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Sample records for nanotechnology nanoclusterhand photo

  1. Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Former Highlights

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Archived Features Nanotechnology nanoclusterhand Photo Courtesy of LANL Nanotechnology has a vitally important role to play in addressing the nation's energy, climate change and...

  2. Nanotechnology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Engineering. A Advanced Functional Materials Nanotechnology Nature Nanotechnology Biosensors & Bioelectronics Small 2013 JCR Science Edition, ranked by total citations,...

  3. Nanotechnology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's Nanotechnology Safety provides a forum for the exchange of best practices, lessons learned, and guidance in the area of nanotechnology safety and health management.

  4. Photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos /newsroom/_assets/images/legacy-icon-short.jpg Photos High-quality photos speak more than a thousand words about our science and technology, community outreach, collaborations, careers, and much more. News Releases Science Briefs Photos Picture of the Week Publications Social Media Videos Fact Sheets PHOTOS BY TOPIC Careers Community Visitors Environment History Science The Lab PICTURE OF THE WEEK View the latest pictures highlighted weekly by the Lab. LANL IMAGES Click thumbnails to

  5. Photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos Photos LynnRippe.jpg Lynn Rippe NERSCPoster1.jpg NERSC Poster (February 2001 NUG Meeting) ESNetPoster1.jpg ESNet Poster (February 2001 NUG Meeting) MeetinagArea1.jpg The...

  6. Nanotechnology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanotechnology Nanotechnology The Department of Energy's Nanotechnology Safety provides a forum for the exchange of best practices, lessons learned, and guidance in the area of ...

  7. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo Gallery: April 8, 2007 April 15, 2007 March 21, 2010: Photos Videos April 11, 2010 Nov. 18, 2012 (video)...

  8. Class Photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Class Photos Class Photos Bringing together top, space science students with internationally recognized researchers at Los Alamos in an educational and collaborative atmosphere....

  9. Class Photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Class Photos Class Photos Bringing together top space science students with ... Request more information Email Class of 2015 students and mentors Space Weather School ...

  10. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo Gallery Miscellaneous Gallery 1 Gallery 2 Gallery 3 Banquet CAMD Tour

  11. Contribution to Nanotechnology Manufacturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    50 award for directed assembly September 3, 2008 Contribution to Nanotechnology Manufacturing LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, September 3, 2008-A team of scientists spanning three...

  12. Navillum Nanotechnologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Navillum Nanotechnologies University of Utah Navillum Nanotechnologies' innovative method for fabricating quantum dots and other types of semiconducting nanocrystals at commercial ...

  13. Svaya Nanotechnologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Svaya Nanotechnologies Place: Sunnyvale, California Zip: 94085 Product: Stealth nanotechnology startup developing self-assembling, molecular-scale films useful in the PV...

  14. Class Photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Class Photos Class Photos Bringing together top space science students with internationally recognized researchers at Los Alamos in an educational and collaborative atmosphere. Contacts Director Misa Cowee Email Administrative Assistant Mary Wubbena Email Request more information Email Class of 2015 students and mentors Space Weather School 2015 class photo Space Weather School 2015 class photo Class of 2014 students and mentors Class of 2014 Students and Mentors Class of 2014 Students and

  15. Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology PDF icon CX rulemaking files More Documents & Publications Volume II, ...

  16. Stock Photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stock-Photos Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors Technology & Innovation...

  17. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Blog » Photo Galleries Photo Galleries Gallery Title Topic - Any - Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Energy Efficiency -Homes --Heating & Cooling ---Heating ---Cooling ---Heat Pumps --Water Heating ---Swimming Pool Heaters --Home Weatherization ---Home Energy Audits ---Insulation ---Sealing Your Home ---Ventilation --Saving Electricity ---Lighting ---Appliances & Electronics ---Buying & Making Electricity --Design & Remodeling ---Windows, Doors, & Skylights

  18. National Nanotechnology Initiative's Signature Initiative Sustainable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanotechnology Initiative National Nanotechnology Initiative's Signature Initiative Sustainable Nanomanufacturing: Creating the Industries of the Future Dr. Robert Pohanka Director ...

  19. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Link

    Active Target Aids Beam Alignment

    Cryogenic Systems Operator JoJo Cuenca takes a quality-control photo of the energized active target after its...

  20. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ADEPS » MPA » MPA-CINT Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies Nanomaterials integration is one of many approaches we take in addressing a range of challenges, from human health to national defense. Contact Us CINT Co-Director Quanxi Jia Email Deputy Group Leader (acting) Alex Lacerda Email Group Office (505) 667-9243 First in-situ images of void collapse in explosives Los Alamos researchers and collaborators demonstrated a crucial diagnostic for studying how voids affect explosives under shock

  1. Navillum Nanotechnologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Navillum Nanotechnologies National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Navillum Nanotechnologies University of Utah Navillum Nanotechnologies' innovative method for fabricating quantum dots and other types of semiconducting nanocrystals at commercial scale that can both save energy and produce renewable energy. Quantum dots emit light at specific colors when stimulated by light or applied electrical source. Semiconducting nanocrystals can make solar panels up to 45 percent more efficient,

  2. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Featured Photos <h3>Repairing and Finishing NIF Optics</h3>Optics group leader Joe Menapace adjusts operation of the magneto-rheological finishing (MRF) polisher during finishing of a refurbished wedged focus lens (WFL). WFLs are wedged-shaped lenses in the NIF final optics assemblies that focus and direct the beamlines to the center of the Target Chamber. Tiny sub-micron flaws can grow and damage the lenses when they are subjected to the intense ultraviolet light from the NIF

  3. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Historic Lasers <h3>Argus Laser Bay</h3>The two-beam Argus laser came online In 1976. Use of Argus increased knowledge about laser propagation limits and helped LLNL Laser Program researchers develop technologies needed for the next generation of laser fusion systems.<br/><br/><a href="content/assets/images/media/photo-gallery/large/nif-1109-17874.jpg" target="_blank">Download hi-res image</a><br/><a

  4. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Construction <h3>Victor Reis</h3>Victor Reis, the Assistant Secretary for the Department of Energy's Defense Programs, played a key leadership role in the 1990s in defining the emerging Stockpile Stewardship Program and the need for the National Ignition Facility.<br/><br/><a href="content/assets/images/media/photo-gallery/large/nif-1209-18052.jpg" target="_blank">Download hi-res image</a><br/><a

  5. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Targets <h3>Assuring Target Quality</h3>Cryogenic Systems Operator Eric Mertens takes a pre-installation quality-assurance photo of the keyhole target for a cryogenic equation-of-state (CryoEOS) experiment for the NIF Discovery Science program. The CryoEOS shot measured the optical properties of deuterium along a reverberation compression path to three megabars (three million Earth atmospheres). Credit: James Pryatel<br/><br/><a

  6. Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vicki Colvin

    2009-05-14

    Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

  7. Nanotechnology | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotechnology Subscribe to RSS - Nanotechnology Nanomaterials, which are measured in billionths of a meter, are prized for their use in everything from golf clubs and swimwear to microchips, paints and pharmaceutical products, thanks to their singular properties. These include exceptional strength and flexibility and high electrical conductivity. Carbon nanotubes, for example, are tens of thousands of times thinner than a human hair, yet are stronger than steel on an ounce-per-ounce basis. PPPL

  8. Photos & Multimedia - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Newsroom Photos & Multimedia Office of River Protection About ORP ORP Projects & Facilities Newsroom Photos & Multimedia ORP Events Press Releases Contracts & Procurements Contact ...

  9. ALS Staff Photo

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Staff Photo Print On May 14, 2013, members of ALS staff posed for a group photo in front of the dome. A hi-res version can be downloaded here. The last staff photo was taken in 2006. 2013 staff photo

  10. Drawings and Photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drawings and Photos: Hutch 1 SAXS Camera Users experiments Misc Click links for images

  11. NERSC Systems Photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Photos NERSC Systems Photos cori panorama 1997x723 Cori (panorama) Cori closeup Cori (crop) Cori longshot Cori (wide shot) Edison Edison Edison headon Edison Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:48

  12. ALS Staff Photo

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Print On May 14, 2013, members of ALS staff posed for a group photo in front of the dome. A hi-res version can be downloaded here. The last staff photo was taken in 2006. 2013...

  13. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  14. Altair Nanotechnologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of proprietary technology for making nanocrystalline materials. Applications include batteryfuel cell development. References: Altair Nanotechnologies Inc1 This article is a...

  15. SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "Light and Nanotechnology- Engineering ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 2013, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "Light and Nanotechnology- Engineering & So Much More" Professor Claire Gmachl Department of Electrical...

  16. Photos | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photos Photos Addthis Collegiate Wind Competition 1 of 124 Collegiate Wind Competition May 01, 2015- College students compete in the 2015 Collegiate Wind Competition held at NREL's National Wind Technology Center in the foothills just south of Boulder, Colorado. They built scale model wind turbines that were tested for performance in a wind tunnel at the NWTC. (Photo by Dennis Schroeder / NREL) Date taken: 2015-05-01 08:44 Collegiate Wind Competition 2 of 124 Collegiate Wind Competition May 01,

  17. Manhattan Project: Photo Gallery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer PHOTO GALLERY Resources Additional information is available regarding the following "animated gifs" and other photographs: Alpha Racetrack, ...

  18. Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 at the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 at the Bradbury Science Museum The Bradbury Science Museum is...

  19. Weather Photos - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hanford Meteorological Station Weather Photos Hanford Meteorological Station Photo Gallery Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size Hanford Meteorological Service Search Search Search Filter: Hanford Meteorological Service All Galleries 284 East Explosive Demolition Settlers B Reactor 100DX Groundwater Treatment Facility 100HX Groundwater Treatment Facility 200 West Groundwater Treatment Facility Construction 200 West Groundwater Treatment LEED Facility

  20. Photos | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos Photos EFRC Graduate Student Postdoctoral Researcher Competition Missouri Botanical Gardens Tour | Events & Topics Hot Topics Summer Workshops All Hands 2015 Tyson Research...

  1. Nanotechnology: Small Materials Making a Big Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanotechnology: Small Materials Making a Big Impact Nanotechnology: Small Materials Making a Big Impact December 14, 2010 - 12:35pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs This past Thursday, Secretary Chu delivered remarks to the Nanotechnology Innovation Summit in National Harbor, Maryland on how breakthroughs in nanotechnology are poised to transform the energy landscape. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative,

  2. SAGE Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo Gallery SAGE Photo Gallery A National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates program Contacts Institute Director Reinhard Friedel-Los Alamos SAGE Co-Director W. Scott Baldridge-Los Alamos SAGE Co-Director Larry Braile-Purdue University Professional Staff Assistant Georgia Sanchez (505) 665-0855 Image Image Participants of SAGE 2000 deploy cables and geophones during a seismic survey. Veritas DGC Inc., an industrial sponsor of SAGE, provided Vibroseis trucks (seen in

  3. Photo-ionization and residual electron effects in guided streamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S.; Lu, X. Liu, D.; Yang, Y.; Pan, Y.; Ostrikov, K.

    2014-10-15

    Complementary experiments and numerical modeling reveal the important role of photo-ionization in the guided streamer propagation in helium-air gas mixtures. It is shown that the minimum electron concentration ?10{sup 8?}cm{sup ?3} is required for the regular, repeated propagation of the plasma bullets, while the streamers propagate in the stochastic mode below this threshold. The stochastic-to-regular mode transition is related to the higher background electron density in front of the propagating streamers. These findings help improving control of guided streamer propagation in applications from health care to nanotechnology and improve understanding of generic pre-breakdown phenomena.

  4. Fireplace photo | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    photo Fireplace photo Photo of a fireplace. PDF icon Fireplace photo More Documents & Publications .Hearth, Patio & Barbecue Association's Comments on DOE's Regulatory Burden RFI Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden (Reply Comments) Re: Regulatory Burden RFI

  5. Photos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos Browse By - Any - General Argonne Information -Awards -Honors Energy -Energy efficiency --Vehicles ---Alternative fuels ---Automotive engineering ---Biofuels ---Diesel ---Electric drive technology ---Fuel economy ---Fuel injection ---Heavy-duty vehicles ---Hybrid & electric vehicles ---Hydrogen & fuel cells ---Internal combustion ---Maglev systems ---Powertrain research ---Vehicle testing --Building design ---Construction ---Industrial heating & cooling ---Industrial lighting

  6. Photos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos Browse By - Any - General Argonne Information -Awards -Honors Energy -Energy efficiency --Vehicles ---Alternative fuels ---Automotive engineering ---Biofuels ---Diesel ---Electric drive technology ---Fuel economy ---Fuel injection ---Heavy-duty vehicles ---Hybrid & electric vehicles ---Hydrogen & fuel cells ---Internal combustion ---Maglev systems ---Powertrain research ---Vehicle testing --Building design ---Construction ---Industrial heating & cooling ---Industrial lighting

  7. Photos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos Browse By - Any - General Argonne Information -Awards -Honors Energy -Energy efficiency --Vehicles ---Alternative fuels ---Automotive engineering ---Biofuels ---Diesel ---Electric drive technology ---Fuel economy ---Fuel injection ---Heavy-duty vehicles ---Hybrid & electric vehicles ---Hydrogen & fuel cells ---Internal combustion ---Maglev systems ---Powertrain research ---Vehicle testing --Building design ---Construction ---Industrial heating & cooling ---Industrial lighting

  8. Photos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos Browse By - Any - General Argonne Information -Awards -Honors Energy -Energy efficiency --Vehicles ---Alternative fuels ---Automotive engineering ---Biofuels ---Diesel ---Electric drive technology ---Fuel economy ---Fuel injection ---Heavy-duty vehicles ---Hybrid & electric vehicles ---Hydrogen & fuel cells ---Internal combustion ---Maglev systems ---Powertrain research ---Vehicle testing --Building design ---Construction ---Industrial heating & cooling ---Industrial lighting

  9. Photos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos Browse By - Any - General Argonne Information -Awards -Honors Energy -Energy efficiency --Vehicles ---Alternative fuels ---Automotive engineering ---Biofuels ---Diesel ---Electric drive technology ---Fuel economy ---Fuel injection ---Heavy-duty vehicles ---Hybrid & electric vehicles ---Hydrogen & fuel cells ---Internal combustion ---Maglev systems ---Powertrain research ---Vehicle testing --Building design ---Construction ---Industrial heating & cooling ---Industrial lighting

  10. Photos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos Browse By - Any - General Argonne Information -Awards -Honors Energy -Energy efficiency --Vehicles ---Alternative fuels ---Automotive engineering ---Biofuels ---Diesel ---Electric drive technology ---Fuel economy ---Fuel injection ---Heavy-duty vehicles ---Hybrid & electric vehicles ---Hydrogen & fuel cells ---Internal combustion ---Maglev systems ---Powertrain research ---Vehicle testing --Building design ---Construction ---Industrial heating & cooling ---Industrial lighting

  11. Photos on This Web Site

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Most of the geothermal energy photos used on this web site can be obtained from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Photographic Information eXchange (PIX). Before using a photo, please read...

  12. Photos and graphics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photos and graphics MINERVA_assembly_10-0082-08D MINERvA uses a collider detector design and a high-intensity beam to study neutrino reactions with five different nuclei, creating the first self-contained comparison of interactions in different elements. MINERvA's comprehensive research goals attract scientists from around the globe who specialize in nuclear and particle physics. (Credit: Fermilab) MINERvA's comprehensive research goals attract scientists from around the globe who specialize in

  13. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    The average Industrial Hygienist (IH) loves a challenge, right? Okay, well here is one with more than a few twists. We start by going through the basics of a risk assessment. You have some chemical agents, a few workers, and the makings of your basic exposure characterization. However, you have no occupational exposure limit (OEL), essentially no toxicological basis, and no epidemiology. Now the real handicap is that you cannot use sampling pumps, cassettes, tubes, or any of the media in your toolbox, and the whole concept of mass-to-dose is out the window, even at high exposure levels. Of course, by the title, you knew we were talking about nanomaterials (NM). However, we wonder how many IHs know that this topic takes everything you know about your profession and turns it upside down. It takes the very foundations that you worked so hard in college and in the field to master and pulls it out from underneath you. It even takes the gold standard of our profession, the quantitative science of exposure assessment, and makes it look pretty darn rusty. Now with NM there is the potential to get some aspect of quantitative measurements, but the instruments are generally very expensive and getting an appropriate workplace personal exposure measurement can be very difficult if not impossible. The potential for workers getting exposures, however, is very real, as evidenced by a recent publication reporting worker exposures to polyacrylate nanoparticles in a Chinese factory (Song et al. 2009). With something this complex and challenging, how does a concept as simple as Control Banding (CB) save the day? Although many IHs have heard of CB, most of their knowledge comes from its application in the COSHH Essentials toolkit. While there is conflicting published research on COSHH Essentials and its value for risk assessments, almost all of the experts agree that it can be useful when no OELs are available (Zalk and Nelson 2008). It is this aspect of CB, its utility with uncertainty, that attracted international NM experts to recommend this qualitative risk assessment approach for NM. However, since their CB recommendation was only in theory, we took on the challenge of developing a working toolkit, the CB Nanotool (see Zalk et al. 2009 and Paik et al. 2008), as a means to perform a risk assessment and protect researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. While it's been acknowledged that engineered NM have potentially endless benefits for society, it became clear to us that the very properties that make nanotechnology so useful to industry could also make them dangerous to humans and the environment. Among the uncertainties and unknowns with NM are: the contribution of their physical structure to their toxicity, significant differences in their deposition and clearance in the lungs when compared to their parent material (PM), a lack of agreement on the appropriate indices for exposure to NM, and very little background information on exposure scenarios or populations at risk. Part of this lack of background information can be traced to the lack of risk assessments historically performed in the industry, with a recent survey indicating that 65% of companies working with NM are not doing any kind of NM-specific risk assessment as they focus on traditional PM methods for IH (Helland et al. 2009). The good news is that the amount of peer-reviewed publications that address environmental, health and safety aspects of NM has been increasing over the last few years; however, the percentage of these that address practical methods to reduce exposure and protect workers is orders of magnitude lower. Our intent in developing the CB Nanotool was to create a simplified approach that would protect workers while unraveling the mysteries of NM for experts and non-experts alike. Since such a large part of the toxicological effects of both the physical and chemical properties of NM were unknown, not to mention changing logarithmically as new NM research continues growing, we needed to account for this lack of information as part of the CB Nano

  14. PHOTO BY JAMES CHRZANOWSKI

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PHOTO BY JAMES CHRZANOWSKI After a three-year, $94 million overhaul, the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's primary fusion reactor has resumed the quest for clean energy. The fusion of parts of the atom inside the reactor could release a near limitless amount of energy and reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, while generating minimal hazardous waste. The upgrade included replacing the center of the apple-shaped reactor with a new 29,000-pound magnetic core (left) and bringing in a 70-ton

  15. WIPP - Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gallery Shortcuts WIPP Site Transportation Contact-Handled TRU Waste Remote-Handled TRU Waste Mining Photo Gallery Click on a thumbnail image to see a larger version of the photographs. WIPP Site Back to top The entrance to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, N.M. The entrance to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, N.M. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant at sunrise. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant at sunrise. A view of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant from a distance. A view of

  16. Index of /nnpss/photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nnpss/photos [ICO] Name Last modified Size Description [DIR] Parent Directory - [DIR] DurhamBullsGame/ 07-Jul-2011 17:46 - [DIR] Farewell/ 07-Jul-2011 17:48 - [IMG] GroupPhoto_HIGH_RESOLUTION.jpg 07-Jul-2011 14:44 4.8M [IMG] GroupPhoto_LOW_RESOLUTION.jpg 07-Jul-2011 14:44 428K [IMG] GroupPhoto_MEDIUM_RESOLUTION.jpg 07-Jul-2011 14:44 5.0M [DIR] Lectures/ 07-Jul-2011 17:58 - [DIR] PosterSession/ 07-Jul-2011 17:50 - [DIR] WelcomeReception/ 07-Jul-2011 17:47 -

  17. Photo Gallery | Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship (MLEF)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo Gallery In the gallery below you will find photos from the 2015 Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship (MLEF) Program. You can view our photos on Flickr. MLEF Technical Forum 2014...

  18. Photo Gallery | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Photo Gallery The latest photos from NNSA headquarters and across the nuclear security enterprise. The latest photos from NNSA headquarters and across the nuclear security enterprise. Visit us on Flickr

  19. December 3, 2003: Bush signs Nanotechnology R&D Act | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3, 2003: Bush signs Nanotechnology R&D Act December 3, 2003: Bush signs Nanotechnology R&D Act December 3, 2003: Bush signs Nanotechnology R&D Act December 3, 2003 Secretary ...

  20. CFC Photo Gallery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CFC Photo Gallery CFC Photo Gallery Addthis 1 of 5 2 of 5 3 of 5 4 of 5 5 of 5 View All Galleries...

  1. Schlumberger Office Photos | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Office Photos Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Schlumberger Office Photos Author Schlumberger Published Publisher Not Provided, 2013 DOI...

  2. Photo Galleries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to a Clean Energy Future SunShot Grand Challenge SunShot Grand Challenge Inside the Tandem Mirror Experiment Photo of the Week Franklin County Courthouse (Before) Franklin...

  3. Geothermal Energy Photos | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Resources » Geothermal Energy Photos Geothermal Energy Photos Image of the Week: Energy Department investments are exploring for geothermal power from abundant natural resources in Alaska. photo courtesy of Frontier Scientists. Image of the Week: Energy Department investments are exploring for geothermal power from abundant natural resources in Alaska. photo courtesy of Frontier Scientists. Here you'll find links to online resources for photos of geothermal energy technologies,

  4. Acoustic enhancement for photo detecting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G; Senesac, Lawrence R; Van Neste, Charles W

    2013-02-19

    Provided are improvements to photo detecting devices and methods for enhancing the sensitivity of photo detecting devices. A photo detecting device generates an electronic signal in response to a received light pulse. An electro-mechanical acoustic resonator, electrically coupled to the photo detecting device, damps the electronic signal and increases the signal noise ratio (SNR) of the electronic signal. Increased photo detector standoff distances and sensitivities will result.

  5. National Nanotechnology Initiative's Signature Initiative Sustainable Nanomanufacturing: Creating the Industries of the Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation for the Sustainable Nanomaterials Workshop by National Nanotechnology Coordination Office held on June 26, 2012

  6. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  7. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: From Energy Applications to Advanced Medical Therapies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tijana Rajh

    2010-01-08

    Dr. Rajh will present a general talk on nanotechnology ? an overview of why nanotechnology is important and how it is useful in various fields. The specific focus will be on Solar energy conversion, environmental applications and advanced medical therapies. She has broad expertise in synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials that are used in nanotechnology including novel hybrid systems connecting semiconductors to biological molecules like DNA and antibodies. This technology could lead to new gene therapy procedures, cancer treatments and other medical applications. She will also discuss technologies made possible by organizing small semiconductor particles called quantum dots, materials that exhibit a rich variety of phenomena that are size and shape dependent. Development of these new materials that harnesses the unique properties of materials at the 1-100 nanometer scale resulted in the new field of nanotechnology that currently affects many applications in technological and medical fields.

  8. Jefferson Lab Photos | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Photos Images on the Jefferson Lab website that are in the public domain may be used without permission. If you use images from the Jefferson Lab website, it is requested that you credit Jefferson Lab as the source, unless an image is used in an advertisement. As a courtesy, you can also inform Jefferson Lab of your intended use of a photo by sending an e-mail to jlabinfo@jlab.org. Please note that some images on the website may have been obtained from other organizations and will

  9. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems | Department of Energy Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented PDF icon hendricks.pdf More Documents & Publications Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight

  10. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Library NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library Search Listed by categories below are publicly released photos in the Nevada Field Office photo archive. Clicking on the category name will displays the thumbnails of all photos within that category. Should these photos be used in any manner that requires a credit line, the wording should read: "Photo courtesy of National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Field Office". Refer to the FAQs to order

  11. Restoration Monitoring-A Simple Photo Monitoring Method | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Restoration Monitoring-A Simple Photo Monitoring Method Restoration Monitoring-A Simple Photo Monitoring Method Restoration Monitoring-A Simple Photo Monitoring Method PDF icon ...

  12. Fermilab | About Fermilab | Photo and Video Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Follow us on Facebook and Twitter for updates. Photos Videos thumb Med-Res Hi-Res Wilson ... Med-Res Hi-Res An aerial photo of Wilson Hall, Ramsey Auditorium and the Booster, one of ...

  13. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library General

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    General NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - General Photos related to the Nevada Field Office which do not fall under the other photo categories are located here. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information. Thumbnail Category Number Date http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/photos/thumbs/nf1648.jpg General

  14. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  15. Photo-switchable membrane and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Kenneth L; Glowacki, Eric

    2013-05-07

    Switchable gas permeation membranes in which a photo-switchable low-molecular-weight liquid crystalline (LC) material acts as the active element, and a method of making such membranes. Different LC eutectic mixtures were doped with mesogenic azo dyes and infused into track-etched porous membranes with regular cylindrical pores. Photo-induced isothermal phase changes in the imbibed mesogenic material afforded large, reversible changes in the permeability of the photo-switchable membrane to nitrogen. For example, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable cyanobiphenyl LC material demonstrated low permeability in the nematic state, while the photo-generated isotropic state demonstrated a 16.times.-greater sorption coefficient. Both states obey a high linear sorption behavior in accordance with Henry's Law. In contrast, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable phenyl benzoate LC material showed the opposite permeability behavior to the biphenyl-imbibed membrane, along with nonlinear sorption behavior.

  16. Multimedia and Photos | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multimedia and Photos Multimedia and Photos Geothermal technologies dig deep in the earth, an average of two to five kilometers, to access the heat resource naturally found in the subsurface. Geothermal technologies dig deep in the earth, an average of two to five kilometers, to access the heat resource naturally found in the subsurface. Communications resources from the Geothermal Technologies Office at the Energy Department include a new photo library, below, and a video link for images and

  17. Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-30

    The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

  18. Using Nanotechnology to Fight Friction and Wear | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Using Nanotechnology to Fight Friction and Wear Tiny diamonds wrapped in graphene help achieve "superlubricity," in which friction drops to near zero. Graphene "nanoscrolls" could greatly reduce friction in engines and other machines. PDF icon diamond-graphene_lubricants

  19. Photo Gallery: 2016 Washington Auto Show

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scroll through the photos to see some of the Energy Department-supported technologies that are lowering carbon pollution and moving America’s economy forward.

  20. Community & Education Photo Gallery | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cars run. Photo courtesy Argonne National Laboratory. Downers Grove South at Argonne wetlands 38 of 54 Downers Grove South at Argonne wetlands Students from Downers Grove South...

  1. Photo Galleries | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phonebook Phonebook Search the Energy Department Phonebook Enter your search request * Search Mission Leadership Organization Chart Staff and Contractors News & Blog

    News & Events Web Articles In the News Upcoming Events Past Events Informational Materials Photo Galleries Photo Galleries Mira installing Mira

  2. High voltage photo switch package module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2014-02-18

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces, and at least one light-input surface. First metallic layers are formed on the electrode-interface surfaces, and one or more optical waveguides having input and output ends are bonded to the substrate so that the output end of each waveguide is bonded to a corresponding one of the light-input surfaces of the photo-conductive substrate. This forms a waveguide-substrate interface for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer. A dielectric material such as epoxy is then used to encapsulate the photo-conductive substrate and optical waveguide so that only the metallic layers and the input end of the optical waveguide are exposed. Second metallic layers are then formed on the first metallic layers so that the waveguide-substrate interface is positioned under the second metallic layers.

  3. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atalla, Rajai; Beecher, James; Caron, Robert; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Deng, Yulin; Glasser, Wolfgang; Gray, Derek; Haigler, Candace; Jones, Philip; Joyce, Margaret; Kohlman, Jane; Koukoulas, Alexander; Lancaster, Peter; Perine, Lori; Rodriguez, Augusto; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wegner, Theodore; Zhu, Junyong

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  4. Photo Album Of FAPAC - NM Activities | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Our Locations Albuquerque Complex Federal Asian Pacific American Council - New Mexico Chapter Albuquerque, NM Photo Album Of FAPAC - NM Activities Photo Album Of FAPAC -...

  5. Photo of the Week: Lego Rendition of SLAC National Laboratory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    See an actual photo of the SLAC linac. | Photo courtesy of Greg Stewart, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of ...

  6. Tianjin Tai Yang Photo electronic Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tai Yang Photo electronic Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianjin Tai Yang Photo-electronic Technology Co., Ltd Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Sector: Solar...

  7. Photo-patterning Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) from Xanthate Precursor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Photo-patterning Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) from Xanthate Precursor Polymers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photo-patterning Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) ...

  8. Ningbo Qixin Photo electricity Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Qixin Photo electricity Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ningbo Qixin Photo-electricity Co Ltd Place: Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China Zip: 315000 Sector: Solar Product:...

  9. DOE Science Showcase - Nanotechnology | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information Nanotechnology Nanotechnology has a vitally important role to play in addressing the nation's energy, climate change and national security challenges. DOE maintains a strong commitment to the initiative, which has served as an effective and valuable way to spotlight needs and target resources in this critical area of science and technology. Courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory Courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory Nanotechnology Research

  10. Photo of the Week | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Under the Recovery Act, Nordex USA received a tax credit to assist in the creation of the ... This photo was submitted to Pacific Northwest National Lab's 2012 Science as Art Contest ...

  11. PhotoSolar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    which combines effective solar shading and sets new standards for transparent photovoltaic devices. References: PhotoSolar1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  12. PHOTOS: 10 Carbon-Fighting Energy Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scroll through the photo gallery to see just a few of the ways the Energy Department is addressing climate change through technologies that cut carbon pollution, grow the economy and protect the planet.

  13. OREM Photo Gallery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OREM Photo Gallery OREM Photo Gallery Addthis ETTP (Before) 1 of 6 ETTP (Before) ETTP spans approximately 2,200 acres, and before we initiated cleanup, the site contained more than 600 buildings. Our employees are working to remove radiological contaminants, primarily uranium, and a wide range of chemical components from the site. ETTP (After) 2 of 6 ETTP (After) Our goals are to complete legacy cleanup, commemorate the historical achievements that happened at the site, and transfer the

  14. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Scenery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scenery NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Scenery The Nevada National Security Site boasts beautiful scenery with many bluffs, hills, valleys, plains, and mountains. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information Thumbnail Category Number Date http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/photos/thumbs/DSC01563.jpg Scenery

  15. Nanotechnology Energizing Our Future | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    A panel of five distinguished scientists described for a general audience how nanotechnology could help revolutionize energy technologies for our Nation's future energy needs ...

  16. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Scientific User Facilities (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) The Molecular Foundry (TMF) Projects Accelerator & Detector Research Science Highlights Principal Investigators'

  17. Eta Structure Function via Photo-production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghahramany, N.; Ghanaatian, M.; Bazrafshan, A.

    2008-04-21

    By using isobar model and the latest data, the structure function of Eta particle is calculated in the process of photo-production. This calculation is carried out for photon energy range of 0.750-3 GeV. The variations of the structure function are given in terms of scattering angle for different incoming photon energy.

  18. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  19. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  20. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roln-Garrido, Vctor H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de

    2014-05-15

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220C to obtain the master curve at 170C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  1. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMATERIALS: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOFILMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.; Berry, T.; Narayan, R.

    2010-11-29

    Biotechnology is the application of biological techniques to develop new tools and products for medicine and industry. Due to various properties including chemical stability, biocompatibility, and specific activity, e.g. antimicrobial properties, many new and novel materials are being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. Many of these materials are less than 100 nanometers in size. Nanotechnology is the engineering discipline encompassing designing, producing, testing, and using structures and devices less than 100 nanometers. One of the challenges associated with biomaterials is microbial contamination that can lead to infections. In recent work we have examined the functionalization of nanoporous biomaterials and antimicrobial activities of nanocrystalline diamond materials. In vitro testing has revealed little antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria and associated biofilm formation that enhances recalcitrance to antimicrobial agents including disinfectants and antibiotics. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies further demonstrated properties and characteristics of the material with regard to biofilm formation.

  2. Photo of the Week: June 22, 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    getfeature.cfm?FeatureNumberf20130107-00">Learn more about the 2013 FIRST Robotics Competition. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Photo of the Week: I,...

  3. Water Power For a Clean Energy Future Cover Photo | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    For a Clean Energy Future Cover Photo Water Power For a Clean Energy Future Cover Photo Image icon Water Power For a Clean Energy Future Cover.JPG More Documents & Publications ...

  4. Microsoft Word - Final Release of Two Photos and Captions for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE- DRMMYY Photos of New WIPP Transportation Exhibit's Debut At the National Museum of Nuclear Science and History CARLSBAD, N.M., November 9, 2011- Photo 1 caption: A visitor...

  5. Photo of the Week: Alaska's Future in Renewable Energy | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    getfeature.cfm?FeatureNumberf20130107-00">Learn more about the 2013 FIRST Robotics Competition. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Photo of the Week: I,...

  6. Moser Baer PhotoVoltaic Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PhotoVoltaic Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Moser Baer PhotoVoltaic Ltd Place: New Delhi, Delhi (NCT), India Zip: 110020 Product: New Delhi-based PV cell manufacturer....

  7. Gallivare PhotoVoltaic AB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gallivare PhotoVoltaic AB Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gallivare PhotoVoltaic AB Place: Gllivare, Sweden Zip: 982 28 Product: Swedish manufacturer of PV modules at its...

  8. Photo of the Week: Air Supply | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This week, the latest vehicles technologies are on display at the Washington Auto Show in ... Photo of the Week: the 2014 Washington Auto Show In this August 2013 photo, Pete Johnson ...

  9. Photo-induced hydrogen production in a helical peptide incorporating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo-induced hydrogen production in a helical peptide incorporating a FeFe hydrogenase active site mimic Authors: Roy, A., Madden, C., and Ghirlanda, G. Title: Photo-induced...

  10. Photo Gallery: National Labs and the Science Behind Nuclear Security...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    computing; national security; engines; alternative fuels; environmental science; physics; chemistry and biological sciences. Image: Photo courtesy of Argonne...

  11. Photo of the Week: Air Supply | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Supply Photo of the Week: Air Supply February 6, 2014 - 11:02am Addthis In this 1972 photo, two scientists worked in improved supplied-air suits, which protected workers from toxic environments and protected controlled atmospheric areas from exposure to human emissions. The suits were developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Tennessee. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. In this 1972 photo, two scientists worked in improved supplied-air suits, which protected workers from toxic

  12. FPD's Perspective Photos - Los Alamos National Labratory - NISA |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy FPD's Perspective Photos - Los Alamos National Labratory - NISA FPD's Perspective Photos - Los Alamos National Labratory - NISA 2014 DOE Project Management Workshop PDF icon 30_FPD Perspective_Photos.pdf More Documents & Publications FPD's Perspective Talking Points - Los Alamos National Labratory - NISA Enforcement Letter, Los Alamos National Security, LLC - May 15, 2008 Enforcement Letter, Los Alamos National Security, LLC

  13. 'Bradbury Science Museum Collections Inventory Photos Disc #4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohmeyer, Wendy J.

    2015-11-16

    The photos on Bradbury Science Museum Collections Inventory Photos Disc #4 is another in an ongoing effort to catalog all artifacts held by the Museum. Photos will be used as part of the condition report for the artifact, and will become part of the collection record in the collections database for that artifact. The collections database will be publically searchable on the Museum website.

  14. Gallery of Historic Photos | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gallery of Historic Photos Gallery of Historic Photos Ed Westcott Manhattan Project official photographer. All photos in our History section are by Ed Westcott, the government's official photographer for the Manhattan project. Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 next › last »

  15. Photo-induced electron transfer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wohlgemuth, R.; Calvin, M.

    1984-01-24

    The efficiency of photo-induced electron transfer reactions is increased and the back transfer of electrons in such reactions is greatly reduced when a photo-sensitizer zinc porphyrin-surfactant and an electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant are admixed into phospholipid membranes. The phospholipids comprising said membranes are selected from phospholipids whose head portions are negatively charged. Said membranes are contacted with an aqueous medium in which an essentially neutral viologen electron acceptor is admixed. Catalysts capable of transferring electrons from reduced viologen electron acceptor to hydrogen to produce elemental hydrogen are also included in the aqueous medium. An oxidizable olefin is also admixed in the phospholipid for the purpose of combining with oxygen that coordinates with oxidized electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant.

  16. Photo-induced electron transfer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wohlgemuth, Roland; Calvin, Melvin

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of photo-induced electron transfer reactions is increased and the back transfer of electrons in such reactions is greatly reduced when a photo-sensitizer zinc porphyrin-surfactant and an electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant are admixed into phospho-lipid membranes. The phospholipids comprising said membranes are selected from phospholipids whose head portions are negatively charged. Said membranes are contacted with an aqueous medium in which an essentially neutral viologen electron acceptor is admixed. Catalysts capable of transfering electrons from reduced viologen electron acceptor to hydrogen to produce elemental hydrogen are also included in the aqueous medium. An oxidizable olefin is also admixed in the phospholipid for the purpose of combining with oxygen that coordinates with oxidized electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant.

  17. Argonne Creates Collaborative Centers to Connect Business with Energy Storage, Nanotechnology Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy storage and nanotechnology have the potential to transform the way we look at clean energy. Advances in energy storage research will revolutionize the way the world generates and stores...

  18. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library AMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AMS NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Aerial Measuring System (AMS) The Aerial Measuring System is one of the emergency response resources, or assets, administered by NNSA. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) detects, measures, and tracks radioactive material at an emergency to determine contamination levels. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the

  19. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library ATLAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ATLAS NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - ATLAS Pulsed-Power Generator The ATLAS pulsed-power generator is one of many alternatives to underground nuclear testing. Pulsed power can concentrate high total energies on larger (centimeter-scale) experimental targets for relatively long periods of times compared to other Stockpile Stewardship experiments. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number,

  20. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Animals NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Animals Coyotes, kit foxes, pronghorn antelope, desert tortoises, sidewinder snakes, bald eagles, kangaroo rats and peregrine falcons are just a few of the more than 1,500 animal species found on the Nevada National Security Site. Instructions: Click the document THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details. Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information. Thumbnail Category Number

  1. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library BEEF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BEEF NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF) The Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF) is a hydrodynamic testing facility, located at the Nevada National Security Site. BEEF provides data, through explosive experiments, to support the Stockpile Stewardship Program, along with a variety of new experimental programs that expand the nation's non-nuclear experiment capabilities. Instructions: Click the photograph

  2. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Craters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Craters NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Craters Underground testing often leaves visible evidence on the surface in the form of subsidence craters in varying dimensions. Subsidence craters are depressions on the surface that occur when the roof of the blast cavity collapses into the void left by the explosion. The size of the subsidence crater depends on the yield of the device, the depth of emplacement, and the geological characteristics of the

  3. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library FRMAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FRMAC NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center gathers radiological information such as plume and deposition predictions, air and ground concentrations, exposure rates and dose projections, assurance of data quality, and current meteorological conditions and weather forecasts. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the

  4. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library JASPER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JASPER NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - JASPER The Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research Facility plays an integral role in the testing of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile by providing a method to generate and measure data pertaining to the properties of materials (radioactive chemical elements) at high shock pressures, temperatures and strain rates. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click

  5. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library NPTEC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NPTEC NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Nonproliferation Test Evaluation Complex (NPTEC) The Nonproliferation Test Evaluation Complex is a unique, one-of-a-kind facility built to conduct hazardous materials testing and training under controlled conditions. The NPTEC can accommodate both large- and small-scale testing. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to

  6. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library PLUMBBOB

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operation Plumbob NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Operation Plumbbob Operation Plumbbob, conducted between May 28 and October 7, 1957, represented the biggest, longest, and most controversial test series in the history of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). [ Full Text ] Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information The photographs are

  7. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Plants The Nevada National Security Site boasts more than 750 varieties of plants. About 67 families of plants are represented, however, one-third of them belong to just three families: sunflowers, grasses and buckwheats. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details. Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information Thumbnail Category Number Date

  8. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Ranger

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ranger NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Ranger Operation Ranger was the first continental nuclear test series conducted at the Nevada Proving Ground (now called the Nevada National Security Site). Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information The photographs are displayed in groups of ten (10). Click the Next and Previous link at the bottom to

  9. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Trinity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trinity NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Trinity Trinity Shot was part of the secret Manhattan Project - the atomic bomb project charged with designing, developing, testing, and firing a weaponization of the newly discovered phenomenon, fission. [ Full Text ] Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information The photographs are displayed in groups

  10. NREL Nano-Technology Solar Cell Achieves 18.2% Efficiency - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL NREL Nano-Technology Solar Cell Achieves 18.2% Efficiency Breakthrough should eliminate need for anti-reflection layer, cutting costs October 12, 2012 Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have produced solar cells using nanotechnology techniques at an efficiency - 18.2% -- that is competitive. The breakthrough should be a major step toward helping lower the cost of solar energy. NREL tailored a nanostructured surface while ensuring

  11. TRADITIONAL METALLURGY, NANOTECHNOLOGIES AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS: A SORBY AWARD LECTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louthan, M

    2007-07-17

    Traditional metallurgical processes are among the many ''old fashion'' practices that use nanoparticles to control the behavior of materials. Many of these practices were developed long before microscopy could resolve nanoscale features, yet the practitioners learned to manipulate and control microstructural elements that they could neither see nor identify. Furthermore, these early practitioners used that control to modify microstructures and develop desired material properties. Centuries old colored glass, ancient high strength steels and medieval organ pipes derived many of their desirable features through control of nanoparticles in their microstructures. Henry Sorby was among the first to recognize that the properties of rocks, minerals, metals and organic materials were controlled by microstructure. However, Mr. Sorby was accused of the folly of trying to study mountains with a microscope. Although he could not resolve nanoscale microstructural features, Mr. Sorby's observations revolutionized the study of materials. The importance of nanoscale microstructural elements should be emphasized, however, because the present foundation for structural materials was built by manipulating those features. That foundation currently supports several multibillion dollar industries but is not generally considered when the nanomaterials revolution is discussed. This lecture demonstrates that using nanotechnologies to control the behavior of metallic materials is almost as old as the practice of metallurgy and that many of the emergent nanomaterials technologists are walking along pathways previously paved by traditional metallurgists.

  12. Developing nanotechnology for biofuel and plant science applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenstein, Justin

    2012-06-20

    This dissertation presents the research on the development of mesoporous silica based nanotechnology for applications in biofuels and plant science. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been the subject of great interest in the last two decades due to their unique properties of high surface area, tunable pore size and particle morphology. The robust nature of the silica framework is easily functionalized to make the MSNs a promising option for selective separations. Also, the independent channels that form the pores of MSN have been exploited in the use of particles as platforms for molecular delivery. Pore size and organic functionality are varied to identify the ideal adsorbent material for free fatty acids (FFAs). The resulting material is able to sequester FFAs with a high degree of selectivity from a simulated solution and microalgal oil. The recyclability and industrial implications are also explored. A continuation of the previous material, further tuning of MSN pore size was investigated. Particles with a smaller diameter selectively sequester polyunsaturated free fatty acids (PUFAs) over monounsaturated FFAs and saturated FFAs. The experimental results were verified with molecular modeling. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials with a pore diameter of 10 nm (MSN-10) were decorated with small gold nanoparticles. The resulting materials were shown to deliver proteins and DNA into plant cells using the biolistic method.

  13. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library NRDS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NRDS NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) The idea to use atomic energy to propel a rocket for interplanetary travel originated in 1906 when American space pioneer Robert Goddard, a college sophomore, wrote a paper on the use of atomic energy. The concept moved from theory to reality in the mid-1950s when the United States launched a nuclear rocket program called Project Rover. Refer to the following Fact Sheet

  14. Formation mechanism of photo-induced nested wrinkles on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    siloxane-photomonomer hybrid film (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Formation mechanism of photo-induced nested wrinkles on siloxane-photomonomer hybrid film Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Formation mechanism of photo-induced nested wrinkles on siloxane-photomonomer hybrid film Nested wrinkle structures, hierarchical surface wrinkles of different periodicities of sub-μm and tens-μm, have been fabricated on a siloxane-photomonomer hybrid film via a photo-induced surface

  15. Photo Gallery | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo Gallery Home > News & Events > Photo Gallery 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 ANSER 2015 Solar Electricity SymposiumPhotos from the 2015 ANSER Solar Electricity Symposium, held April 16-17 at Northwestern University. Pictures of the Symposium speakers are organized according to the Symposium's agenda: Michael Graetzel, Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (Keynote); David Mitzi, Duke University; Prashant Kamat, University of Notre Dame; Yang Yang, University of California - Los

  16. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Historical Miscellaneous

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Historical Miscellaneous NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Historical Miscellaneous Photos related to the Nevada National Security Site History which do not fall under the other photo categories Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information The photographs are displayed in groups of ten (10). Click the Next and Previous link at the bottom to

  17. 2014 Collegiate Wind Competition Photos | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Collegiate Wind Competition Photos 2014 Collegiate Wind Competition Photos First place team Penn State with their trophy 1 of 19 First place team Penn State with their trophy Pennsylvania State University was selected as the first place overall winner and People's Choice winner of the Collegiate Wind Competition 2014. Photo from U.S. Department of Energy. Date taken: 2014-05-07 18:17 The Collegiate Wind Competition trophies 2 of 19 The Collegiate Wind Competition trophies Collegiate Wind

  18. 2014 Collegiate Wind Competition Photos | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Collegiate Wind Competition Photos 2014 Collegiate Wind Competition Photos Addthis First place team Penn State with their trophy 1 of 19 First place team Penn State with their trophy Pennsylvania State University was selected as the first place overall winner and People's Choice winner of the Collegiate Wind Competition 2014. Photo from U.S. Department of Energy. Date taken: 2014-05-07 18:17 The Collegiate Wind Competition trophies 2 of 19 The Collegiate Wind Competition trophies Collegiate

  19. Photo Gallery: 2015 ARPA-E Innovation Summit Technology Showcase

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Check out our photo gallery of some of the cutting edge technology on display at the 2015 ARPA-E Summit Technology Showcase.

  20. Best of 2013: Our Favorites from Photo of the Week

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From Albuquerque to Antarctica, we're geeking out over some of the coolest science photos we've ever seen.

  1. Photo of the Week: 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Tycoon" challenge. | Photo courtesy of Mark Lopez, Argonne National Laboratory. ... inspects the centrifuge arm while Orlando Abeyta (left) and Ed Romero (right) work above. ...

  2. Photo of the Week: Repurposing the Xbox | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Learn more about the deposition chamber. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every ...

  3. Photo of the Week: Pi + NASA + Supercomputing | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Learn more about their calculations here. Photo courtesy of NASA. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our ...

  4. Photo of the Week: The Energy Systems Integration Facility |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Take a tour of the Energy Systems Integration Facility here. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every ...

  5. Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300071 Sector: Solar Product: A thin-film solar cell research institute in China. References: Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin...

  6. NREL: Sustainable NREL - Research Support Facility Photos (Text Version)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Support Facility Photos (Text Version) Here are photos of the Research Support Facility (RSF). An aerial photo with buildings and homes in the foreground, green hills in the background and blue sky above. The RSF is NREL's newest sustainable building on its permanent campus in Golden, Colorado. Credit: Pat Corkery Photo of an office building with two large wings on either side of a courtyard entryway and a tiled roadway in the foreground. The 222,000 sq. ft. RSF achieved the LEED

  7. Photo Gallery: National Labs and the Science Behind Nuclear Security...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Labs and the Science Behind Nuclear Security Photo Gallery: National Labs and the Science Behind Nuclear Security April 3, 2015 - 12:35pm Addthis Argonne National ...

  8. Photo of the Week: Fan-tastic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in October 2010. | Photo courtesy of Nordex USA. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite ...

  9. Photo of the Week: The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    data gathered. | Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt, LBNL. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite ...

  10. Photo of the Week: LBNL Takes Over @Energy's Instagram! | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Photo courtesy of Jeff Neaton, Berkeley Lab. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite ...

  11. Photo of the Week: The Webb Telescope's "Golden Spider" | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Earth. | Photo credit: Chris GunnNASA. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite ...

  12. Photo of the Week: I, Robot Olympics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Learn more about the 2013 FIRST Robotics Competition. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public ...

  13. Earth Day 2016 Photo Contest Entries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conservation Community Alternative Power Energy Efficiency Climate Change Adaptation & Resilience This year's Earth Day Photo Contest had well over 150 entries. Our largest ...

  14. Photo of the Week: July 6, 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Read the story: The Last Piece of the Puzzle: Celebrating the Higgs Boson | Photo courtesy of Fermilab Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of ...

  15. Photo of the Week: Sandia's Centrifuge Test Complex | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    students put their wind turbines through rigorous performance testing, crafted their own business plans and pitched their turbine designs to wind industry leaders. In this photo,...

  16. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain Cover Photo | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain Cover Photo U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain Cover Photo Image icon GLWN Cover Photo.JPG More Documents & Publications U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis 2014 Offshore Wind Market & Economic Analysis Cover Photo Water Power For a Clean Energy Future Cover Photo

  17. Symmetry tests in photo-pion production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, A. M.

    2013-11-07

    Small angle electron scattering with intense electron beams opens up the possibility of performing almost real photon induced reactions with thin, polarized hydrogen and few body targets, allowing for the detection of low energy charged particles. This promises to be much more effective than conventional photon tagging techniques. For photo-pion reactions some fundamental new possibilities include: tests of charge symmetry in the N-N system by measurement of the neutron-neutron scattering length a{sub nn} in the and ggrD ? ?{sup +}nn reaction; tests of isospin breaking due to the mass difference of the up and down quarks; measurements with polarized targets are sensitive to ?N phase shifts and will test the validity of the Fermi-Watson (final state interaction) theorem. All of these experiments will test the accuracy and energy region of validity of chiral effective theories.

  18. Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 at the Bradbury

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Museum Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 at the Bradbury Science Museum The Bradbury Science Museum is opening two new exhibits as part of the Laboratory's 70th Anniversary celebration. July 22, 2013 What if you could power your life using pond scum? Los Alamos researchers are working to make this a reality. What if you could power your life using pond scum? Los Alamos researchers are working to make this a

  19. Photo-controllable thermoelectric properties with reversibility and photo-thermoelectric effects of tungsten trioxide accompanied by its photochromic phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azuma, Chiori; Kawano, Takuto; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi

    2014-11-07

    The addition of photo-controllable properties to tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) is of interest for developing practical applications of WO{sub 3} as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a sputtered crystalline WO{sub 3} thin film generated thermoelectric power due to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced band-gap excitation and was accompanied by a photochromic reaction resulting from generating W{sup 5+} ions. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity (?) and Seebeck coefficient (S)) and coloration of WO{sub 3} could be reversibly switched by alternating the external stimulus between UV light irradiation and dark storage. After irradiating the film with UV light, ? increased, whereas the absolute value of S decreased, and the photochromic (coloration) reaction was detected. Notably, the opposite behavior was exhibited by WO{sub 3} after dark storage, and this reversible cycle could be repeated at least three times. Moreover, photo-thermoelectric effects (photo-conductive effect (photo-conductivity, ?{sub photo}) and photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, S{sub photo})) were also detected in response to visible-light irradiation of the colored WO{sub 3} thin films. Under visible-light irradiation, ?{sub photo} and the absolute value of S{sub photo} increased and decreased, respectively. These effects are likely attributable to the excitation of electrons from the mid-gap visible light absorption band (W{sup 5+} state) to the conduction band of WO{sub 3}. Our findings demonstrate that the simultaneous, reversible switching of multiple properties of WO{sub 3} thin film is achieved by the application of an external stimulus and that this material exhibits photo-thermoelectric effects when irradiated with visible-light.

  20. Photo-Spectrometer Realized In A Standard Cmos Ic Process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Ericson, M. Nance (Knoxville, TN); Dress, William B. (Knoxville, TN); Jellison, Gerald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sitter, Jr., David N. (Tucson, AZ); Wintenberg, Alan L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-10-12

    A spectrometer, comprises: a semiconductor having a silicon substrate, the substrate having integrally formed thereon a plurality of layers forming photo diodes, each of the photo diodes having an independent spectral response to an input spectra within a spectral range of the semiconductor and each of the photo diodes formed only from at least one of the plurality of layers of the semiconductor above the substrate; and, a signal processing circuit for modifying signals from the photo diodes with respective weights, the weighted signals being representative of a specific spectral response. The photo diodes have different junction depths and different polycrystalline silicon and oxide coverings. The signal processing circuit applies the respective weights and sums the weighted signals. In a corresponding method, a spectrometer is manufactured by manipulating only the standard masks, materials and fabrication steps of standard semiconductor processing, and integrating the spectrometer with a signal processing circuit.

  1. Connecticut State University System Initiative for Nanotechnology-Related Equipment, Faculty Development and Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broadbridge, Christine C.

    2013-03-28

    DOE grant used for partial fulfillment of necessary laboratory equipment for course enrichment and new graduate programs in nanotechnology at the four institutions of the Connecticut State University System (CSUS). Equipment in this initial phase included variable pressure scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis capability [at Southern Connecticut State University]; power x-ray diffractometer [at Central Connecticut State University]; a spectrophotometer and spectrofluorimeter [at Eastern Connecticut State University; and a Raman Spectrometer [at Western Connecticut State University]. DOE's funding was allocated for purchase and installation of this scientific equipment and instrumentation. Subsequently, DOE funding was allocated to fund the curriculum, faculty development and travel necessary to continue development and implementation of the System's Graduate Certificate in Nanotechnology (GCNT) program and the ConnSCU Nanotechnology Center (ConnSCU-NC) at Southern Connecticut State University. All of the established outcomes have been successfully achieved. The courses and structure of the GCNT program have been determined and the program will be completely implemented in the fall of 2013. The instrumentation has been purchased, installed and has been utilized at each campus for the implementation of the nanotechnology courses, CSUS GCNT and the ConnSCU-NC. Additional outcomes for this grant include curriculum development for non-majors as well as faculty and student research.

  2. Project Construction Photos | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Construction Photos Project Assessment (OPA) OPA Home About Project Management SC Projects Review Dates (updated April 2016) Project Construction Photos Completed Projects ...

  3. Photo of the Week: White House Leadership Summit on Women, Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Check out more photos from the event here. | Photo by Sarah Gerrity, Department of Energy. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every ...

  4. Photo of the Week: Improving Power Plant Technology... in 3-D...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Check out more photos from Secretary Moniz's visit to CASL. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of ...

  5. Photo of the Week: Power Up! Twenty Steps to Zip a Zipper | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    View more photos from the competition here. | Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every ...

  6. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Wild Flowers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wild Flowers NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Wild Flowers Wild flowers such as Cane Spring suncup and White bearpoppy are included among the 750 varieties of plants located on the Nevada National Security Site. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Thumbnail Category http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/photos/thumbs/CaneSpringsuncup.jpg Wild Flowers http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/photos/thumbs/Clokeys.jpg Wild Flowers

  7. Photo of the Week: July 13, 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    13, 2012 Photo of the Week: July 13, 2012 July 13, 2012 - 5:44pm Addthis Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu visited Ingeteam, based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on Thursday, July 12. During the visit, he toured the facilities that produce wind power generators and converters, in addition to PV solar inverters. In this photo he looks at a Stator 2MW Wind Turbine Generator. | Photo by Pat A. Robinson Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu visited Ingeteam, based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on

  8. Photo of the Week: Women in STEM -- Elaine Zworykin | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... In this photo, Yaniel Ramirez from Colegio Catolico Notre Dame in Caguas, Puerto Rico launches his team's electric car down the test track.

  9. Photo of the Week: Reactive Ion Etching | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  10. Photo of the Week: Acoustic Levitation for Medicine | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  11. Photo Gallery: Energy Literacy in 2013 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Photo courtesy of Old Mill Middle School North Need a video, picture, lesson plan, online or in-class digital activity, dataset, or module related to the Energy Literacy ...

  12. 2015 YWC in photos! | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 YWC in photos View larger image 15 PR 0319 014 View larger image 15 PR 0319 016 View larger image HR 6 A 0020 View larger image 15 PR 0319 021 View larger image 15 PR 0319 034...

  13. Photo of the Week: Scouting for Valuable Lessons in Energy |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    In this photo, a Boy Scout watches light shine on a solar panel thats powering a hydrogen fuel cell system, showing how photovoltaic panels work and energy systems can be ...

  14. Ion laser isotope enrichment by photo-predissociation of formaldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marling, John B.

    1977-06-17

    Enrichment of carbon, hydrogen and/or oxygen isotopes by means of isotopically selective photo-predissociation of formaldehyde is achieved by irradiation with a fixed frequency ion laser, specifically, a neon, cadmium, or xenon ion laser.

  15. Photo of the Week: August 3, 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  16. Photo of the Week: the 2014 Washington Auto Show | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  17. Photo of the Week: I, Robot Rodeo | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  18. Photo of the Week: The VULCAN Diffractometer | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  19. Photo of the Week: August 10, 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  20. Photo of the Week: The Mirror Fusion Test Facility | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  1. Photo of the Week: Students from Roosevelt Middle School win...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  2. Photo of the Week: Inside the Tandem Mirror Experiment | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  3. Photo of the Week: Inside the 60-Inch Cyclotron | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  4. Photo of the Week: How to Grow Superconducting Crystals | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  5. Photo of the Week: Living Large -- Argonne's First Computer ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  6. Photo: US ITER/ORNL INSIDE: ITER Site Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo Gallery: Energy Literacy in 2013 Photo Gallery: Energy Literacy in 2013 December 18, 2013 - 10:27am Addthis In celebration of Earth Day in April, elementary school students at Churchill Road Elementary School in McLean, Virginia, learned about energy literacy by riding the Energy Department’s energy bike. The bike enabled students to pedal for power and experience the difference in physical effort necessary to power incandescent, compact fluorescent, and LED lighting. This lesson

  7. Low-Temperature Geothermal Photo Library | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Geothermal Photo Library Low-Temperature Geothermal Photo Library Addthis America&#039;s First Geothermally Heated Campus adds 3.5 MW of Clean, Domestic Electricity Generation 1 of 2 America's First Geothermally Heated Campus adds 3.5 MW of Clean, Domestic Electricity Generation With Energy Department support, the Klamath Falls campus will utilize 1.5 megawatts (MW) of newly installed geothermal capacity combined with a 2 MW solar array, making OIT the first university in

  8. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library - Test Preparation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Preparation NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Test Preparation Photos in this category depict preparations for past nuclear tests. The last test at the Nevada National Security Site was conducted in 1992, the year President Bush instituted a moratorium. Since that time, the United States has ceased all nuclear testing. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links

  9. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library EM Waste Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home > Library > Photo Library > Waste Management NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Waste Management Foreseeing the need for environmental management at the Nevada Test Site, the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Field Office formally established the Waste Management program in 1978. The program's primary mission is to manage radioactive waste generated by the U.S. Department of Energy and defense industry activities. Instructions: Click the

  10. Photo-patterning Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) from Xanthate Precursor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polymers. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Photo-patterning Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) from Xanthate Precursor Polymers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photo-patterning Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) from Xanthate Precursor Polymers. Abstract not provided. Authors: Johnson, Ross Stefan ; Wheeler, David Roger ; Dirk, Shawn M. ; Finnegan, Patrick Sean Publication Date: 2010-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1114605 Report Number(s): SAND2010-8894J 477068 DOE Contract Number:

  11. Nanotechnology Energizing Our Future | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Presentations » Nanotechnology Energizing Our Future Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Program Summaries Brochures Reports Accomplishments Presentations BES and Congress Science for Energy Flow Seeing Matter Nano for Energy Scale of Things Chart Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000

  12. Nanotechnology applications to desalination : a report for the joint water reuse & desalination task force.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Mayer, Tom; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials and nanotechnology methods have been an integral part of international research over the past decade. Because many traditional water treatment technologies (e.g. membrane filtration, biofouling, scale inhibition, etc.) depend on nanoscale processes, it is reasonable to expect one outcome of nanotechnology research to be better, nano-engineered water treatment approaches. The most immediate, and possibly greatest, impact of nanotechnology on desalination methods will likely be the development of membranes engineered at the near-molecular level. Aquaporin proteins that channel water across cell membranes with very low energy inputs point to the potential for dramatically improved performance. Aquaporin-laced polymer membranes and aquaporin-mimicking carbon nanotubes and metal oxide membranes developed in the lab support this. A critical limitation to widespread use of nanoengineered desalination membranes will be their scalability to industrial fabrication processes. Subsequent, long-term improvements in nanoengineered membranes may result in self-healing membranes that ideally are (1) more resistant to biofouling, (2) have biocidal properties, and/or (3) selectively target trace contaminants.

  13. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

  14. PHOTOS: 11 Carbon-Fighting Energy Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PHOTOS: 11 Carbon-Fighting Energy Technologies PHOTOS: 11 Carbon-Fighting Energy Technologies April 22, 2016 - 10:15am Addthis SCALING NEW HEIGHTS WITH WIND ENERGY 1 of 11 SCALING NEW HEIGHTS WITH WIND ENERGY Wind is here to stay as a mainstream power source in the United States, providing 4.4 percent of total electricity generation. As of 2014, there were more than 65,000 megawatts of utility-scale wind power deployed across 39 states -- enough to generate electricity for more than 16 million

  15. Lithium niobate single-crystal and photo-functional device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gopalan, Venkatraman; Mitchell, Terrence E.; Kitamura, Kenji; Furukawa, Yasunori

    2001-01-01

    Provided are lithium niobate single-crystal that requires a low voltage of not larger than 10 kV/nm for its ferroelectric polarization inversion and of which the polarization can be periodically inverted with accuracy even at such a low voltage, and a photo-functional device comprising the crystal. The crystal has a molar fraction of Li.sub.2 O/(Nb.sub.2 O.sub.5 +Li.sub.2 O) of falling between 0.49 and 0.52. The photo-functional device can convert a laser ray being incident thereon.

  16. Photo of the Week: Identifying and Protecting Alaskan Fishery Habitats |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Identifying and Protecting Alaskan Fishery Habitats Photo of the Week: Identifying and Protecting Alaskan Fishery Habitats September 27, 2013 - 3:08pm Addthis This aerial photo shows open water and floating ice on ponds, lakes and river channels in the Sagavanirktok River Delta in Alaska’s North Slope. PNNL scientists employed satellite technology to understand the impacts of oil development activities on the environment. Using satellite radar to “see”

  17. Measurements of Photo-induced Changes in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Seager, C. H.; Sinclair, M. B.; Mc Branch, D.; Heeger, A. J.; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    We have used the highly sensitive technique of Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) to measure changes in the infrared absorption spectra of MEHPPV, P3HT and Polydiacetylene-4BCMU induced by pumping these polymers with light above the {pi} - {pi}* transition energy. In contrast to previous chopped light transmission measurements of these effects, the PDS technique can directly measure the buildup or decay of the absorption coefficient, {alpha}, on the time scale of second to days. In the case of MEHPPV we observe that the time scale of seconds to days. In the case of MEHPPV we observe that above-gap light causes the appearance of a broad infrared peak in {alpha}, which continues to grow-in hours after the pump light is first applied. For this polymer the general shape of the absorption spectra in the unpumped state mimics the photo-induced changes, suggesting that remnant photo-induced states determine the maximum transparency observed under normal experimental conditions. For P3HT and to a lesser extent, MEHPPV, we also observe irreversible photo-induced absorption components which we tentatively identify with photo-induced oxidation of the polymer matrix.

  18. In the OSTI Collections: Nanotechnology | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Scientific and Technical Information Nanotechnology Consider how far it is from New York to Los Angeles. Now compare that distance to the length of the "l" in "Angeles". That's roughly how one meter compares to one nanometer. A nanometer-one billionth of a meter-is a very small distance almost any way you look at it. One nanometer is about six times the width of a carbon atom. Distances of tens of nanometers are barely significant in much present-day technology, in

  19. Nanotechnology and textiles engineered by carbon nanotubes for the realization of advanced personal protective equipments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andretta, Antonio; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Lavecchia, Teresa; Gay, Stefano; Tamburri, Emanuela; Picano, Alfredo; Mascioletti, Alessandro; Stirpe, Daniele; Dugnani, Giovanni; Gatti, Davide; Laria, Giuseppe; Codenotti, Barbara; Maldini, Giorgio; Roth, Siegmar; Passeri, Daniele; Rossi, Marco

    2014-06-19

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and CNT-based active materials have been used to assemble the gas sensing unit of innovative platforms able to detect toxic atmospheres developing in confined workplaces. The main goal of the project was to realize a full-featured, operator-friendly safety detection and monitoring system based on multifunctional textiles nanotechnologies. The fabricated sensing platform consists of a multiple gas detector coupled with a specifically designed telecommunication infrastructure. The portable device, totally integrated in the workwear, offers several advantages over the conventional safety tools employed in industrial work activities.

  20. Elongational rheology and cohesive fracture of photo-oxidated LDPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roln-Garrido, Vctor H. Wagner, Manfred H.

    2014-01-15

    It was found recently that low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samples with different degrees of photo-oxidation represent an interesting system to study the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture and the aspects of the cohesive rupture in elongational flow. Sheets of LDPE were subjected to photo-oxidation in the presence of air using a xenon lamp to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Characterisation methods included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solvent extraction method, and rheology in shear and uniaxial extensional flows. Linear viscoelasticity was increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by the carbonyl index, acid and aldehydes groups, and gel fraction. The molecular stress function model was used to quantify the experimental data, and the nonlinear model parameter ? was found to be correlated with the gel content. The uniaxial data showed that the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture was shifted to lower elongational rates, the higher the gel content was. From 2 weeks photo-oxidation onwards, cohesive rupture occurred at every strain rate investigated. The true strain and true stress at cohesive fracture as well as the energy density applied to the sample up to fracture were analyzed. At low gel content, rupture was mainly determined by the melt fraction while at high gel content, rupture occurred predominantly in the gel structure. The strain at break was found to be independent of strain rate, contrary to the stress at break and the energy density. Thus, the true strain and not the stress at break or the energy density was found to be the relevant physical quantity to describe cohesive fracture behavior of photo-oxidated LDPE. The equilibrium modulus of the gel structures was correlated with the true strain at rupture. The stiffer the gel structure, the lower was the deformation tolerated before the sample breaks.

  1. Photo of the Week: Argonne's 10 kW Wind Turbine | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photo of the Week: Argonne's 10 kW Wind Turbine Photo of the Week: Argonne's 10 kW Wind Turbine November 9, 2012 - 11:57am Addthis At Argonne National Laboratory, the power...

  2. 1944 aerial photo of Y-12 under construction | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information 40s To view OSTI Historical Photo Gallery, you can browse the collections below. 1950s | 1960s | 1970s | 1980s | 1990s | 2000s 1940: Display 1940: AEC Seal 1940: Manager 1947 AF Thompson Jr. 1940: Manager 1948-1951 Dr. Brewer F. Boardman Complex

    1944 aerial photo of Y-12 ... 1944 aerial photo of Y-12 under construction A 1944 aerial photo showing various building under construction at Y-12.

  3. Scaling to Nanotechnology Limits with the PIMS Computer Architecture and a new Scaling Rule.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debenedictis, Erik

    2015-02-01

    We describe a new approach to computing that moves towards the limits of nanotechnology using a newly formulated sc aling rule. This is in contrast to the current computer industry scali ng away from von Neumann's original computer at the rate of Moore's Law. We extend Moore's Law to 3D, which l eads generally to architectures that integrate logic and memory. To keep pow er dissipation cons tant through a 2D surface of the 3D structure requires using adiabatic principles. We call our newly proposed architecture Processor In Memory and Storage (PIMS). We propose a new computational model that integrates processing and memory into "tiles" that comprise logic, memory/storage, and communications functions. Since the programming model will be relatively stable as a system scales, programs repr esented by tiles could be executed in a PIMS system built with today's technology or could become the "schematic diagram" for implementation in an ultimate 3D nanotechnology of the future. We build a systems software approach that offers advantages over and above the technological and arch itectural advantages. Firs t, the algorithms may be more efficient in the conventional sens e of having fewer steps. Second, the algorithms may run with higher power efficiency per operation by being a better match for the adiabatic scaling ru le. The performance analysis based on demonstrated ideas in physical science suggests 80,000 x improvement in cost per operation for the (arguably) gene ral purpose function of emulating neurons in Deep Learning.

  4. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorn, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Ingans, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  5. Ecologist for a Day Photo Album | Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Outreach Program Outreach Program Ecologist For a Day EcoTalks Outreach Exhibits Educational Materials Outreach Home SREL Home Ecologist for a Day Photo Album Program supported by: University of Georgia National Nuclear Security Administration Department of Energy Current School Year: May 9, 2016 - Burke County Homeschool May 6, 2016 - Aiken Elementary School May 3, 2016 - South Aiken Baptist Christian School May 2, 2016 - Mossy Creek Elementary School April 29, 2016 - Saint

  6. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Atmospheric Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Atmospheric Testing A total of 100 atmospheric tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site. These tests were conducted to provide information on weapons effects, effects of the height of burst on overpressure, and information on nuclear phenomena to improve the design of nuclear weapons. Atmospheric testing ceased for good in 1963, after which nuclear testing moved underground. Instructions: Click the

  7. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Cultural Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cultural Resources NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Cultural Resources Prehistoric cultural resources are abundant at the Nevada National Security Site, indicating Native Americans have occupied the region for more than 10,000 years. Historic artifacts of more recent origin are also present, reflecting use by miners, ranchers and settlers who traveled through the area. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click

  8. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Environmental Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Management NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Environmental Management The Environmental Management Program Vision/Mission establishes the principles and goals for programmatic work, which encompasses management of waste and materials and corrective actions associated with contaminated sites and facilities. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to

  9. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Environmental Restoration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Restoration NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Environmental Restoration The U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Field Office Environmental Programs projects perform corrective actions for inactive contaminated sites and facilities where U.S. Department of Energy nuclear tests and weapons experiments were conducted. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Date, or Number table header

  10. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Exhibits and Displays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exhibits and Displays NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Exhibits and Displays Educational exhibits and displays are available for loan to libraries, schools and for conferences and other special events. To request an exhibit or display, please fill out and submit the Exhibits and Display Request Form. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Thumbnail Title ER-Banner-Stand17 Groundwater Poster Groundwater Poster Kids

  11. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library First Responder

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Responder Training NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - First Responder Training The aim of the First Responder Training is to provide a comprehensive, fully integrated system of facilities and capabilities to meet a wide range of combating terrorism requirements. Users of the First Responder Training can accomplish multiple requirements, conduct training and exercises in a variety of complex scenarios, and test new technologies in realistic

  12. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library NNSS History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nevada National Security Site History NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Nevada National Security Site History The Nevada National Security Site story begins in 1948 after the atomic test series Operation Sandstone in the Enewetak atoll. In 1950, a more complete survey of the south site, amid the Las Vegas Bombing and Gunnery Range, was conducted and resulted in test officials' endorsements. In December, the United States Air Force, landlord of the

  13. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library OPERATION DOORSTEP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operation Doorstep NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Operation Doorstep Operation Doorstep and Operation Cue. This video shows Federal Civil Defense Administration film footage. In the Operation Doorstep portion, footage shows blast and thermal effects on mannequins, automobiles, and wooden frame houses. [ Full Text ] Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to

  14. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library OPERATION TEAPOT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operation Teapot NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Operation Teapot Operation Teapot consisted of 14 nuclear tests. The goal of the series was to test nuclear devices for possible inclusion in the nuclear weapons stockpile; improve military tactics, equipment and training; and study civil defense requirements. [ Full Text ] Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links

  15. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Subcritical experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Subcritical Experiments NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Subcritical experiments The underground U1a Complex is the location for subcritical experiments. Subcritical experiments are physics experiments that obtain technical information to help the National Laboratories maintain the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number, or

  16. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library TUMBLER-SNAPPER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tumbler - Snapper NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Tumbler-Snapper Operation Tumbler-Snapper consisted of eight nuclear shots in two phases. The Tumbler phase was of primary concern to the Department of Defense, which called for airdropped nuclear weapons tests. The Snapper second phase was a set of experiments conducted by the Atomic Energy Commission and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to help improve effects of nuclear weapons. [ Full Text ]

  17. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Underground Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Underground Testing NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Underground Testing Between 1951 and 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted in specially drilled shafts, horizontal tunnels and craters at the Nevada National Security Site. Most vertical shaft tests assisted in the development of new weapon systems. Horizontal tunnel tests occurred to evaluate the effects (radiation, ground shock) of various weapons on military hardware and systems.

  18. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Upshot-Knothole

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upshot-Knothole NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Upshot Knothole This operation conducted at the Nevada National Security Site consisted of 11 atmospheric tests. There were three airdrops, seven tower tests, and one airburst. Conducted between March 17 and June 4, 1953, this operation involved the testing of new theories, using both fission and fusion devices. [ Full Text ] Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details

  19. Skirting terahertz waves in a photo-excited nanoslit structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shalaby, Mostafa E-mail: thomas.feurer@iap.unibe.ch; Fabia?ska, Justyna; Feurer, Thomas E-mail: thomas.feurer@iap.unibe.ch; Peccianti, Marco; Ozturk, Yavuz; Vidal, Francois; Morandotti, Roberto; Sigg, Hans

    2014-04-28

    Terahertz fields can be dramatically enhanced as they propagate through nanometer-sized slits. The enhancement is mediated by a significant accumulation of the induced surface charges on the surrounding metal. This enhancement is shown here to be dynamically modulated while the nanoslits are gradually shunted using a copropagating optical beam. The terahertz fields are found to skirt the nanoscale photo-excited region underneath the slits, scattering to the far field and rigorously mapping the near field.

  20. Suite of Photo-electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Suite of Photo-electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The primary fuel powering new fuel cell technologies is hydrogen. The market for fuel cells is expected

  1. Photo of the Week: Studying the Rhizosphere | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studying the Rhizosphere Photo of the Week: Studying the Rhizosphere December 18, 2013 - 4:48pm Addthis Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory study the microbial interactions in the plant root systems, the rhizosphere. The rhizosphere represents a critical zone where plant roots, microbes and minerals interface, and where biogeochemical weathering provides nutrients to plants. This research program will broaden our understanding of the biogeochemistry of plant-microbe-soil

  2. Photo of the Week: The Olympus Supercomputer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Olympus Supercomputer Photo of the Week: The Olympus Supercomputer September 5, 2013 - 2:08pm Addthis Fun fact: Most systems require air conditioning or chilled water to cool super powerful supercomputers, but the Olympus supercomputer at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is cooled by the location's 65 degree groundwater. Traditional cooling systems could cost up to $61,000 in electricity each year, but this more efficient setup uses 70 percent less energy. PNNL's scientists use the

  3. Photo of the Week: Tiny Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tiny Batteries Photo of the Week: Tiny Batteries April 25, 2014 - 12:56pm Addthis For years, scientists have tracked the movements of salmon through rivers in the Pacific Northwest and around the world. Now a smaller, more powerful battery will allow them to track even younger, smaller fish over longer distances. Slightly larger than grains of rice, the new batteries power a transmitter small enough to inject into these fish -- rather than surgically implant them. The result is less stressful

  4. Photo of the Week: Boosting Solar Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boosting Solar Technology Photo of the Week: Boosting Solar Technology April 15, 2013 - 4:47pm Addthis Concentrated solar panels are getting a power boost. This summer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will be testing a new concentrated solar power system -- one that can help natural gas power plants reduce their fuel usage by up to 20 percent. PNNL has developed a system that uses a thermochemical conversion device to convert natural gas and sunlight into a more energy-rich fuel

  5. Photo of the Week: Grid Friendly | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid Friendly Photo of the Week: Grid Friendly November 20, 2014 - 4:41pm Addthis Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory helped develop this integrated circuit to help make home appliances more responsive to the electric grid. When installed in refrigerators, air conditioners, water heaters and other appliances, the 2.5-inch Grid Friendly Appliance Controller can recognize when there's a power grid overload -- and will switch your appliances off and back on again to help conserve

  6. Photo of the Week: July 28, 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    28, 2012 Photo of the Week: July 28, 2012 July 27, 2012 - 10:43am Addthis UC Berkeley engineering student Jerome Thai launches one of 100 floating sensors into the Sacramento River. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta’s channel system supports California's agricultural industry and provides drinking water for 22 million Californians. The Floating Sensor Network project is a collaborative effort between the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS),

  7. Photo of the Week: Supercomputing... from Space | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercomputing... from Space Photo of the Week: Supercomputing... from Space June 27, 2013 - 1:46pm Addthis The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite that was designed to prove that off-the-shelf computer processors can be used for supercomputing in space. The processors, also called field-programmable gate arrays, can be reconfigured while the satellite is in orbit, enabling researchers to modify them for a variety of tasks like studying lightning, disturbances in

  8. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Nevada National Security Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Library > Nevada National Security Site NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Nevada National Security Site A unique national resource, the Nevada National Security Site is a massive outdoor laboratory and national experimental center that cannot be duplicated. Larger than the state of Rhode Island, approximately 1,375 square miles, the NTS is one of the largest restricted access areas in the United States. The remote site is surrounded by thousands of

  9. Photo-voltaic power generating means and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kroger, Ferdinand A.; Rod, Robert L.; Panicker, Ramachandra M. P.; Knaster, Mark B.

    1984-01-10

    A photo-voltaic power cell based on a photoelectric semiconductor compound and the method of using and making the same. The semiconductor compound in the photo-voltaic power cell of the present invention can be electrolytically formed at a cathode in an electrolytic solution by causing discharge or decomposition of ions or molecules of a non-metallic component with deposition of the non-metallic component on the cathode and simultaneously providing ions of a metal component which discharge and combine with the non-metallic component at the cathode thereby forming the semiconductor compound film material thereon. By stoichiometrically adjusting the amounts of the components, or otherwise by introducing dopants into the desired amounts, an N-type layer can be formed and thereafter a P-type layer can be formed with a junction therebetween. The invention is effective in producing homojunction semiconductor materials and heterojunction semiconductor materials. The present invention also provides a method of using three electrodes in order to form the semiconductor compound material on one of these electrodes. Various examples are given for manufacturing different photo-voltaic cells in accordance with the present invention.

  10. Photo-voltaic power generating means and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kroger, Ferdinand A.; Rod, Robert L.; Panicker, M. P. Ramachandra

    1983-08-23

    A photo-voltaic power cell based on a photoelectric semiconductor compound and the method of using and making the same. The semiconductor compound in the photo-voltaic power cell of the present invention can be electrolytically formed at a cathode in an electrolytic solution by causing discharge or decomposition of ions or molecules of a non-metallic component with deposition of the non-metallic component on the cathode and simultaneously providing ions of a metal component which discharge and combine with the non-metallic component at the cathode thereby forming the semiconductor compound film material thereon. By stoichiometrically adjusting the amounts of the components, or otherwise by introducing dopants into the desired amounts, an N-type layer can be formed and thereafter a P-type layer can be formed with a junction therebetween. The invention is effective in producing homojunction semiconductor materials and heterojunction semiconductor materials. The present invention also provides a method of using three electrodes in order to form the semiconductor compound material on one of these electrodes. Various examples are given for manufacturing different photo-voltaic cells in accordance with the present invention.

  11. Enhancing Graduate Student Communication to General Audiences through Blogging about Nanotechnology and Sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, Lee M.; Tillman, Ayesha S.; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Klaper, Rebecca D.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Pedersen, Joel A.; DeStefano, Lizanne; Hamers, Robert J.

    2014-10-14

    We have developed and assessed a multiauthor science blog on the topic of nanotechnology and sustainability as a tool to improve the written communication and public engagement skills of graduate students. Focus group studies revealed that after participation in the blog, student authors felt more confident and capable of communicating technical topics to general audiences. Students' research mentors viewed this as an important component of their students' education, as indicated by survey data. Important design aspects of this effort include participation of an editor as well as having flexible content and target-audience guidelines. We have explicitly outlined aspects of the effort we see as critical in order to enable others to replicate this model in related settings.

  12. Semiconductor Nanotechnology: Novel Materials and Devices for Electronics, Photonics, and Renewable Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodnick, Stephen; Korkin, Anatoli; Krstic, Predrag S; Mascher, Peter; Preston, John; Zaslavsky, Alex

    2010-03-01

    Electronic and photonic information technology and renewable energy alternatives, such as solar energy, fuel cells and batteries, have now reached an advanced stage in their development. Cost-effective improvements to current technological approaches have made great progress, but certain challenges remain. As feature sizes of the latest generations of electronic devices are approaching atomic dimensions, circuit speeds are now being limited by interconnect bottlenecks. This has prompted innovations such as the introduction of new materials into microelectronics manufacturing at an unprecedented rate and alternative technologies to silicon CMOS architectures. Despite the environmental impact of conventional fossil fuel consumption, the low cost of these energy sources has been a long-standing economic barrier to the development of alternative and more efficient renewable energy sources, fuel cells and batteries. In the face of mounting environmental concerns, interest in such alternative energy sources has grown. It is now widely accepted that nanotechnology offers potential solutions for securing future progress in information and energy technologies. The Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference (CSTC) forum was established 25 years ago in Ottawa as an important symbol of the intrinsic strength of the Canadian semiconductor research and development community, and the Canadian semiconductor industry as a whole. In 2007, the 13th CSTC was held in Montreal, moving for the first time outside the national capital region. The first three meetings in the series of Nano and Giga Challenges in Electronics and Photonics NGCM2002 in Moscow, NGCM2004 in Krakow, and NGC2007 in Phoenix were focused on interdisciplinary research from the fundamentals of materials science to the development of new system architectures. In 2009 NGC2009 and the 14th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference (CSTC2009) were held as a joint event, hosted by McMaster University (10 14 August, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) and the scope was expanded to include renewable energy research and development. This special issue of Nanotechnology is devoted to a better understanding of the function and design of semiconductor devices that are relevant to information technology (both electronics and photonics based) and renewable energy applications. The papers contained in this special issue are selected from the NGC/CSTC2009 symposium. Among them is a report by Ray LaPierre from McMaster University and colleagues at the University of Waterloo in Canada on the ability to manipulate single spins in nanowire quantum bits. The paper also reports the development of a testbed of a few qubits for general quantum information processing tasks [1]. Lower cost and greater energy conversion efficiency compared with thin film devices have led to a high level of activity in nanowire research related to photovoltaic applications. This special issue also contains results from an impedance spectroscopy study of core shell GaAs nanowires to throw light on the transport and recombination mechanisms relevant to solar cell research [2]. Information technology research and renewable energy sources are research areas of enormous public interest. This special issue addresses both theoretical and experimental achievements and provides a stimulating outlook for technological developments in these highly topical fields of research. References [1] Caram J, Sandoval C, Tirado M, Comedi D, Czaban J, Thompson D A and LaPierre R R 2010 Electrical characteristics of core shell p-n GaAs nanowire structures with Te as the n-dopant Nanotechnology 21 134007 [2] Baugh J, Fung J S and LaPierre R R 2010 Building a spin quantum bit register using semiconductor nanowires Nanotechnology 21 134018

  13. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Big Hole Drilling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Big Hole Drilling NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Big Hole Drilling The need to drill large-diameter holes at the Nevada National Security Site resulted from the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), signed by President John F. Kennedy in Moscow on August 5, 1963. The LTBT prohibited testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, underwater and in outer space. As a result, scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy weapons laboratories had to relocate all

  14. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Details page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo Details NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Instructions: Click the photograph number or name link below the thumbnail to view the full size image Photograph details are listed on the right Refer to the Viewing Instructions and FAQs for technical help Unable to display this Web Part. To troubleshoot the problem, open this Web page in a Windows SharePoint Services-compatible HTML editor such as Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer. If the problem persists, contact

  15. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library EPA Farm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EPA Farm NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - EPA Farm In November 1981, the last cattle roundup took place at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) experimental farm, managed for DOE by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Operations at this unique 30-acre experimental farm in Area 15 started in 1964 when the EPA was contracted to conduct research to determine if radioactive materials found in the environment were being transported to humans.

  16. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library News & Views

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Views NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - NTS 50th Anniversary Newsletter (News & Views) This special issue of the NTS News & Views is dedicated to the thousands of men and women at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), who for 42 years have provided this Nation with a safe, strong and effective nuclear deterrent. This issue spotlights major events at the NTS from 1951 through 1993. Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to

  17. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library OPERATION IVY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operation Ivy NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Operation Ivy Operation Ivy, Parts 1 and 2 - "The island of Elugelab is missing!" President Eisenhower heard this short report on the Mike shot in Operation Ivy from Gordon Dean, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. Mike was the first full-fledged hydrogen bomb to be tested. [ Full Text ] Instructions: Click the photograph THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details Click the Category, Number,

  18. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library RadNucCTEC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RadNucCTEC NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - RadNucCTEC The Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Complex (Rad/NucCTEC) will allow crucial security research to prevent radiological or nuclear materials that could be used as dirty bombs, from entering the country. The evaluation of radiation seNFOrs and detection systems are a few of the activities the complex will support. The Department of Homeland Security has provided funding to

  19. Photo of the Week: Ivanpah Solar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ivanpah Solar Photo of the Week: Ivanpah Solar February 14, 2014 - 12:03pm Addthis Located in the Mojave Desert, 40 miles southwest of Las Vegas, the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System is the largest solar thermal energy facility in the world, with 392 MW of capacity – meaning it can produce enough renewable electricity to power nearly 100,000 homes. It uses 173,500 heliostat mirrors spread over approximately 3,500 acres, focusing solar energy on boilers located atop three solar power

  20. Photo of the Week: Laser Beats Rock | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laser Beats Rock Photo of the Week: Laser Beats Rock April 8, 2013 - 5:28pm Addthis On August 5, 2012, the Curiosity rover touched down on the surface of Mars. The ChemCam instrument package, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is a device mounted on the Mars Curiosity rover that uses two remote sensing instruments: the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). The LIBS fires a powerful laser that determines chemical compositions of rock and soil

  1. Photo of the Week: The Cosmic Frontier | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Cosmic Frontier Photo of the Week: The Cosmic Frontier March 7, 2014 - 4:10pm Addthis This week on Energy.gov, we’ve covered space and beyond -- from technologies at our National Labs that are working to prevent traffic jams in space, to infographics about collecting space-based solar power, to the real-world scientific counterparts to lightsabers. Throughout it all, we've featured experts at the Energy Department and National Labs who are contributing to the U.S. space program. This

  2. Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nga Chen, Yuk; Todorov, Yanko Askenazi, Benjamin; Vasanelli, Angela; Sirtori, Carlo; Biasiol, Giorgio; Colombelli, Raffaele

    2014-01-20

    We demonstrate mid-infrared detectors embedded into an array of double-metal nano-antennas. The antennas act as microcavities that squeeze the electric field into thin semiconductor layers, thus enhancing the detector responsivity. Furthermore, thanks to the ability of the antennas to gather photons from an area larger than the device's physical dimensions, the dark current is reduced without hindering the photo-generation rate. In these devices, the background-limited performance is improved with a consequent increase of the operating temperature. Our results illustrate how the antenna-coupled microcavity concept can be applied to enhance the performances of infrared opto-electronic devices.

  3. #CleanTechNow: Your Best Clean Energy Photos | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    #CleanTechNow: Your Best Clean Energy Photos #CleanTechNow: Your Best Clean Energy Photos September 27, 2013 - 12:45pm Addthis Marissa Newhall Marissa Newhall Director of Digital Strategy and Communications Learn More: Follow @energy on Instagram to check out more great photos and videos about energy technology. Read an Energy Department report about the recent advances of wind, solar panels, electric vehicles and LED lighting in the consumer marketplace. Check out Secretary Moniz's blog post

  4. 2014 Offshore Wind Market & Economic Analysis Cover Photo | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4 Offshore Wind Market & Economic Analysis Cover Photo 2014 Offshore Wind Market & Economic Analysis Cover Photo Image icon Navigant 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis.JPG More Documents & Publications U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain Cover Photo Offshore Wind Projects 2014 Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Wind Program Home About the Program Research & Development WINDExchange Financial Opportunities Information Resources News

  5. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, T.V.

    1996-06-11

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate there through to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex. 23 figs.

  6. Photo of the Week: What Does a Particle Accelerator Have in Common...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Learn more about how FACET works. | Photo courtesy of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every ...

  7. Photo of the Week: More than One Way to Hammer a Nail | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite ...

  8. 2010 DOE National Science Bowl® Photos - Smith Middle School...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Smith Middle School National Science Bowl (NSB) NSB Home About National Science Bowl ... 2010 DOE National Science Bowl Photos - Smith Middle School Print Text Size: A A A ...

  9. Kinetics of visible light photo-oxidation of Ge nanocrystals:Theory and in situ measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, I.D.; Xu, Q.; Yuan, C.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Ager III, J.W.; Chrzan, D.C.; Haller, E.E.

    2006-11-14

    Photo-oxidation of Ge nanocrystals illuminated with visible laser light under ambient conditions was investigated. The photo-oxidation kinetics were monitored by in situ measurement of the crystalline Ge volume fraction by Raman spectroscopy. The effects of laser power and energy on the extent of oxidation were measured using both in situ and ex situ Raman scattering techniques. A mechanistic model in which the tunneling of photo-excited carriers to the oxide surface for electron activated molecular oxygen dissociation is proposed. This quantitative model successfully describes all experimental photo-oxidation observations using physical parameters.

  10. Photo of the Week: Up in the Air | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Up in the Air Photo of the Week: Up in the Air January 31, 2014 - 10:10am Addthis In this August 2013 photo, Pete Johnson of Gemini Rope Access Solutions rappels down a 3 megawatt Alstom wind turbine, just having finished inspecting the blades above him. The turbine was undergoing testing at NREL's National Wind Technology Center in Boulder, Colorado. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. In this August 2013 photo, Pete Johnson of Gemini Rope Access Solutions rappels down a 3 megawatt

  11. Photo-thermal quartz tuning fork excitation for dynamic mode atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Teyssieux, Damien; Thiery, Laurent; Hermelin, Damien; Vairac, Pascal; Friedt, Jean-Michel

    2014-10-13

    A photo-thermal excitation of a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) for topographic studies is introduced. The non-invasive photo-thermal excitation presents practical advantages compared to QTF mechanical and electrical excitations, including the absence of the anti-resonance and its associated phase rotation. Comparison between our theoretical model and experiments validate that the optical transduction mechanism is a photo-thermal rather than photo-thermoacoustic phenomenon. Topographic maps in the context of near-field microscopy distance control have been achieved to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  12. 2010 National Science Bowl Photos | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    0 National Science Bowl Photos National Science Bowl (NSB) NSB Home About National Science Bowl Contacts Regional Science Bowl Coordinators National Science Bowl FAQ's Alumni ...

  13. 2011 National Science Bowl Photos | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    1 National Science Bowl Photos National Science Bowl (NSB) NSB Home About National Science Bowl Contacts Regional Science Bowl Coordinators National Science Bowl FAQ's Alumni ...

  14. Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Tuan V.

    1996-01-01

    A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

  15. Photo of the Week: Record-Breaking Solar Cells | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cells. | Photo by Daniel DerkacsSolarJunction. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite ...

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Earth Day 2015 Photo Contest CALLING...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Earth Day 2015 Photo Contest CALLING ALL PHOTOGRAPHERS Professionals, amateurs, and the camera sharp shooter We invite all DOE employees and DOE contractors to share images of...

  17. Photo 3D-Printer, Image Credit, Ames Lab | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photo 3D-Printer, Image Credit, Ames Lab Critical Materials Institute speed metals research with 3D printer. Default Caption and Credits Read More: Critical Materials Institute ...

  18. Application of an Informatics-Based Decision-Making Framework and Process to the Assessment of Radiation Safety in Nanotechnology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoover, Mark D.; Myers, David S.; Cash, Leigh J.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Oberdörster, Günter; Smith, Rachel; Cassata, James R.; Boecker, Bruce B.; Grissom, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has established NCRP Scientific Committee 2-6 to develop a report on the current state of knowledge and guidance for radiation safety programs involved with nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. While the full report is in preparation, this article presents and applies an informatics-based decision-making framework and process through which the radiation protection community can anticipate that nano-enabled applications, processes, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles are likely to become present or are alreadymore » present in radiation-related activities; recognize specific situations where environmental and worker safety, health, well-being, and productivity may be affected by nano-related activities; evaluate how radiation protection practices may need to be altered to improve protection; control information, interpretations, assumptions, and conclusions to implement scientifically sound decisions and actions; and confirm that desired protection outcomes have been achieved. This generally applicable framework and supporting process can be continuously applied to achieve health and safety at the convergence of nanotechnology and radiation-related activities.« less

  19. Application of an Informatics-Based Decision-Making Framework and Process to the Assessment of Radiation Safety in Nanotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, Mark D.; Myers, David S.; Cash, Leigh J.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Oberdörster, Günter; Smith, Rachel; Cassata, James R.; Boecker, Bruce B.; Grissom, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has established NCRP Scientific Committee 2-6 to develop a report on the current state of knowledge and guidance for radiation safety programs involved with nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. While the full report is in preparation, this article presents and applies an informatics-based decision-making framework and process through which the radiation protection community can anticipate that nano-enabled applications, processes, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles are likely to become present or are already present in radiation-related activities; recognize specific situations where environmental and worker safety, health, well-being, and productivity may be affected by nano-related activities; evaluate how radiation protection practices may need to be altered to improve protection; control information, interpretations, assumptions, and conclusions to implement scientifically sound decisions and actions; and confirm that desired protection outcomes have been achieved. This generally applicable framework and supporting process can be continuously applied to achieve health and safety at the convergence of nanotechnology and radiation-related activities.

  20. Identifying irradiated flours by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-02-12

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was used in this study to detect gamma irradiation treatment of five types of flours (corn, rice, tapioca, wheat and glutinous rice) at four different doses 0, 0.2, .05 and 1kGy. The signal level was compared with two threshold values (700 and 5000). With the exception of glutinous rice, all irradiated samples produced a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/60s). All control samples produced negative result with the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/60s) suggesting that the samples have not been irradiated. Irradiated glutinous rice samples produced intermediate signals (700 - 5000 counts/60s) which were subsequently confirmed using calibrated PSL. The PSL signals remained stable after 90 days of storage. The findings of this study will be useful to facilitate control of food irradiation application in Malaysia.

  1. Photo Gallery (1947-Present) | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information Photo Gallery (1947-Present) To view OSTI Historical Photo Gallery, you can browse the collections below. 1940s | 1950s | 1960s | 1970s | 1980s | 1990s | 2000s 1960s Key Punch Operator 2000 Science.gov Celebration

  2. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.; Dees, H.C.

    1998-11-10

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. 13 figs.

  3. Methods for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.; Dees, H. Craig

    2008-03-18

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method comprises the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention also provides a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  4. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation and detection of molecular diagnostic agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wachter, Eric A.; Fisher, Walter G.; Dees, H. Craig

    1998-01-01

    A method for the imaging of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue, wherein the plant or animal tissue contains at least one photo-active molecular agent. The method includes the steps of treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of the photo-active molecular agent contained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, photo-activating at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, thereby producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent, wherein the at least one photo-activated molecular agent emits energy, detecting the energy emitted by the at least one photo-activated molecular agent, and producing a detected energy signal which is characteristic of the particular volume of plant or animal tissue. The present invention is also a method for the imaging of a particular volume of material, wherein the material contains at least one photo-active molecular agent.

  5. Photo annealing effect on p-doped inverted organic solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lafalce, Evan; Toglia, Patrick; Lewis, Jason E.; Jiang, Xiaomei

    2014-06-28

    We report the transient positive photo annealing effect in which over 600% boost of power conversion efficiency was observed in inverted organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) made from P3HT/PCBM by spray method, after 2?hrs of constant solar AM 1.5 irradiation at low temperature. This is opposite to usual photodegradation of OPV, and cannot be explained by thermal activation alone since the mere temperature effect could only account for 30% of the enhancement. We have investigated the temperature dependence, cell geometry, oxygen influence, and conclude that, for p-doped active layer at room temperature, the predominant mechanism is photo-desorption of O{sub 2}, which eliminates electron traps and reduces space charge screening. As temperature decreases, thermal activation and deep trap-state filling start to show noticeable effect on the enhancement of photocurrent at intermediate low temperature (T?=?125?K). At very low temperature, the dominant mechanism for photo annealing is trap-filling, which significantly reduces recombination between free and trapped carriers. At all temperature, photo annealing effect depends on illumination direction from cathode or anode. We also explained the large fluctuation of photocurrent by the capture/reemit of trapped electrons from shallow electron traps of O{sub 2}{sup -} generated by photo-doping. Our study has demonstrated the dynamic process of photo-doping and photo-desorption, and shown that photo annealing in vacuum can be an efficient method to improve OPV device efficiency.

  6. Coherent ?(2S) photo-production in ultra-peripheral PbPb collisions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coherent (2S) photo-production in ultra-peripheral PbPb collisions at sNN2.76 TeV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coherent (2S) photo-production in ultra-peripheral...

  7. Photo-Seebeck effect in tetragonal PbO single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondal, P. S.; Okazaki, R.; Taniguchi, H.; Terasaki, I.

    2013-11-07

    We report the observation of photo-Seebeck effect in tetragonal PbO crystals. The photo-induced carriers contribute to the transport phenomena, and consequently the electrical conductivity increases and the Seebeck coefficient decreases with increasing photon flux density. A parallel-circuit model is used to evaluate the actual contributions of photo-excited carriers from the measured transport data. The photo-induced carrier concentration estimated from the Seebeck coefficient increases almost linearly with increasing photon flux density, indicating a successful photo-doping effect on the thermoelectric property. The mobility decreases by illumination but the reduction rate strongly depends on the illuminated photon energy. Possible mechanisms of such photon-energy-dependent mobility are discussed.

  8. PPPL's Christopher Cane Has Winning Photo In Art of Science Competition |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL's Christopher Cane Has Winning Photo In Art of Science Competition By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe May 20, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL Webmaster Chris Cane and Paul Csogi, former Webmaster for the Lewis Center for the Arts, came up with this design depicting their two websites. PPPL's website is at the top left. (Photo by Photo courtesy of Art of Science ) PPPL Webmaster Chris Cane and Paul Csogi, former Webmaster for the Lewis Center

  9. Snapshots of the Year in Energy: 12 Awesome Photos from 2012 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Snapshots of the Year in Energy: 12 Awesome Photos from 2012 Snapshots of the Year in Energy: 12 Awesome Photos from 2012 Addthis 1. Secretary Chu at the Detroit Auto Show 1 of 12 1. Secretary Chu at the Detroit Auto Show In this January 10 photo, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu checks out the 2013 Dodge Dart at the 2012 Detroit Auto Show. Several electric vehicles at the auto show highlighted many of the Energy Department's investments in electric vehicles, which have helped

  10. Snapshots of the Year in Energy: 12 Awesome Photos from 2012 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Snapshots of the Year in Energy: 12 Awesome Photos from 2012 Snapshots of the Year in Energy: 12 Awesome Photos from 2012 January 7, 2013 - 2:31pm Addthis 1. Secretary Chu at the Detroit Auto Show 1 of 12 1. Secretary Chu at the Detroit Auto Show In this January 10 photo, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu checks out the 2013 Dodge Dart at the 2012 Detroit Auto Show. Several electric vehicles at the auto show highlighted many of the Energy Department's investments in electric vehicles,

  11. New Horizons Science Photos from NASA's Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    DOE provided the power supply for NASA's New Horizons Mission, a mission to the Pluto and Charon, a double-planet system, and the Kuiper Belt. There are 61 science photos posted on the New Horizons website, along with mission photos, spacecraft images, launch photos, posters and renderings that are both scientific and artistic. Dates range from June of 2006 to February of 2008. The images can be searched by keywords, by date, or by subject topic. They can also be browsed as an entire list. Each image has a detailed description.

  12. Realizing novel accelerator concepts in an X-band photo-injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, R

    2010-04-13

    In this project we propose to investigate the use of novel accelerator structure cell geometry to enhance the performance of X-band photo-injectors. Making novel accelerator concepts possible involves fabrication and testing of components to ensure that the performance predicted by simulation is robustly achievable. This work is important because photo-injectors are increasingly used to provide high brightness electron beams for light sources, pushing their performance to the limits, but also requiring them to be user-facility stable. Careful investigation in both computer simulation and design, and low power testing of piece parts will enable the successful fabrication of an advanced X-band photo-injector.

  13. 2014 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit Day Two Photos | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Photo Credit: SunShot Date taken: 2014-05-20 08:33 Day 2 SunShot Summit Breakfast 38 of 39 Day 2 SunShot Summit Breakfast Attendees enjoy conversation over breakfast before day 2 ...

  14. Photo of the Week: Oak Ridge in 1945 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  15. Photo of the Week: The Longest Building in the World | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  16. Photo of the Week: Biomass Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  17. Photo of the Week: The First Energy-Efficient Dual-Paned Windows...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  18. Photo of the Week: A Storm in Albuquerque, New Mexico | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  19. Photo of the Week: Women in STEM Introducing Girls to Engineering...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  20. Photo-oxidation of Polymers Synthesized by Plasma and Initiated CVD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baxamusa, Salmaan H.; Suresh, Aravind; Ehrmann, Paul; Laurence, Ted; Hanania, Jiries; Hayes, Jeff; Harley, Stephen; Burkey, Daniel D.

    2015-11-09

    Plasma polymers are often limited by their susceptibility to spontaneous and photo-oxidation. We show that the unusual photoluminescence (PL) behavior of a plasma polymer of trans-2-butene is correlated with its photoluminescence strength. These photo-processes occur under blue light illumination (λ=405 nm), distinguishing them from traditional ultraviolet degradation of polymers. These photo-active defects are likely formed during the plasma deposition process and we show that a polymer synthesized using initiated (i)CVD, non-plasma method, has 1000× lower PL signal and enhanced photo-stability. In conclusion, non-plasma methods such as iCVD may therefore be a route to overcoming material aging issues that limit themore » adoption of plasma polymers.« less

  1. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation of molecular agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for the treatment of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue by treating the plant or animal tissue with at least one photo-active molecular agent, wherein the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue retains at least a portion of the at least one photo-active molecular agent, and then treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent retained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, wherein the at least one photo-active molecular agent becomes active in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue.

  2. Photo of the Week: Mapping the Link between Invasive Plants and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  3. Photo of the Week: Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  4. Photo of the Week: The CAVE at LANL | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from all angles. | Photo by LeRoy Sanchez, LANL. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite ...

  5. Photo of the Week: Inside the Super HILAC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our favorite energy-related photo here on Energy.gov, at Facebook.com...

  6. Photo of the Week: Real-Life Laser Device or Star Trek Set? ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Learn more about the NIF. | Photo courtesy of Jacqueline McBride, LLNL. Sarah Gerrity Sarah Gerrity Former Multimedia Editor, Office of Public Affairs Every week, we'll feature our ...

  7. Final Scientific/Technical Report Development of Large-Area Photo...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Final ScientificTechnical Report Development of Large-Area Photo-Detectors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final ScientificTechnical Report Development of Large-Area...

  8. Evidence for photo-induced monoclinic metallic VO{sub 2} under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin Mao, Wendy L.; Trigo, Mariano; Reis, David A.; Andrea Artioli, Gianluca; Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-13

    We combine ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy with a diamond-anvil cell to decouple the insulator-metal electronic transition from the lattice symmetry changing structural transition in the archetypal strongly correlated material vanadium dioxide. Coherent phonon spectroscopy enables tracking of the photo-excited phonon vibrational frequencies of the low temperature, monoclinic (M{sub 1})-insulating phase that transforms into the metallic, tetragonal rutile structured phase at high temperature or via non-thermal photo-excitations. We find that in contrast with ambient pressure experiments where strong photo-excitation promptly induces the electronic transition along with changes in the lattice symmetry, at high pressure, the coherent phonons of the monoclinic (M{sub 1}) phase are still clearly observed upon the photo-driven phase transition to a metallic state. These results demonstrate the possibility of synthesizing and studying transient phases under extreme conditions.

  9. Photo of the Week: We Mustache You a Question | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... school students from across the country competed in the 24th annual National Science Bowl. ... Photo of the Week: The 2014 National Science Bowl This week on Energy.gov, we've covered ...

  10. Photos of AEC Site Under Construction | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    was the subject of a forest survey during the summer of 2000. Photo courtesy of the Montgomery County Historical Society, Rockville, Maryland AEC Construction Site View of the AEC...

  11. Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped X-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of seve laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32).

  12. Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    processes (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes Title: Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes In this study, optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization, spin-transfer and spin-orbit torques open new

  13. Photo-lithography of xanthate precursor poly(p-phenylenevinylene) polymers.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Photo-lithography of xanthate precursor poly(p-phenylenevinylene) polymers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photo-lithography of xanthate precursor poly(p-phenylenevinylene) polymers. Conjugated polymers such as poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) have attracted a great deal of attention due to their optoelectronic properties. The ability to control the lateral spatial resolution of conjugated polymers will allow for improved integration into

  14. Photo of the Week: Throwback Thursday with AVIDAC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Throwback Thursday with AVIDAC Photo of the Week: Throwback Thursday with AVIDAC September 19, 2013 - 4:41pm Addthis In this photo, two Argonne researchers are pictured with Argonne's first digital computer, AVIDAC. Designed and built by Argonne's Physics Division for $250,000, it began operations on January 28, 1953. AVIDAC stands for "Argonne Version of the Institute's Digital Automatic Computer" and was based on architecture developed by mathematician John von Neumann.

  15. Photo-oxidation of polymer-like amorphous hydrogenated carbon under visible light illumination

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baxamusa, Salmaan; Laurence, Ted; Worthington, Matthew; Ehrmann, Paul

    2015-11-10

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H), a polymer-like network typically synthesized by plasma chemical vapor deposition, has long been understood to exhibit optical absorption of visible light (λ > 400 nm). In this report we explain that this absorption is accompanied by rapid photo-oxidation (within minutes) that behaves in most respects like classic polymer photo-oxidation with the exception that it occurs under visible light illumination rather than ultraviolet illumination.

  16. Past National Science Bowl Photos and Videos | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Photos and Videos National Science Bowl® (NSB) NSB Home About National Science Bowl Contacts Regional Science Bowl Coordinators National Science Bowl FAQ's Alumni Past National Science Bowl Winners Past National Science Bowl Photos and Videos National Science Bowl Logos High School Middle School Attending the National Finals Volunteers 2016 Competition Results News Media WDTS Home Contact Information National Science Bowl® U.S. Department of Energy SC-27/ Forrestal Building 1000

  17. 2010 National Science Bowl Photos | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    0 National Science Bowl Photos National Science Bowl® (NSB) NSB Home About National Science Bowl Contacts Regional Science Bowl Coordinators National Science Bowl FAQ's Alumni Past National Science Bowl Winners Past National Science Bowl Photos and Videos National Science Bowl Logos High School Middle School Attending the National Finals Volunteers 2016 Competition Results News Media WDTS Home Contact Information National Science Bowl® U.S. Department of Energy SC-27/ Forrestal Building 1000

  18. 2011 National Science Bowl Photos | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    1 National Science Bowl Photos National Science Bowl® (NSB) NSB Home About National Science Bowl Contacts Regional Science Bowl Coordinators National Science Bowl FAQ's Alumni Past National Science Bowl Winners Past National Science Bowl Photos and Videos National Science Bowl Logos High School Middle School Attending the National Finals Volunteers 2016 Competition Results News Media WDTS Home Contact Information National Science Bowl® U.S. Department of Energy SC-27/ Forrestal Building 1000

  19. Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    processes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes In this study, optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization,

  20. Where Are We Heading in Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety and Materials Characterization?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nel, Andre; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Chan, Warren C.; Xia, Tian; Hersam, Mark C.; Brinker, C. J.; Zink, Jeffery I.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Baer, Donald R.; Weiss, Paul S.

    2015-06-23

    Every chemist, material scientist, physicist, engineer, or commercial enterprise involved in the synthesis and/or production of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) or nano-enabled products aspires to develop safe materials. Nanotechnology environmental health and safety (nanoEHS) is a research discipline that involves the study of the possible adverse health and biological effects that nanomaterials may have on humans and environmental organisms and ecosystems. NanoEHS research has provided a body of experimental evidence indicating the possibility of hazardous outcomes as a result of the interactions of unique ENM physicochemical properties with similar scale processes occurring at a wide range of nano/bio interfaces, including at biomolecular, cellular, subcellular, organ, systemic, whole organism, or ecosystems levels. This projected hazard and risk potential warrants rigorous attention to safety assessment, safe use, safe implementation, benign design, regulatory oversight, governance, and public awareness to address the possibility and prevention of nanotoxicity, now or at any time in the future.1 Thus, we should understand the properties of the ENMs that are responsible for the toxicological response, so that we can re-engineer their physicochemical characteristics for risk prevention and safer ENM design.2 However, in spite of widespread use, no human toxicological disease or major environmental impact has been reported for ENMs. Thus, while “Nanotoxicology” is a thriving sub-discipline of Nano-EHS, the use of the “root” word toxicology may elicit a feeling that nanomaterials are inherently toxic despite the fact that toxicity has not been established in real-life use so far. As a community, we may want to rename this sub-discipline as “Nanosafety,” since the objective is to use toxicology information to guide the design of safer nanomaterials for use in medicine, biology, electronics, lighting systems, etc. At ACS Nano, we are interested in publishing articles and forward-looking Perspectives and Reviews that determine and establish ENM physicochemical properties, structure-activity relationships, catalytic effects at the nano/bio interface, mechanistic injury responses, in vitro to in vivo prediction making, safer-by design strategies, actionable screening and detection methods, hazard and risk ranking, fate and transport, ENM categorization, theory and modeling, societal implications, and regulatory/governance decisions.3 Context is important in the immediate and longer-range impact of this research, as we are interested in realistic nanoEHS exposure scenarios conducted with systematic variation of ENM physicochemical properties rather than investigations of a single or a limited number of materials in isolated in vitro studies that only address cytotoxicity at unrealistic doses. In order to make these data useful for researchers, government and regulatory agencies, and other interested parties, these studies, where possible, should include either appropriate positive and negative controls or benchmark materials to answer the important question, “as compared to what?” Dosimetry should be explained in terms of appropriate dose metrics relative to the type of materials, their mechanisms of injury, and exposure conditions, using in vitro to in vivo extrapolations where possible. Another important component of these studies includes appropriate physicochemical characterization of the nanomaterials.

  1. The role of atropisomers on the photo-reactivity and fatigue of diarylethene-based metal–organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, Ian M.; Cox, Jordan M.; Benson, Cassidy A.; Patel, Dinesh G.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Benedict, Jason B.

    2016-01-01

    Photo-responsive metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are one example of light controlled smart materials for use in advanced sensors, data storage, actuators and molecular switches. Herein we show the design, synthesis and characterization of a photo-responsive linker that is subsequently reacted to yield MOF single crystals. The photo-responsive properties of the resulting UBMOF-2 arise from the photo-induced cyclization of the diarylethene moiety designed into the linker. Computational modeling to assess the relative energies of linker atropisomers reveals a large energetic barrier preventing facile interconversion between key species. The role of this barrier on the observed photo-induced fatigue provides useful insight into the development of advanced photo-responsive nanoporous materials.

  2. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation of molecular agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, W.G.; Wachter, E.A.; Dees, H.C.

    1998-11-03

    A method for the treatment of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue comprising the steps of treating the plant or animal tissue with at least one photo-active molecular agent, wherein the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue retains at least a portion of the at least one photo-active molecular agent, and then treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent retained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, wherein the at least one photo-active molecular agent becomes active in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue. There is also disclosed a method for the treatment of cancer in plant or animal tissue and a method for producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent in a particular volume of a material. 23 figs.

  3. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation of molecular agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method for the treatment of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue comprising the steps of treating the plant or animal tissue with at least one photo-active molecular agent, wherein the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue retains at least a portion of the at least one photo-active molecular agent, and then treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent retained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, wherein the at least one photo-active molecular agent becomes active in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue. There is also disclosed a method for the treatment of cancer in plant or animal tissue and a method for producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent in a particular volume of a material.

  4. Method for improved selectivity in photo-activation of molecular agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Walter G. (Knoxville, TN); Wachter, Eric A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dees, H. Craig (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method for the treatment of a particular volume of plant or animal tissue comprising the steps of treating the plant or animal tissue with at least one photo-active molecular agent, wherein the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue retains at least a portion of the at least one photo-active molecular agent, and then treating the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue with light sufficient to promote a simultaneous two-photon excitation of at least one of the at least one photo-active molecular agent retained in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue, wherein the at least one photo-active molecular agent becomes active in the particular volume of the plant or animal tissue. There is also disclosed a method for the treatment of cancer in plant or animal tissue and a method for producing at least one photo-activated molecular agent in a particular volume of a material.

  5. Simultaneous effects of photo- and radio- darkening in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duchez, Jean-Bernard Mady, Franck Mebrouk, Yasmine Benabdesselam, Mourad

    2014-10-21

    We present original characterizations of photo-radio-darkening in ytterbium-doped silica optical fibers submitted to the simultaneous action of the pump and of an ionizing radiation. We present the interplay between both radiations, showing e.g. that the pump is able to darken or bleach the fiber depending on the ionizing dose. The photo-resistance of the fiber is shown to play a crucial role on its radio-resistance, and that photo-resistant fibers should be also radio-resistant in low dose rate conditions. All the results are thoroughly explained by a physical model presented in a separate article by Mady et al. (this conference proceeding)

  6. First-principles thermodynamic screening approach to photo-catalytic water splitting with co-catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberhofer, Harald; Reuter, Karsten

    2013-07-28

    We adapt the computational hydrogen electrode approach to explicitly account for photo-generated charges and use it to computationally screen for viable catalyst/co-catalyst combinations for photo-catalytic water splitting. The hole energy necessary to thermodynamically drive the reaction is employed as descriptor for the screening process. Using this protocol and hybrid-level density-functional theory, we show that water oxidation on bare TiO{sub 2} surfaces is thermodynamically more complex than previously thought. This motivates a screening for suitable co-catalysts for this half-reaction, which we carry out for Au particles down to the non-scalable size regime. We find that almost all small Au clusters studied are better suited for water photo-oxidation than an extended Au(111) surface or bare TiO{sub 2} facets.

  7. High voltage photo-switch package module having encapsulation with profiled metallized concavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen A

    2015-05-05

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces metalized with first metallic layers formed thereon, and encapsulated with a dielectric encapsulation material such as for example epoxy. The first metallic layers are exposed through the encapsulation via encapsulation concavities which have a known contour profile, such as a Rogowski edge profile. Second metallic layers are then formed to line the concavities and come in contact with the first metal layer, to form profiled and metalized encapsulation concavities which mitigate enhancement points at the edges of electrodes matingly seated in the concavities. One or more optical waveguides may also be bonded to the substrate for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer, with the encapsulation also encapsulating the waveguides.

  8. Evaluation of photo-induced reactions on 39,41K (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Technical Report: Evaluation of photo-induced reactions on 39,41K Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of photo-induced reactions on 39,41K Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-01-29 OSTI Identifier: 1119581 Report Number(s): LA-UR-14-20531 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Sponsoring Org: DOE/LANL

  9. UPDATED ADVISORY: Clean Energy Ministerial Photo Now at 11:15 AM |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy UPDATED ADVISORY: Clean Energy Ministerial Photo Now at 11:15 AM UPDATED ADVISORY: Clean Energy Ministerial Photo Now at 11:15 AM July 19, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu will host the first-ever Clean Energy Ministerial, bringing together ministers and stakeholders from more than 20 countries to launch or join new initiatives that will accelerate the world's transition to clean energy technologies. Government delegations will

  10. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1993-01-01

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds.

  11. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1994-01-01

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds

  12. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1994-06-07

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds. 14 figs.

  13. PHOTOS: Vice President Biden Swears in New Deputy Secretary of Energy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy PHOTOS: Vice President Biden Swears in New Deputy Secretary of Energy PHOTOS: Vice President Biden Swears in New Deputy Secretary of Energy October 15, 2014 - 11:39am Addthis 1 of 8 On October 10, 2014, U.S. Vice President Joe Biden visited the Department of Energy to swear in Dr. Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall as the Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy. Here, Sherwood-Randall is joined on stage by her husband, two sons and her mother as she takes the oath of

  14. 2014 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit Opening Session Photos | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2014 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit Opening Session Photos 2014 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit Opening Session Photos Addthis SunShot Grand Challenge Summit Opening Session 1 of 35 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit Opening Session Anaheim Mayor Tom Tait with SunShot Director Minh Le Credit: SunShot Initiative Date taken: 2014-05-19 16:01 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit Opening Session 2 of 35 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit Opening Session SunShot Director Minh Le Credit: SunShot

  15. Photo of the Week: Rocky Flats Wildlife Refuge | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rocky Flats Wildlife Refuge Photo of the Week: Rocky Flats Wildlife Refuge December 21, 2012 - 11:27am Addthis The Rocky Flats Plant was first established in 1951 as a nuclear weapons manufacturing facility. Today, almost 4,000 acres make up the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge. Located just 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, the refuge provides a habitat for migratory birds and mammals. | Photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Rocky Flats Plant was first established in

  16. Photo of the Week: Smashing Atoms with 80-ton Magnets | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Smashing Atoms with 80-ton Magnets Photo of the Week: Smashing Atoms with 80-ton Magnets April 11, 2014 - 1:32pm Addthis The cyclotron, invented by Ernest Lawrence in the 1930s, is a unique circular particle accelerator, which Lawrence himself referred to as a "proton merry-go-round." In reality, the cyclotron specialized in smashing atoms. Part of this atom-smashing process requires very large, very heavy magnets -- sometimes weighing up to 220 tons. In this photo, workers

  17. Microsoft Word - Final Release of Two Photos and Captions for WIPP Exhibit Debut _2_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE- ###DRMMYY Photos of New WIPP Transportation Exhibit's Debut At the National Museum of Nuclear Science and History CARLSBAD, N.M., November 9, 2011- Photo #1 caption: A visitor takes a look at the new Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation exhibit that was unveiled November 5, 2011 in Albuquerque, N.M. at the National Museum of Nuclear Science and History. A cutaway of the TRUPACT-II, a transportation package used for shipping transuranic waste to WIPP near Carlsbad, N.M., is the

  18. Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuan Vodinh.

    1993-12-21

    The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds. 14 figures.

  19. Enhanced anomalous photo-absorption from TiO{sub 2} nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solanki, Vanaraj; Majumder, Subrata; Mishra, Indrani; Varma, Shikha; Dash, P.; Singh, C.; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-03-28

    Two dimensional nanostructures have been created on the rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces via ion irradiation technique. Enhanced anomalous photo- absorption response is displayed, where nanostructures of 15?nm diameter with 0.5?nm height, and not the smaller nanostructures with larger surface area, delineate highest absorbance. Comprehensive investigations of oxygen vacancy states, on ion- irradiated surfaces, display a remarkable result that the number of vacancies saturates for higher fluences. A competition between the number of vacancy sites on the nanostructure in conjunction with its size is responsible for the observed anomalous photo-absorption.

  20. Ultrafast gigantic photo-response in (EDO-TTF)2PF6 initiated by 10-fs laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenlein, Robert William; Itatani, Jiro; Rini, Matteo; Cavalleri, Andrea; Onda, Ken; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Shao, Xiangfeng; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Schoenlein, Robert W.

    2006-08-07

    We photo-exited a charge-ordered organic salt (EDO-TTF)2PF6 with sub-10-fs optical pulses. The photo-induced metallic phase appeared within 80-fs after pumping, characterized by large changes in reflectivity (DELTA R/R~0.8) followed by strong coherent phonon modulation

  1. A method to quench and recharge avalanche photo diodes for use in high rate situations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regan, T.O.; Fenker, H.C.; Thomas, J.; Oliver, J.

    1992-06-01

    We present a new method of using Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDS) for low level light detection in Geiger mode in high rate situations such as those encountered at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The new technique is readily adaptable to implementation in CMOS VLSI.

  2. Photo-oxidative degradation of TiO{sub 2}/polypropylene films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garca-Montelongo, X.L.; Martnez-de la Cruz, A.; Vzquez-Rodrguez, S.; Torres-Martnez, Leticia M.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Photo-oxidative degradation of polypropylene is accelerated by TiO{sub 2} incorporation. Weight loss, FTIR, SEM and GPC shown high degree of degradation of polypropylene. A mechanism of the photo-degradation of polypropylene by TiO{sub 2} is proposed. - Abstract: Photo-oxidative degradation of polypropylene films with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles incorporated was studied in a chamber of weathering with Xenon lamps as irradiation source. TiO{sub 2} powder with crystalline structure of anatase was synthesized by thermal treatments at 400 and 500 C starting from a precursor material obtained by solgel method. Composites of TiO{sub 2}/polypropylene were prepared with 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 wt% of TiO{sub 2}. The mixture of components was performed using a twin screw extruder, the resulting material was pelletized by mechanical fragmenting and then hot-pressed in order to form polypropylene films with TiO{sub 2} dispersed homogeneously. Photo-oxidative degradation process was followed by visual inspection, weight loss of films, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transformed (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC)

  3. Photo-assisted etching of silicon in chlorine- and bromine-containing plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Weiye; Sridhar, Shyam; Liu, Lei; Hernandez, Eduardo; Donnelly, Vincent M. Economou, Demetre J.

    2014-05-28

    Cl{sub 2}, Br{sub 2}, HBr, Br{sub 2}/Cl{sub 2}, and HBr/Cl{sub 2} feed gases diluted in Ar (50%50% by volume) were used to study etching of p-type Si(100) in a rf inductively coupled, Faraday-shielded plasma, with a focus on the photo-assisted etching component. Etching rates were measured as a function of ion energy. Etching at ion energies below the threshold for ion-assisted etching was observed in all cases, with Br{sub 2}/Ar and HBr/Cl{sub 2}/Ar plasmas having the lowest and highest sub-threshold etching rates, respectively. Sub-threshold etching rates scaled with the product of surface halogen coverage (measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and Ar emission intensity (7504?). Etching rates measured under MgF{sub 2}, quartz, and opaque windows showed that sub-threshold etching is due to photon-stimulated processes on the surface, with vacuum ultraviolet photons being much more effective than longer wavelengths. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy revealed that photo-etched surfaces were very rough, quite likely due to the inability of the photo-assisted process to remove contaminants from the surface. Photo-assisted etching in Cl{sub 2}/Ar plasmas resulted in the formation of 4-sided pyramidal features with bases that formed an angle of 45 with respect to ?110? cleavage planes, suggesting that photo-assisted etching can be sensitive to crystal orientation.

  4. Study of asymmetries of Cd(Zn)Te devices investigated using photo-induced current transient spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, surface photo-voltage spectroscopy, and gamma ray spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocco, J.; Bensalah, H.; Zheng, Q.; Dieguez, E.; Corregidor, V.; Avles, E.; Castaldini, A.; Fraboni, B.; Cavalcoli, D.; Cavallini, A.; Vela, O.

    2012-10-01

    Despite these recent advancements in preparing the surface of Cd(Zn)Te devices for detector applications, large asymmetries in the electronic properties of planar Cd(Zn)Te detectors are common. Furthermore, for the development of patterned electrode geometries, selection of each electrode surface is crucial for minimizing dark current in the device. This investigation presented here has been carried out with three objectives. Each objective is oriented towards establishing reliable methods for the selection of the anode and cathode surfaces independent of the crystallographic orientation. The objectives of this study are (i) investigate how the asymmetry in I-V characteristics of Cd(Zn)Te devices may be associated with the TeO2 interfacial layer using Rutherford backscattering to study the structure at the Au-Cd(Zn)Te interface, (ii) develop an understanding of how the concentration of the active traps in Cd(Zn)Te varies with the external bias, and (iii) propose non-destructive methods for selection of the anode and cathode which are independent of crystallographic orientation. The spectroscopic methods employed in this investigation include Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, photo-induced current transient spectroscopy, and surface photo-voltage spectroscopy, as well as gamma ray spectroscopy to demonstrate the influence on detector properties.

  5. Characterization of selective tungsten films prepared by photo-chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Y.K.; Hwang, S.B.; Sun, C.Y. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on selective photo-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten films decomposed by direct photoexcitation of WF{sub 6}. Film deposition rate increased with increasing temperature but was only slightly dependent on WF{sub 6} gas concentration. The selectivity deteriorated with increasing deposition temperature, WF{sub 6} concentration, and deposition time. Typically, in order to achieve selectivity, the flow rate of WF{sub 6} must be lower than 35 sccm and the deposition temperature must be lower than 230{degrees}C. No encroachment and self-limited thickness problems were found as in the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method. In general, tungsten films prepared by photo-CVD were amorphous as observed by x-ray diffraction analysis. After annealing, the tungsten had a polycrystalline structure with a resistivity of 18 {mu}{Omega}-cm.

  6. Photo-oxidation method using MoS2 nanocluster materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcoxon, Jess P.

    2001-01-01

    A method of photo-oxidizing a hydrocarbon compound is provided by dispersing MoS.sub.2 nanoclusters in a solvent containing a hydrocarbon compound contaminant to form a stable solution mixture and irradiating the mixture to photo-oxide the hydrocarbon compound. Hydrocarbon compounds of interest include aromatic hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbons. MoS.sub.2 nanoclusters with an average diameter less than approximately 10 nanometers are shown to be effective in decomposing potentially toxic aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as phenol, pentachlorophenol, chlorinated biphenols, and chloroform, into relatively non-toxic compounds. The irradiation can occur by exposing the MoS.sub.2 nanoclusters and hydrocarbon compound mixture with visible light. The MoS.sub.2 nanoclusters can be introduced to the toxic hydrocarbons as either a MoS.sub.2 solution or deposited on a support material.

  7. Photo-transport properties of Pb{sub 2}CrO{sub 5} single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondal, P. S.; Okazaki, R. Taniguchi, H.; Terasaki, I.

    2014-11-21

    We report photo-thermoelectric transport phenomena in Pb{sub 2}CrO{sub 5} single crystals. Without illumination, this material exhibits an insulating behavior characterized by an activation-type temperature variation of the electrical conductivity. The Seebeck coefficient contrastingly shows a crossover from high-temperature insulating to low-temperature metallic behavior, which is attributed to degenerate carriers in a donor level. We have found that under illumination, both the conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient increase in magnitude with increasing photon flux density in the degenerate-conduction regime. This result is difficult to understand within a simple photo-doping effect, which usually leads to a decrease in the Seebeck coefficient under illumination. The observed phenomenon is discussed in terms of a two-carrier contribution to the transport properties.

  8. Highly efficient terahertz wave modulators by photo-excitation of organics/silicon bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Hyung Keun; Kang, Chul; Hwang, In-Wook; Yoon, Youngwoon; Lee, Kiejin; Kee, Chul-Sik; Lee, Joong Wook

    2014-07-07

    Using hybrid bilayer systems comprising a molecular organic semiconductor and silicon, we achieve optically controllable active terahertz (THz) modulators that exhibit extremely high modulation efficiencies. A modulation efficiency of 98% is achieved from thermally annealed C{sub 60}/silicon bilayers, due to the rapid photo-induced electron transfer from the excited states of the silicon onto the C{sub 60} layer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the broadband modulation of THz waves. The cut-off condition of the system that is determined by the formation of efficient charge separation by the photo-excitation is highly variable, changing the system from insulating to metallic. The phenomenon enables an extremely high modulation bandwidth and rates of electromagnetic waves of interest. The realization of near-perfect modulation efficiency in THz frequencies opens up the possibilities of utilizing active modulators for THz spectroscopy and communications.

  9. Photo-instability of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in poly(methylmethacrylate) film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyi; Liu, Yu; Ye, Xiaoling; Chen, Yonghai

    2013-12-28

    The photo-instability of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) has been studied under varied conditions. We discussed the main features of the evolution of photoluminescence (PL) intensity and energy at different laser powers, which showed critical dependences on the environment. The PL red shift in a vacuum showed strong temperature dependence, from which we concluded that the thermal activation energy for trapping states of the charge carriers was about 14.7 meV. Furthermore, the PL spectra showed asymmetric evolution during the laser irradiation, for which two possible explanations were discussed. Those results provided a comprehensive picture for the photo-instability of the colloidal QDs under different conditions.

  10. Photo of the Week: What Does a Particle Accelerator Have in Common with

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    8, 2012 Photo of the Week: July 28, 2012 July 27, 2012 - 10:43am Addthis UC Berkeley engineering student Jerome Thai launches one of 100 floating sensors into the Sacramento River. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta’s channel system supports California's agricultural industry and provides drinking water for 22 million Californians. The Floating Sensor Network project is a collaborative effort between the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS),

  11. Holding Mother Earth Sacred: Photo Journal Through an American Indian and Canadian Aboriginal Cultural Lens

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HOLDING MOTHER EARTH SACRED Developing Energy Resources * Creating Sustainable Jobs * Honoring Indigenous Beliefs A Photo Journal Through an American Indian and Canadian Aboriginal Cultural Lens Vision Intention / Intersecting Points of Focus * To highlight the important role Native American and Aboriginal workers have in conventional energy production, sustainable energy development and green job creation on tribal lands in the US and Canada * To raise awareness about OH & S and

  12. Photo of the Week: Lego Rendition of SLAC National Laboratory's Linear

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy How to Grow Superconducting Crystals Photo of the Week: How to Grow Superconducting Crystals September 13, 2013 - 11:29am Addthis Many of the materials that scientists work with at Brookhaven National Laboratory are too small and too precise for traditional tools. In cases like these, the labs grow materials instead of building them. Brookhaven physicist Genda Gu pioneered techniques that grow some of the largest single-crystal high-temperature superconductors in the world. The

  13. Photo Gallery: Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz's First Day on the Job |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Gallery: Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz's First Day on the Job Photo Gallery: Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz's First Day on the Job May 22, 2013 - 10:34am Addthis Deputy Secretary Poneman Introduces Dr. Moniz 1 of 15 Deputy Secretary Poneman Introduces Dr. Moniz This morning among friends, family and colleagues, Dr. Ernest Moniz (right) was officially sworn in as the 13th United States Secretary of Energy. Deputy Energy Secretary Daniel B. Poneman (left) began this

  14. Photo of the Week: RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Photo of the Week: RoHAWKtics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory April 1, 2013 - 3:40pm Addthis Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam signs the robot of Hardin Valley Academy's FIRST robotics team during the dedication of DOE's Carbon Fiber Technology Facility, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The RoHAWKtics team (named after their school mascot) spent an intense six weeks constructing the robot, using design, engineering, and

  15. Photo of the Week: Students from Roosevelt Middle School win Argonne's 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regional Science Bowl | Department of Energy Students from Roosevelt Middle School win Argonne's 2013 Regional Science Bowl Photo of the Week: Students from Roosevelt Middle School win Argonne's 2013 Regional Science Bowl February 25, 2013 - 11:49am Addthis Each year, the National Science Bowl brings together thousands of middle and high school students from across the country to compete in a range of science disciplines, including biology, chemistry, earth science, physics, astronomy and

  16. Photos of AEC Site Under Construction | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Photos of AEC Site Under Construction Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Organization Chart .pdf file (132KB) Staff BES Budget BES Committees of Visitors Directions Jobs Organizational History Germantown Natural History President Kennedy's AEC Briefings Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown

  17. Inhibition of plasmonically enhanced interdot energy transfer in quantum dot solids via photo-oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, S. M.; Nejat, A.; West, R. G.

    2012-11-15

    We studied the impact of photophysical and photochemical processes on the interdot Forster energy transfer in monodisperse CdSe/ZnS quantum dot solids. For this, we investigated emission spectra of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot solids in the vicinity of gold metallic nanoparticles coated with chromium oxide. The metallic nanoparticles were used to enhance the rate of the energy transfer between the quantum dots, while the chromium oxide coating led to significant increase of their photo-oxidation rates. Our results showed that irradiation of such solids with a laser beam can lead to unique spectral changes, including narrowing and blue shift. We investigate these effects in terms of inhibition of the plasmonically enhanced interdot energy transfer between quantum dots via the chromium-oxide accelerated photo-oxidation process. We demonstrate this considering energy-dependent rate of the interdot energy transfer process, plasmonic effects, and the way photo-oxidation enhances non-radiative decay rates of quantum dots with different sizes.

  18. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Historic Lasers

    Argus Laser Bay

    The two-beam Argus laser came online In 1976. Use of Argus increased knowledge about laser propagation limits and helped LLNL Laser Program ...

  19. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Bay

    Programmable Spatial Shaper

    A system of customized spatial light ... installed in the preamplifier modules (PAMs) at the front end of the NIF laser system. ...

  20. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Lasers <h3>Testing ARC Pulsers</h3>Plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) technician Tony Runtal completes a test on two of the solid-state switch pulse generators (pulsers) for NIF's Advanced Radiological Capability (ARC). The pulsers produce the 16.5-kilovolt switch pulse required to rotate the polarization of the light in ARC's PEPC optical switch. A MOSFET semiconductor device switches the high-voltage output on and off at the high rate needed for ARC's unique triple

  1. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control Room <h3>NIF Control Room</h3>The NIF control room is inspired by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mission Control room in Houston, Texas. Control room operators access data through a hierarchy of on-screen graphics menus. Operators can also view videos of the laser beams and target from camera sensors incorporated into the beampath and Target Chamber.<br/><br/><a

  2. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diagnostics <h3>Putting FODI Through Its Paces</h3>Diagnostics technician Rod Rinnert puts the primary lenses of the NIF Final Optics Damage Inspection System (FODI) through the system's tilt, roll and yaw paces after installation of new cabling; these movements aim the ultra-high-resolution camera at the individual integrated optics modules in the NIF beamline's final optics assemblies. The FODI is a precision robotic camera used inside the Target Chamber to inspect the final optics

  3. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Bay <h3>Programmable Spatial Shaper</h3>A system of customized spatial light modulators called "spatial shapers" has been installed in the preamplifier modules (PAMs) at the front end of the NIF laser system. The spatial shapers can obscure the laser light at programmed locations within the beam profile to keep the light from striking small, isolated flaws on downstream optical components. Such flaws can act as small initiation sites for damage that could grow during

  4. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exterior <h3>NIF in Springtime</h3>NIF & Photon Science photographer Jason Laurea captured the colors of spring with this shot of the main entrance to the NIF facility. Ground was broken for the facility on May 29, 1997, and NIF was dedicated 12 years to the day later. NIF is 10 stories high and as wide as three football fields arranged side-by-side. It operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.<br/><br/><a

  5. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optics <h3>Repairing and Finishing NIF Optics</h3>Optics group leader Joe Menapace adjusts operation of the magneto-rheological finishing (MRF) polisher during finishing of a refurbished wedged focus lens (WFL). WFLs are wedged-shaped lenses in the NIF final optics assemblies that focus and direct the beamlines to the center of the Target Chamber. Tiny sub-micron flaws can grow and damage the lenses when they are subjected to the intense ultraviolet light from the NIF lasers.

  6. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Other <h3>Maintaining NIF&rsquo;s Power Supply</h3>Power Conditioning System technician Daisy Acosta-Lech removes a resistor from a power conditioning unit in a NIF capacitor bay to make room for the replacement of its spark gap switch (the cylinder to the right of Daisy's right hand). Each spark gap switch delivers about a half-million amps to NIF's laser amplifiers, and the four capacitor bays store and release approximately 400 megajoules (million joules) of electrical energy

  7. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Switchyard <h3>Switchyard Support Structures</h3>The switchyards convert the parallel laser beam layout to the spherical configuration of the target chamber, as the beams need to enter the chamber along radial lines to converge on the target. The switchyard support structures are built to resist vibration. They are firmly anchored to the building's reinforced concrete walls, which are 0.6 meters (two feet) thick.<br/><br/><a

  8. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Target Area <h3>Big Foot Target Shot</h3>This colorized image of a NIF "Big Foot" deuterium-tritium (DT) implosion was taken on Feb. 7, 2016. The open target shroud, the ablation of a magnetic recoil neutron spectrometer foil holder, and the neutron imaging system nose cone can be seen at 9:00. The hardened gated x-ray imaging diagnostics are at 12:00 and 3:00. This shot was the Inertial Confinement Fusion program's first layered DT fusion implosion using the Big Foot

  9. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015july"> "Target Fabrication Steps Up to the Challenge"). Credit: James Pryatel

  10. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was creating the foundation for the NIF target bay, which is about 15 meters below ground level. Workers pumped nearly 2,600 cubic meters of concrete in one long, continuous...

  11. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control Room

    NIF Control Room

    The NIF control room is inspired by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mission Control room in Houston, Texas. Control room...

  12. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... in Bldg. 321. The KBO is used to obtain improved high-resolution images of the "hot spots" at the center of target capsules during NIF inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. ...

  13. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... quad of beams in NIF, will generate short bursts of X-rays to backlight high-density ICF targets and other HED experiments.

  14. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    imagesmediaphoto-gallerylarge40-60-0999-188411.jpg" target"blank">Download hi-res image
    Direct Link...

  15. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    imagesmediaphoto-gallerylargenifexterior2013-050402.jpg" target"blank">Download hi-res image
    Direct Link

    NIF...

  16. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assetsimagesmediaphoto-gallerywebP1186612-lg.jpg" target"blank">Download hi-res image
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    Master...

  17. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Credit: James Pryatel

    Download ...

  18. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Credit: James Pryatel


  19. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1,053-nm radiation to the 527-nm second harmonic (2) wavelength (visible green light). ... ultraviolet radiation at the third harmonic (3).

  20. Photo Gallery: Argonne OutLoud: "Invisible Influence: A Bacterial Guide to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gallery: 2016 Washington Auto Show Photo Gallery: 2016 Washington Auto Show January 27, 2016 - 12:15pm Addthis 1 of 20 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz sits in the driver's seat of the all-electric Chevrolet Bolt at the Washington Auto Show. When it debuts on the road later this year, the Bolt will offer drivers about 200 miles of electric range. Image: Simon Edelman, Energy Department Date taken: 2016-01-21 09:45 2 of 20 The 2016 next-generation Chevrolet Volt builds on the success of its previous

  1. Graphene/CdTe heterostructure solar cell and its enhancement with photo-induced doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Shisheng Chen, Hongsheng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Shengjiao; Wang, Peng; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhong, Huikai; Wu, Zhiqian

    2015-11-09

    We report a type of solar cell based on graphene/CdTe Schottky heterostructure, which can be improved by surface engineering as graphene is atomic thin. By coating a layer of ultrathin CdSe quantum dots onto graphene/CdTe heterostructure, the power conversion efficiency is increased from 2.08% to 3.10%. Photo-induced doping is mainly accounted for this enhancement, as evidenced by field effect transport, Raman, photoluminescence, and quantum efficiency measurements. This work demonstrates a feasible way of improving the performance of graphene/semiconductor heterostructure solar cells by combining one dimensional with two dimensional materials.

  2. Photo Gallery: 3D Printing Brings Classic Shelby Cobra to Life | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 3D Printing Brings Classic Shelby Cobra to Life Photo Gallery: 3D Printing Brings Classic Shelby Cobra to Life April 15, 2015 - 4:02pm Addthis Zero to 60 in under five seconds. Concept to reality in just six weeks. 1 of 22 Zero to 60 in under five seconds. Concept to reality in just six weeks. The classic Shelby Cobra roadster turns 50 in 2015. To celebrate, a team of engineers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory set out to create a replica of this iconic

  3. Photo of the Week: Mapping the Link between Invasive Plants and Wildfire in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Mojave Desert | Department of Energy Mapping the Link between Invasive Plants and Wildfire in the Mojave Desert Photo of the Week: Mapping the Link between Invasive Plants and Wildfire in the Mojave Desert August 21, 2013 - 4:03pm Addthis Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are using predictive tools to understand ecological changes driven by frequent fires due to invasive plant species in California’s Mojave Desert. In collaboration with the U.S. Geological

  4. Photo of the Week: The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Photo of the Week: The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor May 30, 2014 - 1:12pm Addthis The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) was the first reactor built in the U.S. for peacetime atomic research following World War II. Over 18 years, an estimated 25,000 scientific experiments were carried out using the neutrons produced in the facility's 700-ton graphite core. In addition to advancing the understanding of atomic nuclei and the

  5. Photo of the Week: 70s Supercomputer Style | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    70s Supercomputer Style Photo of the Week: 70s Supercomputer Style May 31, 2013 - 2:35pm Addthis What may appear to be a jumble of wires is actually the CDC 7600, one of the fastest supercomputers in the world between 1969 and 1975. With its first installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the CDC 7600 continued to lead in computing and custom-software development for nuclear design and plasma simulations. It had 5,000 times the computing power of the UNIVAC, and connected

  6. Photo of the Week: Alaska's Future in Renewable Energy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Alaska's Future in Renewable Energy Photo of the Week: Alaska's Future in Renewable Energy August 13, 2013 - 12:53pm Addthis In Alaska's rural villages, many families struggle with the impact of high energy costs -- often times, almost half of a family's income is spent on fuel to power a home. To face this, the Department of Energy's Office of Indian Energy works closely with tribal nations, state government, NGOs and the private sector to help tribes develop the energy resources

  7. Photo of the Week: Argonne's 10 kW Wind Turbine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Argonne's 10 kW Wind Turbine Photo of the Week: Argonne's 10 kW Wind Turbine November 9, 2012 - 11:57am Addthis At Argonne National Laboratory, the power generated by this 10 kW wind turbine helps scientists and engineers study the interaction of wind energy, electric vehicle charging and grid technology. The turbine is also estimated to offset more than 10 metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually. Learn more about <a href="http://www.anl.gov/energy/renewable-energy"

  8. Photo of the Week: Pre-PET Headgear | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-PET Headgear Photo of the Week: Pre-PET Headgear March 26, 2014 - 3:49pm Addthis In 1961, chemists at Brookhaven National Laboratory studied how to detect small brain tumors by analyzing the decay of radioactive material injected into the patient's bloodstream and absorbed by the tumor. To help them, BNL's Instrumentation Division built different arrays of detectors, and this circular type proved best. In the 1970s, BNL helped reconstruct the raw data received by the detectors into an image

  9. Photo of the Week: The 2014 National Science Bowl | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The 2014 National Science Bowl Photo of the Week: The 2014 National Science Bowl May 1, 2014 - 4:06pm Addthis This weekend, middle and high school students from across the country competed in the 24th annual National Science Bowl. After a series of round robin and double elimination competitions over the weekend, the final teams went head-to-head in the final rounds at the National Building Museum Monday morning. Mira Loma High School from Sacramento, California, won first prize for the high

  10. Photo of the Week: What Happens in Vegas... | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    What Happens in Vegas... Photo of the Week: What Happens in Vegas... May 9, 2014 - 2:10pm Addthis … Will blow you away. This week, 150 students at 10 universities across the U.S. competed in the <a href="/node/909851">Collegiate Wind Competition</a>, which took place at the American Wind Energy Association’s annual conference. Over the course of three intense days, the students put their wind turbines through rigorous performance testing, crafted their own

  11. Surface oxygen micropatterns on glow discharge polymer targets by photo irradiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reynolds, Hannah; Baxamusa, Salmaan; Haan, Steven W.; Fitzsimmons, Paul; Carlson, Lane; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Watson, Brian J.

    2016-02-24

    Recent simulations predict surface oxygen may be a significant source of disruptive perturbations in the implosion process of glow-discharge polymers (GDP) ablators at the National Ignition Facility. GDP material held in ambient atmospheric conditions showed an increase in mass when stored in light transparent containers, which suggests that photo exposure is a driving force for oxygen absorption. To investigate if surface oxygen is a contributing factor of disruptive perturbations during implosion, we developed a method to imprint a periodic micropattern of oxygen on the surface of GDP and used it to fabricate a flat sample for empirical testing.

  12. Photo-induced conductance fluctuations in mesoscopic Ge/Si systems with quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepina, N. P.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Moers, J.; Gruetzmacher, D.

    2014-08-20

    We study the evolution of electron transport in strongly localized mesoscopic system with quantum dots under small photon flux. Exploring devices with narrow transport channels lead to the observation of giant fluctuations of the photoconductance, which is attributed to the strong dependence of hopping current on the filling of dots by holes. In our experiments, single-photon mode operation is indicated by the linear dependence of the frequency of photo-induced fluctuations on the light intensity and the step-like response of conductance on the pulse excitation. The effect of the light wavelength, measurement temperature, size of the conductive channel on the device efficiency are considered.

  13. Phase lag deduced information in photo-thermal actuation for nano-mechanical systems characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bijster, R. J. F. Vreugd, J. de; Sadeghian, H.

    2014-08-18

    In photo-thermal actuation, heat is added locally to a micro-cantilever by means of a laser. A fraction of the irradiation is absorbed, yielding thermal stresses and deformations in the structure. Harmonic modulation of the laser power causes the cantilever to oscillate. Moreover, a phase lag is introduced which is very sensitive to the spot location and the cantilever properties. This phase lag is theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. Combined with thermo-mechanical properties of the cantilever and its geometry, the location of the laser spot, the thermal diffusivity, and the layer thicknesses of the cantilever can be extracted.

  14. Photo-induced wettability of TiO{sub 2} film with Au buffer layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar; Sangani, L. D. Varma; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam; Madhurima, V.

    2014-04-24

    The effect of thickness of Au buffer layer (15-25 nm) between TiO{sub 2} film and substrate on the wettability of TiO{sub 2} films is reported. TiO{sub 2} films grown on Au buffer layer have a higher contact angle of 96-;100 as compared to 47.6o for the film grown without buffer layer. The transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity under UV irradiation occurs within 10 min. for the buffer layered films whereas it is almost 30 min. for the film grown without buffer layer. The enhanced photo induced hydrophilicity is shown to be surface energy driven.

  15. Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... How- ever, since this approach relies primarily on static or area sampling, some ... Environ Health Perspect 114(1):51-58. Fuchs NA 1964. The mechanics of aerosols. Ox- ...

  16. National Nanotechnology Initiative

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    BES Home About Research Materials Sciences & Engineering (MSE) Chemical Sciences, ... materials for transportation, improved chemical and biological sensing, low-energy ...

  17. Ultra-nonlocality in density functional theory for photo-emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uimonen, A.-M.; Stefanucci, G.; INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati; European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility , Louvain-la Neuve ; Leeuwen, R. van; European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility , Louvain-la Neuve

    2014-05-14

    We derive an exact expression for the photocurrent of photo-emission spectroscopy using time-dependent current density functional theory (TDCDFT). This expression is given as an integral over the Kohn-Sham spectral function renormalized by effective potentials that depend on the exchange-correlation kernel of current density functional theory. We analyze in detail the physical content of this expression by making a connection between the density-functional expression and the diagrammatic expansion of the photocurrent within many-body perturbation theory. We further demonstrate that the density functional expression does not provide us with information on the kinetic energy distribution of the photo-electrons. Such information can, in principle, be obtained from TDCDFT by exactly modeling the experiment in which the photocurrent is split into energy contributions by means of an external electromagnetic field outside the sample, as is done in standard detectors. We find, however, that this procedure produces very nonlocal correlations between the exchange-correlation fields in the sample and the detector.

  18. Photo-enhanced field emission characteristics of SnS{sub 2} nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; More, Mahendra A.; Warule, Sambhaji S.; Chaudhari, Nilima S.; Ogale, Satishchandra B.

    2014-04-24

    In the present studies, we demonstrate a facile hydrothermal route to synthesize elegant SnS{sub 2} nanosheets. The x-ray diffraction pattern clearly revealed formation of SnS{sub 2} phase under the hydrothermal conditions. SEM and TEM analysis indicated formation of very thin SnS{sub 2} nanosheets. Field electron emission studies of the SnS{sub 2} nanosheets emitter were preformed at base pressure of 110{sup ?8} mbar. The value of turn-on field, corresponding to an emission current density of ?1 ?A/ cm2, was found to be ? 4.6 V/?m. Interestingly, when the cathode was illuminated with visible light, it exhibited lower turn-on field of ? 4.2 V/?m, along with nearly 2.5 times enhancement in the emission current. Furthermore, the photo-enhanced emission characteristic shows a reproducible switching behavior. The photo-enhanced filed emission characteristics along with reproducible switching behaviour propose the SnS{sub 2} nanosheets emitter as a promising candidate for nano-optoelectronic devices.

  19. Photo-catalytic oxidation of acetone on a TiO2 powder: An in situ FTIR investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2015-09-01

    In situ transmission infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the photo-oxidation of acetone on a commercial, oxidized TiO2 (P25) powder catalyst under UV irradiation at ambient temperature, in the absence and presence of gas phase O2. The photochemistry of a number of organic molecules (1-butanone, methanol and acetic acid,) under the same conditions was also studied in order to identify reaction intermediates and products formed in the photo-oxidation of acetone. Under anaerobic conditions (in the absence of gas phase oxygen) limited extent of photo-oxidation of acetone took place on the oxidized TiO2 sample. In the presence of O2 in the gas phase, however, acetone was completely converted to acetates and formates, and ultimately CO2. The initial step in the sequence of photo-induced reactions is the ejection of a methyl radical, resulting in the formation of surface acetates (from the acetyl group) and formates (from the methyl radicals). Acetate ions are also converted to formates, that, in turn, photo-oxidized to CO2. Under the experimental conditions applied the accumulation of carbonates and bicarbonates were observed on the TiO2 surface as the photo-oxidation of acetone proceeded (this was also observed during the course of photo-oxidation of all the other organics studied here). When the initial radical ejection step produced hydrocarbons containing more than one C atoms (as in the case in 2-butanone and mesytil oxide), the formation of aldehydes on the catalyst surface was also observed as a result of secondary reactions. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. JHK also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2014 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea). The authors thank M.A. Henderson for the fruitful discussions on the photo-oxidation of organic molecules on TiO2.

  20. Topographic and Air-Photo Lineaments in Various Locations Related to Geothermal Exploration in Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Title: Topographic and Air-Photo Lineaments in Various Locations Related to Geothermal Exploration in Colorado Tags: Colorado, lineaments, air-photo, geothermal Summary: These line shapefiles trace apparent topographic and air-photo lineaments in various counties in Colorado. It was made in order to identify possible fault and fracture systems that might be conduits for geothermal fluids, as part of a DOE reconnaissance geothermal exploration program. Description: Geothermal fluids commonly utilize fault and fractures in competent rocks as conduits for fluid flow. Geothermal exploration involves finding areas of high near-surface temperature gradients, along with a suitable “plumbing system” that can provide the necessary permeability. Geothermal power plants can sometimes be built where temperature and flow rates are high. This line shapefile is an attempt to use desktop GIS to delineate possible faults and fracture orientations and locations in highly prospective areas prior to an initial site visit. Geochemical sampling and geologic mapping could then be centered around these possible faults and fractures. To do this, georeferenced topographic maps and aerial photographs were utilized in an existing GIS, using ESRI ArcMap 10.0 software. The USA_Topo_Maps and World_Imagery map layers were chosen from the GIS Server at server.arcgisonline.com, using a UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection. This line shapefile was then constructed over that which appeared to be through-going structural lineaments in both the aerial photographs and topographic layers, taking care to avoid manmade features such as roads, fence lines, and utility right-of-ways. Still, it is unknown what actual features these lineaments, if they exist, represent. Although the shapefiles are arranged by county, not all areas within any county have been examined for lineaments. Work was focused on either satellite thermal infrared anomalies, known hot springs or wells, or other evidence of geothermal systems. Finally, lineaments may be displaced somewhat from their actual location, due to such factors as shadow effects with low sun angles in the aerial photographs. Projection Information: UTM Zone 13 NAD 27 projection Credits: These lineament shapefile was created by Geothermal Development Associates, as part of a geothermal geologic reconnaissance performed by Flint Geothermal, LLC, of Denver Colorado. Funding was provided in part by DOE Grant DE-EEE0002828. Use Limitation These shapefiles was constructed as an aid to geothermal exploration in preparation for a site visit for field checking. We make no claims as to the existence of the lineaments, their location, orientation, and/or nature.

  1. Evidence of Photo-induced Dynamic Competition of Metallic and Insulating Phase in a Layered Manganite.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yuelin; Walko, Donald A.; Li, Qing'an; Liu, Yaohua; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Zheng, Hong; Mitchell, J. F.

    2015-12-16

    We show evidence that the competition between the antiferromagetic metallic phase and the charge- and orbital-ordered insulating phase at the reentrant phase boundary of a layered manganite, LaSr2Mn2O7, can be manipulated using ultrafast optical excitation. The time- dependent evolution of the Jahn-Teller superlattice reflection, which indicates the formation of the charge and orbital order, was measured at different laser fluences. The laser-induced enhancement and reduction the Jahn-Teller reflection intensity shows a reversal of sign between earlier (~10 ns) and later (~150 ns) time delays during the relaxation after photo excitation. This effect is consistent with a scenario whereby the laser excitation modulates the local competition between the metallic and the insulating phases.

  2. 3-D photo-patterning of refractive index structures in photosensitive thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Jr., Barrett George; Potter, Kelly Simmons

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a three-dimensional refractive index structure in a photosensitive material using photo-patterning. The wavelengths at which a photosensitive material exhibits a change in refractive index upon exposure to optical radiation is first determined and then a portion of the surface of the photosensitive material is optically irradiated at a wavelength at which the photosensitive material exhibits a change in refractive index using a designed illumination system to produce a three-dimensional refractive index structure. The illumination system can be a micro-lenslet array, a macroscopic refractive lens array, or a binary optic phase mask. The method is a single-step, direct-write procedure to produce a designed refractive index structure.

  3. Photo-induced strengthening of weak bonding in noble gas dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Miyazaki, Takehide; Rubio, Angel

    2014-05-19

    We demonstrate through extensive first-principles time-dependent density functional calculations that attractive van der Waals interaction between closed-shell atoms can be enhanced by light with constant spatial intensity. We illustrate this general phenomenon for a He dimer as a prototypical case of complex van der Waals interactions and show that when excited by light with a frequency close to the 1s → 2p He-atomic transition, an attractive force larger than 7 pN is produced. This force gain is manifested as a larger acceleration of He-He contraction under an optical field. The concerted dynamical motions of the He atoms together with polarity switching of the charge-induced dipole cause the contraction of the dimer. These findings are relevant for the photo-induced control of weakly bonded molecular species, either in gas phase or in solution.

  4. Time resolved photo-luminescent decay characterization of mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Soehnel, Grant

    2015-01-20

    The minority carrier lifetime is a measurable material property that is an indication of infrared detector device performance. To study the utility of measuring the carrier lifetime, an experiment has been constructed that can time resolve the photo-luminescent decay of a detector or wafer sample housed inside a liquid nitrogen cooled Dewar. Motorized stages allow the measurement to be scanned over the sample surface, and spatial resolutions as low as 50µm have been demonstrated. A carrier recombination simulation was developed to analyze the experimental data. Results from measurements performed on 4 mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays show strong correlationmore » between spatial maps of the lifetime, dark current, and relative response.« less

  5. Photo-fusion reactions in a new compact device for ELI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moustaizis, S. D.; Auvray, P.; Hora, H.; Lalousis, P.; Larour, J.; Mourou, G. [Technical University of Crete, Science Department, 73100 Chania, Crete (Greece); LPP-Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Department of Theoret. Physics, Univ. New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, FORTH, Heraklion (Greece); LPP-Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); LOA Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA, Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2012-07-09

    In the last few years significant progress on technological, experimental and numerical studies on fusion process in high density and high temperature plasmas produced by a high intensity laser pulse interaction with clusters in a high external applied magnetic field, enable us to propose a compact photo-fusion magnetic device for high neutron production. For the purpose of the project a pulsed magnetic field driver with values up to 110 Tesla has been developed which allows increasing the trapping time of the high density plasma in the device and improving the neutron yield. Numerical simulations show that the proposed device is capable of producing up to 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons per laser shot with an external magnetic field of 150 Tesla. The proposed device can be used for experiments and numerical code validation concerning different conventional and (or) exotic fusion fuels.

  6. Detection of irradiated spices using photo-stimulated luminescence technique (PSL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-09-03

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was applied to detect irradiated black pepper (Piper nigrum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) after dark storage for 1 day, 3 and 6 months. Using screening and calibrated PSL, all samples were correctly discriminated between non-irradiated and spices irradiated with doses 1, 5 and 10 kGy. The PSL photon counts (PCs) of irradiated spices increased with increasing dose, with turmeric showing highest sensitivity index to irradiation compared to black pepper and cinnamon. The differences in response are possibly attributed to the varying quantity and quality of silicate minerals present in each spice sample. PSL signals of all irradiated samples reduced after 3 and 6 months storage. The results of this study provide a useful database on the applicability of PSL technique for the detection of Malaysian irradiated spices.

  7. Millisecond ordering of block-copolymer films via photo-thermal gradients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-03-12

    For the promise of self-assembly to be realized, processing techniques must be developed that simultaneously enable control of the nanoscale morphology, rapid assembly, and, ideally, the ability to pattern the nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate how photo-thermal gradients can be used to control the ordering of block-copolymer thin films. Highly localized laser heating leads to intense thermal gradients, which induce a thermophoretic force on morphological defects. This increases the ordering kinetics by at least 3 orders-of-magnitude, compared to conventional oven annealing. By simultaneously exploiting the thermal gradients to induce shear fields, we demonstrate uniaxial alignment of a block-copolymer film in lessmore » than a second. Finally, we provide examples of how control of the incident light-field can be used to generate prescribed configurations of block-copolymer nanoscale patterns.« less

  8. Photo-disintegration of heavy nuclei at the core of Cen A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundu, Esha; Gupta, Nayantara E-mail: nayan@rri.res.in

    2014-04-01

    Fermi LAT has detected gamma ray emissions from the core of Cen A. More recently, a new component in the gamma ray spectrum from the core has been reported in the energy range of 4 GeV to tens of GeV. We show that the new component and the HESS detected spectrum of gamma rays from the core at higher energy have possibly a common origin in photo-disintegration of heavy nuclei. Assuming the cosmic rays are mostly Fe nuclei inside the core and their spectrum has a low energy cut-off at 52 TeV in the wind frame moving with a Doppler factor 0.25 with respect to the observer on earth, the cosmic ray luminosity required to explain the observed gamma ray flux above 1 GeV is found to be 1.5 10{sup 43} erg/sec.

  9. Shockley-Read-Hall recombination in pre-filled and photo-filled intermediate band solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayani, Maryam Gholami; Reenaas, Turid Worren

    2014-08-18

    In this work, we study how Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination via energy levels in the bandgap, caused by defects or impurities, affects the performance of both photo-filled and pre-filled intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs). For a pre-filled cell, the IB is half-filled in equilibrium, while it is empty for the photo-filled cell in equilibrium. The energy level, density, and capture cross-sections of the defects/impurities are varied systematically. We find that the photo-filled cells are, in general, less efficient than pre-filled cells, except when the defect level is between the conduction band and the IB. In that case, for a range of light intensities, the photo-filled cell performs better than the pre-filled. When the defect level is at the same energy as the IB, the efficiency is above 82% of the defect-free case, when less than 50% of the states at the IB lead to SRH recombination. This shows that even if SRH recombination via the IB takes place, high efficiencies can be achieved. We also show that band gap optimization can be used to reduce the SRH recombination.

  10. Numerical simulations used for a validity check on the laser induced photo-detachment diagnostic method in electronegative plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-06-15

    Laser photo-detachment is used as a method to measure or determine the negative ion density and temperature in electronegative plasmas. In essence, the method consists of producing an electropositive channel (negative ion free region) via pulsed laser photo-detachment within an electronegative plasma bulk. Electrostatic probes placed in this channel measure the change in the electron density. A second pulse might be used to track the negative ion recovery. From this, the negative ion density and temperature can be determined. We study the formation and relaxation of the electropositive channel via a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell/Mote Carlo collision model. The simulation is mainly carried out in a Hydrogen plasma with an electronegativity of ??=?1, with a parametric study for ? up to 20. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma potential and the electron densities shows the formation of a double layer (DL) confining the photo-detached electrons within the electropositive channel. This DL evolves into two fronts that move in the opposite directions inside and outside of the laser spot region. As a consequence, within the laser spot region, the background and photo-detached electron energy distribution function relaxes/thermalizes via collisionless effects such as Fermi acceleration and Landau damping. Moreover, the simulations show that collisional effects and the DL electric field strength might play a non-negligible role in the negative ion recovery within the laser spot region, leading to a two-temperature negative ion distribution. The latter result might have important effects in the determination of the negative ion density and temperature from laser photo detachment diagnostic.

  11. Low temperature atomic layer deposited ZnO photo thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oruc, Feyza B.; Aygun, Levent E.; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali K.; Yu, Hyun Yong

    2015-01-01

    ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) are fabricated on Si substrates using atomic layer deposition technique. The growth temperature of ZnO channel layers are selected as 80, 100, 120, 130, and 250?C. Material characteristics of ZnO films are examined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction methods. Stoichiometry analyses showed that the amount of both oxygen vacancies and interstitial zinc decrease with decreasing growth temperature. Electrical characteristics improve with decreasing growth temperature. Best results are obtained with ZnO channels deposited at 80?C; I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio is extracted as 7.8 10{sup 9} and subthreshold slope is extracted as 0.116 V/dec. Flexible ZnO TFT devices are also fabricated using films grown at 80?C. I{sub D}V{sub GS} characterization results showed that devices fabricated on different substrates (Si and polyethylene terephthalate) show similar electrical characteristics. Sub-bandgap photo sensing properties of ZnO based TFTs are investigated; it is shown that visible light absorption of ZnO based TFTs can be actively controlled by external gate bias.

  12. Workshop on hadron structure from photo-reactions at intermediate energies: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan, A.M.; Sandorfi, A.M.

    1992-10-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The proton compton effect: Recent measurements of the electric and magnetic polorizabilities of the proton; experiments on the electric polarizability of the neutron; chiral symmetry and nucleon polarizabilities; chiral model predictions for electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon, a consumer report; the polarizabilities of bound nucleons; nucleon polarizability in free space and in nuclear matter; mechanisms of photon scattering on nucleons at intermediate energies; pion polarizabilities in chiral perturbation theory; pion polarizabilities and the shielding of {sigma}(700)-meson exchange in {gamma}{gamma}{yields}{pi}{pi} processes; pion and kaon polarizabilities in the quark confinement model; radiative pion photoproduction and pion polarizabilities; pion and sigma polarizabilities and radiative transitions; the quadrupole amplitude in the {gamma}{Nu}-{Delta} transition; pion photoproduction and the {gamma}{Nu}-{Delta} amplitudes; effective- lagrangians, Watson`s theorem, and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the delta resonance; new measurements of the p({rvec {gamma}}, {pi}{sup o}) reaction; multipole analyses and photo-decay couplings at intermediate energies; compton scattering off the proton; connections between compton scattering and pion photoproduction in the delta region; single-pion electroproduction and the transverse one-half and scalar helicity transition form factors; relativistic effects, QCD mixing angles, and {Nu} {yields} {Nu}{gamma} and {Delta} {yields} {gamma}{Nu} transition form factors; electroproduction studies of the {Nu} {yields} {Delta} transition at bates and CEBAF.

  13. Deprotonation and oligomerization in photo-, radiolytically and electrochemically induced redox reactions in hydrophobic alkylalkylimidazolium ionic liquids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkrob, I . A.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-01-14

    Radical chemistry initiated by one-electron reduction of 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium cations in the corresponding ionic liquids (ILs) is examined. The reaction scheme is examined in light of the recent experimental data on photo-, radiation-, and electrochemically induced degradation of the practically important hydrophobic alkylimidazolium ILs. It is suggested that the primary species leading to the formation of the oligomers and acidification of the IL is a {sigma}{sigma}* dimer radical cation that loses a proton, yielding a neutral radical whose subsequent reactions produce C(2)-C(2) linked oligomers, both neutral and charged. The neutral oligomers (up to the tetramer) account for the features observed in the NMR spectra of cathodic liquid generated in electrolytic breakdown of the IL solvent. In photolysis and radiolysis, these neutral species and/or their radical precursors are oxidized by radical (ions) derived from the counteranions, and only charged dimers are observed. The dication dimers account for the features observed in the mass spectra of irradiated ILs. The products of these ion radical and radical reactions closely resemble those generated via carbene chemistry, without the formation of the carbene via the deprotonation of the parent cation. As the loss of 2-protons increases the proticity of the irradiated IL, it interferes with the extraction of metal ions by ionophore solutes, while the formation of the oligomers modifies solvent properties. Thus, the peculiarities of radical chemistry in the alkylimidazolium ILs have significant import for their practical applications.

  14. On the photo and thermally stimulated luminescence properties of U doped SrBPO{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Mithlesh Mohapatra, M.; Natarajan, V.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Synthesis of SrBPO{sub 5}:U phosphor by solid state route. Confirmed the stabilization of uranium as UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Evaluation of order of kinetics and trap parameters of the system. ESR-TSL correlation of the observed glow peak. Probable mechanism proposed for the TSL glow peak. - Abstract: Un-doped and uranium doped SrBPO{sub 5} samples were synthesized using solid-state reaction route and investigated for their photo and luminescence properties. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of uranium doped sample showed five peaks at 502, 524, 547, 569 and 597 nm. The average frequency of symmetric stretching of O=U=O in the ground electronic state was found to be about 757 cm{sup ?1}. PL decay time measurements on the system confirmed the stabilization of uranium as UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in the matrix. Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) measurements carried out on gamma irradiated SrBPO{sub 5}:U sample showed a glow peak at 390 K, whose spectral characteristics was found to be typical of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The trap parameters were evaluated using different heating rate method. Room temperature EPR data suggested the formation of borate and oxygen based radical centers in the gamma-irradiated sample. Detailed EPR-TSL correlation studies confirmed the destruction of the oxygen radical to be responsible for the observed glow peak.

  15. Exploiting Photo-induced Reactions in Polymer Blends to Create Hierarchically Ordered, Defect-free Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Balazs, Anna [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

    2010-01-08

    Computer simulations reveal how photo-induced chemical reactions can be exploited to create long-range order in binary and ternary polymeric materials. The process is initiated by shining a spatially uniform light over a photosensitive AB binary blend, which undergoes both a reversible chemical reaction and phase separation. We then introduce a well-collimated, higher-intensity light source. Rastering this secondary light over the sample locally increases the reaction rate and causes formation of defect-free, spatially periodic structures. These binary structures resemble either the lamellar or hexagonal phases of microphase-separated di-block copolymers. We measure the regularity of the ordered structures as a function of the relative reaction rates for different values of the rastering speed and determine the optimal conditions for creating defect-free structures in the binary systems. We then add a non-reactive homo-polymer C, which is immiscible with both A and B. We show that this component migrates to regions that are illuminated by the secondary, higher-intensity light, allowing us to effectively write a pattern of C onto the AB film. Rastering over the ternary blend with this collimated light now leads to hierarchically ordered patterns of A, B, and C. The findings point to a facile, non-intrusive process for manufacturing high-quality polymeric devices in a low-cost, efficient manner.

  16. Laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry of ultraviolet photo-processed ices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paardekooper, D. M. Bossa, J.-B.; Isokoski, K.; Linnartz, H.

    2014-10-01

    A new ultra-high vacuum experiment is described that allows studying photo-induced chemical processes in interstellar ice analogues. MATRICES - a Mass Analytical Tool to study Reactions in Interstellar ICES applies a new concept by combining laser desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the ultimate goal to characterize in situ and in real time the solid state evolution of organic compounds upon UV photolysis for astronomically relevant ice mixtures and temperatures. The performance of the experimental setup is demonstrated by the kinetic analysis of the different photoproducts of pure methane (CH?) ice at 20 K. A quantitative approach provides formation yields of several new species with up to four carbon atoms. Convincing evidence is found for the formation of even larger species. Typical mass resolutions obtained range from M/?M ~320 to ~400 for CH? and argon, respectively. Additional tests show that the typical detection limit (in monolayers) is ?0.02 ML, substantially more sensitive than the regular techniques used to investigate chemical processes in interstellar ices.

  17. Formation mechanism of photo-induced nested wrinkles on siloxane-photomonomer hybrid film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Kazumasa; Tokudome, Yasuaki Takahashi, Masahide

    2014-10-21

    Nested wrinkle structures, hierarchical surface wrinkles of different periodicities of sub-?m and tens-?m, have been fabricated on a siloxane-photomonomer hybrid film via a photo-induced surface polymerization of acrylamide. The formation mechanism of the nested wrinkle structures is examined based on a time-dependent structure observation and chemical composition analyses. In-situ observation of the evolving surface structure showed that sub-?m scale wrinkles first formed, subsequently the tens-?m scale ones did. In-situ FT-IR analysis indicated that the nested wrinkles formation took place along with the development of siloxane network of under layer. A cross sectional observation of the film revealed that the film was composed of three layers. FT-IR spectra of the film revealed that the surface and interior layers were polyacrylamide rich layer and siloxane-polymer rich layer, respectively. The intermediate layer formed as a diffusion layer by migration of acrylamide from interior to the surface. These three layers have different chemical compositions and therefore different mechanical characteristics, which allows the wrinkle formation. Shrinkage of siloxane-polymer interior layers, as a result of polycondensation of siloxane network, induced mechanical instabilities at interlayers, to form the nested wrinkle structures.

  18. Low-cost, compact, robust laser-based ultrasound sensors using photo-EMF detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepper, D.M.; Dunning, G.J.; Chiao, M.P.; O`Meara, T.R.; Mitchell, P.V.

    1996-12-31

    There is a great need in the manufacturing, aerospace, commercial, energy, automotive, microelectronics and DoD communities for diagnostic systems that can improve the efficiency, yield and performance of various materials processes--while reducing cost, labor, scrap, and machine downtime. Laser-based ultrasound (LBU) represents a noncontact, reconfigurable, high-bandwidth ultrasonic inspection and process control technology. LBU enables remote ultrasonic sensing by replacing conventional PZT transducers, squirters, and immersion systems with laser beams. One laser beam generates the ultrasound in an opaque workpiece, while a second laser beam probes the sample to sense minute surface displacements, induced by the ultrasound or via other acoustic emission mechanisms. LBU systems have yet to be fielded commercially, owing primarily to the cost, size, and complexity of the system components. The authors have developed a low-cost, compact sensor which can potentially enable LBU systems to become a reality. The sensor employs a semiconductor crystal (GaAs) using a mechanism called nonsteady-state photo-induced emf. When combined with a laser diode as an optical source, the result is a very compact, low-cost robust sensor, which can function under in-factory conditions, including inspection of rough-cut workpieces which undergo rapid platform motion, such as high-speed, scanning laser welders. Experimental results will be discussed, including the potential for optical fiber delivery.

  19. Sunna 535-nm photo-fluorescent film dosimeter response to different environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Mark K.; Kovacs, Andras; Mclaughlin, William L.; Miller, Steven D.); Puhl, James M.

    2003-12-01

    Evaluations on the influence of environmental variabilities on the red fluorescence component of the Sunna Model? photo-fluorescent dosimeter have previously been reported. This present paper describes the environmental effects on the response of the green fluorescence component of the same dosimeter, which is manufactured using the injection molding technique. The results presented include temperature, relative humidity, and light influences both during and after irradiation. The green fluorescence signal shows a significant dependence on irradiation temperature below room temperature at 1%/C. Above room temperature (approximately 24C to 60C), the irradiation temperature effect varies from -0.1-1.0%/C, depending on the absorbed dose level. For facilities with irradiation temperatures between 30-60C and absorbed dose levels above 10 kGy, irradiation temperature effects are minimal. Light-effects results indicate that the dosimeter is influenced by ultraviolet and blue wavelengths during irradiation as well as during the post-irradiation stabilization period (approx. 22 hours), requiring the use of light-tight packaging. Results also show that the dosimeter exhibits negligible effects from ambient moisture during and after irradiation when in the range of 33-95% relative humidity.

  20. Corrective action investigation plan: Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit, Corrective Action Unit 332. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains a detailed description and plan for an environmental investigation of the Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit. The site is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. The Photo Skid Wastewater Pit was used for disposal of photochemical process waste, and there is a concern that such disposal may have released photochemicals and metals to the soil beneath the pit and adjacent to it. The purpose of this investigation is to identify the presence and nature of contamination present in and adjacent to the wastewater pit and to determine the appropriate course of environmental response action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure through remediation, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  1. A physical model of the photo- and radiation-induced degradation of ytterbium-doped silica optical fibres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mady, Franck Duchez, Jean-Bernard Mebrouk, Yasmine Benabdesselam, Mourad

    2014-10-21

    We propose a model to describe the photo- or/and the radiation-induced darkening of ytterbium-doped silica optical fibers. This model accounts for the well-established experimental features of photo-darkening. Degradation behaviors predicted for fibers pumped in harsh environments are also fully confirmed by experimental data reported in the work by Duchez et al. (this proceeding), which gives a detailed characterization of the interplay between the effects of the pump and those of a superimposed ionizing irradiation (actual operation conditions in space-based applications for instance). In particular, dependences of the darkening build-up on the pump power, the total ionizing dose and the dose rate are all correctly reproduced. The presented model is a sufficient one, including the minimal physical ingredients required to reproduce experimental features. Refinements could be proposed to improve, e.g., quantitative kinetics.

  2. CdO-CdS nano-composites as improved photo-catalysts for the generation of hydrogen from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahane, Shital V.; Mahamuni, Shailaja; Sasikala, R.; Sudarsan, V.

    2014-04-24

    CdO-CdS nanocomposites were prepared by polyol method followed by heating at 300C. XRD study confirmed the atomic scale mixing of CdO and CdS nanoparticles, leading to the formation of CdSO{sub 3} phase at the interfacial region between CdO and CdS. The enhancement in photo-catalytic activity for hydrogen generation from water is observed in case of CdO-CdS nanocomposites compared to individual CdS and CdO nanoparticles. Based on XRD, steady state and time resolved luminescence studies and surface area measurements, it is determined that, the fine mixing of CdS and CdO, higher surface area of the composite sample and increase in lifetime of the charge carriers are responsible for the observed increase in hydrogen yield from water when composite sample was used as the photo-catalyst compared to individual components.

  3. Experimental demonstration of hot-carrier photo-current in an InGaAs quantum well solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, L. C.; Walters, R. J.; Fhrer, M. F.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.

    2014-06-09

    An unambiguous observation of hot-carrier photocurrent from an InGaAs single quantum well solar cell is reported. Simultaneous photo-current and photoluminescence measurements were performed for incident power density 0.043?kW cm{sup ?2}, lattice temperature 10?K, and forward bias 1.2?V. An order of magnitude photocurrent increase was observed for non-equilibrium hot-carrier temperatures >35?K. This photocurrent activation temperature is consistent with that of equilibrium carriers in a lattice at elevated temperature. The observed hot-carrier photo-current is extracted from the well over an energy selective GaAs barrier, thus integrating two essential components of a hot-carrier solar cell: a hot-carrier absorber and an energy selective contact.

  4. Using the X-FEL to photo-pump X-ray laser transitions in He-like Ne

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J; Rohringer, N

    2011-08-30

    Nearly four decades ago H-like and He-like resonantly photo-pumped laser schemes were proposed for producing X-ray lasers. However, demonstrating these schemes in the laboratory has proved to be elusive because of the difficulty of finding a strong resonant pump line. With the advent of the X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) we now have a tunable X-ray laser source that can be used to replace the pump line in previously proposed laser schemes and allow researchers to study the physics and feasibility of resonantly photo-pumped laser schemes. In this paper we use the X-FEL at 1174 eV to photo-pump the singly excited 1s2p state of He-like Ne to the doubly excited 2p3p state and model gain on the 2p3p-2p2s transition at 175 eV and the 2p3p-1s3p transition at 1017 eV. One motivation for studying this scheme is to explore possible quenching of the gain due to strong non-linear coupling effects from the intense X-FEL beam We compare this scheme with photo-pumping the He-like Ne ground state to the 1s3p singly excited state followed by lasing on the 3p-2s and 3d-2p transitions at 158 and 151 eV. Experiments are being planned at LCLS to study these laser processes and coherent quantum effects.

  5. Study of new states in visible light active W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sajjad, Ahmed Khan Leghari; Shamaila, Sajjad; Zhang, Jinlong

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by solgel. ? Oxygen vacancies are detected in the form of new linkages as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. ? W, N co-doped titania has new energy states which narrows the band gap effectively. ? Oxygen vacancies are proved to be the cause for high photo catalytic activity. ? W and N co-doping plays the major role to make the composite thermally stable. -- Abstract: The visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by solgel method. New linkages of N, W and O are formed as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. Electron paramagnetic resonance illustrates the presence of oxygen vacancies in W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} acting as trapping agencies for electrons to produce active species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of new energy states. New linkages and oxygen vacancies are proved to be the main cause for the improved photo catalytic performances. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} has new energy states which narrow the band gap effectively. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} is thermally stable and retains its anatase phase up to 900 C. 4.5% W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} showed superior activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophenol as compared to pure titania, Degussa P-25, traditional N-doped TiO{sub 2} and pure WO{sub 3}.

  6. Measurements Of Spin Observables In Pseudoscalar-Meson Photo-Production Using Polarized Neutrons In Solid HD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kageya, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    Psuedo-scalar meson photo production measurements have been carried out with longitudinally-polarized neutrons using the circularly and linearly polarized photon beams and the CLAS at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jlab). The experiment aims to obtain a complete set of spin observables on an efficient neutron target. Preliminary E asymmetries for the exclusive reaction, gamma + n(p)--> pi- + p(p), selecting quasi free neutron kinematics are discussed.

  7. Measurements of spin observables in pseudo-scalar meson photo-production using polarized neutrons in solid HD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kageya, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of psuedo-scalar meson photo production from longitudinally polarized solid HD has been carried out with the CLAS at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jlab) with circularly and linearly polarized photon beams. Its aim is to measure a complete set of spin observables for the neutron simultaneously from the same experiment. As a polarized neutron, deutron in HD was used. Preliminary asymmetries are shown for the {pi}{sup -} channel.

  8. Probing the structural dependency of photoinduced properties of colloidal quantum dots using metal-oxide photo-active substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patty, Kira; Campbell, Quinn; Hamilton, Nathan; West, Robert G.; Sadeghi, Seyed M.; Mao, Chuanbin

    2014-09-21

    We used photoactive substrates consisting of about 1 nm coating of a metal oxide on glass substrates to investigate the impact of the structures of colloidal quantum dots on their photophysical and photochemical properties. We showed during irradiation these substrates can interact uniquely with such quantum dots, inducing distinct forms of photo-induced processes when they have different cores, shells, or ligands. In particular, our results showed that for certain types of core-shell quantum dot structures an ultrathin layer of a metal oxide can reduce suppression of quantum efficiency of the quantum dots happening when they undergo extensive photo-oxidation. This suggests the possibility of shrinking the sizes of quantum dots without significant enhancement of their non-radiative decay rates. We show that such quantum dots are not influenced significantly by Coulomb blockade or photoionization, while those without a shell can undergo a large amount of photo-induced fluorescence enhancement via such blockade when they are in touch with the metal oxide.

  9. Coherent orbital waves during an Ultrafast Photo-induced Isulator-metal Transition in a magnetoresistive manganite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ULTRAS-INFM-CNR Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Italy; Department of Physics - Cavalleri Group, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, U.K.; Correlated Electron Research Center, Tsukuba, Japan; Schoenlein, Robert William; Polli, D.; Rini, M.; Wall, S.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Cerullo, G.; Cavalleri, A.

    2007-06-01

    Photo-excitation can drive strongly correlated electron insulators into competing conducting phases1,2, resulting in giant and ultrafast changes of their electronic and magnetic properties. The underlying non-equilibrium dynamics involve many degrees of freedom at once, whereby sufficiently short optical pulses can trigger the corresponding collective modes of the solid along temporally coherent pathways. The characteristic frequencies of these modes range between the few GHz of acoustic vibrations3 to the tens or even hundreds of THz for purely electronic excitations. Virtually all experiments so far have used 100 fs or longer pulses, detecting only comparatively slow lattice dynamics4,5. Here, we use sub-10-fs optical pulses to study the photo-induced insulator-metal transition in the magneto-resistive manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3. At room temperature, we find that the time-dependent pathway towards the metallic phase is accompanied by coherent 31 THz oscillations of the optical reflectivity, significantly faster than all lattice vibrations. These high-frequency oscillations are suggestive of coherent orbital waves6,7, crystal-field excitations triggered here by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering. Orbital waves are likely to be initially localized to the small polarons of this room-temperature manganite, coupling to other degrees of freedom at longer times, as photo-domains coalesce into a metallic phase.

  10. The construction and in vitro testing of photo-activatable cancer targeting folated anti-CD3 conjugates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Stephen Dessi, John; Self, Colin H.

    2008-02-08

    The construction and in vitro testing of a photo-activatable anti-tumour immuno-regulatory antibody is described. In this 'cloaked' folated anti-CD3 antibody conjugate, the folate portion of the conjugate is free to bind to folate receptor expressing cancer cells, whilst the anti-CD3 activity is effectively rendered inert by a coating of photo-labile 2-nitrobenzyl groups. On irradiation with UV-A light the activity of the anti-CD3 antibody is restored, not only when it is required, but more importantly, only where it is required. The conjugate can then attract killer T-cells to the surface of the tumour cells and kill them. Unirradiated normal tissues, to which the conjugate has been targeted by specific and non-specific binding, remain unharmed. We believe that these 'photo-switchable' conjugates could be used to markedly improve the targeting of the immune response to folate receptor (FR) expressing ovarian and breast cancers whilst minimising the side effects in the rest of the body.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPACT PHOTO-INJECTOR WITH RFFOCUSING LENS FOR SHORT PULSE ELECTRON SOURCE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabenhofer, Alexander; Eaton, Douglas W.

    2013-09-01

    For development of compact ultrafast electron source system, we are currently designing a short-pulse RF-gun with RF focusing structure by means of a series of comprehensive modeling analysis processes. EM design of a 2.5 cell resonant cavity with input coupler, acceleration dynamics of photo-emitted electron bunch, EM design of RF-lens with input coupler, and phasespace analysis of focused electron bunch are systematically examined with multi-physics simulators. All the features of the 2.856 GHz cavity geometry were precisely engineered for acceleration energies ranging from 100 keV to 500 keV (safety limited) to be powered by our 5 MW S-band klystron. The klystron (Thales TH2163) and modulator system (ScandiNova K1 turnkey system) were successfully installed and tested. Performance tests of the klystron system show peak output power > 5 MW, as per operation specifications. At the quasi-relativistic energies, the electron source is capable of generating 100fC – 1 pC electron bunch with pulse duration close to 30 fs – 1 ps and transverse size of a few hundred microns. PIC simulations have shown that the electron bunch undergoes fast RF acceleration, rapidly reaching the desired energies, which can be controlled by tuning RF injection phase and input driving power. It has been shown that it is possible to also focus/compress the bunch longitudinally using a RF-lens, which would allow us to control the temporal resolution of the system as well. While our primary analysis has been performed on a 2.5 cell design, we are also looking into half-cell (single cavity) design that is expected to provide the same range of beam energy with a simple configuration.

  12. SU-E-T-238: Monte Carlo Estimation of Cerenkov Dose for Photo-Dynamic Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chibani, O; Price, R; Ma, C; Eldib, A; Mora, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Estimation of Cerenkov dose from high-energy megavoltage photon and electron beams in tissue and its impact on the radiosensitization using Protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) for tumor targeting enhancement in radiotherapy. Methods: The GEPTS Monte Carlo code is used to generate dose distributions from 18MV Varian photon beam and generic high-energy (45-MV) photon and (45-MeV) electron beams in a voxel-based tissueequivalent phantom. In addition to calculating the ionization dose, the code scores Cerenkov energy released in the wavelength range 375425 nm corresponding to the pick of the PpIX absorption spectrum (Fig. 1) using the Frank-Tamm formula. Results: The simulations shows that the produced Cerenkov dose suitable for activating PpIX is 4000 to 5500 times lower than the overall radiation dose for all considered beams (18MV, 45 MV and 45 MeV). These results were contradictory to the recent experimental studies by Axelsson et al. (Med. Phys. 38 (2011) p 4127), where Cerenkov dose was reported to be only two orders of magnitude lower than the radiation dose. Note that our simulation results can be corroborated by a simple model where the Frank and Tamm formula is applied for electrons with 2 MeV/cm stopping power generating Cerenkov photons in the 375425 nm range and assuming these photons have less than 1mm penetration in tissue. Conclusion: The Cerenkov dose generated by high-energy photon and electron beams may produce minimal clinical effect in comparison with the photon fluence (or dose) commonly used for photo-dynamic therapy. At the present time, it is unclear whether Cerenkov radiation is a significant contributor to the recently observed tumor regression for patients receiving radiotherapy and PpIX versus patients receiving radiotherapy only. The ongoing study will include animal experimentation and investigation of dose rate effects on PpIX response.

  13. Origin of the improved photo-catalytic activity of F-doped ZnWO{sub 4}: A quantum mechanical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Honggang; Fan, Weiliu; Li, Yanlu; Cheng, Xiufeng; Li, Pan; Zhao, Xian

    2010-12-15

    Two different mechanisms for improving photo-catalytic activity in different types of F-doped ZnWO{sub 4} are tentatively proposed, based on density function theory calculations. When the lattice O atom is substituted by one F atom, our calculations show that a reduced W{sup 5+} center adjacent to the doped F atom will act as a trap for the photo-induced electron, and will thus result in a reduction of electron-hole recombination and improvement of the photo-catalytic activity. For the interstitial F-doped model, partial F 2p states mixing with O 2p states localize above the top of the valence band and act as the frontier orbital level. Electronic transitions from these localized states induce a red shift of about 54 nm of the optical absorption edge. This work shows that F-doped ZnWO{sub 4} will be a promising photo-catalyst with favorable photo-catalytic activity in the UV region. -- Graphical Abstract: DFT calculations are used to investigate the origin of the improved photo-activity of monoclinic ZnWO{sub 4} induced by the substituted and interstitial F-doping. Two possible mechanisms are tentatively put forward according to the F-doping types. Display Omitted

  14. Microsoft Word - Scavenger Hunt 2014-June[1].doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How many small cubes make up a Soma Cube? parachute: What did it carry? Nanotechnology: How many nanometers long is your hand? Identification Photos: These are a few...

  15. Photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol on photocatalyst prepared by acid leaching of titanium oxide/hydroxyapatite composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Y.; Rachi, T.; Yokouchi, M.; Kamimoto, Y.; Nakajima, A.; Okada, K.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Photocatalyst powder was prepared by acid leaching of TiO{sub 2}/apatite composite. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated from in situ FT-IR study using ethanol. ► Apatite in the composite had positive effect for the photo-oxidation of ethanol. ► The enhanced oxidation rate was explained by the difference in deactivation rate. - Abstract: Highly active photocatalysts were synthesized by leaching of heat-treated titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder with hydrochloric acid at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 mol/l, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated from in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study of photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol. By changing the acid concentration, the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composite had different atomic ratios of Ca/Ti (0.0–2.8) and P/Ti (0.3–2.1). It was found that phosphate group remained on the surface of TiO{sub 2} particle even in the sample treated with concentrated acid (0.75 mol/l). These acid-treated samples showed higher rates for ethanol photo-oxidation than the commercial TiO{sub 2} powder, Degussa P25. The highest rate was obtained in the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composite treated with the dilute (0.25 mol/l) acid in spite of its low content of TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. This enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to the result that the deactivation with repeated injections of ethanol gas was suppressed in the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composites compared with the TiO{sub 2} powders.

  16. Photo-induced change of dielectric response in BaCoSiO{sub 4} stuffed tridymite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniguchi, Hiroki Okamura, Takuma; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Okazaki, Ryuji; Terasaki, Ichiro; Moriwake, Hiroki; Kuwabara, Akihide; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2014-04-28

    The photodielectric effect is demonstrated in Mott-insulator BaCoSiO{sub 4} with a stuffed-tridymite-type structure under irradiation of visible light at 365?nm. The real part of dielectric permittivity is enhanced by ?300% with little increase of tan?? in a low-frequency region. Results of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, first-principles calculations and dielectric measurements suggest that the photodielectric effect stems from a response of photo-excited electrons in an unoccupied upper-Hubbard band for 3d-orbitals of cobalt, which have significantly small mobility due to the unique configuration of Co ions in the stuffed-tridymite-type structure.

  17. Temperature dependence of the photo-induced inverse spin Hall effect in Au/InP hybrid structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khamari, Shailesh K. Porwal, S.; Dixit, V. K.; Sharma, T. K.

    2014-01-27

    Photo-induced Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) measurements on Au/InP hybrid structures are performed over a temperature range of 45 to 300?K. Dependence of the spin current density on the degree of circular polarization and also on the angle of incidence of laser beam confirms the ISHE origin of measured signal. The magnitude of ISHE increases with sample cooling. A numerical model based on the spin relaxation of non-equilibrium spin-polarized electrons is proposed for predicting the temperature dependence of ISHE. Our results indicate that the proposed device can be used as a spin photodetector over a wide temperature range.

  18. Nd{sup 3+} doped LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles as self-monitored photo-thermal agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocha, Uslen; Upendra Kumar, K.; Jacinto, Carlos; Ramiro, Julio; Caamao, Antonio J.; Garca Sol, Jos; Jaque, Daniel

    2014-02-03

    In this work, we demonstrate how LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles activated with large concentrations (up to 25%) of Nd{sup 3+} ions can simultaneously operate as biologically compatible efficient nanoheaters and fluorescent nanothermometers under single beam (808?nm) infrared laser excitation. Nd{sup 3+}:LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles emerge as unique multifunctional agents that could constitute the first step towards the future development of advanced platforms capable of simultaneous deep tissue fluorescence bio-imaging and controlled photo-thermal therapies.

  19. Photo-modulated thin film transistor based on dynamic charge transfer within quantum-dots-InGaZnO interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiang; Yang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Mingju; Tao, Zhi; Wei, Lei Li, Chi Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Baoping; Dai, Qing; Nathan, Arokia

    2014-03-17

    The temporal development of next-generation photo-induced transistor across semiconductor quantum dots and Zn-related oxide thin film is reported in this paper. Through the dynamic charge transfer in the interface between these two key components, the responsibility of photocurrent can be amplified for scales of times (?10{sup 4}?A/W 450?nm) by the electron injection from excited quantum dots to InGaZnO thin film. And this photo-transistor has a broader waveband (from ultraviolet to visible light) optical sensitivity compared with other Zn-related oxide photoelectric device. Moreover, persistent photoconductivity effect can be diminished in visible waveband which lead to a significant improvement in the device's relaxation time from visible illuminated to dark state due to the ultrafast quenching of quantum dots. With other inherent properties such as integrated circuit compatible, low off-state current and high external quantum efficiency resolution, it has a great potential in the photoelectric device application, such as photodetector, phototransistor, and sensor array.

  20. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Nanotechnology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Adam Cohen has been named Deputy Under Secretary for Science and Energy in Washington D.C....

  1. Comparison of Horace and Photos Algorithms for Multi-Photon Emission in the Context of the W Boson Mass Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotwal, A. V.; Jayatilaka, B.

    2015-10-08

    The W boson mass measurement is sensitive to QED radiative corrections due to virtual photon loops and real photon emission. The largest shift in the measured mass, which depends on the transverse momentum spectrum of the charged lepton from the boson decay, is caused by the emission of real photons from the final-state lepton. We found that there are a number of calculations and codes available to model the final-state photon emission. We also perform a detailed study, comparing the results from the Horace and Photos implementations of the final-state multi-photon emission in the context of a direct measurement of the W boson mass at the Tevatron. Mass fits are performed using a simulation of the CDF II detector.

  2. Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Simon; Langford, Alison A.

    1989-01-01

    Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate.

  3. Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, S.; Langford, A.A.

    1989-03-28

    Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate. 3 figs.

  4. Photo-response of a P3HT:PCBM blend in metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devynck, M.; Rostirolla, B.; Watson, C. P.; Taylor, D. M.

    2014-11-03

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are investigated, in which the insulator is cross-linked polyvinylphenol and the active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Admittance spectra and capacitance-voltage measurements obtained in the dark both display similar behaviour to those previously observed in P3HT-only devices. However, the photo-capacitance response is significantly enhanced in the P3HT:PCBM case, where exciton dissociation leads to electron transfer into the PCBM component. The results are consistent with a network of PCBM aggregates that is continuous through the film but with no lateral interconnection between the aggregates at or near the blend/insulator interface.

  5. Resonant photo-pumping x-ray-laser scheme using intense characteristic x rays for water-window radiation generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2011-12-15

    A line pair for a resonant photo-pumping x-ray-laser scheme is proposed in which the wavelength matching between the aluminum K{alpha}{sub 2} line ({lambda}= 0.833 95 nm) and the 2p{sup 6}-(2p{sub 1/2},4d{sub 3/2}){sub 1} transition of the neonlike zinc ions ({lambda}= 0.834 00 nm) is used. The population kinetics code of the neonlike zinc ions in plasma under irradiation of the aluminum K{alpha} line shows that substantial amplification gain can be generated in the transition of (2p{sub 1/2},3p{sub 1/2}){sub 0}-(2p{sub 1/2},4d{sub 3/2}){sub 1} at a wavelength of 3.5 nm. We also investigate the experimental arrangement of this scheme, which implies that this scheme is feasible with the present ultra-short-pulse-laser technology.

  6. CO2 hydrogenation to formate and methanol as an alternative to photo- and electrochemical CO2 reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Wan -Hui; Himeda, Yuichiro; Muckerman, James T.; Manbeck, Gerald F.; Fujita, Etsuko

    2015-09-03

    In this study, carbon dioxide is one of the end products of combustion, and is not a benign component of the atmosphere. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has reached unprecedented levels and continues to increase owing to an escalating rate of fossil fuel combustion, causing concern about climate change and rising sea levels. In view of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels, a possible solution to this problem is the recycling of carbon dioxide, possibly captured at its point of generation, to fuels. Researchers in this field are using solar energy for CO2 activation and utilization in severalmore » ways: (i) so-called artificial photosynthesis using photo-induced electrons; (ii) bulk electrolysis of a CO2 saturated solution using electricity produced by photovoltaics; (iii) CO2 hydrogenation using solar-produced H2; and (iv) the thermochemical reaction of metal oxides at extremely high temperature reached by solar collectors. Since the thermodynamics of CO2 at high temperature (> 1000 ºC) are quite different from those near room temperature, only chemistry below 200 ºC is discussed in this review.« less

  7. Effect of chemical substitutions on photo-switching properties of 3-hydroxy-picolinic acid studied by ab initio methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rode, Micha? F. Sobolewski, Andrzej L.

    2014-02-28

    Effect of chemical substitutions to the molecular structure of 3-hydroxy-picolinic acid on photo-switching properties of the system operating on excited-state intramolecular double proton transfer (d-ESIPT) process [M. F. Rode and A. L. Sobolewski, Chem. Phys. 409, 41 (2012)] was studied with the aid of electronic structure theory methods. It was shown that simultaneous application of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substitutions at certain positions of the molecular frame increases the height of the S{sub 0}-state tautomerization barrier (ensuring thermal stability of isomers) and facilitates a barrierless access to the S{sub 1}/S{sub 0} conical intersection from the Franck-Condon region of the S{sub 1} potential-energy surface. Results of study point to the conclusion that the most challenging issue for practical design of a fast molecular photoswitch based on d-ESIPT phenomenon are to ensure a selectivity of optical excitation of a given tautomeric form of the system.

  8. Correlation of photothermal conversion on the photo-induced deformation of amorphous carbon nitride films prepared by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harata, T.; Aono, M. Kitazawa, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    2014-08-04

    The photo-induced deformation of hydrogen-free amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN{sub x}) films was investigated under visible-light illumination. The films gave rise to photothermal conversion by irradiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of thermal energy generated by irradiation on the deformation of a-CN{sub x}/ultrathin substrate bimorph specimens. The films were prepared on both ultrathin Si and SiO{sub 2} substrates by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from a graphite target in the presence of pure nitrogen gas. The temperature of the film on the SiO{sub 2} substrate increased as the optical band-gap of the a-CN{sub x} was decreased. For the film on Si, the temperature remained constant. The deformation degree of the films on Si and SiO{sub 2} substrates were approximately the same. Thus, the deformation of a-CN{sub x} films primarily induced by photon energy directly.

  9. Dose Response and Post-irradiation Characteristics of the Sunna 535-nm Photo-Fluorescent Film Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Mark K.; Kovacs, Andras; Miller, Steven D.; Mclaughlin, William L.

    2003-06-09

    Results of characterization studies on one of the first versions of the Sunna photo-fluorescent dosimeter ? have previously been reported, and describe the performance of the red fluorescence component. This present paper describes dose response and post-irradiation characteristics of the green fluorescence component from the same dosimeter film (Sunna Model ?), which is manufactured using the injection molding technique. This production method may supply batch sizes on the order of 1 million dosimeter film elements while maintaining a signal precision (1?) on the order of ?1% without the need to correct for variability of film thickness. The dosimeter is a 1-cm by 3-cm polymeric film of 0.5-mm thickness that emits green fluorescence at intensities increasing almost linearly with dose. The data presented include dose response, post-irradiation growth, heat treatment, dosimeter aging, dose rate dependence, energy dependence, dose fractionation, variation of response within a batch, and the stability of the fluorimeter response. The results indicate that, as a routine dosimeter, the green signal provides a broad range of response at food irradiation (0.3 to 5 kGy), medical sterilization (5 to 40 kGy), and polymer cross-linking (40 to 250 kGy) dose levels.

  10. Characterization and performance of a high-power solid-state laser for a high-current photo-cathode injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukui Zhang; David Hardy; George Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2005-08-21

    We report the characterization and performance of a diode-pumped, high-power, picosecond laser system designed for high-current photo-cathode accelerator injector at repetition rates of both 75MHz and 750MHz. The characterization includes measurement of the amplification gain, thermally induced beam mode variation, harmonic conversion efficiency, system's amplitude stability, beam pointing stability, beam profile, and pulse width for both frequencies.

  11. The role of photo-osmotic adaptation in semi-continuous culture and lipid particle release from Dunaliella viridis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davis, Ryan W.; Carvalho, Benjamin J.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Singh, Seema

    2014-05-13

    Great efforts have been made to elucidate the phenotypic responses of alga to varying levels of nutrients, osmotic environments, and photosynthetically active radiation intensities, though the role of interactions among these variables is largely nebulous. We also describe a general method for establishing and maintaining semi-continuous cultures of the halophilic microalgal production strain, Dunaliella viridis, that is independent of variations in salinity and illumination intensity. Using this method, the cultures were evaluated to elucidate the overlapping roles of photosynthetic and osmotic adaptation on the accumulation and compositional variation of the biomass, photosynthetic productivity, and physiological biomarkers, as well as spectroscopicmore » and morphological details at the single-cell level. Correlation matrices defining the relationships among the observables and based on variation of the illumination intensity and salinity were constructed for predicting bioproduct yields for varying culture conditions. Following maintenance of stable cultures for 6-week intervals, phenotypic responses to photo-osmotic drift were explored using a combination of single-cell hyperspectral fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. In addition to morphological changes, release of lipid microparticles from the cells that is disproportionate to cell lysis was observed under hypotonic drift, indicating the existence of a reversible membrane permeation mechanism in Dunaliella. Furthermore, this phenomenon introduces the potential for low-cost strategies for recovering lipids and pigments from the microalgae by minimizing the requirement for energy intensive harvesting and dewatering of the biomass. The results should be applicable to outdoor culture, where seasonal changes resulting in variable solar flux and precipitation and evaporation rates are anticipated.« less

  12. The role of photo-osmotic adaptation in semi-continuous culture and lipid particle release from Dunaliella viridis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan W.; Carvalho, Benjamin J.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Singh, Seema

    2014-05-13

    Great efforts have been made to elucidate the phenotypic responses of alga to varying levels of nutrients, osmotic environments, and photosynthetically active radiation intensities, though the role of interactions among these variables is largely nebulous. We also describe a general method for establishing and maintaining semi-continuous cultures of the halophilic microalgal production strain, Dunaliella viridis, that is independent of variations in salinity and illumination intensity. Using this method, the cultures were evaluated to elucidate the overlapping roles of photosynthetic and osmotic adaptation on the accumulation and compositional variation of the biomass, photosynthetic productivity, and physiological biomarkers, as well as spectroscopic and morphological details at the single-cell level. Correlation matrices defining the relationships among the observables and based on variation of the illumination intensity and salinity were constructed for predicting bioproduct yields for varying culture conditions. Following maintenance of stable cultures for 6-week intervals, phenotypic responses to photo-osmotic drift were explored using a combination of single-cell hyperspectral fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. In addition to morphological changes, release of lipid microparticles from the cells that is disproportionate to cell lysis was observed under hypotonic drift, indicating the existence of a reversible membrane permeation mechanism in Dunaliella. Furthermore, this phenomenon introduces the potential for low-cost strategies for recovering lipids and pigments from the microalgae by minimizing the requirement for energy intensive harvesting and dewatering of the biomass. The results should be applicable to outdoor culture, where seasonal changes resulting in variable solar flux and precipitation and evaporation rates are anticipated.

  13. Photo-crystallization in a-Se layer structures: Effects of film-substrate interface-rigidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindberg, G. P.; Gross, N.; Weinstein, B. A.; O'Loughlin, T.; Mishchenko, A.; Reznik, A.; Abbaszadeh, S.; Karim, K. S.; Belev, G.

    2014-11-21

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) films deposited on rigid substrates can undergo photo-induced crystallization (PC) even at temperatures (T) well below the glass transition, T{sub g}???313?K. Substrate-generated shear strain is known to promote the PC process. In the present work, we explore the influence of different substrates (Si and glass), and different film-layer-substrate combinations, on the PC in a variety of a-Se films and film-structures. The intermediate layers (indium tin oxide and polyimide) are chosen to promote conductivity and/or to be a buffer against interface strain in structures of interest for digital imaging applications. The PC characteristics in these samples are evaluated and compared using optical microscopy, atomic-force microscopy, Raman mapping, and T-dependent Raman spectroscopy. Both the presence of a soft intermediate layer, and the thermal softening that occurs for T increasing through T{sub g}, inhibit the tendency for the onset of PC. The extensive PC mapping results in the wide range of samples studied here, as well as the suppression of PC near T{sub g} in this array of samples, strongly support the generality of this behavior. As a consequence, one may expect that the stability of a-Se films against PC can be enhanced by decreasing the rigidity of the film-substrate interface. In this regard, advanced film structures that employ flexible substrates, soft intermediate layers, and/or are designed to be operated near T{sub g} should be explored.

  14. PhotoVoltaic distributed generation for Lanai power grid real-time simulation and control integration scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Kukolich, Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses the modeling, analysis, and testing in a real-time simulation environment of the Lanai power grid system for the integration and control of PhotoVoltaic (PV) distributed generation. The Lanai Island in Hawaii is part of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) to transition to 30% renewable green energy penetration by 2030. In Lanai the primary loads come from two Castle and Cook Resorts, in addition to residential needs. The total peak load profile is 12470 V, 5.5 MW. Currently there are several diesel generators that meet these loading requirements. As part of the HCEI, Lanai has initially installed 1.2 MW of PV generation. The goal of this study has been to evaluate the impact of the PV with respect to the conventional carbon-based diesel generation in real time simulation. For intermittent PV distributed generation, the overall stability and transient responses are investigated. A simple Lanai 'like' model has been developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment (see Fig. 1) and to accommodate real-time simulation of the hybrid power grid system the Opal-RT Technologies RT-Lab environment is used. The diesel generators have been modelled using the SimPowerSystems toolbox swing equations and a custom Simulink module has been developed for the High level PV generation. All of the loads have been characterized primarily as distribution lines with series resistive load banks with one VAR load bank. Three-phase faults are implemented for each bus. Both conventional and advanced control architectures will be used to evaluate the integration of the PV onto the current power grid system. The baseline numerical results include the stable performance of the power grid during varying cloud cover (PV generation ramping up/down) scenarios. The importance of assessing the real-time scenario is included.

  15. Photos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -Arms control & nonproliferation --Research reactor conversion -Biometrics -Biotechnology for national security -Cyber security -Facility security -Decision science ...

  16. photo_org_chart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Corrective Actions Program LANL TRU Program Repository Science & Operations Business & Project Services Regulatory Management ADEP Environmental Programs Assoc. Director Jeff...

  17. CASL Photo Book

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... University and industry experimental data supports fundamental development of closures for prediction of fuel performance during events such as a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). ...

  18. Photo: US ITER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    strand * High Performance Magnetics, Tallahassee, FL; Toroidal Field conductor ... Petersburg * Tallahassee * Winter Springs Georgia Alpharetta * Atlanta * Cumming * Duluth ...

  19. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  20. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  1. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  2. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  3. SAGE Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    other vehicles for the survey, as well as personnel. Image Teaching Assistant, Allen Porter, explains the details of a total-field magnetic survey of a potentially contaminated...

  4. Photos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ---Industrial heating & cooling ---Industrial lighting --Manufacturing -Energy sources --Renewable energy ---Bioenergy ---Geothermal energy ---Hydropower ---Solar energy ---Wind...

  5. Full page photo

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  6. PAGE Cover: Top Photo

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Report from the Peer Review Panel on activities within the Planning, Analysis and Evaluation Unit Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Team Members: Kathryn Newcomer, The George Washington University (Chair) Irwin Feller, The Pennsylvania State University (Retired) Stephanie Shipman, Government Accountability Office Kathleen Sedlak O'Brien, Environmental Protection Agency Faith Lambert, EERE Final Report February 1,

  7. Kimberly Well - Photos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shervais, John

    2011-06-16

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  8. Kimama Well - Photos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shervais, John

    2011-01-16

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimama drill site was set up to acquire a continuous record of basaltic volcanism along the central volcanic axis and to test the extent of geothermal resources beneath the Snake River aquifer. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  9. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shervais, John

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  10. Photos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -Energy sources --Renewable energy ---Bioenergy ---Geothermal energy ---Hydropower ---Solar energy ---Wind energy --Fossil fuels ---Coal ----Carbon capture & sequestration ---Oil...

  11. Geothermal Photo Gallery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Technologies Office invests in 150 projects nationwide, leveraging more than $500 million in combined investments.

  12. Photo-ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1992-03-17

    A thin film structure for providing predetermined electric field boundary conditions. A thin film configuration is disposed on an insulator substrate in a selected spatial pattern with substantially uniform electrically resistive character in each of the different areas of the spatial pattern.

  13. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A thin film structure for providing predetermined electric field boundary conditions. A thin film configuration is disposed on an insulator substrate in a selected spatial pattern with substantially uniform electrically resistive character in each of the different areas of the spatial pattern.

  14. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  15. PAGE Cover: Top Photo

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... NNSA was established to maintain and enhance the safety, security, reliability and performance of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear testing; work to reduce global ...

  16. Photos: Reidar Hahn, Fermilab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particle called a positron, which col- lides with a nearby electron and creates a gamma ray. Despite this long chain of events, the gamma ray carries information about the...

  17. Tribal Energy Summit Photos

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The summit builds on the Department’s continued commitment to partner with Native Americans to support the development of clean energy projects on tribal lands that will help reduce energy use,...

  18. Full page photo print

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    214(2013) July 2015 State Energy Consumption Estimates 1960 Through 2013 2013 Consumption Summary Tables S U M M A R I E S U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2013: Consumption 3 Table C1. Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2013 (Trillion Btu) State Total Energy b Sources End-Use Sectors a Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Renewable Energy e Net Interstate Flow of Electricity f Net Electricity Imports g Residential Commercial

  19. Photos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    policy Environment -Biology --Computational biology ---Bioinformatics ---Molecular dynamics --Environmental biology ---Metagenomics ---Terrestrial ecology --Molecular...

  20. Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon (BrC) Chromophores in Secondary Organic Aerosol Generated From Photo-Oxidation of Toluene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Peng; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-09-28

    Atmospheric Brown carbon (BrC) is a significant contributor to light absorption and climate forcing. However, little is known about a fundamental relationship between the chemical composition of BrC and its optical properties. In this work, light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated in the PNNL chamber from toluene photo-oxidation in the presence of NOx (Tol-SOA). Molecular structures of BrC components were examined using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and liquid chromatography (LC) combined with UV/Vis spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The chemical composition of BrC chromophores and the light absorption properties of toluene SOA (Tol-SOA) depend strongly on the initial NOx concentration. Specifically, Tol-SOA generated under high-NOx conditions (defined here as initial NOx/toluene of 5/1) appears yellow and mass absorption coefficient of the bulk sample (MACbulk@365nm = 0.78 m2 g-1) is nearly 80 fold higher than that measured for the Tol-SOA sample generated under low-NOx conditions (NOx/toluene < 1/300). Fifteen compounds, most of which are nitrophenols, are identified as major BrC chromophores responsible for the enhanced light absorption of Tol-SOA material produced in the presence of NOx. The integrated absorbance of these fifteen chromophores accounts for 40-60% of the total light absorbance by Tol-SOA at wavelengths between 300 nm and 500 nm. The combination of tandem LC-UV/Vis-ESI/HRMS measurements provides an analytical platform for predictive understanding of light absorption properties by BrC and their relationship to the structure of individual chromophores. General trends in the UV/vis absorption by plausible isomers of the BrC chromophores were evaluated using theoretical chemistry calculations. The molecular-level understanding of BrC chemistry is helpful for better understanding the evolution and behavior of light absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere.

  1. Array of Cu{sub 2}O nano-columns fabricated by oblique angle sputter deposition and their application in photo-assisted proton reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Chaudhary, Y. S.; Thakur, I.; Kulkarni, N. A.; Ayyub, P.

    2015-01-14

    Nano-columnar arrays of Cu{sub 2}O were grown by the oblique angle sputter deposition technique based on the self-shadowing principle. The as-grown nano-columnar samples are oriented along (111) direction, and they are highly transmitting in the visible range with a low reflectance. In this work, we show the photo-electrochemical activity of nano-columnar array of Cu{sub 2}O, which shows a higher (?25%) photocurrent density and a two-fold enhancement in the incident-to-photon conversion efficiency as compared to continuous thin film of Cu{sub 2}O in photo-assisted proton reduction type reaction. The improvement in electrochemical activity of nano-columnar Cu{sub 2}O photocathode can be attributed to the change in morphology, crystal structure, as well as electrical property, which shows a higher degree of band bending, increased donor carrier (e?) density and lower width of space charge region as revealed by capacitance measurements and Mott-Schottky analysis.

  2. Photo-induced tunneling currents in MOS structures with various HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stacking dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Chin-Sheng; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo

    2014-04-15

    In this study, the current conduction mechanisms of structures with tandem high-k dielectric in illumination are discussed. Samples of Al/SiO{sub 2}/Si (S), Al/HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si (H), and Al/3HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si (3H) were examined. The significant observation of electron traps of sample H compares to sample S is found under the double bias capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements in illumination. Moreover, the photo absorption sensitivity of sample H is higher than S due to the formation of HfO{sub 2} dielectric layer, which leads to larger numbers of carriers crowded through the sweep of V{sub G} before the domination of tunneling current. Additionally, the HfO{sub 2} dielectric layer would block the electrons passing through oxide from valance band, which would result in less electron-hole (e{sup −}-h{sup +}) pairs recombination effect. Also, it was found that both of the samples S and H show perimeter dependency of positive bias currents due to strong fringing field effect in dark and illumination; while sample 3H shows area dependency of positive bias currents in strong illumination. The non-uniform tunneling current through thin dielectric and through HfO{sub 2} stacking layers are importance to MOS(p) tunneling photo diodes.

  3. Towards the Integration of Dark- and Photo-Fermentative Waste Treatment. 4. Repeated Batch Sequential Dark- and Photofermentation using Starch as Substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinavichene, T. V.; Belokopytov, B. F.; Laurinavichius, K. S.; Khusnutdinova, A. N.; Seibert, M.; Tsygankov, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    In this study we demonstrated the technical feasibility of a prolonged, sequential two-stage integrated process under a repeated batch mode of starch fermentation. In this durable scheme, the photobioreactor with purple bacteria in the second stage was fed directly with dark culture from the first stage without centrifugation, filtration, or sterilization (not demonstrated previously). After preliminary optimization, both the dark- and the photo-stages were performed under repeated batch modes with different process parameters. Continuous H{sub 2} production in this system was observed at a H{sub 2} yield of up to 1.4 and 3.9 mole mole{sup -1} hexose during the dark- and photo-stage, respectively (for a total of 5.3 mole mole{sup -1} hexose), and rates of 0.9 and 0.5 L L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, respectively. Prolonged repeated batch H{sub 2} production was maintained for up to 90 days in each stage and was rather stable under non-aseptic conditions. Potential for improvements in these results are discussed.

  4. Photo-induced oxidation and amorphization of trigonal tellurium: A means to engineer hybrid nanostructures and explore glass structure under spatial confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasileiadis, Thomas; Yannopoulos, Spyros N.

    2014-09-14

    Controlled photo-induced oxidation and amorphization of elemental trigonal tellurium are achieved by laser irradiation at optical wavelengths. These processes are monitored in situ by time-resolved Raman scattering and ex situ by electron microscopies. Ultrathin TeO₂ films form on Te surfaces, as a result of irradiation, with an interface layer of amorphous Te intervening between them. It is shown that irradiation, apart from enabling the controllable transformation of bulk Te to one-dimensional nanostructures, such as Te nanotubes and hybrid core-Te/sheath-TeO₂ nanowires, causes also a series of light-driven (athermal) phase transitions involving the crystallization of the amorphous TeO₂ layers and its transformation to a multiplicity of crystalline phases including the γ-, β-, and α-TeO₂ crystalline phases. The kinetics of the above photo-induced processes is investigated by Raman scattering at various laser fluences revealing exponential and non-exponential kinetics at low and high fluence, respectively. In addition, the formation of ultrathin (less than 10 nm) layers of amorphous TeO₂ offers the possibility to explore structural transitions in 2D glasses by observing changes in the short- and medium-range structural order induced by spatial confinement.

  5. Glass-like recovery of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in a photo-excited manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, S.Y.; Langner, M.C.; Zhu, Y.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Rini, M.; Glover, T.E.; Hertlein, M.P.; Gonzalez, A.G. Cruz; Tahir, N.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Hussain, Z.; Schoenlein, R.W.

    2014-01-16

    Electronic orderings of charges, orbitals and spins are observed in many strongly correlated electron materials, and revealing their dynamics is a critical step toward understanding the underlying physics of important emergent phenomena. Here we use time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy to probe the dynamics of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in the manganite Pr0:7Ca0:3MnO3 following ultrafast photo-exitation. Our studies reveal a glass-like recovery of the spin ordering and a crossover in the dimensionality of the restoring interaction from quasi-1D at low pump fluence to 3D at high pump fluence. This behavior arises from the metastable state created by photo-excitation, a state characterized by spin disordered metallic droplets within the larger charge- and spin-ordered insulating domains. Comparison with time-resolved resistivity measurements suggests that the collapse of spin ordering is correlated with the insulator-to-metal transition, but the recovery of the insulating phase does not depend on the re-establishment of the spin ordering.

  6. On the nature of volume-phase transitions in photo-cross-linked poly(cyclopropylacrylamide) and poly(N-vinylisobutyramide) coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patra, Leena; Messman, Jamie M; Toomey, Ryan G

    2013-01-01

    Ellipsometry in an inverted configuration was used to characterize the temperature-dependent swelling of thin (100 nm) coatings of photo-cross-linked poly(cyclopropylacrylamide), or poly(CPAAm), and poly(vinylisobutyramide), or poly(NVIBAm). Both polymers contained 3 mole % of methacroylaminobenzophenone (MnBP) as the photo-cross-linking unit. Poly(CPAAm-co-MnBP) showed a continuous, 2nd order deswelling transition between 10 and 70 oC with no hysteresis. Poly(NVIBAm), on the other hand showed a discontinuous, 1st order deswelling transition at 45 oC with a hysteresis in the swelling curve. The differences in the swelling transitions can be interpreted within the context of the cloud-point measurements of the uncross-linked polymers. Whereas poly(NVIBAm-co-MnBP) has a significant off-zero critical point (>10 wt% polymer) at 36oC, poly(CPAAm-co-MnBP) has a critical point at zero concentration and 23 oC. Concurrent measurements of the infrared vibrations of the amide groups in both polymers further revealed that the amide group in poly(CPAAm-co-MnBP) maintains a constant hydrogen-bonding environment throughout the volume-phase transition. Poly(NVIBAm-co-MnBP), on the other hand, has a concentration dependent hydrogen bonding environment around the carbonyl group, which is consistent with an off-zero concentration in the cloud point curve.

  7. On photo-expansion and microlens formation in (GeS{sub 2}){sub 0.74}(Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 0.26} chalcogenide glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knotek, P.; Tichy, L.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Photo-expansion induced by sub-band-gap photons in GeSbS glass. ? One-step microlens formation. ? The topography of the microlenses detected by AFM and DHM. ? The good mechanical characteristics of the microlenses were obtained. ? Local light-induced overheating of the glass. -- Abstract: Photo-expansion of the bulk of (GeS{sub 2}){sub 0.74}(Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 0.26} glass induced by sub-gap photons is studied employing specifically atomic force microscopy (AFM) namely an atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) and a force spectroscopy and digital holographic microscopy. The results are discussed with respect to the possible role of light induced overheating in the process of photo-expansion.

  8. Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation of Ion Back BomBardment in a High Average Current RF Photo-Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J.

    2009-10-17

    In this paper, we report on study of ion back bombardment in a high average current radio-frequency (RF) photo-gun using a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation method. Using this method, we systematically studied effects of gas pressure, RF frequency, RF initial phase, electric field profile, magnetic field, laser repetition rate, different ion species on ion particle line density distribution, kinetic energy spectrum, and ion power line density distribution back bombardment onto the photocathode. Those simulation results suggested that effects of ion back bombardment could increase linearly with the background gas pressure and laser repetition rate. The RF frequency has significantly affected the ion motion inside the gun so that the ion power deposition on the photocathode in an RF gun can be several orders of magnitude lower than that in a DC gun. The ion back bombardment can be minimized by appropriately choosing the electric field profile and the initial phase.

  9. Near-infrared electroluminescence and photo detection in InGaAs p-i-n microdisks grown by selective area growth on silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kjellman, Jon yvind; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2014-06-16

    Microselective-area growth of p-i-n InGaAs disks on (111) silicon by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is a promising technology for III/V-on-Si integration. As a proof-of-concept, room-temperature electroluminescence is reported from ensembles of p-i-n InGaAs-on-Si micro-disks. The observed spectrum shows peak luminescence at 1.78??m with a local maxima at 1.65??m. The disks are also shown to generate a measurable photo current when illuminated by infrared light with less energy than the silicon bandgap energy. This makes these InGaAs-on-Si disks a promising technology for monolithic integration of light sources and detectors with silicon photonics and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics for optical communication, sensing, and imaging.

  10. Long-wavelength emission in photo-pumped GaAs{sub 1?x}Bi{sub x} laser with low temperature dependence of lasing wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuyuki, Takuma; Yoshioka, Ryo; Yoshida, Kenji; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2013-11-11

    This study demonstrates long-wavelength emission of up to 1204?nm in photo-pumped GaAs{sub 1?x}Bi{sub x} lasers grown by molecular beam epitaxy under low temperature conditions. The characteristic temperature (T{sub 0}) between 20 and 80?C in the GaAs{sub 1?x}Bi{sub x} lasers with Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As electron blocking layer is approximately 100?K, which is larger than that of the typical 1.3-?m InGaAsP Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP-LDs; T{sub 0}?=?66?K). The temperature coefficient of the lasing wavelength is approximately 40% of that of InGaAsP FP-LDs.

  11. Defects in {sup 6}LiInSe{sub 2} neutron detector investigated by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy and photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Yunlong; Bhattacharya, Pijush; Buliga, Vladimir; Tupitsyn, Eugene; Rowe, Emmanuel; Wiggins, Brenden; Johnstone, Daniel; Stowe, Ashley; Burger, Arnold; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235

    2013-08-26

    {sup 6}LiInSe{sub 2} is a promising thermal neutron semiconductor detector material. The performance of the detector is affected by the carrier mobility-lifetime products. Therefore, defects that function as carrier recombination centers need to be identified. In this letter, characterization of defect levels in {sup 6}LiInSe{sub 2} by photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS) and photoluminescence is reported. PICTS measurements revealed electron-related defects located at 0.22, 0.36, and 0.55 eV and hole-related defects at 0.19, 0.30, and 0.73 eV. Free exciton and donor-acceptor pairs (DAP) emissions were observed. The PICTS defect level values are consistent with those extracted from DAP transitions.

  12. Latest 200 Area Demolition Offers Snapshot of Hanford Cleanup Progress:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections December 21, 2012 - 3:15pm Addthis Graphene has properties that could possibly open up the next generation on nanotechnology. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Lab Graphene has properties that could possibly open up the next generation on nanotechnology. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Lab Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Communications Specialist (detailee) What is graphene? Graphene is a substance

  13. Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections December 21, 2012 - 3:15pm Addthis Graphene has properties that could possibly open up the next generation on nanotechnology. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Lab Graphene has properties that could possibly open up the next generation on nanotechnology. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Lab Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Communications Specialist (detailee) What is graphene? Graphene is a substance

  14. Solar Cell Nanotechnology Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Biswajit

    2014-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a low cost nonlithographic nanofabrication technology for the fabrication of thin film porous templates as well as uniform arrays of semiconductor nanostructures for the implementation of high efficiency solar cells. Solar cells based on semiconductor nanostructures are expected to have very high energy conversion efficiencies due to the increased absorption coefficients of semiconductor nanostructures. In addition, the thin film porous template can be used for optimum surface texturing of solar cells leading to additional enhancement in energy conversion efficiency. An important requirement for these applications is the ability to synthesize nanostructure arrays of different dimensions with good size control. This project employed nanoporous alumina templates created by the anodization of aluminum thin films deposited on glass substrates for the fabrication of the nanostructures and optimized the process parameters to obtain uniform pore diameters. An additional requirement is uniformity or regularity of the nanostructure arrays. While constant current anodization was observed to provide controlled pore diameters, constant voltage anodization was needed for regularity of the nanostructure arrays. Thus a two-step anodization process was investigated and developed in this project for improving the pore size distribution and pore periodicity of the nanoporous alumina templates. CdTe was selected to be the active material for the nanowires, and the process for the successful synthesis of CdTe nanowires was developed in this project. Two different synthesis approaches were investigated in this project, electrochemical and electrophoretic deposition. While electrochemical synthesis was successfully employed for the synthesis of nanowires inside the pores of the alumina templates, the technique was determined to be non-optimum due to the need of elevated temperature that is detrimental to the structural integrity of the nanoporous alumina templates. In order to eliminate this problem, electrophoretic deposition was selected as the more appropriate technique, which involves the guided deposition of semiconductor nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasonic energy to form the crystalline nanowires. Extensive experimental research was carried out to optimize the process parameters for formation of crystalline nanowires. It was observed that the environmental bath temperature plays a critical role in determining the structural integrity of the nanowires and hence their lengths. Investigation was carried out for the formation of semitransparent ohmic contacts on the nanowires to facilitate photocurrent spectroscopy measurements as well as for solar cell implementation. Formation of such ohmic contacts was found to be challenging and a process involving mechanical and electrochemical polishing was developed to facilitate such contacts. The use of nanoporous alumina templates for the surface texturing of mono- and multi-crystalline solar cells was extensively investigated by electrochemical etching of the silicon through the pores of the nanoporous templates. The processes for template formation as well as etching were optimized and the alumina/silicon interface was investigated using capacitance-voltage characterization. The process developed was found to be viable for improving solar cell performance.

  15. Challenges and opportunities for structural DNA nanotechnology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ChallengeHER ChallengeHER November 6, 2015 8:00AM to 12:30PM EST DOE Main Auditorium 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington DC 20585 Department of Energy ***DOE's FY 2016 and Beyond Procurement Opportunities*** Friday, November 6, 2015 ♦ 8:00 am to 12:30 pm DOE Main Auditorium ♦ 1000 Independence Ave., SW ♦ Washington DC 20585 All Small Businesses are Encouraged to Attend! Information is power! In order to successfully navigate the federal contracting industry and win federal contracts, you

  16. Tools for Nanotechnology Education Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorothy Moore

    2010-09-27

    The overall focus of this project was the development of reusable, cost-effective educational modules for use with the table top scanning electron microscope (TTSEM). The goal of this project's outreach component was to increase students' exposure to the science and technology of nanoscience.

  17. Fundamental enabling issues in nanotechnology : (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Yet the intrinsic connections between the evolving morphology of supported nanostructures and stress generation are still a matter of debate. This report presents results from a ...

  18. Fundamental enabling issues in nanotechnology : (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    experiment and modeling approach to study stress evolution during thin film growth. ... to permit investigation of stress evolution during later growth stages, e.g.more ...

  19. CO2 hydrogenation to formate and methanol as an alternative to photo- and electrochemical CO2 reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wan -Hui; Himeda, Yuichiro; Muckerman, James T.; Manbeck, Gerald F.; Fujita, Etsuko

    2015-09-03

    In this study, carbon dioxide is one of the end products of combustion, and is not a benign component of the atmosphere. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has reached unprecedented levels and continues to increase owing to an escalating rate of fossil fuel combustion, causing concern about climate change and rising sea levels. In view of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels, a possible solution to this problem is the recycling of carbon dioxide, possibly captured at its point of generation, to fuels. Researchers in this field are using solar energy for CO2 activation and utilization in several ways: (i) so-called artificial photosynthesis using photo-induced electrons; (ii) bulk electrolysis of a CO2 saturated solution using electricity produced by photovoltaics; (iii) CO2 hydrogenation using solar-produced H2; and (iv) the thermochemical reaction of metal oxides at extremely high temperature reached by solar collectors. Since the thermodynamics of CO2 at high temperature (> 1000 ºC) are quite different from those near room temperature, only chemistry below 200 ºC is discussed in this review.

  20. Sensitive fast electron spectrometer in adjustable triode configuration with pulsed tunable laser for research on photo-induced field emission cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mingels, S. Porshyn, V.; Bornmann, B.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Müller, G.

    2015-04-15

    We have completed an ultra-high vacuum system for sensitive fast electron spectroscopy from cold cathodes in triode configuration under high electric fields E (<100 MV/m) and pulsed tunable laser illumination (3.5 ns, 10 Hz, hν = 0.5-5.9 eV, and 0.3-17 mJ). The cathodes are prepared and inserted under clean room conditions and can be precisely 3D-positioned, cooled or heated (77-400 K). Commissioning results with the upgraded system are presented. Field emission measurements with a W tip yielded an energy resolution of 14 meV at 4 eV pass energy and a precise determination of the emitter work function, size, and temperature. Photoemission spectroscopy of short electron bunches from a virgin and laser-ablated S-GaP crystal and quantum efficiency measurements revealed surface states, energy relaxation, and band structure effects. In conclusion, this novel system is ready now for the development and characterization of photo-induced field emission cathodes.

  1. Mechanical and photo-fragmentation processes for nanonization of melanin to improve its efficacy in protecting cells from reactive oxygen species stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Sih-Min; Liu, Jhong-Han; Hsu, Hsiang-Wei; Lin, Hoang-Yan; Chen, Szu-yuan

    2015-02-14

    It has been well established ex vivo that melanin has the ability of scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), besides other functions. Therefore, we propose to utilize nanonized melanin as medication against acute oxidative stress. For this purpose, we developed and characterized two techniques based on mechanical stir and photo-fragmentation using femtosecond laser pulses, respectively, for disintegration of suspended melanin powder to produce nanometer-sized and water-dispersible melanin. This resolves a major obstacle in the medical and industrial applications of melanin. The viabilities of cultured retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells exposed to exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stress and treated with various conditions of melanin and irradiation were compared. It was found that melanin could be nanonized very effectively with the techniques, and nanonized melanin exhibited a much stronger effect than unprocessed melanin on raising the viability of cultured RPE cells under acute ROS stress. The effect was even more prominent without simultaneous light irradiation, promising for effective in vivo application to the whole body.

  2. Highly focused and efficient terahertz radiation generation by photo-mixing of lasers in plasma in the presence of magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, Anil K.; Singh, Kunwar Pal; Sajal, V.

    2014-07-15

    A mechanism of efficient and highly focused terahertz (THz) radiation generation by photo-mixing of top-hat like lasers with frequencies ?{sub 1}, ?{sub 2} and wave numbers k{sub 1}, k{sub 2} in pre-formed rippled density (corrugated) plasma is proposed. In this mechanism, intensity variation of lasers offers nonlinear ponderomotive force at frequency ?{sup ?}=?{sub 1}??{sub 2} and wave number k{sup ?}=k{sub 1}?k{sub 2} which couples with density ripples in the plasma and leads to a strong nonlinear oscillatory current that resonantly excites highly focused and intense THz radiation at frequency ?{sub UH}=?((?{sub p}{sup 2}+?{sub c}{sup 2})) (where ?{sub c} is electron cyclotron frequency). The efficiency of emitted THz radiation of the order of 15% is obtained under optimum conditions. It is observed that focus and intensity of emitted radiation can be controlled by selecting a proper profile index of the lasers, ripple parameters, and tuning of external magnetic field.

  3. Note: Strain sensitivity comparison between fiber Bragg gratings inscribed on 125 and 80 micron cladding diameter fibers, case study on the solidification monitoring of a photo-curable resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Brandi, F.

    2015-02-15

    The influence of fiber Bragg grating diameter when measuring strain is investigated and quantified. Two fiber Bragg gratings with bare cladding diameter of 125 μm and 80 μm are produced by excimer laser irradiation through a phase mask, and are used to simultaneously monitor the Bragg wavelength shift due to the strain produced by the solidification of a photo-curable resin during light exposure. It is found that the ratio of the measured strains in the two fiber Bragg gratings is close to the inverse ratio of the fiber’s cladding diameter. These results represent a direct simultaneous comparison between 125 μm and 80 μm diameter fiber Bragg grating strain sensors, and demonstrate the feasibility of strain measurements in photo-curable resins using bare 80 μm cladding diameter fiber Bragg gratings with an increased sensitivity and spatial resolution compared with standard 125 μm diameter fiber Bragg gratings.

  4. ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles: An easily recoverable effective photo-catalyst for the degradation of rose bengal and methylene blue dyes in the waste-water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Maji, Swarup Kumar; Adhikary, Bibhutosh

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs from a single-source precursor and characterized by XRD, TEM, UVvis spectra. The NPs were tested as effective photocatalyst toward degradation of RB and MB dyes. The possible pathway of the photocatalytic decomposition process has been discussed. The active species, OH, was detected by TA photoluminescence probing techniques. - Abstract: ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from a single-source precursor complex [Fe{sub 3}O(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}COO){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]NO{sub 3} by a simple thermal decomposition process and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UVvis spectroscopic techniques. The NPs were highly pure and well crystallized having hexagonal morphology with an average particle size of 35 nm. The prepared ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (maghemite) NPs show effective photo-catalytic activity toward the degradation of rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) dyes under visible light irradiation and can easily be recoverable in the presence of magnetic field for successive re-uses. The possible photo-catalytic decomposition mechanism is discussed through the detection of hydroxyl radical (OH) by terephthalic acid photo-luminescence probing technique.

  5. Photo-induced isomerization of ethylene-bridged azobenzene explored by ab initio based non-adiabatic dynamics simulation: A comparative investigation of the isomerization in the gas and solution phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Jun; Liu Lihong; Fang Weihai; Xie Zhizhong; Zhang Yong

    2013-04-07

    Azobenzene is one of the most widely used photoactive units and recently an ethylene-bridged azobenzene (BAB) was reported to have greatly enhanced conversion efficiency, quantum yield, and other favorable properties. As the first step towards exploring its photo-switchable character in real systems, we report here a systematic study on the photoisomerization dynamics between trans (E) and cis (Z) isomers in the gas phase and the CH{sub 3}OH solution, using ab initio based surface hopping and molecular dynamics, which is the first report of dynamics simulation to reveal the environmental effects on BAB photoreactions. Results show that while the relatively faster S{sub 1} relaxation of the photo-induced E{yields}Z process is only mildly affected by the solvent effect, the relatively slower S{sub 1} relaxation of the reverse reaction becomes even slower in the solution compared to the gas phase. The subsequent S{sub 0} dynamics from the conical intersection between S{sub 1} and S{sub 0} (CI{sub E}) to Z is accelerated in solution compared to the gas phase because of avoided re-crossing to the S{sub 1} state, while the S{sub 0} dynamics from the conical intersection between S{sub 1} and S{sub 0} (CI{sub Z}) to E are basically the same in both phases. Overall, the solvent effect was found to enhance the back-and-forth photo-switch efficiency between the Z and E isomers compared to the gas phase, while the quantum yields are reduced. But the solution yields of both the forward and backward photoreactions are still around 0.4. Therefore, BAB may have good photo-responsive properties if used as a photoactive unit in real systems. These results will facilitate future experimental and theoretical studies in this area to help design new azobenzene derivatives as photoactive units in biological processes, nanoscale devices, and photo-responsive materials.

  6. Photo-induced water oxidation at the aqueous GaN (101¯0) interface: Deprotonation kinetics of the first proton-coupled electron-transfer step

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Kharche, Neerav; Batista, Victor S.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Tully, John C.; Muckerman, James T.

    2015-03-12

    Photoeclectrochemical water splitting plays a key role in a promising path to the carbon-neutral generation of solar fuels. Wurzite GaN and its alloys (e.g., GaN/ZnO and InGaN) are demonstrated photocatalysts for water oxidation, and they can drive the overall water splitting reaction when coupled with co-catalysts for proton reduction. In the present work, we investigate the water oxidation mechanism on the prototypical GaN (101¯0) surface using a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and molecular cluster model approach taking into account the role of water dissociation and hydrogen bonding within the first solvation shell of the hydroxylated surface. The investigation ofmore » free-energy changes for the four proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) steps of the water oxidation mechanism shows that the first PCET step for the conversion of –Ga-OH to –Ga-O˙⁻ requires the highest energy input. We further examine the sequential PCETs, with the proton transfer (PT) following the electron transfer (ET), and find that photo-generated holes localize on surface –NH sites is thermodynamically more favorable than –OH sites. However, proton transfer from –OH sites with subsequent localization of holes on oxygen atoms is kinetically favored owing to hydrogen bonding interactions at the GaN (101¯0)–water interface. We find that the deprotonation of surface –OH sites is the limiting factor for the generation of reactive oxyl radical ion intermediates and consequently for water oxidation.« less

  7. Photo-induced water oxidation at the aqueous GaN (1010) interface: Deprotonation kinetics of the first proton-coupled electron-transfer step

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Kharche, Neerav; Batista, Victor S.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Tully, John C.; Muckerman, James T.

    2015-03-12

    Photoeclectrochemical water splitting plays a key role in a promising path to the carbon-neutral generation of solar fuels. Wurzite GaN and its alloys (e.g., GaN/ZnO and InGaN) are demonstrated photocatalysts for water oxidation, and they can drive the overall water splitting reaction when coupled with co-catalysts for proton reduction. In the present work, we investigate the water oxidation mechanism on the prototypical GaN (1010) surface using a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and molecular cluster model approach taking into account the role of water dissociation and hydrogen bonding within the first solvation shell of the hydroxylated surface. The investigation of free-energy changes for the four proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) steps of the water oxidation mechanism shows that the first PCET step for the conversion of Ga-OH to Ga-O?? requires the highest energy input. We further examine the sequential PCETs, with the proton transfer (PT) following the electron transfer (ET), and find that photo-generated holes localize on surface NH sites is thermodynamically more favorable than OH sites. However, proton transfer from OH sites with subsequent localization of holes on oxygen atoms is kinetically favored owing to hydrogen bonding interactions at the GaN (1010)water interface. We find that the deprotonation of surface OH sites is the limiting factor for the generation of reactive oxyl radical ion intermediates and consequently for water oxidation.

  8. photo | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Watch the video to find out more. From Lab to Market-Improving Gasification Economics for Power and Chemicals Production (July 2014) view In response to the need for materials ...

  9. Photo Galleries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coatings Titan Top 500 Recognizes Fastest Supercomputers Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings Next Generation Building Envelope Materials Accelerated Aging of...

  10. Photos placed in horizontal position

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File s ystem Lustre Panasas TradiAonal Network F ile S ystem ( NFS), E xtended F ile s ystem ( EXT), e tc. 4 Tri---Lab t ools Parallel F ile T...

  11. Photo Galleries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    up for Energy Efficiency Volvo Trucks Manufacturing Plant in Virginia 2014 FIRST Robotics Smoky Mountain Regionals Share-a-thon SLIDESHOW: Energy Education Data Jam Energy...

  12. Photo Galleries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit Wind Gallery WHO SAID IT: Tesla or Edison? White House Forum on Minorities in Energy Secretary Moniz Tours Kemper...

  13. Photo Galleries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Amaris Homes DOE Tour of Zero: Cobbler Lane by Addison Homes 2014 Wind Market Report 3D-printed a car. 20 Amazing Things the National Labs Have Done Building Integrated Heat...

  14. 2012 Nuclear Safety Workshop Photos

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deputy Secretary Poneman (view announcement memo) convened the second DOE Nuclear Safety Workshop on September 19-20, 2012. The event was held at the Bethesda North Marriott Hotel and Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli Road, Bethesda, MD.

  15. Photo Galleries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc. DOE Tour of Zero: The Net Zero in Seattle by TC Legend Homes DOE Tour of Zero: The School Street Homes by StreetScape Development, LLC DOE Tour of Zero: The Performance...

  16. Photo Galleries | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    --Water --Geothermal --Bioenergy -Fossil --Coal ---Carbon Capture & Sequestration --Oil ---Petroleum Reserves --Natural Gas -Nuclear --Fusion --Fission -Electricity -Hydrogen...

  17. NNMCAB Photos | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    work is held once a year Image: William Alexander Date taken: 2013-04-25 12:15 LANL Reading Room 25 of 31 LANL Reading Room The NNCMAB Office is home to the Los Alamos National...

  18. Photos | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure...

  19. Photo Galleries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Zero: The Drummond House by Durable Energy Builders DOE Tour of Zero: The Greenbank Red House (Leganza) by Clifton View Homes DOE Tour of Zero: The ZED 2 by Boulder ZED Design...

  20. Photo Galleries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deputy Secretary Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall Swearing-In Ceremony Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings 2014 American Energy & Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit in...