject Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    Boiling Water CanningProject Manual pnW 652 a pacific northwest extension publication University preservation series contains four manuals: Freezing for ages 8­18 Drying for ages 8­18 Boiling water canning199/pnw199.pdf canning tomatoes and tomato products, pnW 300 http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog

  10. Cooling Boiling in Head Region - PACCAR Integrated Underhood...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Boiling in Head Region - PACCAR Integrated Underhood Thermal and External Aerodynamics- Cummins Cooling Boiling in Head Region - PACCAR Integrated Underhood Thermal and...

  11. Acoustically Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. W. Douglas; M. K. Smith; A. Glezer

    2008-01-07

    An acoustic field is used to increase the critical heat flux (CHF) of a flat-boiling-heat-transfer surface. The increase is a result of the acoustic effects on the vapor bubbles. Experiments are performed to explore the effects of an acoustic field on vapor bubbles in the vicinity of a rigid-heated wall. Work includes the construction of a novel heater used to produce a single vapor bubble of a prescribed size and at a prescribed location on a flatboiling surface for better study of an individual vapor bubble's reaction to the acoustic field. Work also includes application of the results from the single-bubble heater to a calibrated-copper heater used for quantifying the improvements in CHF.

  12. Numerical Simulations of Boiling Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.; Troshko, A.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores turbulent boiling jet impingement for cooling power electronic components in hybrid electric vehicles.

  13. Void volumes in subcooled boiling systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1958-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge of the pressure drop in a channel and the resulting flow redistribution is essential in predicting the performance of a nuclear reactor. The pressure drop in a channel which is experiencing boiling ...

  14. Pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Joong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    Nanofluids are engineered colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in water, and exhibit a very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF) at modest nanoparticle concentrations (50.1% by ...

  15. Pool boiling on nano-finned surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sriraman, Sharan Ram

    2009-05-15

    The effect of nano-structured surfaces on pool boiling heat transfer is explored in this study. Experiments are conducted in a cubical test chamber containing fluoroinert coolant (PF5060, Manufacturer: 3M Co.) as the working ...

  16. Boiling and condensation in a liquid-filled enclosure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar-Cohen Avram

    1971-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation of boiling and condensation in a liquid-filled enclosure, with water and Freon- 113 as the working fluids, is described. The operating characteristics of a boiling system, ...

  17. The role of surface conditions in nucleate boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1958-01-01

    Nucleation from a single cavity has been stuied indicating that cavity gemtry is aportant in two ways. The mouth diameter determines the superheat nmeded to initiate boiling and its shape determines its stability one boiling ...

  18. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer during flow boiling instabilities in a single microchannel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aussillous, Pascale

    Hydrodynamics and heat transfer during flow boiling instabilities in a single microchannel July 2008 Keywords: Boiling Microchannels Visualisation Flow boiling instabilities Heat transfer a b intensification heat removal. Flow boiling heat transfer in microchannel geometry and the associated flow

  19. Boiling heat transfer on superhydrophilic, superhydrophobic, and superbiphilic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attinger, Daniel

    transport [1,2], prevents dropwise condensation or fogging [3,4], and facilitates boiling [5]. A surface

  20. Mechanism of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer to sodium and the criterion for stable boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shai, Isaac

    1967-01-01

    A comparison between liquid metals and other common fluids, like water, is made as regards to the various stages of nucleate pool boiling. It is suggested that for liquid metals the stage of building the thermal layer plays ...

  1. Transition from film boiling to nucleate boiling in forced convection vertical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iloeje, Onwuamaeze C.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanism of collapse of forced cnnvection annular vertical flow film boiling, with liquid core, is investigated using liquid nitrogen at low pressures. The report includes the effect of heat flux from the buss bar. ...

  2. Boiling heat transfer in a vertical microchannel: Local estimation during flow boiling with a non intrusive method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boiling heat transfer in a vertical microchannel: Local estimation during flow boiling with a non the results of experimental and numerical studies concerning boiling heat transfer inside vertical in minichannels for several gravity levels (µg, 1g, 2g). To fully understand the high heat transfer potential

  3. POOL BOILING OF HIGH-FREQUENCY CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, S. E. (Spencer E.); Konecni, S. (Snezana); Ammerman, C. N. (Curtt N.); Sims, J. R. (James R.)

    2001-01-01

    This study presents development of a unique, powerful method for cooling high-frequency, AC conductors that can benefit end users of transformer windings, electrical machine windings, and magnet coils. This method of heat removal involves boiling a dielectric, fluorinert refrigerant that is in direct contact with litz wire conductors. A pool boiling test vessel is constructed, which provides for temperature control of the pool of fluorinert liquid. The test vessel is fitted with viewing ports so that the experiments are observed and studied with the aid of high-speed photography. Tests are performed on a variety of litz wire conductors. The boiling heat transfer coefficient is dependent on the conductor surface roughness. The size of the features on the conductor surface depends on the single-strand wire gage from which the conductor is constructed. All tests are performed with the conductors mounted horizontally. These tests are performed using a DC power supply. The results of these experiments will aid in the design of future cooling systems.

  4. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metallurgical failure...

  5. A method of correlating heat transfer data for surface boiling of liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohsenow, Warren M.

    1951-01-01

    A method based an a logical uxplanation of the meani of beat transfer associated with the boiling process is presented for correlating heat transfer data for nucleate boiling of liquids for the case of pool boiling. Tbe ...

  6. Exploring the Limits of Boiling and Evaporative Heat Transfer Using Micro/Nano Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Ming-Chang

    2010-01-01

    transfer coefficient models in pool boiling In summary, highlength effect on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer AnnalsTheory of The Peak and Minimum Pool Boiling Heat Fluxes, CR-

  7. Conversion of direct process high-boiling residue to monosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinson, Jonathan Ashley (Vale of Glamorgan, GB); Crum, Bruce Robert (Madison, IN); Jarvis, Jr., Robert Frank (Midland, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for the production of monosilanes from the high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon metalloid in a process typically referred to as the "direct process." The process comprises contacting a high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride and silicon metalloid, with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalytic amount of aluminum trichloride effective in promoting conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. The present process results in conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. At least a portion of the aluminum trichloride catalyst required for conduct of the process may be formed in situ during conduct of the direct process and isolation of the high-boiling residue.

  8. The correlation of nucleate boiling burn-out data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1957-01-01

    A dimensionless correlation is developed for nucleate boiling buzrnout data including the following ranges of variables. Fluids - Water Bensene n - Heptane n - Pentane Ethanol Pressure - 0.0045 to 0.96 of critical pressure ...

  9. A study of boiling water flow regimes at low pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiori, Mario P.

    1966-01-01

    "A comprehensive experimental program to examine flow regimes at pressures below 100 psia for boiling of water in tubes was carried out. An electrical probe, which measures the resistance of the fluid between the centerline ...

  10. Burnout in forced convection nucleate boiling of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds John Mitchell

    1957-01-01

    Data are presented for burnout in forced coivection nucleate boiling of water at pressures above 500 psia. A dimensionless correlation is devised for. the M.I.T. data which is found to be valid for certain recent data ...

  11. Pressure drop with surface boiling in small-diameter tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dr?mer, Thomas

    1964-01-01

    Pressure drop for water flowing in small-diameter tubes under isothermal, nonboiling, and surface-boiling conditions was investigated. Experimental results for local pressure gradient and heattransfer coefficients are ...

  12. Model of critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiori, Mario P.

    1968-01-01

    The physical phenomenon occurring before and at the critical heat flux (CHF) for subcooled flow boiling has been investigated. The first phase of this study established the basic nature of the flow structure at CHF. A ...

  13. Pool boiling studies on nanotextured surfaces under highly subcooled conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar

    2009-05-15

    Subcooled pool boiling on nanotextured surfaces is explored in this study. The experiments are performed in an enclosed viewing chamber. Two silicon wafers are coated with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT), 9 microns (Type-A) ...

  14. AECU-4439 PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS HYDRODYNAMIC ASPECTS OF BOILING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Bubble Formation in Heat Transfer to Subcoaled Liquids , ( ( Heat Trm sf er and Fluid Mechanics Inet. , Berkeley, 1949, 113, of Boiling Heat Phys Z e i tsch, 36 , 1935, 267 I ,...

  15. Infrared thermometry study of nanofluid pool boiling phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerardi, Craig

    Abstract Infrared thermometry was used to obtain first-of-a-kind, time- and space-resolved data for pool boiling phenomena in water-based nanofluids with diamond and silica nanoparticles at low concentration (<0.1 vol.%). ...

  16. Film Boiling on Downward Quenching Hemisphere of Varying Sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan S. Kim; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-04-01

    Film boiling heat transfer coefficients for a downward-facing hemispherical surface are measured from the quenching tests in DELTA (Downward-boiling Experimental Laminar Transition Apparatus). Two test sections are made of copper to maintain low Biot numbers. The outer diameters of the hemispheres are 120 mm and 294 mm, respectively. The thickness of all the test sections is 30 mm. The effect of diameter on film boiling heat transfer is quantified utilizing results obtained from the test sections. The measured data are compared with the numerical predictions from laminar film boiling analysis. The measured heat transfer coefficients are found to be greater than those predicted by the conventional laminar flow theory on account of the interfacial wavy motion incurred by the Helmholtz instability. Incorporation of the wavy motion model considerably improves the agreement between the experimental and numerical results in terms of heat transfer coefficient. In addition, the interfacial wavy motion and the quenching process are visualized through a digital camera.

  17. Thermal boundary layer development in dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hull, Lawrence M.

    1982-01-01

    Dispersed flow film boiling consists of a dispersion of droplets which are carried over a very hot surface by their vapor. This process occurs in cryogenic equipment and wet steam turbines. It is also of interest in the ...

  18. Determination of pool boiling Critical Heat Flux enhancement in nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Bao H. (Bao Hoai)

    2007-01-01

    Nanofluids are engineered colloids composed of nano-size particles dispersed in common fluids such as water or refrigerants. Using an electrically controlled wire heater, pool boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of Alumina ...

  19. Effects of surface parameters on boiling heat transfer phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Bao H. (Bao Hoai)

    2011-01-01

    Nanofluids, engineered colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in fluid, have been shown to enhance pool and flow boiling CHF. The CHF enhancement was due to nanoparticle deposited on the heater surface, which was verified ...

  20. Forced-convection, dispersed-flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hynek, Scott Josef

    1969-01-01

    This report presents the latest results of an investigation of the characteristics of dispersed flow film boiling. Heat transfer data are presented for vertical upflow of nitrogen in an electrically heated tube, 0.4 in. ...

  1. Hydrodynamics, heat transfer and flow boiling instabilities in microchannels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barber, Jacqueline Claire

    2010-01-01

    Boiling in microchannels is a very efficient mode of heat transfer with high heat and mass transfer coefficients achieved. Less pumping power is required for two-phase flows than for single-phase liquid flows to achieve ...

  2. Film boiling of R-11 on liquid metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, G.A.; Irvine, T.F. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An interesting problem is the effect of an immiscible liquid heating surface on the process of film boiling. Such surfaces raise questions concerning interface stability to disturbances, effects of gas bubbling, and vapor explosions in layered systems. The specific motivation for this study was to investigate film boiling from a liquid surface with application to cooling of molten reactor core debris by an overlying pool of reactor coolant. To investigate this phenomenon, and apparatus consisting of a nominal six-inch diameter steel vessel to hold the liquid metal and boiling fluid was constructed; coolant reservoirs, heaters, controllers, and allied instrumentation were attached. A transient energy balance was performed on the liquid metal pool by a submerged assembly of microthermocouples in the liquid metal and an array of thermocouples on the wall of the test vessel. The thermocouple data were used to determine the boiling heat flux as well as the boiling superheat. On an average basis, the deviation between the prediction of the Berenson model and the experimental data was less than one percent when Berenson was corrected for thermal radiation effects. Evidence from visualization tests of R-11 in film boiling over molten metal pools to superheats in excess of 600 K supports this conclusion. 13 refs.

  3. Numerical Simulations of Bubble Dynamics and Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling--Including the Effects of Conjugate Conduction, Level of Gravity, and Noncondensable Gas Dissolved in the Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aktinol, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Numerical Simulation of Pool Boiling: A Review. ” Journal ofBooth, W. (2012). “Nucleate Pool Boiling Experiments (NPBX)and Booth, W. , “ ,Nucleate Pool Boiling Experiments (NPBX)

  4. Pool boiling heat transfer enhancement over cylindrical tubes with water at atmospheric pressure, Part I: Experimental results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Pool boiling heat transfer enhancement over cylindrical tubes with water at atmospheric pressure online 4 May 2013 Keywords: Pool boiling Heat transfer enhancement Open microchannels Cylindrical tube boiling heat transfer over enhanced cylindrical microchannel test surfaces with water at atmospheric

  5. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V

    2015-01-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  6. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiya V. Pimenova; Denis S. Goldobin

    2015-10-08

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  7. Simulation of subcooled boiling at low pressure conditions with RELAP5-3D computer program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reza, S.M. Mohsin

    2002-01-01

    at low-pressure conditions were underestimated. The same model was used to simulate high pressure subcooled boiling data. High pressure subcooled boiling experiments of Bartolomey and Sabotinov were simulated. The axial void fraction distribution results...

  8. Forced-convection surface-boiling heat transfer and burnout in tubes of small diameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergles A. E.

    1962-01-01

    A basic heat-transfer apparatus was designed and constructed for the study of forced-convection boiling in small channels. The various regions of forced-convection surface boiling were studied experimentally and analytically. ...

  9. Measurement of Nucleate Pool Boiling with Synchronized Particle Imaging Velocimetry and Infrared Thermometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, X.

    Nucleate boiling is important in many energy systems including light water reactors. Currently significant efforts are underway to develop mechanisticmodels for nucleate boiling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). ...

  10. Alumina Nanoparticle Pre-coated Tubing Ehancing Subcooled Flow Boiling Cricital Heat Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Bao H.

    Nanofluids are engineered colloidal dispersions of nano-sized particle in common base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve critical heat flux (CHF) up to 200% for pool boiling and ...

  11. Mechanism and behavior of nucleate boiling heat transfer to the alkalai liquid metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deane, Charles William

    1969-01-01

    A model of boiling heat transfer to the alkali liquid metals is postulated from an examination of the events and phases of the nucleate boiling cycle. The model includes the important effect of microlayer evaporation which ...

  12. Hydrophobic coatings for film boiling based drag reduction on a torpedo model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Ian J. (Ian James Kenneth)

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that porous, hydrophobic surfaces exhibit a dramatic reduction in critical heat flux (CHF), the amount of heat over a surface area required to initiate film boiling. Film boiling is characterized ...

  13. Jet Flows Around Microbubbles In Subcooled Boiling , Xiaofeng Pengb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kihm, IconKenneth David

    Jet Flows Around Microbubbles In Subcooled Boiling Hao Wanga , Xiaofeng Pengb , David M Strong jet flows were observed emanating from micro bubbles on a 100 µm diameter wire during subcooled analysis. The bubble-top jet flows were characterized by a single jet at the bubble top. Both experiments

  14. Noise Decomposition in Boiling Water Reactors with Application to Stability Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    Noise Decomposition in Boiling Water Reactors with Application to Stability Monitoring J. Karlsson in boiling water reactor (BWR) noise measure- ments, based on flux factorization techniques (i.e., using reactors4 or flux oscillations in boiling water reactors5,6 ~BWRs!. In these cases the different modes have

  15. Advanced Power Plant Modeling with Applications to an Advanced Boiling Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, John E.

    Advanced Power Plant Modeling with Applications to an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor and a Heat and an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The continuity wave equa- tions for single and two-phase flow advanced method, are shown. These both are applied to a simplified model of the Advanced Boil- ing Water

  16. Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient In Minichannels Correlation and Trends Satish G. Kandlikar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient In Minichannels ­ Correlation and Trends Satish G. Kandlikar York 14623, USA The flow boiling heat transfer in small diameter passages is being applied in many boiling heat transfer coefficient with the correlations developed for conventional channels. It is found

  17. Numerical study of high heat ux pool boiling heat transfer Ying He a,*, Masahiro Shoji b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Numerical study of high heat ¯ux pool boiling heat transfer Ying He a,*, Masahiro Shoji b , Shigeo simulation model of boiling heat transfer is proposed based on a numerical macrolayer model [S. Maruyama, M. Shoji, S. Shimizu, A numerical simulation of transition boiling heat transfer, in: Proceedings

  18. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent expected conditions in an emplacement drift, but nevertheless illustrate the potential for acid-gas generation at moderate temperatures (<150 C).

  19. Efficiency of a solar collector with internal boiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeper, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of a solar collector with a boiling fluid is analyzed to provide a simple algebraic model for future systems simulations, and to provide guidance for testing. The efficiency equation is developed in a form linear in the difference between inlet and saturation (boiling) temperatures, whereas the expression upon which ASHRAE Standard 109P is based utilizes the difference between inlet and ambient temperatures. The coefficient of the revised linear term is a weak function of collector parameters, weather, and subcooling of the working fluid. For a glazed flat-plate collector with metal absorber, the coefficient is effectively constant. Therefore, testing at multiple values of insolation and subcooling, as specified by ASHRAE 109P, should not be necessary for most collectors. The influences of collector properties and operating conditions on efficiency are examined.

  20. Union job fight boiling at DOE cleanup sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, S.W.

    1993-11-15

    The US DOE is facing a growing jurisdictional dispute over which unions will perform the majority of clean-up work at its facilities. Unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO Metal Trades Council representing operations employees at the sites believe they have a fundamental right to work. Unions in the AFL-CIO's Building and Construction Trades Dept. insist that they have a clear mandate under federal labor law and the Davis-Bacon Act. The issue has heated up in recent weeks at the policy level and is boiling in a contentious dispute at DOE's Fernald site in Ohio.

  1. COMPOSITION OF VAPORS FROM BOILING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS B A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements ofCOMPOSITION OF VAPORS FROM BOILING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS B A

  2. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  3. Boiling water neutronic reactor incorporating a process inherent safety design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Kingston, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A boiling-water reactor core is positioned within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel of a size which will hold a supply of coolant water sufficient to submerge and cool the reactor core by boiling for a period of at least one week after shutdown. Separate volumes of hot, clean (non-borated) water for cooling during normal operation and cool highly borated water for emergency cooling and reactor shutdown are separated by an insulated wall during normal reactor operation with contact between the two water volumes being maintained at interfaces near the top and bottom ends of the reactor vessel. Means are provided for balancing the pressure of the two volumes at the lower interface zone during normal operation to prevent entry of the cool borated water into the reactor core region, for detecting the onset of excessive power to coolant flow conditions in the reactor core and for detecting low water levels of reactor coolant. Cool borated water is permitted to flow into the reactor core when low reactor coolant levels or excessive power to coolant flow conditions are encountered.

  4. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-03-12

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  5. Boiling water neutronic reactor incorporating a process inherent safety design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-02-19

    A boiling-water reactor core is positioned within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel of a size which will hold a supply of coolant water sufficient to submerge and cool the reactor core by boiling for a period of at least one week after shutdown. Separate volumes of hot, clean (nonborated) water for cooling during normal operation and cool highly borated water for emergency cooling and reactor shutdown are separated by an insulated wall during normal reactor operation with contact between the two water volumes being maintained at interfaces near the top and bottom ends of the reactor vessel. Means are provided for balancing the pressure of the two water volumes at the lower interface zone during normal operation to prevent entry of the cool borated water into the reactor core region, for detecting the onset of excessive power to coolant flow conditions in the reactor core and for detecting low water levels of reactor coolant. Cool borated water is permitted to flow into the reactor core when low reactor coolant levels or excessive power to coolant flow conditions are encountered.

  6. A Review Of Recent Progress On Nano/micro Scale Nucleate Boiling Fundamentals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research progress in the area of nano/micro scale nucleate boiling is reviewed and an up-to-date summary is provided with a focus on the advances of fundamental boiling physics. This review examines nano/micro scale ...

  7. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties: The Boiling and Critical Temperatures of Polyethylene and Polytetrafluoroethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties: The Boiling and Critical Temperatures of Polyethylene value asymptotically approaches TB() ) (1217 ( 246) K for series related to polyethylene by the melting temperature of polyethylene.4,5 In this article, the question of whether the normal boiling tem

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 89, 013011 (2014) Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    -infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60­70 °C) with heating powers spanning the range from the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away produced by boiling [4,14,18­21] but while important, such studies show only by inference the life cycles

  9. Effects of Carbon Nanotube Coating on Bubble Departure Diameter and Frequency in Pool Boiling on a Flat, Horizontal Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glenn, Stephen T.

    2011-08-08

    The effects of a carbon nanotube (CNT) coating on bubble departure diameter and frequency in pool boiling experiments was investigated and compared to those on a bare silicon wafer. The pool boiling experiments were performed at liquid subcooling...

  10. Experimental investigation of nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanisms for cylinders in water and FC-72

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, C.N.; You, S.M.; Hong, Y.S. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A recently developed photographic method is used to quantify vapor volumetric flow rate above a boiling wire. The volumetric flow rate is combined with additional analyses to determine the overall contributions to the total heat flux from four nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanisms (latent heat, natural convection, Marangoni flow, and micro-convection). This technique is used to quantify the boiling heat transfer mechanisms versus heat flux for a 510-{micro}m wire immersed in saturated water and in water with a small amount of liquid soap added. These data are compared with similar data taken for a 75-{micro}m wire boiling in saturated FC-72. For all cases, latent heat is the dominant heat transfer mechanism in the fully developed nucleate boiling regime. In addition, the latent heat component is significantly increased by the addition of small amounts of soap (surfactant).

  11. Determination of the boiling enhancement mechanism caused by surfactant addition to water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, C.N.; You, S.M. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    In the present investigation, boiling heat transfer coefficients are measured for an electrically heated 390-{micro}m, platinum wire immersed in saturated water, and in water mixed with three different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (an anionic surfactant). The addition of a surfactant to water is known to enhance boiling heat transfer. A recently developed photographic/laser Doppler anemometry measurement technique is used to quantify the vapor volumetric flowrate departing from the wire during the boiling process. The volumetric flowrate data are combined with results from additional analyses to determine the overall contributions to the total heat flux from three nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanisms. Comparisons are made to determine which heat transfer mechanisms are affected by the surfactant addition, and thus, which mechanisms promote boiling enhancement.

  12. Feasibility study on the thorium fueled boiling water breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PetrusTakaki, N.

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of (Th,U)O 2 fueled, boiling water breeder reactor based on conventional BWR technology has been studied. In order to determine the potential use of water cooled thorium reactor as a competitive breeder, this study evaluated criticality, breeding and void reactivity coefficient in response to changes made in MFR and fissile enrichments. The result of the study shows that while using light water as moderator, low moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR=0.5), it was possible to breed fissile fuel in negative void reactivity condition. However the burnup value was lower than the value of the current LWR. On the other hand, heavy water cooled reactor shows relatively wider feasible breeding region, which lead into possibility of designing a core having better neutronic and economic performance than light water with negative void reactivity coefficient. (authors)

  13. Statistical nature of boiling flows: an experimental approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Two vertical, concentric annular test sections were used. Two flow-field variables, viz. static pressure fluctuations at the test section outer wall and instantaneous chordal-average vapor fraction, were studied. Matched piezo-electric pressure transducers were used for the pressure fluctuation measurements, and a linearized dual-beam x-ray system was used for the vapor fraction measurements. Steady state (mean) thermal-hydraulic condition in the last section was determined by an analytical model and verified to a certain extent by capacitance probe vapor volume fraction measurements. A wide range of local (measurement station) vapor fraction conditions with prevalent flow regimes ranging from subcooled bubbly to saturated churn turbulent-slug-annular was investigated. It is suggested that diagnosis of boiling flow regimes on the basis of the statistical properties of wall static pressure fluctuations and vapor fraction fluctuations may be possible.

  14. Analysis of scrams and forced outages at boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earle, R. T.; Sullivan, W. P.; Miller, K. R.; Schwegman, W. J.

    1980-07-01

    This report documents the results of a study of scrams and forced outages at General Electric Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) operating in the United States. This study was conducted for Sandia Laboratories under a Light Water Reactor Safety Program which it manages for the United States Department of Energy. Operating plant data were used to identify the causes of scrams and forced outages. Causes of scrams and forced outages have been summarized as a function of operating plant and plant age and also ranked according to the number of events per year, outage time per year, and outage time per event. From this ranking, identified potential improvement opportunities were evaluated to determine the associated benefits and impact on plant availability.

  15. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of a summary of temperature measurements to include recorded minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations.

  16. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists solely of tables of temperature measurements; minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations being measured.

  17. Identification of pool boiling heat transfer mechanisms in FC-72 using a single-photo method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, C.N.; You, S.M.; Hong, Y.S. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-10-01

    A unique method to determine the vapor flow rate above a boiling cylinder utilizing a single photograph is developed and discussed. This method is applied to a 75-{micro}m wire immersed in a saturated, highly wetting liquid (FC-72) to determine bubble departure diameter, frequency, and nucleation site density. Using the experimental results, an analysis is performed to evaluate individual heat flux contributions of the four pool boiling mechanisms: latent heat, natural convection, Marangoni flow, and micro-convection. Latent heat is identified as the dominant mechanism throughout most of the nucleate boiling regime.

  18. Critical heat flux for free convection boiling in thin rectangular channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Tichler, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A review of the experimental data on free convection boiling critical heat flux (CHF) in vertical rectangular channels reveals three mechanisms of burnout. They are the pool boiling limit, the circulation limit, and the flooding limit associated with a transition in flow regime from churn to annular flow. The dominance of a particular mechanism depends on the dimensions of the channel. Analytical models were developed for each free convection boiling limit. Limited agreement with data is observed. A CHF correlation, which is valid for a wide range of gap sizes, was constructed from the CHFs calculated according to the three mechanisms of burnout. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Effect of surface roughness and polymeric additive on nucleate pool boiling at subatmospheric pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Mahajan, S.P.

    1986-09-01

    This investigation pertains to boiling heat transfer from a submerged flat surface at subatmospheric and atmospheric pressures in the presence of hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC) as a polymeric additive in small doses. Boiling was carried out in presence of the additive on smooth and rough aluminium surfaces having effective cavity size within the range as predicted by Hsu model and the pressure was kept in the range of 8 - 100 KN/sq.m (abs). Effects of surface roughness, saturation pressure and polymer concentration on boiling heat transfer were studied and the results were compared with Rohsenow's correlation.

  20. New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X.; Wang, S.

    2014-01-29

    Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction.

  1. Evaluation of the economic simplified boiling water reactor human reliability analysis using the SHARP framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Phillip Eng

    2007-01-01

    General Electric plans to complete a design certification document for the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor to have the new reactor design certified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As part of ...

  2. Flow boiling and two-phase flow instabilities in silicon microchannel heat sinks for microsystems cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogojevi?, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Flow boiling in microchannels, while very promising as a cooling technology in electronics thermal management, is still a subject being explored that requires further investigation. Before applying this technology for ...

  3. Bubble behavior in subcooled flow boiling on surfaces of variable wettability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tow, Emily W

    2012-01-01

    Flow boiling is important in energy conversion and thermal management due to its potential for very high heat fluxes. By improving understanding of the conditions leading to bubble departure, surfaces can be designed that ...

  4. A study of system-induced instabilities in forced-convection flows with subcooled boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maulbetsch, John S.

    1965-01-01

    A combined analytical and experimental program was carried out to investigate the problem of hydrodynamic stability of forcedconvection flows with boiling. The study was restricted to the flow of water in small channels ...

  5. Nano-engineering the boiling surface for optimal heat transfer rate and critical heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Bren Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The effects on pool boiling characteristics such as critical heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient of different surface characteristics such as surface wettability, roughness, morphology, and porosity are not well ...

  6. Development of a model to predict flow oscillations in low-flow sodium boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Alan Edward

    1980-01-01

    An experimental and analytical program has been carried out in order to better understand the cause and effect of flow oscillations in boiling sodium systems. These oscillations have been noted in previous experiments with ...

  7. Prediction of departure from nucleate boiling in PWR fast power transients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenci, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    An assessment is conducted of the differences in predicted results between use of steady state versus transient Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) models, for fast power transients under forced convective heat exchange ...

  8. Enhanced flow boiling heat transfer in microchannels with structured surfaces at varied mass flow rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bian, David (David Wei)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of mass flux on flow boiling heat transfer in microchannels with surface micropillar arrays. The motivation for this investigation was to determine the general trends of the optimal ...

  9. Visualization of flow boiling in an annular heat exchanger under reduced gravity conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westheimer, David Thomas

    2000-01-01

    poorly with an Earth based flow regime map; (ii) predicting that the maximum two-phase heat transfer coefficient would occur near the location the boiling fluid reached a saturated state, which also corresponded with the location of maximum nucleate...

  10. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Booker, Kayje

    2012-01-01

    is brought to a boil. 3. Simmer (low power): Immediatelywater is maintained at a simmer for 45 minutes. In this60% open during the low power (simmer phase) test. The same

  11. Experimental Observation and Measurements of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer using PIV, Shadowgraphy, RICM Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di, Yuan 1988-

    2012-12-05

    This present study seeks to contribute detailed visualization data on a pool boiling experiments using HFE-7000. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the time resolved whole field liquid velocity. Bubble dynamic parameters...

  12. Experimental & Numerical Investigation of Pool Boiling on Engineered Surfaces with Integrated Thin-flim Temperature Sensors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar

    2011-02-22

    The objective of this investigation is to measure and analyze surface temperature fluctuations in pool boiling. The surface temperature fluctuations were recorded on silicon surfaces with and without multi-walled carbon ...

  13. Investigation of the effects of surfactant concentration on the boiling curve of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Darci Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Boiling is a widely used heat transfer process in industry that allows for high heat transfer with a small temperature gradient. In this study the effects of two homologous series of surfactants (trimethylammonium bromide ...

  14. Conceptual design of an annular-fueled superheat boiling water reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Yu-Chih, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of an annular-fueled superheat boiling water reactor (ASBWR) is outlined. The proposed design, ASBWR, combines the boiler and superheater regions into one fuel assembly. This ensures good neutron ...

  15. Experimental Two-Phase Flow Characterization of Subcooled Boiling in a Rectangular Channel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estrada Perez, Carlos E.

    2010-01-16

    On the efforts to provide a reliable source of experimental information on turbulent subcooled boiling ow, time resolved Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) experiments were carried out using HFE-301 refrigerant ow through a vertical rectangular...

  16. Stability analysis of the boiling water reactor : methods and advanced designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Rui, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Density Wave Oscillations (DWOs) are known to be possible when a coolant undergoes considerable density reduction while passing through a heated channel. In the development of boiling water reactors (BWRs), there has been ...

  17. Thermal non-equilibrium in dispersed flow film boiling in a vertical tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forslund, Robert Paul

    1966-01-01

    The departure from thermal equilibrium between a dispersed liquid phase and its vapor at high quality during film boiling is investigated, The departure from equilibruim is manifested by the high resistance to heat transfer ...

  18. Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a heated tube : high vapor quality range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laverty, W. F.

    1964-01-01

    Film boiling of saturated liquid flowing upward through a uniformly heated tube has been studied for the case in which pure saturated liquid enters the tube and nearly saturated vapor is discharged. Since a previous study ...

  19. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. ); Irvine, T.F., Jr. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-04-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured (0 to 8.5 cm/s), the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  20. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A.; Irvine, T.F., Jr.

    1992-04-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus_minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured [0 to 8.5 cm/s], the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  1. Development of 1000 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazuo Hisajima; Ken Uchida; Keiji Matsumoto; Koichi Kondo; Shigeki Yokoyama; Takuya Miyagawa [Toshiba Corporation (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    1000 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor has only two main steam lines and six reactor internal pumps, whereas 1350 MWe ABWR has four main steam lines and ten reactor internal pumps. In order to confirm how the differences affect hydrodynamic conditions in the dome and lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel, fluid analyses have been performed. The results indicate that there is not substantial difference between 1000 MWe ABWR and 1350 MWe ABWR. The primary containment vessel of the ABWR consists of the drywell and suppression chamber. The suppression chamber stores water to suppress pressure increase in the primary containment vessel and to be used as the source of water for the emergency core cooling system following a loss-of-coolant accident. Because the reactor pressure vessel of 1000 MWe ABWR is smaller than that of 1350 MWe ABWR, there is room to reduce the size of the primary containment vessel. It has been confirmed feasible to reduce inner diameter of the primary containment vessel from 29 m of 1350 MWe ABWR to 26.5 m. From an economic viewpoint, a shorter outage that results in higher availability of the plant is preferable. In order to achieve 20-day outage that results in 97% of availability, improvement of the systems for removal of decay heat is introduced that enables to stop all the safety-related decay heat removal systems except at the beginning of an outage. (authors)

  2. Camera Inspection Arm for Boiling Water Reactors - 13330

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Scott; Rood, Marc

    2013-07-01

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) outage maintenance tasks can be time-consuming and hazardous. Reactor facilities are continuously looking for quicker, safer, and more effective methods of performing routine inspection during these outages. In 2011, S.A. Technology (SAT) was approached by Energy Northwest to provide a remote system capable of increasing efficiencies related to Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) internal inspection activities. The specific intent of the system discussed was to inspect recirculation jet pumps in a manner that did not require manual tooling, and could be performed independently of other ongoing inspection activities. In 2012, SAT developed a compact, remote, camera inspection arm to create a safer, more efficient outage environment. This arm incorporates a compact and lightweight design along with the innovative use of bi-stable composite tubes to provide a six-degree of freedom inspection tool capable of reducing dose uptake, reducing crew size, and reducing the overall critical path for jet pump inspections. The prototype camera inspection arm unit is scheduled for final testing in early 2013 in preparation for the Columbia Generating Station refueling outage in the spring of 2013. (authors)

  3. Multi-cycle boiling water reactor fuel cycle optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ottinger, K.; Maldonado, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    In this work a new computer code, BWROPT (Boiling Water Reactor Optimization), is presented. BWROPT uses the Parallel Simulated Annealing (PSA) algorithm to solve the out-of-core optimization problem coupled with an in-core optimization that determines the optimum fuel loading pattern. However it uses a Haling power profile for the depletion instead of optimizing the operating strategy. The result of this optimization is the optimum new fuel inventory and the core loading pattern for the first cycle considered in the optimization. Several changes were made to the optimization algorithm with respect to other nuclear fuel cycle optimization codes that use PSA. Instead of using constant sampling probabilities for the solution perturbation types throughout the optimization as is usually done in PSA optimizations the sampling probabilities are varied to get a better solution and/or decrease runtime. The new fuel types available for use can be sorted into an array based on any number of parameters so that each parameter can be incremented or decremented, which allows for more precise fuel type selection compared to random sampling. Also, the results are sorted by the new fuel inventory of the first cycle for ease of comparing alternative solutions. (authors)

  4. Pebble Bed Boiling Water Reactor Concept With Superheated Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiklauri, G.; Newman, D.; Meriwether, G.; Korolev, V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    An Advanced Nuclear Reactor concept is presented which extends Boiling Water Reactor technology with micro-fuel elements (MFE) and produces superheated steam. A nuclear plant with MFE is highly efficient and safe, due to ceramic-clad nuclear fuel. Water is used as both moderator and coolant. The fuel consists of spheres of about 1.5 mm diameter of UO{sub 2} with several external coatings of different carbonaceous materials. The outer coating of the particles is SiC, manufactured with chemical vapor disposition (CVD) technology. Endurance of the integrity of the SiC coating in water, air and steam has been demonstrated experimentally in Germany, Russia and Japan. This paper describes a result of a preliminary design and analysis of 3750 MWt (1500 MWe) plant with standard pressure of 16 MPa, which is widely achieved in the vessel of pressurized-water type reactors. The superheated steam outlet temperature of 550 deg. C elevates the steam cycle to high thermal efficiency of 42%. (authors)

  5. Film boiling on spheres in single- and two-phase flows.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.; Theofanous, T. G.

    2000-08-29

    Film boiling on spheres in single- and two-phase flows was studied experimentally and theoretically with an emphasis on establishing the film boiling heat transfer closure law, which is useful in the analysis of nuclear reactor core melt accidents. Systematic experimentation of film boiling on spheres in single-phase water flows was carried out to investigate the effects of liquid subcooling (from 0 to 40 C), liquid velocity (from 0 to 2 m/s), sphere superheat (from 200 to 900 C), sphere diameter (from 6 to 19 mm), and sphere material (stainless steel and brass) on film boiling heat transfer. Based on the experimental data a general film boiling heat transfer correlation is developed. Utilizing a two-phase laminar boundary-layer model for the unseparated front film region and a turbulent eddy model for the separated rear region, a theoretical model was developed to predict the film boiling heat transfer in all single-phase regimes. The film boiling from a sphere in two-phase flows was investigated both in upward two-phase flows (with void fraction from 0.2 to 0.65, water velocity from 0.6 to 3.2 m/s, and steam velocity from 3.0 to 9.0 m/s) and in downward two-phase flows (with void fraction from 0.7 to 0.95, water velocity from 1.9 to 6.5 m/s, and steam velocity from 1.1 to 9.0 m/s). The saturated single-phase heat transfer correlation was found to be applicable to the two-phase film boiling data by making use of the actual water velocity (water phase velocity), and an adjustment factor of (1 - {alpha}){sup 1/4} (with a being the void fraction) for downward flow case only. Slight adjustments of the Reynolds number exponents in the correlation provided an even better interpretation of the two-phase data. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to address the influences of multi-sphere structure on the film boiling heat transfer in single- and two-phase flows.

  6. Saturated nucleate pool boiling of oxygen under magnetically-enhanced effective gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. A. Corcovilos; M. E. Turk; D. M. Strayer; N. N. Asplund; N. -C. Yeh

    2007-02-01

    We investigate the effect of enhancing gravity on saturated nucleate pool boiling of oxygen for effective gravities of 1g, 6.0g, and 16g (g=9.8 m/s^2) at a saturation pressure of 760 torr and for heat fluxes of 10 ~ 3000 W/m^2. The effective gravity on the oxygen is increased by applying a magnetic body force generated by a superconducting solenoid. We measure the heater temperature (expressed as a reduced superheat) as a function of heat flux and fit this data to a piecewise power-law/linear boiling curve. At low heat flux (<400 W/m^2) the superheat is proportional to the cube root of the heat flux. At higher heat fluxes, the superheat is a linear function of the heat flux. To within statistical uncertainties, which are limited by variations among experimental runs, we find no variation of the boiling curve over our applied gravity range.

  7. Design and Testing of Vacuum Breaker Check Valve for Simplified Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishii, M.; Xu, Y.; Revankar, S.T.

    2002-07-01

    A new design of the vacuum breaker check valve was developed to replace the mechanical valve in a simplified boiling water reactor. Scaling and design calculations were performed to obtain the geometry of new passive hydraulic vacuum breaker check valve. In order to check the valve performance, a RELAP5 model of the simplified boiling water reactor system with the new valve was developed. The valve was implemented in an integral facility, PUMA and was tested for large break loss of coolant accident. (authors)

  8. Multifractal Analysis of Chaotic Flashing-Induced Instabilities in Boiling Channels in the Natural-Circulation CIRCUS Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    . INTRODUCTION Instability of forced-circulation boiling water reac- tors ~BWRs!, which is manifested by selfMultifractal Analysis of Chaotic Flashing-Induced Instabilities in Boiling Channels in the Natural University of Technology, Department of Physics of Nuclear Reactors, Delft, 2629 BJ, The Netherlands Received

  9. Microjet array single-phase and flow boiling heat transfer with R134a Eric A. Browne a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    :6 6 Nud 6 128. Boiling experiments were conducted with liquid subcoolings of 10, 20, and 30 °C at jet effective than forced air convection will be required. Single-phase flow and flow boiling in microchannels have been studied [4­10] with a variety of fluids and flow schemes and have been used to cool turbine

  10. Nanoscale modification of key surface parameters to augment pool boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in water and dielectric fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Eric Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Surface effects on pool boiling heat transfer and the critical heat flux are well documented but poorly understood. This study investigates the pool boiling characteristics of various fluids, and demonstrates that surface ...

  11. Development of a small-channel nucleate-boiling heat transfer correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasza, K.E.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1994-06-01

    Development of an improved semimechanistic-based set of correlation parameters for nucleation-dominant flow-boiling heat transfer in small channels is described. Formulation of these parameters is on the basis of a recently published open-literature model for vapor bubble growth at a heated surface. This work is part of a program directed at obtaining an understanding of the physical mechanisms that influence boiling in compact heat exchangers through the use of high-speed video and microscope optics to characterize bubble nucleation, growth, and interaction with the confining walls of small heat transfer passages. The correlation parameters presented here represent the first step in the development of an improved boiling correlation for geometrically confined small-channel flows. In such flows, the nucleating bubbles can become nominally the same size as the channel cross section, thereby invalidating existing correlations that are based on large-channel data. Initial efforts to correlate small-channel-boiling data obtained at Argonne National Laboratory from nontransparent electrically heated metal tube tests appear promising.

  12. Analysis of the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor using the code Ramona-4B 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuevas Vivas, Gabriel Francisco

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBVVR) is carried out through the use of the reactor analysis code RAMONA-4B in a scenario of an operational transient, a turbine trip with failure of all the bypass valves. This study is divided...

  13. Heat transport in boiling turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakkaraju, Rajaram; Oresta, Paolo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to several mechanisms many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubbles compounds with that of the liquid to give rise to a much enhanced natural convection. In this paper we focus specifically on this enhancement and present a numerical study of the resulting two-phase Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection process. We make no attempt to model other aspects of the boiling process such as bubble nucleation and detachment. We consider a cylindrical cell with a diameter equal to its height. The cell base and top are held at temperatures above and below the boiling point of the liquid, respectively. By keeping the temperature difference constant and changing the liquid pressure we study the effect of the liquid superheat in a Rayleigh number range that, in the absence of boiling, would be between $2\\times10^6$ and $5\\times10^9$. We find a...

  14. Enhancement of pool boiling heat transfer with electrohydrodynamics and its fundamental study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghupathi, Sri Laxmi Priya

    1998-01-01

    The enhancement of heat transfer in the realm of pool boiling refrigerants, using the concepts of electrohydrodynamics(EHD), has been actively researched in the past decade. This research aims at studying the effect of EHD on new refrigerants (R-123...

  15. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF HEATING METHOD ON POOL BOILING HEAT TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF HEATING METHOD ON POOL BOILING HEAT TRANSFER Satish G. Kandlikar surfaces in laboratories to obtain the heat transfer coefficient data. In many process applications however, a fluid stream is employed as the heating medium. The heat transfer data generated with the electrically

  16. Boiling heat transfer in a hydrofoil-based micro pin fin heat sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    Boiling heat transfer in a hydrofoil-based micro pin fin heat sink Ali Kosßar, Yoav Peles-based micro pin fin heat sink was investigated. Average two-phase heat transfer coefficients were obtained intermittent and spray-annular flows. Heat transfer coefficient trends and flow morphologies were used to infer

  17. 2007-No54-BoilingPoint Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2007-No54-BoilingPoint Theme Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy, but both the human health and envi- ronmental impacts associated with reliance on this fuel structure of fossil-fuel energy systems. These scenarios are analysed for various environmental and health impacts

  18. Numerical Simulation of Boiling Heat Transfer by Transient Heating *@--i"OE`H@j@@@"`@Zi@Oi"OE`Hj@@@"`@SZR@vi"OE`Hj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    with macrolayer model of Maruyama, we simulated the transient boiling curve for water and fluorinert FC-72(C6F14 boiling processes are very important in steel production and safety evaluations in nuclear reactors conduction within the heater. The transient boiling curves for water and FC-72 were predicted. The transient

  19. Simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas on water. Final report, December 12, 1978-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.R.; Reid, R.C.

    1981-04-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation was carried out to study the boiling and spreading of liquid nitrogen, liquid methane and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water in a one-dimensional configuration. Primary emphasis was placed on the LPG studies. Experimental work involved the design and construction of a spill/spread/boil apparatus which permitted the measurement of spreading and local boil-off rates. With the equations of continuity and momentum transfer, a mathematical model was developed to describe the boiling-spreading phenomena of cryogens spilled on water. The model accounted for a decrease in the density of the cryogenic liquid due to bubble formation. The boiling and spreading rates of LPG were found to be the same as those of pure propane. An LPG spill was characterized by the very rapid and violent boiling initially and highly irregular ice formation on the water surface. The measured local boil-off rates of LPG agreed reasonably well with theoretical predictions from a moving boundary heat transfer model. The spreading velocity of an LPG spill was found to be constant and determined by the size of the distributor opening. The maximum spreading distance was found to be unaffected by the spilling rate. These observations can be explained by assuming that the ice formation on the water surface controls the spreading of LPG spills. While the mathematical model did not predict the spreading front adequately, it predicted the maximum spreading distance reasonably well.

  20. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L.

    2011-01-19

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  1. Development of a general purpose subgrid wall boiling model from improved physical understanding for use in computational fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilman, Lindsey Anne

    2014-01-01

    Advanced modeling capabilities were developed for application to subcooled flow boiling through this work. The target was to introduce, and demonstrate, all necessary mechanisms required to accurately predict the temperature ...

  2. Experimental investigation of subcooled flow boiling using synchronized high speed video, infrared thermography, and particle image velocimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Bren Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Subcooled flow boiling of water was experimentally investigated using high-speed video (HSV), infrared (IR) thermography, and particle image velocimetry (PIV) to generate a unique database of synchronized data. HSV allowed ...

  3. Modeling the Thermal Mechanical Behavior of a 300 K Vacuum Vessel that is Cooled by Liquid Hydrogen in Film Boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, S.Q.; Green, M.A.; Lau, W.

    2004-01-01

    VESSEL THAT IS COOLED BY LIQUID HYDROGEN IN FILM BOILING S.window that is part of a 20-liter liquid hydrogen vessel.This rupture will spill liquid hydrogen onto the walls and

  4. A four-equation two-phase flow model for sodium boiling simulation of LMFBR fuel assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schor, Andrei L.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model for the simulation of sodium boiling transients has been developed. The model uses mixture mass and energy equations, while employing a separate momentum equation for each phase. Thermal ...

  5. Development of models for the two-dimensional, two-fluid code for sodium boiling NATOF-2D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zielinski, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Several features were incorporated into NATOF-2D, a twodimensional, two fluid code developed at M.I.T. for the purpose of analysis of sodium boiling transients under LMFBR conditions. They include improved interfacial mass, ...

  6. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in water-based nanofluids at low pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Joong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    A nanofluid is a colloidal suspension of nano-scale particles in water, or other base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve the critical heat flux (CHF) by as much as 200%. In this ...

  7. Effect of combined nanoparticle and polymeric dispersions on critical heat flux, nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient, and coating adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Bronwyn K

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to determine thermal performance and adhesion effects of a combined nanoparticle and polymeric dispersion coating. The critical heat flux (CHF) values and nucleate boiling heat transfer ...

  8. Multi-scale Control and Enhancement of Reactor Boiling Heat Flux by Reagents and Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manglik, R M; Athavale, A; Kalaikadal, D S; Deodhar, A; Verma, U

    2011-09-02

    The phenomenological characterization of the use of non-invasive and passive techniques to enhance the boiling heat transfer in water has been carried out in this extended study. It provides fundamental enhanced heat transfer data for nucleate boiling and discusses the associated physics with the aim of addressing future and next-generation reactor thermal-hydraulic management. It essentially addresses the hypothesis that in phase-change processes during boiling, the primary mechanisms can be related to the liquid-vapor interfacial tension and surface wetting at the solidliquid interface. These interfacial characteristics can be significantly altered and decoupled by introducing small quantities of additives in water, such as surface-active polymers, surfactants, and nanoparticles. The changes are fundamentally caused at a molecular-scale by the relative bulk molecular dynamics and adsorption-desorption of the additive at the liquid-vapor interface, and its physisorption and electrokinetics at the liquid-solid interface. At the micro-scale, the transient transport mechanisms at the solid-liquid-vapor interface during nucleation and bubblegrowth can be attributed to thin-film spreading, surface-micro-cavity activation, and micro-layer evaporation. Furthermore at the macro-scale, the heat transport is in turn governed by the bubble growth and distribution, macro-layer heat transfer, bubble dynamics (bubble coalescence, collapse, break-up, and translation), and liquid rheology. Some of these behaviors and processes are measured and characterized in this study, the outcomes of which advance the concomitant fundamental physics, as well as provide insights for developing control strategies for the molecular-scale manipulation of interfacial tension and surface wetting in boiling by means of polymeric reagents, surfactants, and other soluble surface-active additives.

  9. Critical Heat Flux for Downward-Facing Boiling on a Coated Hemispherical Vessel Surrounded by an Insulation Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Yang; F. B. Cheung; J. L. Rempe; K. Y. Suh; S. B. Kim

    2005-05-01

    An experimental study was performed to evaluate the effects of surface coating and an enhanced insulation structure on the downward facing boiling process and the critical heat flux on the outer surface of a hemispherical vessel. Steady-state boiling tests were conducted in the Subscale Boundary Layer Boiling (SBLB) facility using an enhanced vessel/insulation design for the cases with and without vessel coatings. Based on the boiling data, CHF correlations were obtained for both plain and coated vessels. It was found that the nucleate boiling rates and the local CHF limits for the case with micro-porous layer coating were consistently higher than those values for a plain vessel at the same angular location. The enhancement in the local CHF limits and nucleate boiling rates was mainly due to the micro-porous layer coating that increased the local liquid supply rate toward the vaporization sites on the vessel surface. For the case with thermal insulation, the local CHF limit tended to increase from the bottom center at first, then decrease toward the minimum gap location, and finally increase toward the equator. This nonmonotonic behavior, which differed significantly from the case without thermal insulation, was evidently due to the local variation of the two-phase motions in the annular channel between the test vessel and the insulation structure.

  10. Analysis of the magnetic corrosion product deposits on a boiling water reactor cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlov, Andrey; Degueldre, Claude; Kaufmann, Wilfried

    2013-01-15

    The buildup of corrosion product deposits (CRUD) on the fuel cladding of the boiling water reactor (BWR) before and after zinc injection has been investigated by applying local experimental analytical techniques. Under the BWR water chemistry conditions, Zn addition together with the presence of Ni and Mn induce the formation of (Zn,Ni,Mn)[Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}] spinel solid solutions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed inversion ratios of cation distribution in spinels deposited from the solid solution. Based on this information, a two-site ferrite spinel solid solution model is proposed. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) findings suggest the zinc-rich ferrite spinels formation on BWR fuel cladding mainly at lower pin. - Graphical Abstract: Analysis of spinels in corrosion product deposits on boiling water reactor fuel rod. Combining EPMA and XAFS results: schematic representation of the ferrite spinels in terms of the end members and their extent of inversion. Note that the ferrites are represented as a surface between the normal (upper plane, M[Fe{sub 2}]O{sub 4}) and the inverse (lower plane, Fe[MFe]O{sub 4}). Actual compositions red Black-Small-Square for the specimen at low elevation (810 mm), blue Black-Small-Square for the specimen at mid elevation (1800 mm). The results have an impact on the properties of the CRUD material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Buildup of corrosion product deposits on fuel claddings of a boiling water reactor (BWR) are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under BWR water conditions, Zn addition with Ni and Mn induced formation of (Zn,Ni,Mn)[Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}]. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-Ray Adsorption Spectroscopy (XAS) revealed inversion of cations in spinel solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-rich ferrite spinels are formed on BWR fuel cladding mainly at lower pin elevations.

  11. Do surfaces with mixed hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas enhance pool boiling?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betz, Amy; Qiu, Huihe; Attinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that smooth and flat surfaces combining hydrophilic and hydrophobic patterns improve pool boiling performance. Compared to a hydrophilic surface with 7^\\circ wetting angle, the measured critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficients of the enhanced surfaces are up to respectively 65 and 100% higher. Different networks combining hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions are characterized. While all tested networks enhance the heat transfer coefficient, large enhancements of critical heat flux are typically found for hydrophilic networks featuring hydrophobic islands. Hydrophilic networks indeed are shown to prevent the formation of an insulating vapor layer.

  12. The use of the probability distribution function to analyze surface temperature fluctuations in pool boiling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Chau Qui

    1976-01-01

    par t of his t ime and labor to assist in the welding of thermocoupl-. junctions to the copper disk. And to all of those directly connected and to many others who helped by givino words of suggestion, there will always remain a debt o.... DEDICATION. AC (QU OWL EDGI"IENT S. TABLE OF CONTENTS. L1ST OF TABLES. LIST OF F IGUR ES. vi vii 1x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. CHAPTER II MECHANISMS OF NUCLEATE POOL BOILING. . . . . Bubble agitation model. Vapor-liquid exchange model. 3. M...

  13. Modeling Single-Phase and Boiling Liquid Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S. V. J.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

    2005-12-01

    Jet impingement has been an attractive cooling option in a number of industries over the past few decades. Over the past 15 years, jet impingement has been explored as a cooling option in microelectronics. Recently, interest has been expressed by the automotive industry in exploring jet impingement for cooling power electronics components. This technical report explores, from a modeling perspective, both single-phase and boiling jet impingement cooling in power electronics, primarily from a heat transfer viewpoint. The discussion is from the viewpoint of the cooling of IGBTs (insulated-gate bipolar transistors), which are found in hybrid automobile inverters.

  14. A study of out-of-phase power instabilities in boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    March-Leuba, J.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1988-06-20

    This paper presents a study of the stability of subcritical neutronic modes in boiling water reactors that can result in out-of-phase power oscillations. A mechanism has been identified for this type of oscillation, and LAPUR code has been modified to account for it. Numerical results show that there is a region in the power-flow operating map where an out-or-phase stability mode is likely even if the core-wide mode is stable. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Correlations of Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer and Critical Heat Flux for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Yang; F. B. Cheung; J. L. Rempe; K. Y. Suh; S. B. Kim

    2005-07-01

    Four types of steady-state boiling experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of two distinctly different heat transfer enhancement methods for external reactor vessel cooling under severe accident conditions. One method involved the use of a thin vessel coating and the other involved the use of an enhanced insulation structure. By comparing the results obtained in the four types of experiments, the separate and integral effect of vessel coating and insulation structure were determined. Correlation equations were obtained for the nucleate boiling heat transfer and the critical heat flux. It was found that both enhancement methods were quite effective. Depending on the angular location, the local critical heat flux could be enhanced by 1.4 to 2.5 times using vessel coating alone whereas it could be enhanced by 1.8 to 3.0 times using an enhanced insulation structure alone. When both vessel coating and insulation structure were used simultaneously, the integral effect on the enhancement was found much less than the product of the two separate effects, indicating possible competing mechanisms (i.e., interference) between the two enhancement methods.

  16. Magnetic thaw-down and boil-off due to magneto acceptors in 2DEG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaubet, C.; Raymond, A. [L2C UMR 5221, CNRS-Université Montpellier 2, Place E. Bataillon, 34090 Montpellier cedex 05 (France); Bisotto, I. [LNCMI, UPR 3228, CNRS-INSA-UJF-UPS, BP166, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Harmand, J. C. [LPN, CNRS, route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Kubisa, M. [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Zawadzki, W. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-12-04

    The Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) and Shubnikov-de Haas effect are investigated experimentally using n type modulation-doped GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells (QWs) additionally doped in the well with beryllium acceptor atoms. It is presently shown that the localized magneto-acceptor (MA) states which possess discrete energies above the corresponding Landau levels (LLs) lead to two observable effects in magneto-transport: magnetic thaw-down and magnetic boil-off of 2D electrons. Both effects are related to the fact that electrons occupying the localized MA states cannot conduct. Thus in the thaw-down effect the electrons fall down from the MA states to the free Landau states. This leads to a shift of the Hall plateau towards higher magnetic fields as a consequence of an increase of the 2D electron density N{sub S}. In the boil-off effect the electrons are pushed from the free Landau states to the empty MA states under high enough Hall electric field. This process has an avalanche character leading to a dramatic increase of magneto-resistance, consequence of a decrease of N{sub S}.

  17. BOILING CRISIS:THEORY,SIMULATION,AND EXPERIMENTSBOILING CRISIS: THEORY, SIMULATION, AND EXPERIMENTS Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid heat carrier. We discuss the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolayev, Vadim S.

    , e.g. nuclear power plant steam generators. Two main boiling regimes can be dis- tinguished: nucleate causes a recoil force anal- ogous to that created by the gas emitted by a rocket engine. It pushes expands while transforming from liquid to gas phase. Obviously, the stronger the evap- oration rate

  18. Experimental investigation of micro-scale temperature transients in sub-cooled flow boiling on a horizontal heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    systems and energy storage, materials processing and futuristic applications (e.g. ablation cooling on a silicon wafer during flow boiling on the silicon wafer which is heated from below. The silicon wafer") are fabricated on the surface of the silicon wafer. High speed data acquisition appa- ratus is used to record

  19. Boiling Water at Hot Creek--The Dangerous and Dynamic Thermal Springs in California's Long Valley Caldera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Boiling Water at Hot Creek--The Dangerous and Dynamic Thermal Springs in California's Long Valley. Because of this danger, the U.S. Forest Service has had to close parts of the Hot Creek Geologic Site the region. The attractions of Hot Creek, however, also harbor danger. The locations, dis- charge rates

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. AC-20, NO. 6, DECEMBER 1975 127 Acoustics, Stability, and Compensation in Boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwatny, Harry G.

    , and Compensation in Boiling Water Reactor Pressure Control Systems Abstract-An analysisis provided of the effeds THECONTROL of steam pressure inboiling water reactor(BWR)nuclear power stations is one of the critical plantIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. AC-20, NO. 6, DECEMBER 1975 127 Acoustics, Stability

  1. Replacement of outboard main steam isolation valves in a boiling water reactor plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlereth, J.R.; Pennington, D.

    1996-12-01

    Most Boiling Water Reactor plants utilize wye pattern globe valves for main steam isolation valves for both inboard and outboard isolation. These valves have required a high degree of maintenance attention in order to pass the plant local leakage rate testing (LLRT) requirements at each outage. Northern States Power made a decision in 1993 to replace the outboard valves at it`s Monticello plant with double disc gate valves. The replacement of the outboard valves was completed during the fall outage in 1994. During the spring outage in April of 1996 the first LLRT testing was performed with excellent results. This presentation will address the decision process, time requirements and planning necessary to accomplish the task as well as the performance results and cost effectiveness of replacing these components.

  2. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  3. Effect of nonuniformity of subcooled boiling flow on the onset of thermoacoustic vibrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerliga, V.A.; Skalozubov, V.I.; Lesin, V.Y. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper develops the hypothesis that the factor responsible for the onset of thermoacoustic vibrations in two-phase bubble flow is positive work by bubbles condensing in the flow core. It is shown that the predicted threshold of generation of these vibrations depends strongly on the accuracy of description of the steady-state distribution of parameters of bubbles and the liquid. The results predicted on the basis of a two-zone nonequilibrium polydisperse model are compared with those given by the uniform-flow model and an equation representing the condition of applicability of one-dimensional models for predicting the steady-state parameters of nonequilibrium boiling flows is derived.

  4. Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Paul R. (Tucson, AZ)

    1994-01-01

    A boiling water reactor having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit.

  5. Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, P.R.

    1994-12-27

    A boiling water reactor is described having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit. 4 figures.

  6. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uddin, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  7. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWR) (NUREG-1123) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog and Examiners' Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Examinations (NUREG-1121) will cover those topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55. The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at boiling water reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring personnel and public health and safety. The BWR K/A Catalog is organized into five major sections: Plant-wide Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. The BWR Catalog represents a modification of the form and content of the K/A Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Pressurized Water Reactors (NUREG-1122). First, categories of knowledge and ability statements have been redefined. Second, the scope of the definition of emergency and abnormal plant evolutions has been revised in line with a symptom-based approach. Third, K/As related to the operational applications of theory have been incorporated into the delineations for both plant systems and emergency and abnormal plant evolutions, while K/As pertaining to theory fundamental to plant operation have been delineated in a separate theory section. Finally, the components section has been revised.

  8. Design of a boiling water reactor equilibrium core using thorium-uranium fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francois, J-L.; Nunez-Carrera, A.; Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Martin-del-Campo, C.

    2004-10-06

    In this paper the design of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) equilibrium core using thorium is presented; a heterogeneous blanket-seed core arrangement concept was adopted. The design was developed in three steps: in the first step two different assemblies were designed based on the integrated blanket-seed concept, they are the blanket-dummy assembly and the blanket-seed assembly. The integrated blanketseed concept comes from the fact that the blanket and the seed rods are located in the same assembly, and are burned-out in a once-through cycle. In the second step, a core design was developed to achieve an equilibrium cycle of 365 effective full power days in a standard BWR with a reload of 104 fuel assemblies designed with an average 235U enrichment of 7.5 w/o in the seed sub-lattice. The main operating parameters, like power, linear heat generation rate and void distributions were obtained as well as the shutdown margin. It was observed that the analyzed parameters behave like those obtained in a standard BWR. The shutdown margin design criterion was fulfilled by addition of a burnable poison region in the assembly. In the third step an in-house code was developed to evaluate the thorium equilibrium core under transient conditions. A stability analysis was also performed. Regarding the stability analysis, five operational states were analyzed; four of them define the traditional instability region corner of the power-flow map and the fifth one is the operational state for the full power condition. The frequency and the boiling length were calculated for each operational state. The frequency of the analyzed operational states was similar to that reported for BWRs; these are close to the unstable region that occurs due to the density wave oscillation phenomena in some nuclear power plants. Four transient analyses were also performed: manual SCRAM, recirculation pumps trip, main steam isolation valves closure and loss of feed water. The results of these transients are similar to those obtained with the traditional UO2 nuclear fuel.

  9. The effects of orientation angle, subcooling, heat flux, mass flux, and pressure on bubble growth and detachment in subcooled flow boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugrue, Rosemary M

    2012-01-01

    The effects of orientation angle, subcooling, heat flux, mass flux, and pressure on bubble growth and detachment in subcooled flow boiling were studied using a high-speed video camera in conjunction with a two-phase flow ...

  10. Investigation of the pool boiling heat transfer enhancement of nano-engineered fluids by means of high-speed infrared thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerardi, Craig Douglas

    2009-01-01

    A high-speed video and infrared thermography based technique has been used to obtain detailed and fundamental time- and space-resolved information on pool boiling heat transfer. The work is enabled by recent advances in ...

  11. An investigation of the physical and numerical foundations of two-fluid representation of sodium boiling with applications to LMFBR experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    No, Hee Cheon

    1983-01-01

    This work involves the development of physical models for the constitutive relations of a two-fuid, three-dimensional sodium boiling code, THERMIT-6S. The code is equipped with a fluid conduction model, a fuel pin model, ...

  12. Experimental investigation on the flow instability behavior of a multi-channel boiling natural circulation loop at low-pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2010-09-15

    Natural circulation as a mode of heat removal is being considered as a prominent passive feature in the innovative nuclear reactor designs, particularly in boiling-water-reactors, due to its simplicity and economy. However, boiling natural circulation system poses many challenges to designer due to occurrence of various kinds of instabilities such as excursive instability, density wave oscillations, flow pattern transition instability, geysering and metastable states in parallel channels. This problem assumes greater significance particularly at low-pressures i.e. during startup, where there is great difference in the properties of two phases. In light of this, a parallel channel loop has been designed and installed that has a geometrical resemblance to the pressure-tube-type boiling-water-reactor, to investigate into the behavior of boiling natural circulation. The loop comprises of four identical parallel channels connected between two common plenums i.e. steam drum and header. The recirculation path is provided by a single downcomer connected between steam drum and header. Experiments have been conducted over a wide range of power and pressures (1-10 bar). Two distinct unstable zones are observed with respect to power i.e. corresponding to low power (Type-I) and high power (Type-II) with a stable zone at intermediate powers. The nature of oscillations in terms of their amplitude and frequency and their evolution for Type-I and Type-II instabilities are studied with respect to the effect of heater power and pressure. This paper discusses the evolution of unstable and stable behavior along with the nature of flow oscillation in the channels and the effect of pressure on it. (author)

  13. Study of plutonium disposition using existing GE advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the US to dispose of 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in a safe and proliferation resistant manner. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing permanent conversion and long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study ``Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium identified Light Water Reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a US disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a typical 1155 MWe GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. A companion study of the Advanced BWR has recently been submitted. The MOX core design work that was conducted for the ABWR enabled GE to apply comparable fuel design concepts and consequently achieve full MOX core loading which optimize plutonium throughput for existing BWRs.

  14. Many-Group Cross-Section Adjustment Techniques for Boiling Water Reactor Adaptive Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multigroup neutron cross sections, including self-shielding correction factors, to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) core modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multigroup neutron cross-section uncertainties through various BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k{sub eff}, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multigroup cross sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR core modeling predictions and observed (i.e., measured) plant data. For this paper, observed plant data are virtually simulated in the form of perturbed three-dimensional nodal power distributions with the perturbations sized to represent actual discrepancies between predictions and real plant data. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multigroup neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics and core simulator calculations. The data adjustment equations are developed using a subspace approach that exploits the ill-conditioning of the multigroup cross-section covariance matrix to minimize computation and storage burden. Tikhonov regularization is also employed to improve the conditioning of the data adjustment equations. Expressions are also provided for posterior covariance matrices of both the multigroup cross-section and core attributes uncertainties.

  15. Improvements of fuel failure detection in boiling water reactors using helium measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsson, I.; Sihver, L.; Grundin, A.; Helmersson, J. O.

    2012-07-01

    To certify a continuous and safe operation of a boiling water reactor, careful surveillance of fuel integrity is of high importance. The detection of fuel failures can be performed by off-line gamma spectroscopy of off-gas samples and/or by on-line nuclide specific monitoring of gamma emitting noble gases. To establish the location of a leaking fuel rod, power suppression testing can be used. The accuracy of power suppression testing is dependent on the information of the delay time and the spreading of the released fission gases through the systems before reaching the sampling point. This paper presents a method to improve the accuracy of power suppression testing by determining the delay time and gas spreading profile. To estimate the delay time and examine the spreading of the gas in case of a fuel failure, helium was injected in the feed water system at Forsmark 3 nuclear power plant. The measurements were performed by using a helium detector system based on a mass spectrometer installed in the off-gas system. The helium detection system and the results of the experiment are presented in this paper. (authors)

  16. Advanced fuel assembly characterization capabilities based on gamma tomography at the Halden boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcombe, S.; Eitrheim, K.; Svaerd, S. J.; Hallstadius, L.; Willman, C.

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of individual fuel rods using gamma spectroscopy is a standard part of the Post Irradiation Examinations performed on experimental fuel at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor. However, due to handling and radiological safety concerns, these measurements are presently carried out only at the end of life of the fuel, and not earlier than several days or weeks after its removal from the reactor core. In order to enhance the fuel characterization capabilities at the Halden facilities, a gamma tomography measurement system is now being constructed, capable of characterizing fuel assemblies on a rod-by-rod basis in a more timely and efficient manner. Gamma tomography for measuring nuclear fuel is based on gamma spectroscopy measurements and tomographic reconstruction techniques. The technique, previously demonstrated on irradiated commercial fuel assemblies, is capable of determining rod-by-rod information without the need to dismantle the fuel. The new gamma tomography system will be stationed close to the Halden reactor in order to limit the need for fuel transport, and it will significantly reduce the time required to perform fuel characterization measurements. Furthermore, it will allow rod-by-rod fuel characterization to occur between irradiation cycles, thus allowing for measurement of experimental fuel repeatedly during its irradiation lifetime. The development of the gamma tomography measurement system is a joint project between the Inst. for Energy Technology - OECD Halden Reactor Project, Westinghouse (Sweden), and Uppsala Univ.. (authors)

  17. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall; Susan, Donald Francis

    2005-01-01

    A severe fire and explosion occurred at a propane storage yard in Truth or Consequences, N.M., when a truck ran into the pumping and plumbing system beneath a large propane tank. The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A series of elevated-temperature stress-rupture tears developed along the top of a 9800 L (2600 gal) truck-mounted tank as it was heated by the fire. Unstable fracture then occurred suddenly along the length of the tank and around both end caps, along the girth welds connecting the end caps to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on metallography of the tank pieces, the approximate tank temperature at the onset of the BLEVE was determined. Metallurgical analysis of the ruptured tank also permitted several hypotheses regarding BLEVE mechanisms to be evaluated. Suggestions are made for additional work that could provide improved predictive capabilities regarding BLEVEs and for methods to decrease the susceptibility of propane tanks to BLEVEs.

  18. Evaluation of a severe accident management strategy for boiling water reactors -- Drywell flooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, D.; Xing, L.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    Flooding of the drywell has been suggested as a strategy to prevent reactor vessel and containment failure in boiling water reactors. To evaluate the candidate strategy, this study considers accident management as a decision problem ( drywell flooding'' versus do nothing'') and develops a decision-oriented framework, namely, the influence diagram approach. This analysis chooses the long-term station blackout sequence for a Mark 1 nuclear power plant (Peach Bottom), and an influence diagram with a single decision node is constructed. The node probabilities in the influence diagram are obtained from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reports or estimated by probabilistic risk assessment methodology. In assessing potential benefits compared with adverse effects, this analysis uses two consequence measures, i.e., early and late fatalities, as decision criteria. The analysis concludes that even though potential adverse effects exist, such as ex-vessel steam explosions and containment isolation failure, the drywell flooding strategy is preferred to do nothing'' when evaluated in terms of these consequence measures.

  19. Enhancement of Heat Transfer with Pool and Spray Impingement Boiling on Microporous and Nanowire Surface Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiagarajan, S. J.; Wang, W.; Yang, R.; Narumanchi, S.; King, C.

    2010-09-01

    The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is leading a national effort to develop next-generation cooling technologies for hybrid vehicle electronics. The goal is to reduce the size, weight, and cost of power electronic modules that convert direct current from batteries to alternating current for the motor, and vice versa. Aggressive thermal management techniques help to increase power density and reduce weight and volume, while keeping chip temperatures within acceptable limits. The viability of aggressive cooling schemes such as spray and jet impingement in conjunction with enhanced surfaces is being explored. Here, we present results from a series of experiments with pool and spray boiling on enhanced surfaces, such as a microporous layer of copper and copper nanowires, using HFE-7100 as the working fluid. Spray impingement on the microporous coated surface showed an enhancement of 100%-300% in the heat transfer coefficient at a given wall superheat with respect to spray impingement on a plain surface under similar operating conditions. Critical heat flux also increased by 7%-20%, depending on flow rates.

  20. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

  1. Heat removal characteristics of volume heated boiling pools with inclined boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, G.A.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Schwarz, C.E.; Abuaf, N.

    1980-04-01

    The state-of-the-art of heat transfer from boiling liquids having internal heat generation is reviewed. Considerable scatter is found in the existing data. Attempts to correlate these data have relied on both natural and forced convection concepts. This report describes a new series of experiments wherein the data scatter appears to have been improved by a factor of four to six from previous experiments when compared on the basis of standard deviation in correlation coefficients. Local heat transfer data to both vertical and inclined surfaces (up to 30/sup 0/ from vertical) are reported having maximum to minimum heat transfer ratios of up to 5:1. It is shown that with surface vapor fluxes up to twice the free bubble rise velocities given by Harmathy there are two distinct flow regimes: bubbly and churn-turbulent. In bubble flows, the pool is generally quiescent and surface temperature fluctuations negligible. In churn-turbulent flows, the pool is generally chaotic and three dimensional. The surface temperatures showed large fluctuations up to the maximum pool-to-wall difference indicating intermittent destruction and renewal of boundary layer. Heat transfer coefficients were more uniform, and the maximum was observed to be in the range .25-.30 cal/cm/sup 2/ s /sup 0/C. 26 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Study of plutonium disposition using the GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-04-30

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the U.S. to disposition 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in parallel with a similar program in Russia. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} identified light water reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a U.S. disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a 1350 MWe GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. The ABWR represents the integration of over 30 years of experience gained worldwide in the design, construction and operation of BWRs. It incorporates advanced features to enhance reliability and safety, minimize waste and reduce worker exposure. For example, the core is never uncovered nor is any operator action required for 72 hours after any design basis accident. Phase 1 of this study was documented in a GE report dated May 13, 1993. DOE`s Phase 1 evaluations cited the ABWR as a proven technical approach for the disposition of plutonium. This Phase 2 study addresses specific areas which the DOE authorized as appropriate for more in-depth evaluations. A separate report addresses the findings relative to the use of existing BWRs to achieve the same goal.

  3. Stress and Fracture Mechanics Analyses of Boiling Water Reactor and Pressurized Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Shengjun; Bass, Bennett Richard; Stevens, Gary; Kirk, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes stress analysis and fracture mechanics work performed to assess boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) nozzles located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Various RPV nozzle geometries were investigated: 1. BWR recirculation outlet nozzle; 2. BWR core spray nozzle3 3. PWR inlet nozzle; ; 4. PWR outlet nozzle; and 5. BWR partial penetration instrument nozzle. The above nozzle designs were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-license (EOL) to require evaluation as part of establishing the allowed limits on heatup, cooldown, and hydrotest (leak test) conditions. These nozzles analyzed represent one each of the nozzle types potentially requiring evaluation. The purpose of the analyses performed on these nozzle designs was as follows: To model and understand differences in pressure and thermal stress results using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) versus a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for all nozzle types. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated; To verify the accuracy of a selected linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solution for stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for both thermal and pressure loading for all nozzle types; To assess the significance of attached piping loads on the stresses in the nozzle corner region; and To assess the significance of applying pressure on the crack face with respect to the stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack.

  4. Effect of rolling motion on critical heat flux for subcooled flow boiling in vertical tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J. S.; Park, I. U.; Park, M. Y.; Park, G. C.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents defining characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of R-134a in vertical tube operation under rolling motion in marine reactor. It is important to predict CHF of marine reactor having the rolling motion in order to increase the safety of the reactor. Marine Reactor Moving Simulator (MARMS) tests are conducted to measure the critical heat flux using R-134a flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical tube under rolling motion. MARMS was rotated by motor and mechanical power transmission gear. The CHF tests were performed in a 9.5 mm I.D. test section with heated length of 1 m. Mass fluxes range from 285 to 1300 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1}, inlet subcooling from 3 to 38 deg. C and outlet pressures from 13 to 24 bar. Amplitudes of rolling range from 15 to 40 degrees and periods from 6 to 12 sec. To convert the test conditions of CHF test using R-134a in water, Katto's fluid-to-fluid modeling was used in present investigation. A CHF correlation is presented which accounts for the effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling and rolling angle over all conditions tested. Unlike existing transient CHF experiments, CHF ratio of certain mass flux and pressure are different in rolling motion. For the mass fluxes below 500 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1} at 13, 16 (region of relative low mass flux), CHF ratio was decreased but was increased above that mass flux (region of relative high mass flux). Moreover, CHF tend to enhance in entire mass flux at 24 bar. (authors)

  5. MODULAR AND FULL SIZE SIMPLIFIED BOILING WATER REACTOR DESIGN WITH FULLY PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ishii; S. T. Revankar; T. Downar; Y. Xu, H. J. Yoon; D. Tinkler; U. S. Rohatgi

    2003-06-16

    OAK B204 The overall goal of this three-year research project was to develop a new scientific design of a compact modular 200 MWe and a full size 1200 MWe simplified boiling water reactors (SBWR). Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to perform scientific designs of the core neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics for a small capacity and full size simplified boiling water reactor, (2) to develop a passive safety system design, (3) improve and validate safety analysis code, (4) demonstrate experimentally and analytically all design functions of the safety systems for the design basis accidents (DBA) and (5) to develop the final scientific design of both SBWR systems, 200 MWe (SBWR-200) and 1200 MWe (SBWR-1200). The SBWR combines the advantages of design simplicity and completely passive safety systems. These advantages fit well within the objectives of NERI and the Department of Energy's focus on the development of Generation III and IV nuclear power. The 3-year research program was structured around seven tasks. Task 1 was to perform the preliminary thermal-hydraulic design. Task 2 was to perform the core neutronic design analysis. Task 3 was to perform a detailed scaling study and obtain corresponding PUMA conditions from an integral test. Task 4 was to perform integral tests and code evaluation for the DBA. Task 5 was to perform a safety analysis for the DBA. Task 6 was to perform a BWR stability analysis. Task 7 was to perform a final scientific design of the compact modular SBWR-200 and the full size SBWR-1200. A no cost extension for the third year was requested and the request was granted and all the project tasks were completed by April 2003. The design activities in tasks 1, 2, and 3 were completed as planned. The existing thermal-hydraulic information, core physics, and fuel lattice information was collected on the existing design of the simplified boiling water reactor. The thermal-hydraulic design were developed. Based on a detailed integral system scaling analysis, design parameters were obtained and designs of the compact modular 200 MWe SBWR and the full size 1200 MWe SBWR were developed. These reactors are provided with passive safety systems. A new passive vacuum breaker check valve was designed to replace the mechanical vacuum beaker check valve. The new vacuum breaker check valve was based on a hydrostatic head, and was fail safe. The performance of this new valve was evaluated both by the thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5 and by the experiments in a scaled SBWR facility, PUMA. In the core neutronic design a core depletion model was implemented to PARCS code. A lattice design for the SBWR fuel assemblies was performed. Design improvements were made to the neutronics/thermal-hydraulics models of SBWR-200 and SBWR-1200, and design analyses of these reactors were performed. The design base accident analysis and evaluation of all the passive safety systems were completed as scheduled in tasks 4 and 5. Initial conditions for the small break loss of coolant accidents (LOCA) and large break LOCA using REALP5 code were obtained. Small and large break LOCA tests were performed and the data was analyzed. An anticipated transient with scram was simulated using the RELAP5 code for SBWR-200. The transient considered was an accidental closure of the main steam isolation valve (MSIV), which was considered to be the most significant transient. The evaluation of the RELAP5 code against experimental data for SBWR-1200 was completed. In task 6, the instability analysis for the three SBWR designs (SBWR-1200, SBWR-600 and SBWR-200) were simulated for start-up transients and the results were similar. Neither the geysering instability, nor the loop type instability was predicted by RAMONA-4B in the startup simulation following the recommended procedure by GE. The density wave oscillation was not observed at all because the power level used in the simulation was not high enough. A study was made of the potential instabilities by imposing an unrealistically high power ramp in a short time period, as suggested by GE. RAMON

  6. Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Coolant Concentration on Sub-Cooled Boiling and Crud Deposition on Reactor Cladding at Prototypical PWR Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultis, J., Kenneth; Fenton, Donald, L.

    2006-10-20

    Increasing demand for energy necessitates nuclear power units to increase power limits. This implies significant changes in the design of the core of the nuclear power units, therefore providing better performance and safety in operations. A major hindrance to the increase of nuclear reactor performance especially in Pressurized Deionized water Reactors (PWR) is Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA)--the unexpected change in the core axial power distribution during operation from the predicted distribution. This problem is thought to be occur because of precipitation and deposition of lithiated compounds like boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) and lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) on the fuel rod cladding. Deposited boron absorbs neutrons thereby affecting the total power distribution inside the reactor. AOA is thought to occur when there is sufficient build-up of crud deposits on the cladding during subcooled nucleate boiling. Predicting AOA is difficult as there is very little information regarding the heat and mass transfer during subcooled nucleate boiling. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the heat transfer characteristics during subcooled nucleate boiling at prototypical PWR conditions. Pool boiling tests were conducted with varying concentrations of lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) and boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) solutions in deionized water. The experimental data collected includes the effect of coolant concentration, subcooling, system pressure and heat flux on pool the boiling heat transfer coefficient. The analysis of particulate deposits formed on the fuel cladding surface during subcooled nucleate boiling was also performed. The results indicate that the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient degrades in the presence of boric acid and lithium metaborate compared to pure deionized water due to lesser nucleation. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients decreased by about 24% for 5000 ppm concentrated boric acid solution and by 27% for 5000 ppm lithium metaborate solution respectively at the saturation temperature for 1000 psi (68.9 bar) coolant pressure. Boiling tests also revealed the formation of fine deposits of boron and lithium on the cladding surface which degraded the heat transfer rates. The boron and lithium metaborate precipitates after a 5 day test at 5000 ppm concentration and 1000 psi (68.9 bar) operating pressure reduced the heat transfer rate 21% and 30%, respectively for the two solutions.

  7. Validation and Calibration of Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics Multiscale Multiphysics Models - Subcooled Flow Boiling Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anh Bui; Nam Dinh; Brian Williams

    2013-09-01

    In addition to validation data plan, development of advanced techniques for calibration and validation of complex multiscale, multiphysics nuclear reactor simulation codes are a main objective of the CASL VUQ plan. Advanced modeling of LWR systems normally involves a range of physico-chemical models describing multiple interacting phenomena, such as thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, coolant chemistry, etc., which occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. To a large extent, the accuracy of (and uncertainty in) overall model predictions is determined by the correctness of various sub-models, which are not conservation-laws based, but empirically derived from measurement data. Such sub-models normally require extensive calibration before the models can be applied to analysis of real reactor problems. This work demonstrates a case study of calibration of a common model of subcooled flow boiling, which is an important multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon in LWR thermal hydraulics. The calibration process is based on a new strategy of model-data integration, in which, all sub-models are simultaneously analyzed and calibrated using multiple sets of data of different types. Specifically, both data on large-scale distributions of void fraction and fluid temperature and data on small-scale physics of wall evaporation were simultaneously used in this work’s calibration. In a departure from traditional (or common-sense) practice of tuning/calibrating complex models, a modern calibration technique based on statistical modeling and Bayesian inference was employed, which allowed simultaneous calibration of multiple sub-models (and related parameters) using different datasets. Quality of data (relevancy, scalability, and uncertainty) could be taken into consideration in the calibration process. This work presents a step forward in the development and realization of the “CIPS Validation Data Plan” at the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs to enable quantitative assessment of the CASL modeling of Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) phenomenon, in particular, and the CASL advanced predictive capabilities, in general. This report is prepared for the Department of Energy’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs program’s VUQ Focus Area.

  8. Application of the Isotope Ratio Method to a Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, Douglas P.; Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Meriwether, George H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2010-08-11

    The isotope ratio method is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods. All reactor materials contain trace elemental impurities at parts per million levels, and the isotopes of these elements are transmuted by neutron irradiation in a predictable manner. While measuring the change in a particular isotope’s concentration is possible, it is difficult to correlate to energy production because the initial concentration of that element may not be accurately known. However, if the ratio of two isotopes of the same element can be measured, the energy production can then be determined without knowing the absolute concentration of that impurity since the initial natural ratio is known. This is the fundamental principle underlying the isotope ratio method. Extremely sensitive mass-spectrometric methods are currently available that allow accurate measurements of the impurity isotope ratios in samples. Additionally, “indicator” elements with stable activation products have been identified so that their post-irradiation isotope ratios remain constant. This method has been successfully demonstrated on graphite-moderated reactors. Graphite reactors are particularly well-suited to such analyses since the graphite moderator is resident in the fueled region of the core for the entire period of operation. Applying this method to other reactor types is more difficult since the resident portions of the reactor available for sampling are either outside the fueled region of the core or structural components of individual fuel assemblies. The goal of this research is to show that the isotope ratio method can produce meaningful results for light water-moderated power reactors. In this work, we use the isotope ratio method to estimate the energy production in a boiling water reactor fuel bundle based on measurements taken from the corresponding fuel assembly channel. Our preliminary results are in good agreement with the actual operating history of the reactor during the cycle that the fuel bundle was resident in the core.

  9. Comparing Simulation Results with Traditional PRA Model on a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhegang Ma; Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    A previous study used RELAP and RAVEN to conduct a boiling water reactor station black-out (SBO) case study in a simulation based environment to show the capabilities of the risk-informed safety margin characterization methodology. This report compares the RELAP/RAVEN simulation results with traditional PRA model results. The RELAP/RAVEN simulation run results were reviewed for their input parameters and output results. The input parameters for each simulation run include various timing information such as diesel generator or offsite power recovery time, Safety Relief Valve stuck open time, High Pressure Core Injection or Reactor Core Isolation Cooling fail to run time, extended core cooling operation time, depressurization delay time, and firewater injection time. The output results include the maximum fuel clad temperature, the outcome, and the simulation end time. A traditional SBO PRA model in this report contains four event trees that are linked together with the transferring feature in SAPHIRE software. Unlike the usual Level 1 PRA quantification process in which only core damage sequences are quantified, this report quantifies all SBO sequences, whether they are core damage sequences or success (i.e., non core damage) sequences, in order to provide a full comparison with the simulation results. Three different approaches were used to solve event tree top events and quantify the SBO sequences: “W” process flag, default process flag without proper adjustment, and default process flag with adjustment to account for the success branch probabilities. Without post-processing, the first two approaches yield incorrect results with a total conditional probability greater than 1.0. The last approach accounts for the success branch probabilities and provides correct conditional sequence probabilities that are to be used for comparison. To better compare the results from the PRA model and the simulation runs, a simplified SBO event tree was developed with only four top events and eighteen SBO sequences (versus fifty-four SBO sequences in the original SBO model). The estimated SBO sequence conditional probabilities from the original SBO model were integrated to the corresponding sequences in the simplified SBO event tree. These results were then compared with the simulation run results.

  10. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 1: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

  11. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the advanced boiling water reactor design. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) documents the technical review of the US Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the ABWR design was initially submitted by the General Electric Company, now GE Nuclear Energy (GE), in accordance with the procedures of Appendix O of Part 50 of Title 10 of the code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50). Later GE requested that its application be considered as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. The ABWR is a single-cycle, forced-circulation, boiling water reactor (BWR) with a rated power of 3,926 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 4,005 MWt. To the extent feasible and appropriate, the staff relied on earlier reviews for those ABWR design features that are substantially the same as those previously considered. Unique features of the ABWR design include internal recirculation pumps, fine-motion control rod drives, microprocessor-based digital logic and control systems, and digital safety systems. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that, subject to satisfactory resolution of the confirmatory items identified in Section 1.8 of this SER, GE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the US ABWR standard design.

  12. Foreign Competition- The Great Debate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foveaux, M. T.

    1985-01-01

    . . , The strain of import competition is show ng up in refined petroleum products. Imports of gaso line totalled 107 million barrels in 1984. Inde pendent refiners joined by two oil companie have requested the government to impose quota A related problem may... to the gasoline arket as gasoline blendstock where it is causing rouble for domestic refiners. They want the usua~ Naph tha duty rate, when the Naptha is used in gasn line, of one and a quarter cents per gall n ap plied. Countries exporting Naphtha to th U...

  13. Dispersed-flow film boiling in rod-bundle geometry: steady-state heat-transfer data and correlation comparisons. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, G. L.; Morris, D. G.; Mullins, C. B.; Ott, L. J.; Reed, D. A.

    1982-03-01

    Assessment of six film boiling correlations and one single-phase vapor correlation has been made using data from 22 steady state upflow rod bundle tests (series 3.07.9). Bundle fluid conditions were calculated using energy and mass conservation considerations. Results of the steady state film boiling tests support the conclusions reached in the analysis of prior transient tests 3.03.6AR, 3.06.6B, and 3.08.6C. Comparisons between experimentally determined and correlation-predicted heat transfer coefficients, are presented.

  14. 0-7803-XXXX-X/06/$20.00 2009 IEEE 25th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium Sub-Atmospheric Pressure Pool Boiling of Water on a Screen-Laminate Enhanced Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Richard A.

    structures having wide ranging porosity and pore size. When deployed as a surface enhancement in a boiling pool-boiling experiments at one atmosphere and sub-atmospheric pressure assess the utility of fine factor of lamination [dimensionless] CHF = critical heat flux [W/cm2 ] Dh = pore hydraulic diameter [µm

  15. Modeling and Thermal Performance Evaluation of Porous Curd Layers in Sub-Cooled Boiling Region of PWRs and Effects of Sub-Cooled Nucleate Boiling on Anomalous Porous Crud Deposition on Fuel Pin Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barclay Jones

    2005-06-27

    A significant number of current PWRs around the world are experiencing anomalous crud deposition in the sub-cooled region of the core, resulting in an axial power shift or Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA), a condition that continues to elude prediction of occurrence and thermal/neutronic performance. This creates an operational difficulty of not being able to accurately determine power safety margin. In some cases this condition has required power ''down rating'' by as much as thirty percent and the concomitant considerable loss of revenue for the utility. This study examines two aspects of the issue: thermal performance of crud layer and effect of sub-cooled nucleate boiling on the solute concentration and its influence on initiation of crud deposition/formation on fuel pin surface.

  16. Flow boiling enhancement on a horizontal heater using carbon nanotube coatings N. Singh, V. Sathyamurthy, W. Peterson, J. Arendt, D. Banerjee *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    , College Station, TX 77843, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 2 August 2008) Chemical vapor deposition Multi phase flows a b s t r a c t In this study we measure the flow boiling heat). In addition, reducing the hydraulic diameter (Dh) can enhance the heat transfer coefficient (h) in single

  17. Study of Pu consumption in advanced light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants - compilation of Phase 1B task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-09-15

    This report contains an extensive evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants prepared for United State Department of Energy. The general areas covered in this report are: core and system performance; fuel cycle; infrastructure and deployment; and safety and environmental approval.

  18. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  19. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-07-08

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to : 1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, 2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and 3) develop mathematical model and ehat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal- hydraulic codes assessment.

  20. Summary and bibliography of safety-related events at boiling-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormack, K.E.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1982-03-01

    This document presents a bibliography that contains 100-word abstracts of event reports submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at boiling-water-reactor nuclear power plants in 1980. The 1547 abstracts included on microfiche in this bibliography describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies that were experienced at the facilities. These abstracts are arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor. Full-size keyword and permuted-title indexes to facilitate location of individual abstracts are provided following the text. Tables that summarize the information contained in the bibliography are also provided. The information in the tables includes a listing of the equipment items involved in the reported events and the associated number of reports for each item. Similar information is given for the various kinds of instrumentation and systems, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction).

  1. Steam Line Break and Station Blackout Transients for Proliferation-Resistant Hexagonal Tight Lattice Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Upendra S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Jo, Jae H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Chung, Bub Dong [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Takahashi, Hiroshi [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Downar, Thomas J. [Purdue University (United States)

    2004-01-15

    Safety analyses of a proliferation-resistant, economically competitive, high-conversion boiling water reactor (HCBWR) fueled with fissile plutonium and fertile thorium oxide fuel elements, and with passive safety systems, are presented here. The HCBWR developed here is characterized by a very tight lattice with a relatively small water volume fraction in the core that therefore operates with a fast reactor neutron spectrum and a considerably improved neutron economy compared to the current generation of light water reactors. The tight lattice core has a very narrow flow channel with a hydraulic diameter less than half of the regular boiling water reactor (BWR) core and, thus, presents a special challenge to core cooling because of reduced water inventory and high friction in the core. The primary safety concern when reducing the moderator-to-fuel ratio and when using a tightly packed lattice arrangement is to maintain adequate cooling of the core during both normal operation and accident scenarios.In the preliminary HCBWR design, the core is placed in a vessel with a large chimney section, and the vessel is connected to the isolation condenser system (ICS). The vessel is placed in containment with the gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) and passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in a configuration similar to General Electric's simplified BWR (SBWR). The safety systems are similar to those of the SBWR; the ICS and PCCS are scaled with power. An internal recirculation pump is placed in the downcomer to augment the buoyancy head provided by the chimney since the buoyancy provided by the chimney alone could not generate sufficient recirculation in the vessel as the tight lattice configuration results in much larger friction in the core than with the SBWR.The constitutive relationships for RELAP5 are assessed for narrow channels, and as a result the heat transfer package is modified. The modified RELAP5 is used to simulate and analyze two of the most limiting events for a tight pitch lattice core: the station blackout and the main-steam-line-break events. The results of the analyses indicate that the HCBWR system will be safely brought to the shutdown condition for these transients.

  2. Explosive boiling of Ge{sub 35}Sb{sub 10}S{sub 55} glass induced by a CW laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knotek, P.; Tichy, L.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Interaction of the CW 785 nm laser with chalcogenide GeSbS glass. • First demonstration of the explosive boiling induced by CW laser in glass. • Different processes as photo-induced oxidation, expansion, and viscosity-flow observed. • Applied diagnostics SEM, DHM, AFM, force spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. • Damage threshold determined at 1.2 × 10{sup 24}s{sup ?1} cm{sup ?3} of absorbed photons. - Abstract: The response of bulk Ge{sub 35}Sb{sub 10}S{sub 55} glass to illumination by a continuous wave (CW) laser, sub-band-gap photons, was studied specifically with an atomic force microscopy including a force spectroscopy, with a digital holographic microscopy and with a scanning electron microscopy. Depending on the number of photons absorbed, photo-expansion, photo-oxidation and explosive boiling were observed.

  3. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 1. Main report. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE.

  4. Simulation of in-core neutron noise measurements for axial void profile reconstruction in boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykin, V.; Pazsit, I.

    2012-07-01

    A possibility to reconstruct the axial void profile from the simulated in-core neutron noise which is caused by density fluctuations in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) heated channel is considered. For this purpose, a self-contained model of the two-phase flow regime is constructed which has quantitatively and qualitatively similar properties to those observed in real BWRs. The model is subsequently used to simulate the signals of neutron detectors induced by the corresponding perturbations in the flow density. The bubbles are generated randomly in both space and time using Monte-Carlo techniques. The axial distribution of the bubble production is chosen such that the mean axial void fraction and void velocity follow the actual values of BWRs. The induced neutron noise signals are calculated and then processed by the standard signal analysis methods such as Auto-Power Spectral Density (APSD) and Cross-Power Spectral Density (CPSD). Two methods for axial void and velocity profiles reconstruction are discussed: the first one is based on the change of the break frequency of the neutron auto-power spectrum with axial core elevation, while the second refers to the estimation of transit times of propagating steam fluctuations between different axial detector positions. This paper summarizes the principles of the model and presents a numerical testing of the qualitative applicability to estimate the required parameters for the reconstruction of the void fraction profile from the neutron noise measurements. (authors)

  5. Preliminary design study of small long life boiling water reactor (BWR) with tight lattice thorium nitride fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trianti, Nuri E-mail: szaki@fi.itba.c.id; Su'ud, Zaki E-mail: szaki@fi.itba.c.id; Arif, Idam E-mail: szaki@fi.itba.c.id; Riyana, EkaSapta

    2014-09-30

    Neutronic performance of small long-life boiling water reactors (BWR) with thorium nitride based fuel has been performed. A recent study conducted on BWR in tight lattice environments (with a lower moderator percentage) produces small power reactor which has some specifications, i.e. 10 years operation time, power density of 19.1 watt/cc and maximum excess reactivity of about 4%. This excess reactivity value is smaller than standard reactivity of conventional BWR. The use of hexagonal geometry on the fuel cell of BWR provides a substantial effect on the criticality of the reactor to obtain a longer operating time. Supported by a tight concept lattice where the volume fraction of the fuel is greater than the moderator and fuel, Thorium Nitride give good results for fuel cell design on small long life BWR. The excess reactivity of the reactor can be reduced with the addition of gadolinium as burnable poisons. Therefore the hexagonal tight lattice fuel cell design of small long life BWR that has a criticality more than 20 years of operating time has been obtained.

  6. Boiling water reactor fuel behavior at burnup of 26 GWd/tonne U under reactivity-initiated accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio . Dept. of Reactor Safety Research); Sobajima, Makoto ); Ishijima, Kiyomi; Fujishiro, Toshio . Dept. of Reactor Safety Research)

    1994-10-01

    Irradiated boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel behavior under reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) conditions was investigated in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Short test fuel rods, refabricated from a commercial 7 x 7 type BWR fuel rod at a burnup of 26 GWd/ tonne U, were pulse irradiated in the NSRR under simulated cooled startup RIA conditions of the BWRs. Thermal energy from 230 J/g fuel (55 cal/g fuel) to 410 J/g fuel (98 cal/g fuel) was promptly subjected to the test fuel rods by pulse irradiation within [approximately] 10 ms. The peak fuel enthalpies are believed to be the same as the prompt energy depositions. The test fuel rods demonstrated characteristic behavior of the irradiated fuel rods under the accident conditions, such as enhanced pellet cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) and fission gas release. However, all the fuel rods survived the accident conditions with considerable margins. Simulations by the FRAP-T6 code and fresh fuel rod tests under the same RIA conditions highlighted the burnup effects on the accident fuel performance. The tests and the simulation suggested that the BWR fuel would possibly fail by a cladding burst due to fission gas release during the cladding temperature escalation rather than the PCMI under the cold startup RIA conditions of a severe power burst.

  7. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part I: Experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    Two-phase flow pattern and heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant-oil mixture flow boiling inside small tubes with inside diameters of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm are investigated experimentally. The test condition of nominal oil concentration is from 0% to 5%, mass flux from 200 to 400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, heat flux from 3.2 to 14 kW m{sup -2}, evaporation temperature of 5 C, inlet quality from 0.1 to 0.8, and quality change from 0.1 to 0.2. Wavy, wavy-annular, annular and mist-annular flow pattern in 6.34 mm tube are observed, while only slug-annular and annular flow pattern are observed in 2.50 mm tube. Oil presence can make annular flow to form early and to retard to diminish in quality direction at nominal oil concentration {>=}3%. Augmentation effect of oil on heat transfer coefficient becomes weakened or even diminishes for small diameter tube while detrimental effect of oil on small tube performance becomes more significant than large tube. For both test tubes, variation of heat transfer coefficient and enhanced factor with oil concentration is irregular. Two-phase heat transfer multiplier with refrigerant-oil mixture properties increases consistently and monotonically with local oil concentration at different vapor quality. (author)

  8. Study of Pu consumption in Advanced Light Water Reactors. Evaluation of GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    Timely disposal of the weapons plutonium is of paramount importance to permanently safeguarding this material. GE`s 1300 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) has been designed to utilize fill] core loading of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Because of its large core size, a single ABWR reactor is capable of disposing 100 metric tons of plutonium within 15 years of project inception in the spiking mode. The same amount of material could be disposed of in 25 years after the start of the project as spent fuel, again using a single reactor, while operating at 75 percent capacity factor. In either case, the design permits reuse of the stored spent fuel assemblies for electrical energy generation for the remaining life of the plant for another 40 years. Up to 40 percent of the initial plutonium can also be completely destroyed using ABWRS, without reprocessing, either by utilizing six ABWRs over 25 years or by expanding the disposition time to 60 years, the design life of the plants and using two ABWRS. More complete destruction would require the development and testing of a plutonium-base fuel with a non-fertile matrix for an ABWR or use of an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). The ABWR, in addition, is fully capable of meeting the tritium target production goals with already developed target technology.

  9. Dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoder, Graydon L.

    1980-01-01

    Dispersed flow consists of small liquid droplets entrained in a flowing vapor. This flow regime can occur in cryogenic equipment, in steam generators, and during nuclear reactor loss of coolant accidents. A theoretical ...

  10. Preliminary Feasibility, Design, and Hazard Analysis of a Boiling Water Test Loop Within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A Boiling Water Test Loop (BWTL) is being designed for one of the irradiation test positions within the. The objective of the new loop will be to simulate boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions to support clad corrosion and related reactor material testing. Further it will accommodate power ramping tests of candidate high burn-up fuels and fuel pins/rods for the commercial BWR utilities. The BWTL will be much like the pressurized water loops already in service in 5 of the 9 “flux traps” (region of enhanced neutron flux) in the ATR. The loop coolant will be isolated from the primary coolant system so that the loop’s temperature, pressure, flow rate, and water chemistry can be independently controlled. This paper presents the proposed general design of the in-core and auxiliary BWTL systems; the preliminary results of the neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses; and the preliminary hazard analysis for safe normal and transient BWTL and ATR operation.

  11. Advanced nuclear reactor safety analysis: the simulation of a small break loss of coolant accident in the simplified boiling water reactor using RELAP5/MOD3.1.1 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faust, Christophor Randall

    1995-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic simulation code RELAP5/MOD3.1.1 was utilized to model General Electric's Simplified Boiling Water Reactor plant. The model of the plant was subjected to a small break loss of coolant accident occurring from a guillotine shear...

  12. Boiling Water Reactor Fuel Behavior Under Reactivity-Initiated-Accident Conditions at Burnup of 41 to 45 GWd/tonne U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Takehiko; Yoshinaga, Makio; Takahashi, Masato; Okonogi, Kazunari; Ishijima, Kiyomi

    2000-02-15

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel at burnup of 41 to 45 GWd/tonne U was pulse irradiated in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) to investigate fuel behavior under cold startup reactivity-initiated-accident conditions. Current Japanese BWR fuel, 8 x 8BJ type (Step I), from Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3 was refabricated into short segments, and the test rods were promptly subjected to thermal energy from 293 to 607 J/g (70 to 145 cal/g) within {approx}20 ms. The fuel cladding was ductile enough to survive the prompt deformation due to pellet cladding mechanical interaction, while the plastic hoop strain reached 1.5% at the peak location. Transient fission gas release by the pulse irradiation varied from 3.1 to 8.2%, depending on the peak fuel enthalpy and the steady-state operation conditions.

  13. Neutronic evaluation of a non-fertile fuel for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in a boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterbentz, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    A new non-fertile, weapons-grade plutonium oxide fuel concept is developed and evaluated for deep burn applications in a boiling water reactor environment using the General Electric 8x8 Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) fuel assembly dimensions and pitch. Detailed infinite lattice fuel burnup results and neutronic performance characteristics are given and although preliminary in nature, clearly demonstrate the fuel`s potential as an effective means to expedite the disposition of plutonium in existing light water reactors. The new non-fertile fuel concept is an all oxide composition containing plutonia, zirconia, calcia, and erbia having the following design weight percentages: 8.3; 80.4; 9.7; and 1.6. This fuel composition in an infinite fuel lattice operating at linear heat generation rates of 6.0 or 12.0 kW/ft per rod can remain critical for up to 1,200 and 600 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD), respectively, and achieve a burnup of 7.45 {times} 10{sup 20} f/cc. These burnups correspond to a 71--73% total plutonium isotope destruction and a 91--94% destruction of the {sup 239}Pu isotope for the 0--40% moderator steam void condition. Total plutonium destruction greater than 73% is possible with a fuel management scheme that allows subcritical fuel assemblies to be driven by adjacent high reactivity assemblies. The fuel exhibits very favorable neutron characteristics from beginning-of-life (BOL) to end-of-life (EOL). Prompt fuel Doppler coefficient of reactivity are negative, with values ranging between {minus}0.4 to {minus}2.0 pcm/K over the temperature range of 900 to 2,200 K. The ABWR fuel lattice remains in an undermoderated condition for both hot operational and cold startup conditions over the entire fuel burnup lifetime.

  14. Two-dimensional DORT discrete ordinates X-Y geometry neutron flux calculations for the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, C.O.

    1990-07-01

    Results are reported for two-dimensional discrete ordinates, X-Y geometry calculations performed for seven Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations. The calculations were performed in support of an effort to reassess the neutron fluence received by the reactor vessel. Nickel foil measurement data indicated considerable underprediction of fluences by the previously used multigroup removal- diffusion method. Therefore, calculations by a more accurate method were deemed appropriate. For each core configuration, data are presented for (1) integral fluxes in the core and near the vessel wall, (2) neutron spectra at selected locations, (3) isoflux contours superimposed on the geometry models, (4) plots of the geometry models, and (5) input for the calculations. The initial calculations were performed with several mesh sizes. Comparisons of the results from these calculations indicated that the uncertainty in the calculated fluxes should be less than 10%. However, three-dimensional effects (such as axial asymmetry in the fuel loading) could contribute to much greater uncertainty in the calculated neutron fluxes. 7 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Support and Modeling for the Boiling Water Reactor Station Black Out Case Study Using RELAP and RAVEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith; Thomas Riley; John Schroeder; Cristian Rabiti; Aldrea Alfonsi; Joe Nielsen; Dan Maljovec; Bie Wang; Valerio Pascucci

    2013-09-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated. In order to evaluate the impact of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) project aims to provide insight to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This report focuses, in particular, on the impact of power uprate on the safety of a boiled water reactor system. The case study considered is a loss of off-site power followed by the loss of diesel generators, i.e., a station black out (SBO) event. Analysis is performed by using a thermo-hydraulic code, i.e. RELAP-5, and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at INL, i.e. RAVEN. Starting from the event tree models contained in SAPHIRE, we built the input file for RELAP-5 that models in great detail system dynamics under SBO conditions. We also interfaced RAVEN with RELAP-5 so that it would be possible to run multiple RELAP-5 simulation runs by changing specific keywords of the input file. We both employed classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. We also employed advanced data analysis and visualization tools that helped us to correlate simulation outcome such as maximum core temperature with a set of input uncertain parameters. Results obtained gave a detailed overview of the issues associated to power uprate for a SBO accident scenario. We were able to quantify how timing of safety related events were impacted by a higher reactor core power. Such insights can provide useful material to the decision makers to perform risk-infomed safety margins management.

  16. TH-A-9A-04: Incorporating Liver Functionality in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, V; Epelman, M; Feng, M; Cao, Y; Wang, H; Romeijn, E; Matuszak, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Liver SBRT patients have both variable pretreatment liver function (e.g., due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatments) and sensitivity to radiation, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work aims to explicitly incorporate liver perfusion into treatment planning to redistribute dose to preserve well-functioning areas without compromising target coverage. Methods: Voxel-based liver perfusion, a measure of functionality, was computed from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Two optimization models with different cost functions subject to the same dose constraints (e.g., minimum target EUD and maximum critical structure EUDs) were compared. The cost functions minimized were EUD (standard model) and functionality-weighted EUD (functional model) to the liver. The resulting treatment plans delivering the same target EUD were compared with respect to their DVHs, their dose wash difference, the average dose delivered to voxels of a particular perfusion level, and change in number of high-/low-functioning voxels receiving a particular dose. Two-dimensional synthetic and three-dimensional clinical examples were studied. Results: The DVHs of all structures of plans from each model were comparable. In contrast, in plans obtained with the functional model, the average dose delivered to high-/low-functioning voxels was lower/higher than in plans obtained with its standard counterpart. The number of high-/low-functioning voxels receiving high/low dose was lower in the plans that considered perfusion in the cost function than in the plans that did not. Redistribution of dose can be observed in the dose wash differences. Conclusion: Liver perfusion can be used during treatment planning potentially to minimize the risk of toxicity during liver SBRT, resulting in better global liver function. The functional model redistributes dose in the standard model from higher to lower functioning voxels, while achieving the same target EUD and satisfying dose limits to critical structures. This project is funded by MCubed and grant R01-CA132834.

  17. > THA11P002 < 1 Abstract--The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This persistent mode, floating coil (F-coil) consists of a Nb3Sn magnet installed inside a high-pressure vessel- lead composite radiation shield and by a toroidal vacuum shell. The built-in tube heat exchanger serves is interrupted, the heat exchanger is pumped out, retractable lines are disengaged from F-coil ports, the ports

  18. ThA5-3 10:40 Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Coast-Islandof Hawai'i, Hawai'i, USA August 22-27, 1999 Improving Turbocharged Diesel Engine Operation with Turbo Power a turbocharger power assist system, con- sisting, for example, of an electric motor and a bat- tery, is coupled to the turbocharger shaft. The method of investigation relies on formulating and solving nu- merically an appropriate

  19. Solar prominences: 'double, double ... boil and bubble'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppens, Rony

    2015-01-01

    Observations revealed rich dynamics within prominences, the cool 10,000 K, macroscopic (sizes of order 100 Mm) "clouds" in the million degree solar corona. Even quiescent prominences are continuously perturbed by hot, rising bubbles. Since prominence matter is hundredfold denser than coronal plasma, this bubbling is related to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Here we report on true macroscopic simulations well into this bubbling phase, adopting a magnetohydrodynamic description from chromospheric layers up to 30 Mm height. Our virtual prominences rapidly establish fully non-linear (magneto)convective motions where hot bubbles interplay with falling pillars, with dynamical details including upwelling pillars forming within bubbles. Our simulations show impacting Rayleigh-Taylor fingers reflecting on transition region plasma, ensuring that cool, dense chromospheric material gets mixed with prominence matter up to very large heights. This offers an explanation for the return mass cycle mystery for prominence mater...

  20. Self-Sustaining Thorium Boiling Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Gorman, Phillip M.; Bogetic, Sandra; Seifried, Jeffrey E.; Zhang, Guanheng; Varela, Christopher R.; Fratoni, Massimiliano; Vijic, Jasmina J.; Downar, Thomas; Hall, Andrew; Ward, Andrew; Jarrett, Michael; Wysocki, Aaron; Xu, Yunlin; Kazimi, Mujid; Shirvan, Koroush; Mieloszyk, Alexander; Todosow, Michael; Brown, Nicolas; Cheng, Lap

    2015-03-15

    The primary objectives of this project are to: Perform a pre-conceptual design of a core for an alternative to the Hitachi proposed fuel-self- sustaining RBWR-AC, to be referred to as a RBWR-Th. The use of thorium fuel is expected to assure negative void coefficient of reactivity (versus positive of the RBWR-AC) and improve reactor safety; Perform a pre-conceptual design of an alternative core to the Hitachi proposed LWR TRU transmuting RBWR-TB2, to be referred to as the RBWR-TR. In addition to improved safety, use of thorium for the fertile fuel is expected to improve the TRU transmutation effectiveness; Compare the RBWR-Th and RBWR-TR performance against that of the Hitachi RBWR core designs and sodium cooled fast reactor counterparts - the ARR and ABR; and, Perform a viability assessment of the thorium-based RBWR design concepts to be identified along with their associated fuel cycle, a technology gap analysis, and a technology development roadmap. A description of the work performed and of the results obtained is provided in this Overview Report and, in more detail, in the Attachments. The major findings of the study are summarized.

  1. The prediction of low quality boiling voids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1963-01-01

    Slug flow theory is used to predict the density in heated channels of various shapes. In order to make this calculation possible, measurements are made of the bubble rise velocity in annuli, tube bundles, and channels. It ...

  2. Efficient Cooling in Engines with Nucleate Boiling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  3. Self-Sustaining Thorium Boiling Water Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganda, Francesco

    A thorium-fueled water-cooled reactor core design approach that features a radially uniform composition of fuel rods in stationary fuel assembly and is fuel-self-sustaining is described. This core design concept is similar ...

  4. Validation Data Plan Implementation: Subcooled Flow Boiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0 -Using supercritical carbonValgrind

  5. Experimental Investigation of Subcooled Flow Boiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvan Racah Evan RacahNFTS-13ReportPlainsApril8

  6. Boiling Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin:Pontiac Biomass FacilityBluegrass Ridge Wind2Boeing Co

  7. TH-A-18C-03: Noise Correlation in CBCT Projection Data and Its Application for Noise Reduction in Low-Dose CBCT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG, H; Huang, J; Ma, J; Chen, W; Ouyang, L; Wang, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the noise correlation properties of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection data and to incorporate the noise correlation information to a statistics-based projection restoration algorithm for noise reduction in low-dose CBCT. Methods: In this study, we systematically investigated the noise correlation properties among detector bins of CBCT projection data by analyzing repeated projection measurements. The measurements were performed on a TrueBeam on-board CBCT imaging system with a 4030CB flat panel detector. An anthropomorphic male pelvis phantom was used to acquire 500 repeated projection data at six different dose levels from 0.1 mAs to 1.6 mAs per projection at three fixed angles. To minimize the influence of the lag effect, lag correction was performed on the consecutively acquired projection data. The noise correlation coefficient between detector bin pairs was calculated from the corrected projection data. The noise correlation among CBCT projection data was then incorporated into the covariance matrix of the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion for noise reduction of low-dose CBCT. Results: The analyses of the repeated measurements show that noise correlation coefficients are non-zero between the nearest neighboring bins of CBCT projection data. The average noise correlation coefficients for the first- and second- order neighbors are about 0.20 and 0.06, respectively. The noise correlation coefficients are independent of the dose level. Reconstruction of the pelvis phantom shows that the PWLS criterion with consideration of noise correlation (PWLS-Cor) results in a lower noise level as compared to the PWLS criterion without considering the noise correlation (PWLS-Dia) at the matched resolution. Conclusion: Noise is correlated among nearest neighboring detector bins of CBCT projection data. An accurate noise model of CBCT projection data can improve the performance of the statistics-based projection restoration algorithm for low-dose CBCT.

  8. Pressure suppression containment system for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Nesbitt, Loyd B. (San Jose, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A system for suppressing the pressure inside the containment of a BWR following a postulated accident. A piping subsystem is provided which features a main process pipe that communicates the wetwell airspace to a connection point downstream of the guard charcoal bed in an offgas system and upstream of the main bank of delay charcoal beds which give extensive holdup to offgases. The main process pipe is fitted with both inboard and outboard containment isolation valves. Also incorporated in the main process pipe is a low-differential-pressure rupture disk which prevents any gas outflow in this piping whatsoever until or unless rupture occurs by virtue of pressure inside this main process pipe on the wetwell airspace side of the disk exceeding the design opening (rupture) pressure differential. The charcoal holds up the radioactive species in the noncondensable gas from the wetwell plenum by adsorption, allowing time for radioactive decay before the gas is vented to the environs.

  9. Pressure suppression containment system for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Nesbitt, L.B.

    1997-01-21

    A system is disclosed for suppressing the pressure inside the containment of a BWR following a postulated accident. A piping subsystem is provided which features a main process pipe that communicates the wetwell airspace to a connection point downstream of the guard charcoal bed in an offgas system and upstream of the main bank of delay charcoal beds which give extensive holdup to offgases. The main process pipe is fitted with both inboard and outboard containment isolation valves. Also incorporated in the main process pipe is a low-differential-pressure rupture disk which prevents any gas outflow in this piping whatsoever until or unless rupture occurs by virtue of pressure inside this main process pipe on the wetwell airspace side of the disk exceeding the design opening (rupture) pressure differential. The charcoal holds up the radioactive species in the noncondensable gas from the wetwell plenum by adsorption, allowing time for radioactive decay before the gas is vented to the environs. 3 figs.

  10. Atmospheres of low-mass planets: the "boil-off"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owen, James E

    2015-01-01

    We show that, for a low-mass planet that orbits its host star within several tenths of an AU (like the majority of the Kepler planets), the atmosphere it was able to accumulate while embedded in the proto-planetary disk may not survive unscathed after the disk disperses. This gas envelope, if more massive than a few percent of the core (with a mass below $10 M_\\oplus$), has a cooling time that is much longer than the time-scale on which the planet exits the disk. As such, it could not have contracted significantly from its original size, of order the Bondi radius. So a newly exposed proto-planet would be losing mass via a Parker wind that is energized by the stellar continuum radiation. The surface mass-loss induces a mass movement within the envelope that advects internal heat outward. As a result, the planet atmosphere rapidly cools down and contracts, until it has reached a radius of order $0.1$ Bondi radius, at which time the mass-loss effectively shuts down. Within a million years after the disk disperse...

  11. Test Plan for the Boiling Water Reactor Dry Cask Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, Samuel; Lindgren, Eric R.

    2015-11-01

    The thermal performance of commercial nuclear spent fuel dry storage casks are evaluated through detailed numerical analysis . These modeling efforts are completed by the vendor to demonstrate performance and regulatory compliance. The calculations are then independently verified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Carefully measured data sets generated from testing of full sized casks or smaller cask analogs are widely recognized as vital for validating these models. Recent advances in dry storage cask designs have significantly increased the maximum thermal load allowed in a cask in part by increasing the efficiency of internal conduction pathways and by increasing the internal convection through greater canister helium pressure. These same vertical, canistered cask systems rely on ventilation between the canister and the overpack to convect heat away from the canister to the environment for both above and below-ground configurations. While several testing programs have been previously conducted, these earlier validation attempts did not capture the effects of elevated helium pressures or accurately portray the external convection of above-ground and below-ground canistered dry cask systems. The purpose of the investigation described in this report is to produce a data set that can be used to test the validity of the assumptions associated with the calculations presently used to determine steady-state cladding temperatures in modern vertical, canistered dry cask systems. The BWR cask simulator (BCS) has been designed in detail for both the above-ground and below-ground venting configurations. The pressure vessel representing the canister has been designed, fabricated, and pressure tested for a maximum allowable pressure (MAWP) rating of 24 bar at 400 deg C. An existing electrically heated but otherwise prototypic BWR Incoloy-clad test assembly is being deployed inside of a representative storage basket and cylindrical pressure vessel that represents the canister. The symmetric single assembly geometry with well-controlled boundary conditions simplifies interpretation of results. Various configurations of outer concentric ducting will be used to mimic conditions for above and below-ground storage configurations of vertical, dry cask systems with canisters. Radial and axial temperature profiles will be measured for a wide range of decay power and helium cask pressures. Of particular interest is the evaluation of the effect of increased helium pressure on allowable heat load and the effect of simulated wind on a simplified below ground vent configuration. While incorporating the best available information, this test plan is subject to changes due to improved understanding from modeling or from as-built deviations to designs. As-built conditions and actual procedures will be documented in the final test report.

  12. Subcooled Boiling Heat Transfer for Cooling of Power Electronics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiator and associated pumping system are still required in HEVs. This additional cooling system adds weight and cost while decreasing the efficiency of HEVs. With the...

  13. Simulation of sodium boiling experiments with THERMIT sodium version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huh, Kang Yul

    1982-01-01

    Natural and forced convection experiments(SBTF and French) are simulated with the sodium version of the thermal-hydraulic computer code THERMIT. Simulation is done for the test secti- -on with the pressure-velocity boundary ...

  14. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guoxiang

    2010-01-01

    WAJ: Chemistry and geothermal systems. Academic Press 1977,system corrosion in geothermal systems [11–13]. For thisat the Geysers geothermal system in Northern California.

  15. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well ...

  16. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guoxiang

    2010-01-01

    solutions, Journal of nuclear technology 2008, 164:180– 35.Modeling and Analysis. Nuclear Technology 1993, 104: 418- 2.

  17. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guoxiang

    2010-01-01

    of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. ofwaste emplacement tunnels at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. ofScale Heater Test at Yucca Mountain. International Journal

  18. Natural convection flows in parallel connected vertical channels with boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eselgroth, Peter Ward

    1967-01-01

    The steady-state flow configuration in an array of parallel heated channels is examined with the objective of predicting the behavior of a reactor during a loss of flow accident. A method of combining the results of single ...

  19. Apparatus for pumping liquids at or below the boiling point

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    A pump comprises a housing having an inlet and an outlet. An impeller assembly mounted for rotation within the housing includes a first impeller piece having a first mating surface thereon and a second impeller piece having a second mating surface therein. The second mating surface of the second impeller piece includes at least one groove therein so that at least one flow channel is defined between the groove and the first mating surface of the first impeller piece. A drive system operatively associated with the impeller assembly rotates the impeller assembly within the housing.

  20. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guoxiang

    2010-01-01

    chloride in superheated geothermal steam. Geothermics 1989,condensate from superheated geothermal steam. Implicationsexpansion of superheated geothermal steam, with implications

  1. Suppression and Enhancement of Boiling Associated with Multiple Droplet Impingement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yuxuan

    2014-05-01

    Spray cooling has proven to be efficient in managing thermal load in high power applications. Reliability of electronic products lies on the thermal management and understanding of heat transfer mechanisms of the most commonly used thermal...

  2. Great Boiling Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County, Georgia:Oregon: EnergyGreat Basin Geothermal Area JumpGreat

  3. CASL-U-2015-0040-000 Initial Boiling Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &Bradbury Science Museum6 Shares CraigUser6-000 Design of a

  4. Flow Boiling Carolyn Coyle, Jacopo Buongiorno, Thomas McKrell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices »First ObservationFast(ER1)Flow Battery

  5. PACCAR CRADA: Experimental Investigation in Coolant Boiling in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT P - . . - - 4 v - r REQUEST FORHalf-Heated

  6. Cooling Boiling in Head Region - PACCAR Integrated Underhood Thermal and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartment ofof Energy Test andExternal

  7. CRADA with PACCAR Experimental Investigation in Coolant Boiling in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels| Department ofBusinessCEA - Page 1Variations | Department

  8. AECU-4439 PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS HYDRODYNAMIC ASPECTS OF BOILING HEAT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractor ofvar generation (Conference)AECU-4439 PHYSICS

  9. Efficient Cooling in Engines with Nucleated Boiling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EVthe nextofof EnergyCooling in Engines

  10. Nucleate Boiling Model Liping C, Y. Sung, and V. Kucukboyaci

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSE The 2014 surveyNuclear and Particlesafety Subscribe

  11. Enhanced Pool-Boiling Heat Transfer Using Nanostructured Surfaces - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S.Engineering Metal ImpuritiesaInnovation Portal

  12. Geothermal Technology Breakthrough in Alaska: Harvesting Heat below Boiling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services »Information1 GeothermalTemperatures | Department of

  13. WAX DEPOSITION IN CRUDE OILS: A NEW APPROACH Antonio Fasano -Mario Primicerio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primicerio, Mario

    WAX DEPOSITION IN CRUDE OILS: A NEW APPROACH Antonio Fasano - Mario Primicerio abstract. The complex phenomenon of solid wax deposition in wax sat- urated crude oils subject to thermal gradients has. Introduction Crude oils are complex mixtures containing parans, aromatics, naph- tenics, resins, asphaltenes

  14. Design, fabrication, packaging and testing of thin film thermocouples for boiling studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, Nipun

    2009-06-02

    Used for Both The Layers of Photolithography ............ ................................................................... 38 2.21 Reactive Ion Etcher Used for Oxygen Plasma Cleaning................... 40 2.22 Metal Evaporator Used... .................................................. 56 3.3 Picture of the Wedge, Spool and Sample Holder for the Wire Bonding Apparatus............ ................................................................ 59 3.4 Two Methods of Resistance Arc Welding for Thin Film Thermocouples...

  15. Exploring the Limits of Boiling and Evaporative Heat Transfer Using Micro/Nano Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Ming-Chang

    2010-01-01

    for Cu nanowire electroplating, (b) Cu deposition byc) Thickening the backside Cu by electroplating, (d)Cu electroplating through the front side of the membrane to

  16. Do surfaces with mixed hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas enhance pool boiling?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attinger, Daniel

    performance. Compared to a hydrophilic surface with 7° wetting angle, the measured critical heat flux and heat the heat transfer coefficient, large enhancements of critical heat flux are typically found for hydrophilic networks featuring hydrophobic islands. Hydrophilic networks indeed are shown to prevent the formation

  17. A visualization comparison of convective flow boiling heat transfer augmentation devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundy, Brian Franklin

    1998-01-01

    of 9.50, 7.2 1, and 3.72, a static mixer, and a circumferentailly wrapped wire screen were compared with bare tube data to ascertain the qualitative effects of these devices. Visualization experiments using high resolution video techniques were...

  18. The effect of surface conditions on nuceate pool boiling heat transfer to sodium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marto, P. J.

    1965-01-01

    A simplified theoretical model for bubble nucleation stability has been proposed, and an approximate stability criterion has been developed. This criterion contains both fluid and surfqce properties, and it predicts that ...

  19. Liquid and gas distributions in a two-phase boiling analogy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallis, Graham B.

    1958-01-01

    This report contains a description of the design and operation of an experimental appats for the analysis of two-phase flows similar to thom occuwring in boiler tubes at low pressures. Velocity and denuity profiles of ...

  20. Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of boiling water in sub-hundred micron channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhide, R.R.; Singh, S.G.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Duttagupta, S.P.; Agrawal, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2009-09-15

    The current work focuses on the pressure drop, heat transfer and stability in two phase flow in microchannels with hydraulic diameter of less than one hundred microns. Experiments were conducted in smooth microchannels of hydraulic diameter of 45, 65 {mu}m, and a rough microchannel of hydraulic diameter of 70 {mu}m, with deionised water as the working fluid. The local saturation pressure and temperature vary substantially over the length of the channel. In order to correctly predict the local saturation temperature and subsequently the heat transfer characteristics, numerical techniques have been used in conjunction with the conventional two phase pressure drop models. The Lockhart-Martinelli (liquid-laminar, vapour-laminar) model is found to predict the two phase pressure drop data within 20%. The instability in two phase flow is quantified; it is found that microchannels of smaller hydraulic diameter have lesser instabilities as compared to their larger counterparts. The experiments also suggest that surface characteristics strongly affect flow stability in the two phase flow regime. The effect of hydraulic diameter and surface characteristics on the flow characteristics and stability in two phase flow is seldom reported, and is of considerable practical relevance. (author)

  1. Visualization of convective boiling heat transfer in single microchannels with different shaped cross-sections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    b a Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2005.12.024 * Corresponding author. Present address: Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., 560

  2. Apparatus for draining lower drywell pool water into suppresion pool in boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus which mitigates temperature stratification in the suppression pool water caused by hot water drained into the suppression pool from the lower drywell pool. The outlet of a spillover hole formed in the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool is connected to and in flow communication with one end of piping. The inlet end of the piping is above the water level in the suppression pool. The piping is routed down the vertical downcomer duct and through a hole formed in the thin wall separating the downcomer duct from the suppression pool water. The piping discharge end preferably has an elevation at or near the bottom of the suppression pool and has a location in the horizontal plane which is removed from the point where the piping first emerges on the suppression pool side of the inner bounding wall of the suppression pool. This enables water at the surface of the lower drywell pool to flow into and be discharged at the bottom of the suppression pool.

  3. Chimney for enhancing flow of coolant water in natural circulation boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oosterkamp, Willem Jan (Oosterbeek, NL); Marquino, Wayne (San Jose, CA)

    1999-01-05

    A chimney which can be reconfigured or removed during refueling to allow vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. The chimney is designed to be collapsed or dismantled. Collapse or dismantlement of the chimney reduces the volume required for chimney storage during the refueling operation. Alternatively, the chimney has movable parts which allow reconfiguration of its structure. In a first configuration suitable for normal reactor operation, the chimney is radially constricted such that the chimney obstructs vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. In a second configuration suitable for refueling or maintenance of the fuel core, the parts of the chimney which obstruct access to the fuel assemblies are moved radially outward to positions whereat access to the fuel assemblies is not obstructed.

  4. Chimney for enhancing flow of coolant water in natural circulation boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oosterkamp, W.J.; Marquino, W.

    1999-01-05

    A chimney which can be reconfigured or removed during refueling to allow vertical removal of the fuel assemblies is disclosed. The chimney is designed to be collapsed or dismantled. Collapse or dismantlement of the chimney reduces the volume required for chimney storage during the refueling operation. Alternatively, the chimney has movable parts which allow reconfiguration of its structure. In a first configuration suitable for normal reactor operation, the chimney is radially constricted such that the chimney obstructs vertical removal of the fuel assemblies. In a second configuration suitable for refueling or maintenance of the fuel core, the parts of the chimney which obstruct access to the fuel assemblies are moved radially outward to positions whereas access to the fuel assemblies is not obstructed. 11 figs.

  5. Ultra high boiling performance on nano/microstructured surfaces through electrodeposition of copper and graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savakis, Andreas

    and graphene NSF Org:CBET Division of Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems Initial Performance on Novel Microstructures through Pulsed Electrodeposition of Graphene/Carbon Nanotubes of electrochemistry will be utilized in developing multi-porous graphene-based structures that are highly conductive

  6. Exploring the Limits of Boiling and Evaporative Heat Transfer Using Micro/Nano Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Ming-Chang

    2010-01-01

    8) (2006) [9] A. Faghri, Heat pipe science and technology,investigations on micro heat pipes, Int J Energ Res, 31(6-investigation of a high flux heat pipe heat sink, J Electron

  7. Accident source terms for boiling water reactors with high burnup cores.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Powers, Dana Auburn; Leonard, Mark Thomas

    2007-11-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide the technical basis for development of recommendations for updates to the NUREG-1465 Source Term for BWRs that will extend its applicability to accidents involving high burnup (HBU) cores. However, a secondary objective is to re-examine the fundamental characteristics of the prescription for fission product release to containment described by NUREG-1465. This secondary objective is motivated by an interest to understand the extent to which research into the release and behaviors of radionuclides under accident conditions has altered best-estimate calculations of the integral response of BWRs to severe core damage sequences and the resulting radiological source terms to containment. This report, therefore, documents specific results of fission product source term analyses that will form the basis for the HBU supplement to NUREG-1465. However, commentary is also provided on observed differences between the composite results of the source term calculations performed here and those reflected NUREG-1465 itself.

  8. Comparison of thorium-based fuels with different fissile components in existing boiling water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    parameters that are essential for reactor safety, like reactivity coefficients and control rod worths reactors Klara Insulander Björk a,b,*, Valentin Fhager a , Christophe Demazière b a Thor Energy, Sommerrogaten 13e15, NO-0255 Oslo, Norway b Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Nuclear Engineering

  9. Experimental Study on the Subcooled Boiling Flow via Optical Measurement Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Jun Soo

    2015-04-16

    ............................................................................................... 183 xiii Figure V-12. Effects of inlet subcooling (?Tsub,in) on probability density function (PDF) for bubble size and its development in the upward flow direction .. 187 Figure V-13. Effects of liquid mass flux (G) on probability density... function (PDF) for bubble size and its development in the upward flow direction ............. 188 Figure V-14. Effects of wall heat flux (qw) on probability density function (PDF) for bubble size and its development in the upward flow direction...

  10. Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool boiling heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Controlling bubble motion over heated surface through evaporation momentum force to enhance pool on the basis of this hypothesis to control the bubble trajectory for (i) enhancing the heat transfer

  11. Feasibility of breeding in hard spectrum boiling water reactors with oxide and nitride fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Bo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and fuel performance aspects of using nitride fuel in place of oxides in Pu-based high conversion light water reactor designs. Using the higher density nitride fuel ...

  12. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Appendices. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Appendices are presented concerning the evaluations of decommissioning financing alternatives; reference site description; reference BWR facility description; radiation dose rate and concrete surface contamination data; radionuclide inventories; public radiation dose models and calculated maximum annual doses; decommissioning methods; generic decommissioning information; immediate dismantlement details; passive safe storage, continuing care, and deferred dismantlement details; entombment details; demolition and site restoration details; cost estimating bases; public radiological safety assessment details; and details of alternate study bases.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on Engineered Nano-Finned Surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Hongjoo

    2014-08-10

    and Flash Imprint Lithography ......................................................... 45 2.3.5. Pattern Transfer ......................................................................................... 47 2.3.6. Silica and Nickel Nanofin, TFT... .................................................................................. 188 8.1. Experimental Results...................................................................................... 188 8.1.1. Nickel Flat Surface ................................................................................. 188 8.1.2. Nickel...

  14. Experimental characterization of heat transfer in non-boiling spray cooling with two nozzles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    found that adding a surfactant to the working fluid with an appropriate concentration will further to a heated surface is established for the cooling of high-power devices. The effects of the liquid volume flow rate, the nozzle-to-surface distance and the liquid inlet temperature on the heat transfer

  15. Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Raymond P. (Overland Park, KS); Schmalzer, David K. (Englewood, CO); Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1982-12-21

    The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships.

  16. Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

    1982-12-21

    The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships. 3 figs.

  17. Original article Effect of oven -heat and boiling on the germination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria University of Benin Department of Botany, P.MB, 1154, Benin City, Nigeria (Received 24 February 1999; accepted 31 August 1999) Abstract - Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight- est germination percentage and energy (94 %; 85 %). Treatment for 40 s also gave good results

  18. Experimental study on natural-convection boiling burnout in an annulus. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishima, K.; Ishii, M.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study was performed on burnout heat flux at low flow rates for low-pressure steam-water upward flow in an annulus. The data indicated that a premature burnout occurred due to flow-regime transition from churn-turbulent to annular flow. It is shown that the burnout observed in the experiment is essentially a flooding-limited burnout and the burnout heat flux can be well reproduced by a nondimensional correlation derived from the previously obtained criterion for flow-regime transition. It is also shown that the conventional correlations for burnout heat flux at low mass velocities agree well with the data on circulation and entrainment-limited burnout.

  19. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fife, A.B.; Ballas, G.J.

    1998-02-24

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. 5 figs.

  20. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fife, Alex Blair (San Jose, CA); Ballas, Gary J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening.

  1. Systematic investigation of the effects of hydrophilic porosity on boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tetreault-Friend, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the conditions of critical heat flux (CHF) is of considerable importance for safety and economic reasons in heat transfer units, such as in nuclear power plants. It is greatly advantageous to increase this thermal ...

  2. Direct growth of copper nanowires on a substrate for boiling applications Zhonghua Yao1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    ]. The templates can be porous polycarbonate mem- branes, nanochannel glasses and anodic aluminium oxide (AAO a variety of metallic [10­12], semiconductor [13, 14] and conductive polymer [15] NW arrays. Extensive to the requirement of a bonding layer commonly seen in the AAO membranes. In particu- lar, a conductive thin film

  3. Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taber, Douglass

    the white residue in a 50 mL Erlenmeyer flask with 5 mL of water. Heat to reflux, chill in ice water,2-dichloroethane in a 50 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Add 80 mg of oxalic acid, and heat to reflux. Let the flask cool. After twenty minutes (clean up the lab!), swirl the flask in ice water. The contents should gel

  4. CASL - Initial Modeling and Analysis of the Departure from Nucleate Boiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L OBransenBusiness

  5. CASL-U-2015-0248-000 Modeling Boiling Water Reactor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &Bradbury Science Museum6 Shares1-000 SMR8-0004-000

  6. 2010 Inspection and Status Report for the Boiling Nuclear Superheater (BONUS) Reactor Facility, Rincon, Puerto Rico

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the WeldonB10081278MaywoodWayne Site83 UMTRCA

  7. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    including both boiling water reactors (BWR) and pressurizedblow down. In boiling water reactors, fission products and

  8. Step Plus Proposal for Personnel Actions Robert Feenstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ullrich, Paul

    (CAES), Plant Pathology Rachael Goodhue, CAES, Agricultural & Resource Economics Kyaw Tha Paw U, CAES

  9. METHODOLOGIES FOR REVIEW OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF PROPOSED NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL SITES AND FACILITIES. VOLUME 9 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    pressurized-water or boiling- water reactor) geothermal (Vessel Code Boiling water reactor California Administrativepressurized-water and boiling-water reactor power plants.

  10. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis: Volume 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Dobson, David

    2001-01-01

    Components of Boiling Water Reactors. ” Corrosion, 48, (3),conversion factor boiling water reactor contingent averagekW/m, similar to a boiling water reactor waste package about

  11. Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation: Second Worldwide Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Loviisa and two boiling water reactors (BWR) with a combinedwater reactors and boiling water reactors) with a totalWater Reactor BWR - Boiling Water Reactor • larger diameter

  12. Nuclear Energy Governance and the Politics of Social Justice: Technology, Public Goods, and Redistribution in Russia and France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriadis, Theocharis N

    2009-01-01

    Reactors (PWRs) CANDU Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) AdvancedAGRs) Advanced Boiling Water Reactors (ABWRs) AP600 SystemEconomic Simplified Boiling Water Reactors (ESBWRs) APR-1400

  13. The effect of thermal aging and boiling water reactor environment on Type 316L stainless steel welds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy R

    2011-01-01

    The thermal aging and consequent embrittlement of materials are ongoing issues in cast stainless steels and duplex stainless steels. Spinodal decomposition is largely responsible for the well known "475°C" embrittlement ...

  14. Departure from nucleate boiling and pressure drop prediction for tubes containing multiple short-length twisted-tape swirl promoters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arment, Tyrell W. (Tyrell Wayne), 1988-

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies conducted at MIT showed that the power performance of an inverted pressurized water reactor (IPWR) conceptual design, i.e. the coolant and moderator are inverted such that the fuel is the continuous medium ...

  15. Multi-Scale Experiments in Turbulent Subcooled Boiling Flow Through a Square Channel with a Single Heated Wall 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estrada Perez, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-12-12

    flow through a square channel. The explored visualization techniques were: 1) Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), which provides velocity measurements of the liquid phase, 2) High-speed shadowgraphy (HSS) which is used to study the dispersed phase...

  16. EHD enhancement of boiling/condensation, heat transfer of alternate refrigerants. Final Report for 1993-1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohadi, M. M.

    1999-09-01

    The goal was to address the feasibility of frost control by the EHD technique for operating conditions and geometries of significance to refrigeration. The objective of the experimental investigation was to demonstrate by experiment the feasibility of the EHD technique for control of frost on a cold surface under operating conditions of direct significance to refrigeration applications.

  17. An Experimental Study of Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Utilizing Columnated Silicon Microevaporators for Convective Boiling Heat Transfer at the Microscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogue, Christopher William

    2011-01-01

    topic, and researchers all over the world began reworking classical convection correlations to better model heat transfer

  18. Experimental investigation of effects of surface roughness, wettability and boiling-time on steady state and transient CHF for nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Vivek Inder

    2012-01-01

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is one of the primary design constraints in a nuclear reactor. Increasing the CHF of water can enhance the safety margins of the current fleet of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and/or increase their ...

  19. Use of an influence diagram and fuzzy probability for evaluating accident management in a boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, D.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering Dept.)

    1994-06-01

    A new approach is presented for evaluating the uncertainties inherent in severe accident management strategies. At first, this analysis considers accident management as a decision problem (i.e., applying a strategy compared with do nothing) and uses an influence diagram. To evaluate imprecise node probabilities in the influence diagram, the analysis introduces the concept of a fuzzy probability. When fuzzy logic is applied, fuzzy probabilities are easily propagated to obtain results. In addition, the results obtained provide not only information similar to the classical approach, which uses point-estimate values, but also additional information regarding the impact of using imprecise input data. As an illustrative example, the proposed methodology is applied to the evaluation of the drywell flooding strategy for a long-term station blackout sequence at the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant. The results show that the drywell flooding strategy is beneficial for preventing reactor vessel breach. It is also effective for reducing the probability of containment failure for both liner melt-through and late overpressurization. Even though uncertainty exists in the results, flooding is preferred to do nothing when evaluated in terms of two risk measures: early and late fatalities.

  20. Design, construction and testing of a boiling and convective condensation experiment for use in a microgravity environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kachnik, Leo Joseph

    1987-01-01

    . t Two phase flow systems are being considered for a wide range of space applications. These include: military satellites, the space station program and advanced communications satellites . Two phase flow is also being considered for solar dynamic... of the constraints associated with building the experimental equipment described here are directly related to the KC-135 airplane which will carry the equipment. The necessary pieces of experimental equipment include; a boiler, a condenser, a working fluid (which...

  1. Analysis of high pressure boil-off situation during MSIV closure ATWS in a typical BWR/4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymotin, L.Y.; Slovik, G.C.; Saha, P.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a best-estimate analysis of the MSIV Closure ATWS in the Browns Ferry Unit 1 BWR with Mark 1 containment. The calculations have been performed using the RAMONA-3B code which has a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with one-dimensional (multi-channel core representation), four-equation, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium thermal hydraulics. The code also allows for one-dimensional neutronic core representation. The 1-D capability of the code has been employed in this calculation since a thorough sensitivity study showed that for a full ATWS, a one-dimensional (axial) neutron kinetics adequately describes the core behavior. (Note that the core steady-state symmetry in this case was preserved throughout the transient so that radial effects could be neglected.) The calculation described in the paper was started from a steady-state fuel condition corresponding to the end of Cycle 5 of the Browns Ferry reactor.

  2. An Experimental Study of Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Utilizing Columnated Silicon Microevaporators for Convective Boiling Heat Transfer at the Microscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogue, Christopher William

    2011-01-01

    causing severe flow maldistribution. A subsequent numericalcausing severe flow maldistribution. A subsequent numerical

  3. Experimental study of transient pool boiling heat transfer under exponential power excursion on plate-type heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Guanyu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Conduction and single-phase convective heat transfer are well understood phenomena: analytical models [1] and empirical correlations [2] allow capturing the thermal behavior of plate-type fuels or heaters in contact with ...

  4. Perfluorooctanoic acid Melting point ~55 C, boiling point ~190 C, pKa ~ 2.5, sparingly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Robert E.

    #12;Perfluorooctanoic acid · It concentrates on water surfaces as it is a fluoro-surfactant · Used in water and polar organic solvents · Stable at normal temperatures and pressures but avoid contact developmental and other adverse effects in laboratory animals. · Flammable and forms hazardous products like HF

  5. Measurement of near-surface void fraction and macrolayer thickness in boiling water and silica-based nanofluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lerch Andrew (Andrew J.)

    2008-01-01

    Nanofluids are engineered fluids that contain a suspension of nanoparticles in a pure substance. Nanoparticles can be any variety of metals, metal oxides, or ceramics. They have been shown to increase heat transfer properties ...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermal Control of Power Electronics of Electric Vehicles with Small Channel Coolant Boiling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermal control...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thermal Control of Power Electronics of Electric Vehicles with Small Channel Coolant Boiling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermal control...

  8. A Study of the Role of Adjoint-Equipped CFD in VUQ Analysis of Channel Boiling Simulations -Slides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAsked toUSC-Aiken,A NewA

  9. L3:THM.CLS.P7.09 Advancements on Wall Boiling Modeling in CFD: Leveraging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate student Subtask2 J.N. Shadid, T.M.P7.07 Transient9

  10. Page 1 of 4 Canning Vegetables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    , bring to a boil, simmer 5 minutes. Fill hot jars. Add boiling water. Raw pack: Fill jars tightly not scrape cob.) Hot pack: Add 1 cup of boiling water to each 4 cups corn and heat to boiling. Simmer 5

  11. Thermodynamic Investigations of Aqueous Ternary Complexes for Am/Cm Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leggett, Christina Joy

    2012-01-01

    into two types: boiling water reactors (BWR) and pressurizedsteam generator. Boiling water reactors, on the other hand,

  12. Policy Paper 37: Energy and Security in Northeast Asia: Proposals for Nuclear Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaneko, Kumao; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Choi, Jor-Shan; Fei, Edward

    1998-01-01

    power reactors (22 boiling water reactors (BWRs), 22 PWRs,two advanced boiling water reactors (ABWRs) at Kashiwazaki-

  13. Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrani, Kurt Amir

    2010-01-01

    re- actor (PWR) and boiling-water reactor (BWR) designsin integral boiling water super heat reactors. Technical

  14. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Liange

    2014-01-01

    viii ACRONYMS BWR Boiling Water Reactor DPC Dual Purposebe augmented with boiling water reactor (BWR) and high-level

  15. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherspoon editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson editor, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    the reactors are boiling-water reactors (BWRs) and three arereactors [PWR] and boiling-water reactors [BWR]) with a

  16. Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qvist, Staffan Alexander

    2013-01-01

    in particular, in boiling water reactors) there is a strongdirect contact boiling water fast reactor (PBWFR)”. In:

  17. Development of computer code models for analysis of subassembly voiding in the LMFBR : interim report of the MIT Sodium Boiling Project, covering work through September 30, 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finkle, William Dean

    1979-01-01

    The research program discussed in this report was started in FY1979 under the combined sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), General Electric (GE) and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The ...

  18. EK424 THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS (Spring 2015) Thermodynamics is the study of processes (e.g., expansion of a gas, boiling of water, or diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    EK424 THERMODYNAMICS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS (Spring 2015) Thermodynamics is the study in order to take place? We will study the thermodynamics of two types of processes: mechanical, or the chemical conversion of glucose into useful work), and a good understanding of thermodynamics is essential

  19. Heat transfer enhancement in single-phase forced convection with blockages and in two-phase pool boiling with nano-structured surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Hee Seok

    2007-09-17

    The first study researched turbulent forced convective heat (mass) transfer down- stream of blockages with round and elongated holes in a rectangular channel. The blockages and the channel had the same cross section, and ...

  20. Flow instabilities in the core and the coolant circuit of advances low-boiling light water reacto: classification of causes and development of simulator for the future analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rezvyi, Aleksey

    2002-01-01

    will try to determine limits of their reliable practical application with modern low-to-medium power reactor design and investigate this dynamic system behavior. Finally, it is necessary to take into consideration not separate phenomena, but their complex...

  1. Study of Pu consumption in light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants, compilation of Phase 1C task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-15

    This report summarizes the evaluations conducted during Phase 1C of the Pu Disposition Study have provided further results which reinforce the conclusions reached during Phase 1A & 1B: These conclusions clearly establish the benefits of the fission option and the use of the ABWR as a reliable, proven, well-defined and cost-effective means available to disposition the weapons Pu. This project could be implemented in the near-term at a cost and on a schedule being validated by reactor plants currently under construction in Japan and by cost and schedule history and validated plans for MOX plants in Europe. Evaluations conducted during this phase have established that (1) the MOX fuel is licensable based on existing criteria for new fuel with limited lead fuel rod testing, (2) that the applicable requirements for transport, handling and repository storage can be met, and (3) that all the applicable safeguards criteria can be met.

  2. Study of turbulent single-phase heat transfer and onset of nucleate boiling in high aspect ratio mini-channels to support the MITR LEU conversion/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Eric Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Heat transfer in high aspect ratio mini-channels has important applications for materials test reactors using plate-type fuel. These fuel plates typically possess coolant channels with hydraulic diameters on the order of ...

  3. Evaluation of flow patterns and elongated bubble characteristics during the flow boiling of halocarbon refrigerants in a micro-scale channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arcanjo, Alexandre Alves; Tibirica, Cristiano Bigonha; Ribatski, Gherhardt [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Trabalhador SanCarlense 400, Centro, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present study, quasi-diabatic two-phase flow pattern visualizations and measurements of elongated bubble velocity, frequency and length were performed. The tests were run for R134a and R245fa evaporating in a stainless steel tube with diameter of 2.32 mm, mass velocities ranging from 50 to 600 kg/m{sup 2} s and saturation temperatures of 22 C, 31 C and 41 C. The tube was heated by applying a direct DC current to its surface. Images from a high-speed video-camera (8000 frames/s) obtained through a transparent tube just downstream the heated sections were used to identify the following flow patterns: bubbly, elongated bubbles, churn and annular flows. The visualized flow patterns were compared against the predictions provided by Barnea et al. (1983), Felcar et al. (2007), Revellin and Thome (2007) and Ong and Thome (2009). From this comparison, it was found that the methods proposed by Felcar et al. (2007) and Ong and Thome (2009) predicted relatively well the present database. Additionally, elongated bubble velocities, frequencies and lengths were determined based on the analysis of high-speed videos. Results suggested that the elongated bubble velocity depends on mass velocity, vapor quality and saturation temperature. The bubble velocity increases with increasing mass velocity and vapor quality and decreases with increasing saturation temperature. Additionally, bubble velocity was correlated as linear functions of the two-phase superficial velocity. (author)

  4. A REVIEW OF LIGHT-WATER REACTOR SAFETY STUDIES. VOLUME 3 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    this man- (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors to compare thesepressur- ized and boiling water reactors is presented. ItAmerican Physical reactor cooling - boiling-water ECC(S) -

  5. RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN CALIFORNIA. VOLUME 4 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yen, W.W.S.

    2010-01-01

    of Coolant Accident for Boiling Water Reactors,n and 1. 6,.Cool- ant for Boiling Water Reactors." U. S. Atomic EnergyCoolant Accident for Boiling Water Reactors," and Regulatory

  6. Advanced Modeling and Evaluation of the Response of Base-Isolated Nuclear Facility Structures to Vertical Earthquake Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keldrauk, Eric Scott

    2012-01-01

    an advanced boiling water reactor. The ground motionsPWRs) and 35 boiling water reactors (BWRs), that operate atA - houses five boiling water reactors (BWRs) and the worlds

  7. RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH AND RELATED STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. VOLUME 2 OF HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    the BEIR Committee - boiling water reactor - Code of FederalACCIDENT FOR BOILING WATER REACTORS (Revision 2, 6/74) 1.4ACCIDENT FOR BOILING WATER REACTORS (3/71) 1.24 ASSUMPTIONS

  8. Life-Cycle Assessment of Concrete: Decision-Support Tool and Case Study Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gursel, Aysegul Petek

    2014-01-01

    and SO 2 for boiling water reactors, the construction ofcases of 1,000 MW boiling water reactor (BWR) type with an

  9. RADIATION MONITORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation Exposure due to a Boiling Water Reactor Plume fromIN THE VICINITY OF A BOILING WATER REACTOR EXPOSURE RATE

  10. Full Core, Heterogeneous, Time Dependent Neutron Transport Calculations with the 3D Code DeCART

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hursin, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    3-D Full Core Boiling Water Reactor Applications. NuclearPWR) rod-ejection and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) rod-drop

  11. NANO AT HOME: An Experiment That You Can Try PLEASE NOTE: The Center for Nano and Molecular Science and Technology (CNM) at The University of Texas at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yakar, Adela

    contac Make sure tha make the CD u ayer from the also be weak heat gun and ure it has goo ed, the metal

  12. ACTINIDE PRODUCTION IN 136Xe BOMBARDMENTS OF 249Cf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregorich, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    onto the column in HHO. or HCl in a volume of lessin about 50ul of a 0.1M HHO_ solution. The walls of tha

  13. Correlating Radioactive Material to Sea Surface Temperature off the Coast of Japan: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    nuclear reactions to constantly boil water; the resulting steam is used to drive turbines and generate

  14. rowcanyon.orgwww.cr l ill ifHamlet to Village Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolverton, Steve

    from 1800 to 1300 ya · Pottery enhances cooking efficiencyy g y ­ "Bring to boil & simmer" ­ Cooking

  15. The comparative digestibility and nutritive value of sorghum silages harvested at different stages of maturity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helm, Raymond E

    1960-01-01

    of ~ tnrity had a higher digos4ihLXity of protein, othcsr occtrnot, ni~ Ane edesA snd cascrgy, Credo fiber digosMan cess no greater than tha4 in tha ration oontaining meghm silage haroestod in the soft deagh s4ags of natority, Raticncs oontcdccing gy Begari...

  16. BEAM TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY BETWEEN INJECTOR AND TARJET IN THE GANIL COMPLEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    on the characteristics of tha extracted beast and the required beta propertiet on.the target, ia deecribed. ..' The GANIL injected in tha SSCt, betatron and chroaatic «etching of tht beaa on :the target, enlttSnct and energy » ditperiion measurement!1 , emittance and energy diaparaion liaitation". Since CANIL ia running (end 82

  17. In-vessel Retention Strategy for High Power Reactors - K-INERI Final Report (includes SBLB Test Results for Task 3 on External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) Boiling Data and CHF Enhancement Correlations)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. B. Cheung; J. Yang; M. B. Dizon; J. Rempe

    2005-01-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. For example, the enhanced safety of the Westinghouse Advanced 600 MWe PWR (AP600), which relied upon External Reactor Vessel Cooling (ERVC) for IVR, resulted in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) approving the design without requiring certain conventional features common to existing LWRs. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements could provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1500 MWe). Hence, a collaborative, three-year, U.S. - Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project was completed in which the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Seoul National University (SNU), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) investigated the performance of ERVC and an in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) to determine if IVR is feasible for reactors up to 1500 MWe.

  18. Ex 8.1(a) At 90C, the vapor pressure of methylbenzene is 400 Torr and that of 1,2-dimethylbenzene is 150 Torr. What is the composition of a liquid mixture that boils at 90C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Findley, Gary L.

    Ex 8.1(a) At 90°C, the vapor pressure of methylbenzene is 400 Torr and that of 1,2- dimethylbenzene? What is the composition of the vapor produced? Ex 8.2(a) The vapor pressure of pure liquid A at 300 K is 0.350. Calculate the total pressure of the vapor and the composition of the liquid mixture. Prob 8

  19. Study of chemistry and irradiation effects on nanofluids to be used in light water reactor accident cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    Nanofluids, colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in a base fluid, have shown enhancements in both pool boiling and flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) in laboratory tests. The applicability of this aspect to nuclear ...

  20. International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics 15 (2001/2002) 291294 291 Feature extraction techniques for ultrasonic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polikar, Robi

    acquired from weld inspection regions of boiling water reactor piping of nuclear power plants of piping in boiling water reactors to detect intergranular stress corrosion cracking [4,7]. The received

  1. Census Data Mining An Application Willi Klsgen and Michael May

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malerba, Donato

    plant of type boiling water reactor. A spatial predicate (nearby) operates on the coordinates = boiling_water_ reactor) define which objects belong to the subgroup. While the spatial dimension

  2. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  3. Power extraction from a hot stream in the presence of phase change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ordonez, Juan C.

    divides itself into three sections: liquid preheating, boiling and vapor superheating. Numerical results which the m . w stream boils, and ®nally, the surface As that superheats the steam. The simplicity

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as well as for highly nonlinear multiphase problems relevant tomore nuclear reactor thermalhydraulics with boiling and condensation. These applications require...

  5. Creating Markets for Green Biofuels: Measuring and improving environmental performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian T.; Plevin, Richard J.; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2007-01-01

    boils water to drive a steam turbine generator and then usesremaining in the steam exiting the turbine for process Dry-

  6. Target & Capture for PRISM Koji Yoshimura

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    or Quarter size Heating using AC LOSS Or Special heater Cooling Method ~500W Pool boiling Thermo siphon

  7. Employee Assistance Report Lifestyle Tips Insert Vol. 9 No. 5 By Avinash Kaushik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    (and any juice), basil, thyme, oregano, and pepper. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat to maintain a simmer

  8. Energy Management A Program of Energy Conservation for the Community College Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    and maintain liquids at a simmer. Remember that water andwhich will stew, saute, simmer, boil, defrost, grill, roast,

  9. Post-Siliconix Freeze-Outs: Theory, Evidence & Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Guhan

    2004-01-01

    merger,” a “minority buyout,” or a “cash-out merger”) is athinking on minority buyouts, many lawyers say, boils down

  10. Post-Siliconix Freeze-Outs: Theory, Evidence & Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Guhan

    2004-01-01

    merger," a "minority buyout," or a "cash-out merger") is athinking on minority buyouts, many lawyers say, boils down

  11. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  12. NISTIR 5732 Calorimetric and Visual Measurements of R123

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ) High-FluxTM , (3) GEWA-KTM , and (4) GEWA-TTM. The surfaces were either machined or soldered onto of nucleate boiling were also investigated. The boiling was visually recorded with 16 mm high speed film, enhanced heat transfer, porous surface, T-fin, trapezoidal-fin, R123, pool boiling, Turbo-BITM, High

  13. Calculation of the eigenfunctions of the two-group neutron diffusion equation and application to modal decomposition of BWR instabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    for off-line anal- ysis of the stability of boiling water reactors in a two-dimensional representation 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction A specific character of boiling water reactors. Different types of instability patterns might be encountered in a boiling water reactor (BWR): in

  14. Int. J. Nuclear Energy Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2006 167 Copyright 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    -based methods, the purpose of which is to determine whether the core of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) contains coexisting with a regional oscillation. Keywords: neutron noise analysis; Boiling Water Reactor (BWR include pressurised water reactor and boiling water reactor physics, mixed oxide fuel, power reactor noise

  15. NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING: 72, 304-321 ( 1 9 7 9 ) Linear Response of the Neutron Field to a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    to a Propagating Perturbation of Moderator Density (Two-Group Theory of Boiling Water Reactor Noise) K. Behringer,1979 Accepted July 2,1979 According to recent investigations, the neutron noise field in a boiling water reactor for a two-phase flow of the coolant in boiling water reactor (BWR) systems for frequencies higher than 2 Hz

  16. 1 Copyright 2013 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    water mixtures (b) a gas-phase catalytic reactor. We focus on the fundamental experimental heat transfer studies (pool and flow boiling of ethanol-water mixtures) required for the primary pre-heater boiler of flow boiling process, pool-boiling of ethanol- water mixtures has also been initiated. After

  17. Numerical simulation of the water bubble rising in a liquid column using the combination of level set and moving mesh methods in the collocated grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Water boils inside the BWRs. Although water in the nuclear industry, more than 90% power generated by nuclear is from water-cooled nuclear reactors either is in subcooled condition in the PWRs, the subcooled boiling occurs inside the reactor which makes the Departure

  18. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE IN-PHASE AND OUT-OF-PHASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    OF A BOILING WATER REACTOR TIM H. J. J. VAN DER HAGEN,* IMRE PAZSIT, and OLA THOMSON Chalmers University in the Ringhals-1 boiling water reactor after revision in 1990, showed that instability occurred at high power concern for boiling water reactors (BWRs) since the very first de- sign experiments back in the 1950s

  19. Modelling of a self-sustained density wave oscillation and its neutronic response in a three-dimensional heterogeneous system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    t The main types of instabilities encountered in commercial Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) are global and in operating commercial Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is the possible instabilities that can arise modelling a boiling channel exhibiting a DWO with the US NRC RELAP5 code, and by thereafter converting

  20. 167Int. J. Nuclear Energy Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2006 Analysis methods for the determination of possible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) contains unseated fuel assembly(ies) or not. The characteristic feature. Keywords: neutron noise analysis; Boiling Water Reactor (BWR); stability; Decay Ratio (DR); space and boiling water reactor physics, mixed oxide fuel, power reactor noise and noise diagnostics, signal

  1. EEE 564 Interdisciplinary Nuclear Power Operations (3 hrs) Catalog Description: Nuclear power plant systems. Study of the interrelationship and propagation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    EEE 564 Interdisciplinary Nuclear Power Operations (3 hrs) Catalog Description: Nuclear power plant (Generation II) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs) as well as the new Electric's advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) and economic simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR

  2. Disclosure practice for selected items of corporate balance sheets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Shafaat Ahmad

    1958-01-01

    . fire losses, sale of significant portions of tha productive facilities of the business, acquisition of substantial plants ~ collection of a material amount of life insurance on the death of an officer, changes in capital structures...

  3. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    rate o termine if addit execution of in What th he current Syst hat are limited t hese tools curr omposition, res ot meeting was itial batches. T anning tool tha ncomplete sync or...

  4. Income inequality, tax base and sovereign spreads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2011-01-01

    ROM JPN TUR QAT ZAF KOR KAZ HRV TUN LTU MAR CHL COL MEX MYSKAZ ZAF KOR MAR TUR QAT VNM HRV CHL TUN LTU MEX THA COL CHN

  5. Income inequality, tax base and sovereign spreads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2012-01-01

    ZAF TUR QAT KOR KAZ TUN MAR HRV LTU CHL COL MEX MYS CHN VNMTUR MAR QAT VNM CHL TUN LTU HRV MEX COL CHN THA LBN VEN PERFRA*), GREECE(GRC*), CROATIA(HRV), HUNGARY(HUN*), INDONESIA(

  6. Building America Puts Residential Research Results To Work; Building America Research That Works (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Residential buildings use more than 20% of the energy consumed annually in the United States. To help reduce that energy use, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its Building America partners conduct research to develop advanced building energy systems tha

  7. Dilma Vana Rousseff Presidenta da Repblica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, Rudolf Richard

    ­ Administradora Thaís Caroline da Silva Dias ­ Administradora Zilmar Silva Rocha ­ Técnica em Contabilidade da Costa Ferreira ­ Economista Tiago Mota dos Santos ­ Diretor de Contabilidade e Finanças

  8. Anti-inflammatory and Cytotoxic Activities of Mango (Mangifera indica L. var Keitt) Polyphenols in Cancer and Non-cancer Breast Fibroblasts in Vitro 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arbizu Berrocal, Shirley

    2013-08-12

    , Gedong, Golek, Madu, Manalagi Israel Haden, Tommy Atkins, Keitt, Maya, Nimrod, Kent, Palmer Malaysia Apple Rumani, Arumanis, Golek, Kuala Selangor 2, Malgoa Myanmar Aug Din, Ma Chit Su, Sein Ta Lone, Shwe Hin Tha Pakistan Anwar Ratol...

  9. Tribological behavior of carbo thermoplastic composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    processes were selected to produce semi-finished parts. Annealing and machining was always required after steel. However, the f induced by the AF is so high tha material is not interesting for be applications

  10. Variation in joint fluid composition and its effect on the tribology of replacement joint articulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzucco, Daniel Clarke, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Polyethylene wear is a significant clinical problem limiting the long-term survival of joint replacement prostheses, particularly in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Although the tribology ...

  11. Comparison of benzene hexachloride formulated from high and low gamma concentrates for cotton aphid control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raven, Klaus Gustav

    1957-01-01

    by KLAUS GUSTAV RAVEN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head f Department) May 1957 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer would like to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. D. F. Martin for his constant encouragement and aid... technical material. Several processes have bees developed to soncentrate the gamsa isomer, Host processes are based on tha differential solubility of the ismsars in organic solvents. The solubility may be increased by vary- ing tha temperature...

  12. Coal liquefaction process with increased naphtha yields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Daniel F. (Friendswood, TX)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein the solid carbonaceous material is slurried with a suitable solvent and then subjected to liquefaction at elevated temperature and pressure to produce a normally gaseous product, a normally liquid product and a normally solid product. The normally liquid product is further separated into a naphtha boiling range product, a solvent boiling range product and a vacuum gas-oil boiling range product. At least a portion of the solvent boiling-range product and the vacuum gas-oil boiling range product are then combined and passed to a hydrotreater where the mixture is hydrotreated at relatively severe hydrotreating conditions and the liquid product from the hydrotreater then passed to a catalytic cracker. In the catalytic cracker, the hydrotreater effluent is converted partially to a naphtha boiling range product and to a solvent boiling range product. The naphtha boiling range product is added to the naphtha boiling range product from coal liquefaction to thereby significantly increase the production of naphtha boiling range materials. At least a portion of the solvent boiling range product, on the other hand, is separately hydrogenated and used as solvent for the liquefaction. Use of this material as at least a portion of the solvent significantly reduces the amount of saturated materials in said solvent.

  13. Progress in the Development of Compressible, Multiphase Flow Modeling Capability for Nuclear Reactor Flow Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Berry; R. Saurel; F. Petitpas; E. Daniel; O. Le Metayer; S. Gavrilyuk; N. Dovetta

    2008-10-01

    In nuclear reactor safety and optimization there are key issues that rely on in-depth understanding of basic two-phase flow phenomena with heat and mass transfer. Within the context of multiphase flows, two bubble-dynamic phenomena – boiling (heterogeneous) and flashing or cavitation (homogeneous boiling), with bubble collapse, are technologically very important to nuclear reactor systems. The main difference between boiling and flashing is that bubble growth (and collapse) in boiling is inhibited by limitations on the heat transfer at the interface, whereas bubble growth (and collapse) in flashing is limited primarily by inertial effects in the surrounding liquid. The flashing process tends to be far more explosive (and implosive), and is more violent and damaging (at least in the near term) than the bubble dynamics of boiling. However, other problematic phenomena, such as crud deposition, appear to be intimately connecting with the boiling process. In reality, these two processes share many details.

  14. Production of gasoline and distillate fuels from light cycle oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Owens, P.J.; Sarli, M.S.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes a process for the co-production of high quality gasoline and distillate products from catalytically cracked feedstocks. It comprises catalytically cracking a hydrocarbon feedstock to produce a substantially dealkylated cracked product, hydrocracking the substantially dealkylated product with a hydrocracking catalyst at a hydrogen partial pressure not greater than 1200 psig and a conversion to gasoline boiling range products not more than 75 wt. percent; separating the products of hydrocracking into a gasoline boiling range fraction, a first distillate range fraction boiling immediately above the gasoline fraction with an end point in the range of 450{degrees} to 500{degrees} F and a second, higher boiling distillate fraction which is more paraffinic than the first distillate fraction; recycling at least a portion of the first, lower boiling distillate fraction to the catalytic cracking step, recovering the second, higher boiling distillate fraction.

  15. Microsoft Word - NURETH-14_Paper_397_rev June 15- no review track...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NUCLEATE POOL BOILING X. Duan, J. Buongiorno and T. McKrell Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Abstract High-resolution data of nucleate pool...

  16. Presentation Title

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and safety analysis o Severe accident research and management o Heavy metal and sodium fast reactor safety - Gen IV research Reactor Technology - "keeping boiling under control" o...

  17. January 2011 Monthly News Roundup | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    a question of efficiency, which essentially boils down to cost," Veeraraghavan said. "IP networks have to be operated at low utilization for the performance requirements of all...

  18. EA-1394: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Authorizing the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) to allow Public Access to the Boiling Nuclear Superheat (BONUS) Reactor Building, Ricon, Puerto Rico

  19. U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel Data as of December 31,2002 Table 3

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    permanently discharged in previous years, the historical totals change. BWR Boiling-water reactor; PWR Pressurized-water reactor; HTGR High-temperature gas cooled reactor....

  20. Small modular reactors (SMRs) such...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ARO), using soluble boron in the coolant for reactivity control. Conversely, boiling water reactors (BWRs) typically maneuver their control blades as often as every 2 GWdmtU...

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - Interface_Levin

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Adam H. Levin AHL Consulting May 14, 2014 BWR - Boiling Water Reactor DOE - Department of Energy DSC - Dry Storage Canister ISF - Interim Storage Facility ISFSI - Independent Spent...

  2. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Geysers Area (Kennedy & Truesdell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are inconsistent with an origin of the vapor-dominated Northwest Geysers reservoir from deep boiling of a connate or metamorphic water. Instead, the strong magmatic component...

  3. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    with conventional steam turbine powered electric generation.used to boil water for steam turbine generation as a secondturbine) and Rankine (steam turbine) cycles, as illustrated

  4. Process for refractory compound conversion in a hydrocracker recycle liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruia, A.J.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a catalytic hydrocracking process. It includes contacting a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock having a propensity to form 11{sup +} ring heavy polynuclear aromatic compounds and a liquid recycle stream in a hydrocracking zone with added hydrogen and a metal promoted hydrocracking catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure sufficient to gain a substantial conversion to lower boiling products; partially condensing the hydrocarbon effluent from the hydrocracking zone and separating the same into a hydrocarbonaceous stream comprising lower boiling hydrocarbons, unconverted hydrocarbons boiling above about 400{degrees} F (204{degrees} C) and trace quantities of 11{sup +} ring heavy polynuclear aromatic compounds, and a vaporous hydrocarbonaceous stream comprising the lower boiling hydrocarbons.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thermal Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Control of Power Electronics of Electric Vehicles with Small Channel Coolant Boiling Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Thermal Control of Power Electronics of...

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    7075 and 6061. Full Text Available November 2007 Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Kilgo, Alice C. ; Eckelmeyer,...

  7. Geothermal Technology Breakthrough in Alaska: Harvesting Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to be produced at temperatures below the boiling point (212 degrees Fahrenheit).This innovation increases the development potential of geothermal sites worldwide. The exciting news...

  8. Semantische Annotation in Salsa Annotation von Nominalisierungen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sporleder, Caroline

    .v, boil.v, broil.v, brown.v, simmer.v, steam.v, . . . Example: [Cook Mathilde] fried [Food the catfish

  9. Chestnut Chocolate Torte Though sinfully rich, the torte is not overly sweet. It can be made in stages: the cake one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulmer, Melville P.

    for chestnut puree Put chestnuts in a large sauce pan; cover with water and heat to boil. Simmer 1 1/2 hours

  10. Teaching Direct Marketing and Small Farm Viability, 2nd Edition. Unit 3 - Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    water. Bring to a boil and simmer for about 20 minutes, orboils, reduce heat, cover and simmer until it’s soft, about

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration JPL 400-1473 03/12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at a calibrated simmer, but others erupt at a full boil. The latter is how it was for us in 2011 at the Jet

  12. No Slide Title

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of collector temp necessary to increase pulse length safely Simulations by klystron manufacturer (CPI) show that collector coolant will boil after 1 s with no RF output...

  13. CASL Industry Council Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shift (CIPS), Crud Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC), Grid to Rod Fretting (GTRF), Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB), Clad Integrity 2 of...

  14. NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee July 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    , Technology Development Facilities, Vehicle Assembly Building, Orbiter Processing Facility · Observations to minimize boil-off Aerogels Wire insulation ­ detection and healing layer · · Collaboration between NASA

  15. Chocolate Marvel Cake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... In bottom of large double boiler bring water to boil then reduce to simmer. In top combine brown sugar, egg whites, cappuccino or coffee and cream of tartar.

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    5 MW Allison gas turbine-driven cogeneration system in 1993.gas engine with a cooling system using boiling water (for steam recovery) in a cogeneration

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    groups conduct an investigation into the similarities and differences between solar tea and tea brewed by boiling water. Students will compare their two samples on four...

  18. Dictionary of Upriver Halkomelem, Volume I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galloway, Brent Douglas

    2009-01-01

    etc. ), (have) body odor:: pápeth'em. bog Labrador tea, "Indian tea", "swamp tea":: mó:qwem. (sphagnum) bog, marsh:: mó:qwem. boil

  19. New Study Reveals the Power of Solar Schools | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technologies Office, talks with the students about energy options: burning hydrocarbons to boil water and generate steam or letting the Earth heat water naturally with...

  20. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure: Appendices, draft report for comment. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    On June 27, 1988, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published in the Federal Register (53 FR 24018) the final rule for the General Requirements for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities. With the issuance of the final rule, owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the NRC for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of updated bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s WNP-2, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives, which now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste. Costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities are given in 1993 dollars. Sensitivities of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances are also examined.

  1. Laws restricting price-fixing and their enforcements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Lon Don

    1962-01-01

    'aI;eescsesfh'k. . credo, yrXaa, ~ss, aoasrox cear @abide ebiHeias, ess. , alee greasily tha p'sxf'oxaaaca of vaxioui fanetioaa chat a frao aiiLsxpxisa mast':, acccep&sh. assaxiisg 'pxofit aagimisatioa as tha goal af ths ia8ivi&uik ox' firm~ it ia readily apparel...'elojsd. co. the "sncenb ' ' ' thbt ' in". Che eighteenth"-:CS4t'orf' egreemgint'p SCIOag, 'Sillerg 'tc 16@t. entpnt, ' divide Rect@Ca'. or' et~Be . fix prices were'conspiracies kn-rsptrsint'of credo for vbicb ia)ured''parties could claim dcnsgesi 1]ader...

  2. Responses of bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata) to 2, 4-D in relation to soil moisture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sultemeier, George Wayne

    1961-01-01

    aawesas of sasssssso {smwoas oaeam) VO 2y~ ZS lSLATIQl XO SOKL COOTIES Sabaltted to tha Oraduate Sohool of the 4@Caaltaral ead Xacdeeloal Collage of Teaaa ia Partial falflllaeat of tha ragyalreaeata for the degree of kgeaty 1961 acawaeea... eed aeweecriya pwyeratkoae 0~4 ls gltm 0o Qe teaeheea 1a Star11aa llaeAt tot yereiLeekoa to eetehLieh research @Late m their reaohee ead to Sr. Soaa14 L? Saee aad Ori Leo Si MerrA11 for eooyeratioa eith reeoaroh oa the %eeoc AgrLeaLtaral Seyeriaeet...

  3. Toward Formalizing Non-Monotonic Reasoning in Physics: the Use of Kolmogorov Complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    physicists' argument that a kettle on a cold stove cannot start boiling by itself, because the probability also explains "physical induction" (if some property is true in sufficiently many cases and engineering view- points, a cold kettle placed on a cold stove will never start boiling by itself. How- ever

  4. Toward Formalizing Non-Monotonic Reasoning in Physics: the Use of Kolmogorov Complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    stove cannot start boiling by itself, because the probability of this event is too small. We present induction" (if some property is true in sufficiently many cases, then it is always true), and many other viewpoints, a cold kettle placed on a cold stove will never start boil- ing by itself. However, from

  5. Toward Formalizing NonMonotonic Reasoning in Physics: the Use of Kolmogorov Complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    physicists' argument that a kettle on a cold stove cannot start boiling by itself, because the probability also explains ``physical induction'' (if some property is true in sufficiently many cases and engineering view­ points, a cold kettle placed on a cold stove will never start boiling by itself. How­ ever

  6. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, Scott J; Bunting, Bruce G; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Fairbridge, Craig

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  7. Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Avenue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    energy to heat water until it boils and turns into steam. This steam is used to turn a turbine which experiment with detailed measured steam/water distributions, as shown below. (Image Left) The two as bubbly flow, droplet flow or a sharp interface between steam and water. All of the boiling regimes

  8. g Ris* Report No. 289 g Danish Atomic Energy Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of fundamental theory and data. Fundamental data are in this connection data such as nuclear cross sections of Prediction of the Performance of a Boiling Water Reactor by Torben Petersen August 1973 Saks distributors of Prediction of tbe Performence of a Boiling Water Reactor by Torben Petersen E R R A T A Page 1 6, equation

  9. Investigation of local BWR instabilities with a four heated-channel Reduced Order Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    of a four-heated channels ROM in order to reconstruct the behavior of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) ``core ROM Local instabilities DWO DR a b s t r a c t This paper deals with the modeling of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) local instabilities via so-called Reduced Order Models (ROMs). More specifically, a four

  10. This article was originally published in the Comprehensive Nuclear Materials published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the author's benefit and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Abbreviations BWR Boiling water reactor CANDU Canadian Deuterium Uranium CRUD Chalk River unidentified deposits reactor (PWR) and the boiling water reactor (BWR) as well as the Canadian designed Canadian Deuterium with niobium (AREVA) PWR Pressurized water reactor tHM Ton heavy metal VVER Voda Voda Energy Reactor ZIRLOTM

  11. 3698 A. Hernandez-Solis et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 241 (2011) 36973706 The need to validate and refine BE codes that are used in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    transition in boiling water reactors (BWRs), NUPEC performed from 1987 to 1990 a series of radial void to validate and refine BE codes that are used in the predictions of relevant reactor safety parameters, led a fuel assembly, which has been regarded as an important factor in the determination of boiling

  12. Tour of Entergy's Nuclear Power Plant in River Bend Owner: Entergy Gulf States Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ervin, Elizabeth K.

    : Boiling Water Reactor Reactor Manufacturer: General Electric Turbine Generator Manufacturer: General a nuclear power plant. Plant was Entergy, a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) type. Built in the 80's, it has from the reactor is stored under water. An alternative storage is the dry cask storage which

  13. Department of Statistics SCIENTIFIC AND STATISTICAL COMPUTING SEMINAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Matthew

    of boiling water reactors. The boiling phenomenon is described mathematically using the drift flux model at different velocities, e.g. oil and water or water and vapor. According to the chemical composition National Laboratory (ANL) is the water-vapor two phase problem which arises in connection to simulations

  14. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Progress in Nuclear Energy 51 (2009) 67e81

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    concern the study of the space-dependence of the Decay Ratio in Boiling Water Reactors, the noise the determination of global dynamical core parameters, the Decay Ratio in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs-based estimation of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of reactivity in Pressurized Water Reactors, the modeling

  15. NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING: 158, 164193 ~2008! Multifractal Analysis of Chaotic Flashing-Induced Instabilities in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    of forced-circulation boiling water reac- served experimentally in a number of cases since then.10 tors-Induced Instabilities in Boiling Channels in the Natural-Circulation CIRCUS Facility Christophe Demazière* Chalmers of Nuclear Reactors, Delft, 2629 BJ, The Netherlands Received October 30, 2006 Accepted May 12, 2007

  16. James Banfield1 Srikanth Allu2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mihaila, Bogdan

    Performance code [1] for uranium-dioxide (UO2) fuel in a heavy boiling-water reactor and is an extension reactor, which is a Heavy-Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) with UO2 fuel. There are three rods presented to fixed temperature of 513 K, which is the saturation temperature of the heavy water in the Halden reactor

  17. NUCLEAR ENERGY Annals of Nuclear Energy 32 (2005) 13051322

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    to quantify the stability properties of boiling water reactors (BWRs). The study was prompted-average (model) BWR boiling water reactor CEA Commissariat a` lÕEnergie Atomique DR decay ratio DWO density wave`re *, Imre Pa´zsit Department of Reactor Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Go

  18. Investigation of global and regional BWR instabilities with a four heated-channel Reduced Order Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    and regional Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) instabilities is described. The ROM contains three sub. Introduction Over the past decades, the concept of linear analysis to study the stability of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) has become one of the most commonly-used methodologies in reactor diagnostics. Conceptually

  19. In,. J. Heat Mass Transfer. Vol. 36,No. 11.pp. 2159-2768,1993 0017-9310/93$6.00+0.00 Printedin GreatBritain 0 1993Pergamon PressLtd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    in capillary porous media-l I. Application to pressure-driven boiling flow adjacent to a vertical heated plate, for example, the cooling of an igneous intrusion in a geothermal reservoir [2], the in situ removal of thermal [7]and Cheng and Verma [8]the boiling process in the neighborhood of a vertical heated plate

  20. SheetEnvironment, Health and Safety Information for the Berkeley Campus Please post or circulate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    equipment and pressure relief valves. 6. Ensure that all equipment and containers are free of oil, grease are extremely cold liquids that at normal temperature and pressure would be a gas. These very cold liquids to touch at such low temperatures. Boiling and Splashing - Cryogenic liquids can boil and splash when first

  1. 1 Copyright 2012 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    OF NON-BOILING GAS-LIQUID TWO PHASE HEAT TRANSFER IN VERTICAL DOWNWARD PIPE ORIENTATION Swanand M of the non-boiling two phase heat transfer phenomenon for this pipe orientation, experimental investigation1 Copyright © 2012 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Summer Heat Transfer Conference HT2012 July

  2. ICES REPORT 15-14 Liquid-Vapor Phase Transition: Thermomechanical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ICES

    -order time-accurate. Isogeometric analysis is utilized for spatial discretization. The analytical properties, Phase transition, Evaporation, Condensation, Boiling 1 #12;1 Introduction 1.1 Phase transition induced by temperature variations can be observed in daily life as boiling, evaporation, and condensation

  3. Process for refractory compound conversion in a hydrocracker recycle liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruia, A.J.

    1992-08-18

    This patent describes a catalytic hydrocracking process. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock; partially condensing the hydrocarbon effluent from the hydrocracking zone; introducing at least a portion of the unconverted hydrocarbon stream boiling above about 400{degrees} F and comprising trace quantities of 11{sup +} ring heavy polynuclear aromatic compounds into a 11{sup +} ring heavy polynuclear aromatic compound conversion zone; admixing at least a portion of the effluent from the conversion zone with the lower boiling hydrocarbon stream and partially condensing the resulting admixture; separating the partially condensed admixture to provide a hydrogen-rich gaseous stream and a liquid stream; separating the liquid stream comprising unconverted hydrocarbons boiling above about 400{degrees} F and lower boiling hydrocarbon products; and recycling at least a portion of the unconverted hydrocarbon stream boiling above about 400{degrees} F to the hydrocracking zone as at least a portion of the liquid recycle stream.

  4. Ris6-M-165A CO Danish Atomic Energy Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -73 Avallabl« on raquaat trom: Library o\\ tha Danish Atomic Enaroy Commtaaton (Atomanarglkommlaalonana of failure analysis a r e considered. v_opies to lO Abstract to Available on request from the Library of systems 2 An example 4 Classification of systems 7 Cause and effect 8 Loops in cause effect graphs 9

  5. -A Science Service Feature 0 bHY THE VdZATHEH 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    w i t h the prevailing distribution of temperature. In tha last analysis, the pre- The trade winds differences i n prossure come ultimately from differences i n temperature, vB,iling winds blow i n accordance engine driven by the sun. Tho general features of this engine would bc simple enough i f the earth did

  6. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Ingenta Content Distribution Psy Press Titles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    applications. The reduction in volume and footprint of the systems is foremost in the minds of urban architects the operating cost remains a critical factor with high energy prices. The impetus toward improving the energy efficiency of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment be- comes clear when we recognize tha

  7. The Detection of Artificial Coatings on Rice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyder, Ernest E.

    1913-05-15

    by me d i d run o v e r t h i s . . I n some cases the po l i shed r i c e may be ove r 10%, but the amount o f s o l i d s i s 3o smal l tha t the we i gh t o f ash i s be low the exper imenta l e r r o r . In tha t case the r i c e i s uncoated... by me d i d run o v e r t h i s . . I n some cases the po l i shed r i c e may be ove r 10%, but the amount o f s o l i d s i s 3o smal l tha t the we i gh t o f ash i s be low the exper imenta l e r r o r . In tha t case the r i c e i s uncoated...

  8. Distribution of the zooplankton in the salt marshes of southeastern Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuzon du Rest, Rene Pierre

    1962-01-01

    ptANl aeooaeaflLLEJ to thia eer oorireeaeae. Xf @+a hag tace tha eeoc, theta gietxQaeiaw jaetarw ends here baca- liffereet ael their varLatiewa kw 4iatrQwtiee aeeww the three aeh- araaa eel% hara beee osgg IeLwer. Owly aerghaliae er geeioee like...

  9. Determinants of Financial Stress and Recovery during the Great Recession

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Pasricha, Gurnain Kaur

    2010-01-01

    COL EGY RUS THA HUN ARE BGD HRV FRA JPN ESP TWN FIN TUR BELCOL ARG BRA PHL LKA UKR RUS HRV PER GRC PRT ESP HUN JPN SWEBEL HUN CAN SVK PRT JOR MEX HRV GRC CZE DEU ITA SVN AUS GBR

  10. Current account patterns and national real estate markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2008-01-01

    CHE NOR IRL AUT ESP CAN GRC HRV SGP MYS ISR BGR SWE GBR KORSample USA DNK TWN LUX SGP HRV THA BGR DEU NZL CAN ESP AUTGBR SWE ESP ISR LUX NOR MLT HRV HUN CAN PRT USA Excluding G7

  11. Corrupting Learning: Evidence From Missing Federal Education Funds in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferraz, Claudio; Finan, Frederico; Moreira, Diana B

    2012-01-01

    PRT CHL FIN POL LVA GRC HUN HRV ITA TUR ROM THA ISR MEX JOREST BEL FRA JPN POL LTU SVK HRV LVA GRC SVN CHL PRT ESP HUNGRC GBR NOR LUX LVA ESP USA HRV CHE JPN AUT POL DNK ISL SVN

  12. The Spatial Structure of Transnational Human Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutschmann, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the spatial structures of animal displacements and local-scale human motion follow L\\'{e}vy flights. Whether transnational human activity (THA) also exhibits such a pattern has however not been thoroughly examined as yet. To fill this gap, this article examines the planet-scale spatial structure of THA (a) across eight types of mobility and communication and (b) in its development over time. Combining data from various sources, it is shown that the spatial structure of THA can indeed be approximated by L\\'{e}vy flights with heavy tails that obey power laws. Scaling exponent and power-law fit differ by type of THA, being highest in refuge-seeking and tourism and lowest in student exchange. Variance in the availability of resources and opportunities for satisfying associated needs appears to explain these differences. Over time, the L\\'{e}vy-flight pattern remains intact and remarkably stable, contradicting the popular idea that socio-technological trends lead to a "death of dista...

  13. Digitally controlled low frequency square wave electronic ballast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and the Boost converter is commonly used. However the boost output DC voltage has to be set to be greater tha and the second is a full-bridge converter (FB) used for both ignition and square wave drive. Ignition is achieved as a resonant inverter. After ignition the converter operates as a LFSW inverter by controlling the FB to act

  14. BAT RESEARCH NEWS Volume 37: Number 4 Winter 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , BAT RESEARCH NEWS Volume 37: Number 4 Winter 1996 Bat Collisions with Wind Turbines colliding with a lighthouse at LODg POlDL. OnWlo. Bat collisions with wind turbines used to produce e \\IIRA IS a 25·megawau faciluy and conSISts cf 73 KVS-33 wind turbines thaI were grouped InlO 10 Stnngs

  15. Effect of Surface Mass on Roof Thermal Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkes, K. E.; Shipp, P. H.; Sanders, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    -rmrur.~ and nut nuua for tha Pmr Irt Mlly war. Twc hr1.d: bm&q T-r.rur.s CInm ter .r.d1sr1- BARE ROOF, MAY 1 -- MAY 7, 1986 *CAM 0- CmalwNs I70 BARE ROOF, MAY 1 -. MAY 7, 1986 wc1mu WUNY~ cwnms , ,---- ---"- .- - - nuc, MR. . -. El EXPWl...

  16. INTRODUCING ASK, A SIMPLE KNOWLEDGEABLE SYSTEM Bozenn H. Thompson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inatitnce of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 ABSTRACT ASK, ~ ~imple Knowledgeable System, is a total in the sense thaC its development concentrated on clean engineering solutions to what could be done now is Boston. London has been replaced by Boston as the home port of Maru. >The cargo of Maru is coal. coal has

  17. Terminological Logics and Conceptual Graphs: An Historical Perspective?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Renate A.

    expressive ones, like KL of [6]. The history of these algebras can be traced back to the work of Boole, De be traced, as far back, as the nineteenth century, to the beginnings of algebraic logic and quantification on the existential graphs of Peirce. It is less well-known tha* *t, in essence, Peirce also developed the algebraic

  18. Carbon Dioxide Exchange Between an Old-growth Forest and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Carbon Dioxide Exchange Between an Old-growth Forest and the Atmosphere Kyaw Tha Paw U,1 * Matthias ABSTRACT Eddy-covariance and biometeorological methods show significant net annual carbon uptake in an old that old-growth forest eco- systems are in carbon equilibrium. The basis for differences between

  19. Ris Report No. 295 Danish Atomic Energy Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical Operator Equivalents and Magnetic Anisotropy of the Heavy Rare Earth Metals by Oluf Danielsen. On this background temperature laws of the magnetic anisotropy of tha heavy rare earth metals are calculated. Further wave energy gap of the heavy rare earth metals cal- culated. This report Is submitted to the Technical

  20. Unagreement is an Illusion. Apparent person mismatches and nominal structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Höhn, Georg F.K.

    2015-01-01

    /*pane go.3sg/3pl ekdromi. trip ‘No pupil will go on a trip.’ (21) (O) det.nom.sg kathe each mathitis pupil tha fut paei/*pane go.3sg/3pl ekdromi. trip ‘Each pupil is going to go on a trip.’ 8 I have also found a speaker of Spanish raised in Venezuela who...

  1. Classroom and Academic Office Building Project No.: 900290 RFQ: Selected Firm Posting Page 1 of 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oviedo, Néstor J.

    Schleuning 621 SW Morrison Ste. 200 Portland, OR 97205 503-222-1917 23 Stantec Lou Viani 1201 J. St. Studio San Francisco, CA 94105 415-398-7575 25 THA Architecture Jonah Cohen 733 SW Oak St. Portland, OR 97205 Architecture John Blumthal 1211 SW 5th Ave Ste. 2700 Portland, OR 97204 503-221-0150 30 Zimmer Gunsul Frasca

  2. Faculdade ou Institutos Total Faculdade de Direito -FDD 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, Rudolf Richard

    Med. Vet - FAV AGR 18 VET 17 Gestão de Agronegócios 5 Fac de Arquitetura e Urbanismo - FAU PRO - Dep. de Projeto Expressão e Representação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo 15 TEC - Dep. de Tecnologia em Arquitetura e Urbanismo 8 THA - Dep. de Teoria e História em Arquitetura e Urbanismo 7 Faculdade de Ciências

  3. Selected income tax problems of closely-held corporations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Thomas Martin

    1952-01-01

    shish derive the ~orlop of their inoocN frees ~waled "fQn rentable, " Tha oor~4es involved are dealing in tangibLe prep?rttr? (filcc? delivered in sans) bcg, probablp ?he aosb vale ahlo sharaetoristis of 4hs file is its ocqyridhb as an artieM. e p...

  4. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  5. Production of hydrocarbon fractions by hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degnan, T.F.; Kirker, G.W.; Socha, R.F.; Stapleton, M.R.; Johnson, I.D.

    1991-05-14

    This patent describes a process which comprises hydrocracking a hydrocarbon feedstock having an initial boiling point about 343{degrees} C. in the presence of a catalyst having cracking and hydrogenating activity. It comprises: catalyst comprising a layered silicate containing interspathic polymeric silica, in order to produce a hydrocarbon product having at least 35 percent by weight of hydrocarbons having a boiling point below 343{degrees} c., the catalyst further comprising at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mo, W, Fe, Co, and Ni, wherein the hydrocracking occurs at conversions to product having a boiling point of less than 343{degrees} C. of greater than 70 percent volume of charge.

  6. Distribution and Digestibility of the Pentosans of Feeds. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.

    1915-01-01

    .6 { 48.7 26.5 72.61 50.1 74.9 - ?gl~a~l?e? so% .al~oboi .... :::::::::::: 1 Soluble cold water ..... . ......... . Soluble hot water . ........ . . .. ... . Soluble 1% hydrochloric acid .... . . Soluble 1% caustic soda .... .... .. . Soluble... extracted with ether, 200 c. c. boiling water was added and 20 c. c. of N / 5 sulphuric acid. After boil ing thirty minute', 40 c.c. of N / 5 caustic soda was added and the boiling continued :fifteen minutes longer. It was then :filtered on as...

  7. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  8. Bubble dynamics on structured surface in microchannel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Siyu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Surface enhancement is a potential way to improve the performance of flow boiling in microchannels, which is considered to be one of the most promising cooling methods to solve thermal management challenges faced by future ...

  9. TRN Research News Roundup http://www.trnmag.com/Roundup/2005/TRN_Research_News_Roundu... 1 of 2 8/25/2005 8:53 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    trust it toput away the dishes, hang a mirror, brush the dog or boil water on the stove? One of the key and emit light. Potential applications include solid-state lighting, solar cells, displays, and antennas

  10. Effects of thermal aging on Stress Corrosion Cracking and mechanical properties of stainless steel weld metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hixon, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in and around primary loop piping welds in Boiling Water Reactors has been observed worldwide as plants continue to operate at temperatures and pressures near 2880C (5500F) and 6.9 MPa (1000 ...

  11. Dense gas dispersion modeling for aqueous releases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara, Armando

    1999-01-01

    concern since they disperse at ground level. Toxic or combustible materials with boiling points below ambient temperature, such as chlorine and ammonia, are usually stored or transported as a saturated liquid. A release from such a system is likely...

  12. Investigation of the Morphology of the Heart of Zebrafish Embryos Exposed to Different Concentrations of Methylmercury 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmood, Tasneem A

    2013-09-25

    Mercury is a well-known neurotoxicant. In its elemental form, mercury is easily distributed into the atmosphere due to its relatively low boiling point. Once elemental mercury becomes airborne it can travel long distances to eventually be deposited...

  13. FOG CHAMBER STUDIES OF SOOT-CATALYZED SO2 OXIDATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    VACUUM BW" Boiling water F " Filter HM= Heating mantel N "Fluoropore filter was extracted in water and analyzed forfilter was analyzed for total carbon by combustion analysis. When pure water

  14. FOG CHAMBER STUDIES OF SOOT-CATALYZED SO2 OXIDATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    VACUUM BW" Boiling water F " Filter HM= Heating mantel N "the Fluoropore filter was extracted in water and analyzedfilter was analyzed for total carbon by combustion analysis. When pure water

  15. Heat transfer to impacting drops and post critical heat flux dispersed flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kendall, Gail E.

    1978-01-01

    Heat transfer to drops impacting on a hot surface is examined in context of dispersions of flowing, boiling fluids. The liquid contribution to heat transfer from a hot tube to a two-phase dispersion is formulated in terms ...

  16. Use of once-through treat gas to remove the heat of reaction in solvent hydrogenation processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nizamoff, Alan J. (Convent Station, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein feed coal is contacted with molecular hydrogen and a hydrogen-donor solvent in a liquefaction zone to form coal liquids and vapors and coal liquids in the solvent boiling range are thereafter hydrogenated to produce recycle solvent and liquid products, the improvement which comprises separating the effluent from the liquefaction zone into a hot vapor stream and a liquid stream; cooling the entire hot vapor stream sufficiently to condense vaporized liquid hydrocarbons; separating condensed liquid hydrocarbons from the cooled vapor; fractionating the liquid stream to produce coal liquids in the solvent boiling range; dividing the cooled vapor into at least two streams; passing the cooling vapors from one of the streams, the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range, and makeup hydrogen to a solvent hydrogenation zone, catalytically hydrogenating the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range and quenching the hydrogenation zone with cooled vapors from the other cooled vapor stream.

  17. Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Luis W.

    1956-01-01

    t No. W - 7 4 0 5 -eng-48 ,LIQUID HYDROGEN EUSBLE CHA,MBEEZSand 3erkeley to iind if liquid hydrogen could be used as thethat supezheated 'liquid hydrogen could be made to boil

  18. A review of "Demon Lovers: Witchcraft, Sex, and the Crisis of Belief." by Walter Stephens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William E. Engel

    2003-01-01

    particular confession? (7). In the process, Stephens uncovers some important points of origination relating to and associated with the identification of witches, such as screech-owls, black cats, boiling cauldrons, and flying broom-sticks (transvection...

  19. Airfoil Shape Optimization for Transonic Flows of BetheZel'dovichThompson Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , in organic Rankine cycles (ORCs). Specific interest has developed in a particular class of dense gases, known in the same way as classical steam Rankine cycles, but due to the use of low-boiling compounds as working

  20. Formation of aromatics in rich methane flames doped by unsaturated compounds H.A. Gueniche, P.A. Glaude*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    through a single pass heat exchanger, the temperature of which was set above the boiling point of formation of aromatics have been derived from flow rate analyses and have been compared for the three types

  1. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  2. Isothermal Gas-liquid Flow Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Donghoon

    2012-10-19

    As the operating conditions of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) have been increased towards the thermal limits of the core for economics, the subcooled boiling heat transfer performance of the rod bundles under normal operating conditions has...

  3. J. Fluid Mech. (2003), vol. 481, pp. 385411. c 2003 Cambridge University Press DOI: 10.1017/S0022112003003938 Printed in the United Kingdom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, James J.

    2003-01-01

    been neglected. Obvious examples include boilers, combustors and slurry reactors. Currently & Tryggvason (1998) and Shin & Juric (2002) simulated film boiling on a heated plate. By tracking the position of the water­vapour interface, they

  4. Computation of Bubbly Flows with a Mass-Conserving Level-Set Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    in chemical reactors, boiling, fuel injectors and coating. The bubbles and the surrounding fluid are modeled numerical simulation of two-phase flows. We consider two incompressible fluids (e.g. air and water

  5. Boundary Control of Two-Phase Fluid Flow Using the Laplace-Space Snezana Djordjevic, Okko H. Bosgra, and Paul M.J. Van den Hof

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    water in nuclear reactors, and the production of enzymes and drugs in fermentors. The main objective of natural gas in pipelines, the injection of steam into oil wells for enhanced oil recovery, the boiling

  6. The use of reduced-moderation light water reactors for transuranic isotope burning in thorium fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindley, Benjamin A.

    2015-02-03

    -moderation LWRs can improve TRU transmutation performance, but the VC is still severely limiting for these designs. Reduced-moderation pressurized water reactors (RMPWRs) and boiling water reactors (RBWRs) are considered in this study. Using thorium (Th) instead...

  7. TEC HNICAL D ISCUSSION REPORT OF WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    of the University of Michigan demonstrated that microbubbles, generated by boiling of water from small polysilicon chemical and biochemical reactors, and so forth. One of the problems associated with the accurate design

  8. CX-004148: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Online Monitoring Implementation in Boiling Water ReactorsCX(s) Applied: B3.6, B5.1Date: 09/17/2010Location(s): Knoxville, TennesseeOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  9. Energy, Climate & Infrastructure Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in pressurizer surge nozzles in the primary water piping for a commercial boiling water nuclear reactor #12 acentralroleinmanyapplicationssupportingnuclear reactor safety analysis, severe consequence analyses, and nuclear fuel cycle programs including

  10. ON THE PURPORTED FISCHER-TROPSCH ALKYLATION OF BENZENE: THE REACTION OF BENZENE WITH ALUMINUM TRICHLORIDE REVISITED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benner, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    of AlC1 3 in boiling benzene. (8) M. Siskin and J. Porcelli,ON THE PURPORTED FISCHER-TROPSCH ALKYLATION OF BENZENE: THEREACTION OF BENZENE WITH ALUMINUM TRICHLORIDE REVISITED

  11. 1 Copyright 2009 by ASME Proceedings of the MNHMT2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    1 Copyright © 2009 by ASME Proceedings of the MNHMT2009 ASME 2009 2nd Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass employing flow boiling, reliable methods to predict CHF are needed. Although exhaustive numerical codes

  12. NASA Advisory Council Space Operations Committee July 28, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    panels, Hubble spectrometer · Corrosion Lab, e.g., coating with microcapsules, self detection · Cryogenics Test Lab, e.g., tank insulation to minimize boil-off; aerogels; wire insulation

  13. A New Absorption Cycle: The Single-Effect Regenerative Absoprtion Refrigeration Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2011-01-01

    condenser pressure, it is fed to the vapor heat exchanger.pressure stage of boiling process B is collected to the inlet (shell side) of the vapor heat exchanger (

  14. The Northwest Geysers High-Temperature Reservoir- Evidence For...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the HTR is magmatic, and add new constraints to genetic models of the system and its evolution. The intensity of the magmatic signal is inconsistent with deep boiling of connate...

  15. Aluto-Langano Geothermal Field, Ethiopian Rift Valley- Physical...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    along a deep, young NNE trending fault and is characterized by boiling. As a result, the deep upflow zone loses some water as steam and produces a cooler saline shallow aquifer....

  16. Analytical Modeling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in deuterium and 18O. These distinct chemical properties can be explained by adiabatic cooling or boiling of fluids at 170C during upward convection along the central fault...

  17. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of fluids within the Baca...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of deuterium and oxygen 18 in the excess enthalpy fluid, can be explained by adiabatic cooling or boiling at 170C during upward convection along the central fault system in...

  18. Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in deuterium and 18O. These distinct chemical properties can be explained by adiabatic cooling or boiling of fluids at 170C during upward convection along the central fault...

  19. GEOLOGY | April 2013 | www.gsapubs.org 387 INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belousov, Alexander

    combination of heat and water supply condi- tions, a boiling spring with a simple long verti- cal conduit (Fig discharge (gey- sering) have also been observed in some critical artificial systems, such as nuclear power

  20. Stress corrosion cracking and crack tip characterization of Alloy X-750 in light water reactor environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    2011-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Inconel Alloy X-750 in the HTH condition has been evaluated in high purity water at 93 and 288°C under Boiling Water Reactor Normal Water Chemistry (NWC) and Hydrogen Water ...

  1. Production of gasoline and distillate fuels from light cycle oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Owens, P.J.; Sarli, M.S.

    1991-01-15

    This patent describes a process for the co-production of high quality gasoline and distillate products from catalytically cracked feedstocks. It comprises: hydrocracking a substantially dealkylated feedstock with a hydrocracking catalyst at a hydrogen partial pressure not greater than 1200 psig and a conversion to gasoline boiling range products not more than 75 wt. percent; separating the products of hydrocracking into a gasoline boiling range fraction, a first distillate range fraction boiling immediately above the gasoline fraction with an end point in the range of 450{degrees} to 500{degrees} F. and a second distillate fraction boiling above the first distillate fraction; recycling at least a portion of the first distillate fraction to the hydrocracking step to effect saturation and partial cracking of aromatics in the recycled fraction to increase the paraffin content of the second distillate fraction; recovering the second distillate fraction.

  2. COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS: I. FIXED CONCENTRATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by noting that the migration of salt increases the entropic cost of freezing so the energy-entropy balance separation in solutions upon freezing (or boiling). A well-known example from "real world" is the formation

  3. From Landscapes to Tides S. Hudan, A. McIntosh, C. Metelko, N. Peters, J. Black, RdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    Gas phase Boiling at a constant T J. Pochodzalla et al., PRL75, 1040 (1995) T(MeV) J.B. Natowitz et in damped collisions between heavy nuclei near the Coulomb barrier "Stochastic transport of individual

  4. Evaluation of the use of engineering judgements applied to analytical human reliablity analysis methods (HRA) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohlhepp, Katherine D.

    2006-04-12

    AFW Auxiliary Feed Water BOP Balance of Plant BWR Boiling Water Reactor CBDTM Caused Based Decision Tree Method CREAM Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method CPSES Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station CR Control Room CRS Control...

  5. Research on Convective Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer of the Evaporator in Micro/Mini-Channel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, J.; Li, J.

    2006-01-01

    on the reviewers on the present household air conditioners, the potential requirements for new heat transfer enhancement used for household air conditioners are discussed. Investigations on condensation and boiling of refrigerants in mini/micro channels have...

  6. Design of annular fuel for high power density BWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morra, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Enabling high power density in the core of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is economically profitable for existing or new reactors. In this work, we examine the potential for increasing the power density in BWR plants by ...

  7. Stability analysis of natural circulation in BWRs at high pressure conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Rui, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    At rated conditions, a natural circulation boiling water reactor (NCBWR) depends completely on buoyancy to remove heat from the reactor core. This raises the issue of potential unstable flow. oscillations. The objective ...

  8. Cross section generation strategy for high conversion light water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Bryan R. (Bryan Robert)

    2011-01-01

    High conversion water reactors (HCWR), such as the Resource-renewable Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR), are being designed with axial heterogeneity of alternating fissile and blanket zones to achieve a conversion ratio of ...

  9. Symbolizing Quantity Praveen K. Paritosh (paritosh@cs.northwestern.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    .g. boiling point and poverty line. We present results of a pilot experiment that suggests include tall and short for the quantity of height of people; poverty line, lower class, middle class

  10. An Experimental Investigaton of the Effect of Oil on Convective Heat Trasfer and Pressure Drop of a HFC-32/HRC-125 Mixture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McJimsey, Bert Ashford

    1994-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of HCFC-22 and a 50% mass mixture of HFC-32/HFC-125 were experimentally measured under flow boiling conditions in a smooth tube. The refrigerants were flowed through an 8 ...

  11. Ricotta's Recipe for Success... Entrepreneurs can be measured like

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    1 Ricotta's Recipe for Success... Entrepreneurs can be measured like a recipe for success. Take with pride, passion and perseverance. Boil the recipe down and you have the essence of an entrepreneur: fully

  12. Conceptual Design of Molten Salt Loop Experiment for MIT Research Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bean, Malcolm K.

    2011-08-01

    Molten salt is a promising coolant candidate for Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) Gen-IV designs. The low neutron absorption, high thermal capacity, chemical inertness, and high boiling point at low pressure of ...

  13. Uncertainty in environmental economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    In a world of certainty, the design of environmental policy is relatively straightforward, and boils down to maximizing the present value of the flow of social benefits minus costs. But the real world is one of considerable ...

  14. Slide 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the original GOCO model has been getting boiled away, one degree at a time 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Today's M&O contract Original GOCO contracts And many contractors...

  15. Boundary Control of Two-Phase Fluid Flow Using the Laplace-Space Snezana Djordjevic, Okko H. Bosgra, and Paul M.J. Van den Hof

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    of natural gas in pipelines, the injection of steam into oil wells for enhanced oil recovery, boiling water in nuclear reactors, and the production of enzymes and drugs in fermentors. The main control goal for most

  16. Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qvist, Staffan Alexander

    2013-01-01

    of conventional LWR systems (PWR & BWRs), partly due to thethe margin to boiling in a PWR is ?15 ? C, while the coolantprimary heat exhangers of a PWR, in which borated water is

  17. Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basha, Omar 1988-

    2012-11-20

    In this work, a source term model for estimating the rate of spreading and vaporization of LNG on land and sea is introduced. The model takes into account the composition changes of the boiling mixture, the varying thermodynamic properties due...

  18. Nanofluid heat transfer enhancement for nuclear reactor applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buongiorno, Jacopo

    Colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles are known as `nanofluids'. Such engineered fluids offer the potential for enhancing heat transfer, particularly boiling heat transfer, while avoiding the drawbacks (i.e., erosion, ...

  19. Development and Testing of the Berkeley Darfur Stove

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amrose, Susan

    2008-01-01

    the water to a boil and then simmer the water-dough mixtureis stirred during the simmer phase). More research into theperformed with a 5-minute simmer phase as opposed to a 15

  20. Team Bug Bag Biogas For Nicaragua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Team Bug Bag Biogas For Nicaragua Project Recap The task for Team Bug Bag was to create for under $100 (USD), and be able to produce biogas that could boil water for a thirty minute time period

  1. volume 17 Number 12 1989 Nucleic Acids Research The 5S RNA gene minichromosome of Euplotes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olins, Ada L.

    extract and 1.33 g/L anhydrous sodium acetate. Algae were harvested and resuspended in Pringsheim solution boiled wheat seeds in Carolina Spring-water. Large-scale cultures of Euplotes were grown in trays

  2. Geothermal Energy (5 Activities) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rock to water? How does energy transferred between fluids in a binary geothermal power plant work? How does salinity affect the boiling point of water? How do the emissions...

  3. Modeling of fuel-to-steel heat transfer in core disruptive accidents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Russell Charles

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model for direct-contact boiling heat transfer between immiscible fluids was developed and tested experimentally. The model describes heat transfer from a hot fluid bath to an ensemble of droplets of a cooler ...

  4. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    commonly used as the heat transfer fluid in refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps. They generally have a low boiling point and a high heat capacity. This enables a...

  5. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Crack Tip Characterization of Alloy X-750 in Light Water Reactor Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of Inconel Alloy X-750 in the HTH condition has been evaluated in high purity water at 93 and 288°C under Boiling Water Reactor Normal Water Chemistry (NWC) and Hydrogen Water ...

  6. Integrated environmental degradation model for Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in irradiated aqueous solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pleune, Thomas Todd, 1974-

    1999-01-01

    An integrated model has been developed to evaluate the effect of reactor flux, fluence, and other operating conditions on crack growth rates in austenitic stainless steels in boiling water reactor (BWR) environments. The ...

  7. Operating Experience and Test Results From An Ammonia-Based Dry/Wet Cooling System For Electric Power Stations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allemann, R. T.; Werry, E. V.; Fricke, H. D.; Price, R. E.; Bartz, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    tower by heat rejection to the atmosphere. The condenser/ reboiler features Union carbide's doubly enhanced heat transfer tubing to boil ammonia on the inside and to condense the steam externally. System description and performance characteristics...

  8. 1 Copyright 2003 by ASME Proceedings of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Weilin

    and churn flow were never observed. A flow pattern map was constructed and compared with previous maps hydraulic diameter and flow boiling offers many advantages such as low thermal resistance, small flow rate

  9. Graduate Research Assistant, Student Mem. ASME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Weilin

    , with bubbly flow occurring only occasion- ally; stratified and churn flow were never observed. A flow pattern boiling offers many advantages such as low thermal resistance, small flow rate and coolant inventory

  10. Religion, Archaeology, and Social Relations: A Study of the Practice of Quakerism and Caribbean Slavery in the Eighteenth-Century British Virgin Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenoweth, John Martin

    2011-01-01

    in order to feed their animals (House of Commons 1790: 288).possible animal pen just north of the Lettsoms’ house, butanimals, and sometimes were given the skimmings off the sugar boiling as well (House

  11. Tea Party Fairness: How the Idea of Proportional Justice Explains the Right-Wing Populism of the Obama Era

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekins, Emily Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    2010. Boiling Mad: Inside Tea Party America. New York: TimesCBS/New York TImes: Government Tea Party Movement Poll. NewBetween CNN Reporter & Chicago Tea Party." YouTube Accessed

  12. Optimal Distributed Beamforming for MISO Interference Channels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Jiaming

    2012-07-16

    In this thesis, the problem of quantifying the Pareto optimal boundary of the achievable rate region is considered over multiple-input single-output(MISO)interference channels, where the problem boils down to solving a sequence of convex feasibility...

  13. The hardening of Type 316L stainless steel welds with thermal aging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Lauren Juliet

    2012-01-01

    Welded stainless steel piping is a component of boiling water reactors (BWRs). Reirculation and other large diameter piping are fabricated from Type 304 or 316 stainless steels. Delta ferrite is present in welds, because ...

  14. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a high boiling point. Viscosity and thermal capacity determine the amount of pumping energy required. A fluid with low viscosity and high specific heat is easier to pump, because...

  15. Trace Element Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Christensen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    siliceous material at the location of liquid discharge, fluid mixing, or at boiling interfaces; (2) deposits of Mn and Fe oxides containing concentrations of Ba, W, Be, Co, Cu,...

  16. Experimental Study of Water Droplet Vaporization on Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padilla, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    temperature range, T Leid , as a function of average contact angle,temperature range, T Leid , as a function of average contact angle,temperature and onset of nucleate boiling as a function contact angle

  17. Highly Selective Membranes For The Separation Of Organic Vapors Using Super-Glassy Polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA); Nguyen, Phuong (Fremont, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-11-18

    A process for separating hydrocarbon gases of low boiling point, particularly methane, ethane and ethylene, from nitrogen. The process is performed using a membrane made from a super-glassy material. The gases to be separated are mixed with a condensable gas, such as a C.sub.3+ hydrocarbon. In the presence of the condensable gas, improved selectivity for the low-boiling-point hydrocarbon gas over nitrogen is achieved.

  18. Process for the conversion of alcohols and oxygenates to hydrocarbons in a turbulent fluid bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avidan, A. A.; Kam, A. Y.

    1985-04-23

    Improvements in converting C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ monohydric alcohols, particularly methanol, related oxygenates of said alcohols and/or oxygenates produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to light olefins, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons and/or distillate boiling range hydrocarbons are obtained in a fluidized bed of ZSM-5 type zeolite catalyst operating under conditions effective to provide fluidization in the turbulent regime.

  19. Complex cDNA Probes Leslie Vosshall/Axel Lab/11-1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from Stratagene: 25ng cDNA 10 ul primers dH20 to 34 ul Boil in water bath 1 minute. Quick chill on ice). Boil 10 minutes and chill on ice before adding to hybridization mix. 6. Count 1 ul of purified probe from high temperature incubation, allow to cool for one minute at room temperature, then add: 50ul 1M

  20. Hydrocracking process utilizing a catalyst having a reduced zeolite content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdo, S.F.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for refining hydrocarbon feedback containing organonitrogen components, organosulfur components or a mixture thereof. The process comprises: contacting the feedback with molecular hydrogen under hydrotreating conditions in the presence of a hydrotreating catalyst comprising a Group VIB metal component and a Group VIII metal component such that a subtantial proportion of the organonitrogen components, organosulfur components or mixture thereof is converted to ammonia, hydrogen sulfide or a mixture thereof; contacting substantially all of the effluent from the first step with molecular hydrogen in a first hydrocracking zone in the presence of a first hydrocracking catalyst comprising a zeolite and a hydrogeneration component to produce a hydrocracking product of substantially lower boiling point; separating the hydrocracking product into a higher boiling fraction and a lower boiling fraction; contacting the higher boiling fraction with molecular hydrogen in a second hydrocracking zone under hydrocracking conditions in an atmosphere which contains no more than about 200 ppmv ammonia and in the presence of a second hydrocracking catalyst to convert the higher boiling fraction into lower boiling products. The second hydrocracking catalysts comprises; a porous, inorganic refractory oxide component; and between about 40 weight percent and about 70 weight percent of a crystalline aluminosilicate Y zeolite having a silica-to-alumina mole ratio above about 6.0 intimately mixed with the refractory oxide component. The crystalline aluminosilicate Y zeolite having been ion-exchanged with Group VIII noble metal cations.