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  1. Nanotechnology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Engineering. A Advanced Functional Materials Nanotechnology Nature Nanotechnology Biosensors & Bioelectronics Small 2013 JCR Science Edition, ranked by total citations,...

  2. Nanotechnology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy's Nanotechnology Safety provides a forum for the exchange of best practices, lessons learned, and guidance in the area of nanotechnology safety and health management.

  3. Non-equilibrium STLS approach to transport properties of single...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Non-equilibrium STLS approach to transport properties of single impurity Anderson model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Non-equilibrium STLS approach to transport ...

  4. Non-equilibrium many body dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1997-09-22

    This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.

  5. Electron Broadening of Isolated Lines with Stationary Non-Equilibrium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electron Broadening of Isolated Lines with Stationary Non-Equilibrium Level Populations It is shown that a quantum kinetic theory approach to line broadening, extended to ...

  6. Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas Eriksen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas Eriksen, Kristoffer A. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fontes, Christopher J. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colgan,...

  7. Non-equilibrium tunneling in zigzag graphene nanoribbon break...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spintronic devices promise new faster and lower energy-consumption electronic systems. ... In this paper, by utilizing density functional theory and non-equilibrium green function ...

  8. Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas No abstract prepared. Authors: Eriksen, Kristoffer A. [1] ; Fontes, Christopher J. [1] ; Colgan, James P. [1] ; Zhang, Honglin [1] ; Hungerford, Aimee L. [1] ; Fryer, Christopher L. [1] ; Hughes, John P. [2] ; Smith, Randall K. [3] ; Badenes, Carles [4] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Rutgers

  9. Boltzmann equation solver adapted to emergent chemical non-equilibrium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birrell, Jeremiah; Wilkening, Jon; Rafelski, Johann

    2015-01-15

    We present a novel method to solve the spatially homogeneous and isotropic relativistic Boltzmann equation. We employ a basis set of orthogonal polynomials dynamically adapted to allow for emergence of chemical non-equilibrium. Two time dependent parameters characterize the set of orthogonal polynomials, the effective temperature T(t) and phase space occupation factor ?(t). In this first paper we address (effectively) massless fermions and derive dynamical equations for T(t) and ?(t) such that the zeroth order term of the basis alone captures the particle number density and energy density of each particle distribution. We validate our method and illustrate the reduced computational cost and the ability to easily represent final state chemical non-equilibrium by studying a model problem that is motivated by the physics of the neutrino freeze-out processes in the early Universe, where the essential physical characteristics include reheating from another disappearing particle component (e{sup ±}-annihilation)

  10. Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution Friday, February 27, 2015 The energy density of current batteries is limited by the practical capacity of the positive electrode, which is the determined by the properties of the active material and its concentration in the

  11. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J.

    1995-09-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness.

  12. High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and ...

  13. Nanotechnology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanotechnology Nanotechnology The Department of Energy's Nanotechnology Safety provides a forum for the exchange of best practices, lessons learned, and guidance in the area of ...

  14. High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets You are ...

  15. Non-equilibrium STLS approach to transport properties of single impurity Anderson model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezai, Raheleh Ebrahimi, Farshad

    2014-04-15

    In this work, using the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism, we study the effects of the electron–electron interaction and the electron-spin correlation on the non-equilibrium Kondo effect and the transport properties of the symmetric single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) at zero temperature by generalizing the self-consistent method of Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjolander (STLS) for a single-band tight-binding model with Hubbard type interaction to out of equilibrium steady-states. We at first determine in a self-consistent manner the non-equilibrium spin correlation function, the effective Hubbard interaction, and the double-occupancy at the impurity site. Then, using the non-equilibrium STLS spin polarization function in the non-equilibrium formalism of the iterative perturbation theory (IPT) of Yosida and Yamada, and Horvatic and Zlatic, we compute the spectral density, the current–voltage characteristics and the differential conductance as functions of the applied bias and the strength of on-site Hubbard interaction. We compare our spectral densities at zero bias with the results of numerical renormalization group (NRG) and depict the effects of the electron–electron interaction and electron-spin correlation at the impurity site on the aforementioned properties by comparing our numerical result with the order U{sup 2} IPT. Finally, we show that the obtained numerical results on the differential conductance have a quadratic universal scaling behavior and the resulting Kondo temperature shows an exponential behavior. -- Highlights: •We introduce for the first time the non-equilibrium method of STLS for Hubbard type models. •We determine the transport properties of SIAM using the non-equilibrium STLS method. •We compare our results with order-U2 IPT and NRG. •We show that non-equilibrium STLS, contrary to the GW and self-consistent RPA, produces the two Hubbard peaks in DOS. •We show that the method keeps the universal scaling behavior and correct exponential behavior

  16. Navillum Nanotechnologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Navillum Nanotechnologies National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Navillum Nanotechnologies University of Utah Navillum Nanotechnologies' innovative method for fabricating ...

  17. Non-equilibrium scaling analysis of the Kondo model with voltage bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritsch, Peter Kehrein, Stefan

    2009-05-15

    The quintessential description of Kondo physics in equilibrium is obtained within a scaling picture that shows the buildup of Kondo screening at low temperature. For the non-equilibrium Kondo model with a voltage bias, the key new feature are decoherence effects due to the current across the impurity. In the present paper, we show how one can develop a consistent framework for studying the non-equilibrium Kondo model within a scaling picture of infinitesimal unitary transformations (flow equations). Decoherence effects appear naturally in third order of the {beta}-function and dominate the Hamiltonian flow for sufficiently large voltage bias. We work out the spin dynamics in non-equilibrium and compare it with finite temperature equilibrium results. In particular, we report on the behavior of the static spin susceptibility including leading logarithmic corrections and compare it with the celebrated equilibrium result as a function of temperature.

  18. Prediction of non-equilibrium solidification modes in austenitic stainless steel laser welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitek, J.M.; David, S.A.

    1993-08-01

    A primary austenitic, non-equilibrium mode of solidification can be induced in many 300 series austenitic stainless steels by laser welding and other rapid solidification techniques. The change in solidification mode can often result in a fully austenitic microstructure compared to the two phase ferrite plus austenite microstructure that is commonly found after primary ferrite solidification. A predictive capability for the solidification mode under rapid solidification conditions such as laser welding is needed since the microstructure and properties are closely related to solidification behavior. Conventional constitutional diagrams do not predict with any reliability the change to non-equilibrium austenitic solidification mode. Several means that have been attempted to predict the solidification behavior under extreme conditions are reviewed. The Cr{sub EQ}/Ni{sub EQ} ratio is shown to be unreliable, at least with the equivalence factors commonly used. Theoretical calculations of growth rate competition between ferrite and austenite solidification show promise, but some ambiguity results from inaccuracy in thermophysical material parameters. Use of calculated thermodynamic parameters such as equilibrium and non-equilibrium liquidus and solidus temperatures also shows some promise. However, this approach is not completely satisfactory and reliable either. It is concluded that a reliable and accurate method for predicting the tendency of austenitic stainless steels to solidify in the non-equilibrium mode is not yet available.

  19. Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Wen; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Herbert, F. William; Yildiz, Bilge

    2015-03-11

    The chemical state of Zr during the initial, self-limiting stage of oxidation on single crystal zirconium (0001), with oxide thickness on the order of 1 nm, was probed by synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the Zr 3d spectrum by the spectrum reconstruction method demonstrated the formation of Zr1+, Zr2+, and Zr3+ as non-equilibrium oxidation states, in addition to Zr4+ in the stoichiometric ZrO2. This finding resolves the long-debated question of whether it is possible to form any valence states between Zr0 and Zr4+ at the metal-oxide interface. As a result, the presence of local strong electric fields andmore » the minimization of interfacial energy are assessed and demonstrated as mechanisms that can drive the formation of these non-equilibrium valence states of Zr.« less

  20. Phase-field investigation on the non-equilibrium interface dynamics of rapid alloy solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jeong

    2011-08-15

    The research program reported here is focused on critical issues that represent conspicuous gaps in current understanding of rapid solidification, limiting our ability to predict and control microstructural evolution (i.e. morphological dynamics and microsegregation) at high undercooling, where conditions depart significantly from local equilibrium. More specifically, through careful application of phase-field modeling, using appropriate thin-interface and anti-trapping corrections and addressing important details such as transient effects and a velocity-dependent (i.e. adaptive) numerics, the current analysis provides a reasonable simulation-based picture of non-equilibrium solute partitioning and the corresponding oscillatory dynamics associated with single-phase rapid solidification and show that this method is a suitable means for a self-consistent simulation of transient behavior and operating point selection under rapid growth conditions. Moving beyond the limitations of conventional theoretical/analytical treatments of non-equilibrium solute partitioning, these results serve to substantiate recent experimental findings and analytical treatments for single-phase rapid solidification. The departure from the equilibrium solid concentration at the solid-liquid interface was often observed during rapid solidification, and the energetic associated non-equilibrium solute partitioning has been treated in detail, providing possible ranges of interface concentrations for a given growth condition. Use of these treatments for analytical description of specific single-phase dendritic and cellular operating point selection, however, requires a model for solute partitioning under a given set of growth conditions. Therefore, analytical solute trapping models which describe the chemical partitioning as a function of steady state interface velocities have been developed and widely utilized in most of the theoretical investigations of rapid solidification. However, these

  1. Potential and flux field landscape theory. II. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of spatially inhomogeneous stochastic dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2014-09-14

    We have established a general non-equilibrium thermodynamic formalism consistently applicable to both spatially homogeneous and, more importantly, spatially inhomogeneous systems, governed by the Langevin and Fokker-Planck stochastic dynamics with multiple state transition mechanisms, using the potential-flux landscape framework as a bridge connecting stochastic dynamics with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A set of non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations, quantifying the relations of the non-equilibrium entropy, entropy flow, entropy production, and other thermodynamic quantities, together with their specific expressions, is constructed from a set of dynamical decomposition equations associated with the potential-flux landscape framework. The flux velocity plays a pivotal role on both the dynamic and thermodynamic levels. On the dynamic level, it represents a dynamic force breaking detailed balance, entailing the dynamical decomposition equations. On the thermodynamic level, it represents a thermodynamic force generating entropy production, manifested in the non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and more specific examples, the spatial stochastic neuronal model, in particular, are studied to test and illustrate the general theory. This theoretical framework is particularly suitable to study the non-equilibrium (thermo)dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous systems abundant in nature. This paper is the second of a series.

  2. Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Wen; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Herbert, F. William; Yildiz, Bilge

    2015-03-11

    The chemical state of Zr during the initial, self-limiting stage of oxidation on single crystal zirconium (0001), with oxide thickness on the order of 1 nm, was probed by synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the Zr 3d spectrum by the spectrum reconstruction method demonstrated the formation of Zr1+, Zr2+, and Zr3+ as non-equilibrium oxidation states, in addition to Zr4+ in the stoichiometric ZrO2. This finding resolves the long-debated question of whether it is possible to form any valence states between Zr0 and Zr4+ at the metal-oxide interface. As a result, the presence of local strong electric fields and the minimization of interfacial energy are assessed and demonstrated as mechanisms that can drive the formation of these non-equilibrium valence states of Zr.

  3. Laser induced plasma on copper target, a non-equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oumeziane, Amina Ait Liani, Bachir; Parisse, Jean-Denis

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive numerical model for the UV laser ablation of metal targets, it focuses mainly on the prediction of laser induced plasma thresholds, the effect of the laser-plasma interaction, and the importance of the electronic non-equilibrium in the laser induced plume and its expansion in the background gas. This paper describes a set of numerical models for laser-matter interaction between 193-248 and 355 nm lasers and a copper target. Along with the thermal effects inside the material resulting from the irradiation of the latter with the pulsed laser, the laser-evaporated matter interaction and the plasma formation are thoroughly modelled. In the laser induced plume, the electronic nonequilibrium and the laser beam absorption have been investigated. Our calculations of the plasmas ignition thresholds on copper targets have been validated and compared to experimental as well as theoretical results. Comparison with experiment data indicates that our results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, the inclusion of electronic non-equilibrium in our work indicated that this important process must be included in models of laser ablation and plasma plume formation.

  4. Collision integrals for charged-charged interaction in two-temperature non-equilibrium plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghorui, S.; Das, A. K.

    2013-09-15

    Choice of an appropriate form of shielding distance in the estimation of collision integrals under screened coulomb potential for two-temperature non-equilibrium plasma is addressed. Simple expressions for collision integrals for charged-charged interactions are derived. It is shown that while some of the formalisms used earlier completely ignore the presence of ions, the others incorporating it may result in negative collision integrals for the interactions involving particles at higher charged states. The parametric regimes of concern and impact of different formalisms on the computed transport properties are investigated with specific reference to nitrogen plasma. A revised definition of the shielding distance is proposed, which incorporates both electrons and ions, avoids the problem of negative collision integrals in all practical regimes of interest and results in calculated property values in close agreement with experimentally observed results.

  5. Entropy analysis on non-equilibrium two-phase flow models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karwat, H.; Ruan, Y.Q.

    1995-09-01

    A method of entropy analysis according to the second law of thermodynamics is proposed for the assessment of a class of practical non-equilibrium two-phase flow models. Entropy conditions are derived directly from a local instantaneous formulation for an arbitrary control volume of a structural two-phase fluid, which are finally expressed in terms of the averaged thermodynamic independent variables and their time derivatives as well as the boundary conditions for the volume. On the basis of a widely used thermal-hydraulic system code it is demonstrated with practical examples that entropy production rates in control volumes can be numerically quantified by using the data from the output data files. Entropy analysis using the proposed method is useful in identifying some potential problems in two-phase flow models and predictions as well as in studying the effects of some free parameters in closure relationships.

  6. Navillum Nanotechnologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Navillum Nanotechnologies University of Utah Navillum Nanotechnologies' innovative method for fabricating quantum dots and other types of semiconducting nanocrystals at commercial ...

  7. Svaya Nanotechnologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Svaya Nanotechnologies Place: Sunnyvale, California Zip: 94085 Product: Stealth nanotechnology startup developing self-assembling, molecular-scale films useful in the PV...

  8. National Nanotechnology Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Materials Sciences & Engineering (MSE) Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences (CSGB) Accelerator and Detector Research Research Conduct Policies DOE Energy Innovation Hubs Energy Frontier Research Centers National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Nanomaterials ES&H Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC)

  9. Heat Transfer and Fluid Transport of Supercritical CO2 in Enhanced Geothermal System with Local Thermal Non-equilibrium Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Le; Luo, Feng; Xu, Ruina; Jiang, Peixue; Liu, Huihai

    2014-12-31

    The heat transfer and fluid transport of supercritical CO2 in enhanced geothermal system (EGS) is studied numerically with local thermal non-equilibrium model, which accounts for the temperature difference between solid matrix and fluid components in porous media and uses two energy equations to describe heat transfer in the solid matrix and in the fluid, respectively. As compared with the previous results of our research group, the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium mainly depends on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient ah, which has a significant effect on the production temperature at reservoir outlet and thermal breakthrough time. The uniformity of volumetricmore » heat transfer coefficient ah has little influence on the thermal breakthrough time, but the temperature difference become more obvious with time after thermal breakthrough with this simulation model. The thermal breakthrough time reduces and the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium becomes significant with decreasing ah.« less

  10. Numerical solution of 2D wet steam flow with non-equilibrium condensation and real thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hric, V.; Halama, J.

    2015-03-10

    An approach to modeling of wet steam flow with non-equilibrium condensation phenomenon is presented. The first part of our flow model is homogeneous Euler system of transport equations for mass, momentum and total energy of wet steam (mixture). The additional second part describes liquid phase via non-homogeneous system of transport equations for moments of droplets number distribution function and relies on corrected classical nucleation theory. Moment equations are closed by linearization of droplet growth rate model. All necessary relations for thermodynamic properties of steam are provided by IAPWS set of equations. However, properties of condensate are simply modeled by liquid saturation data. Two real equations of state are implemented. Recently developed CFD formulation for entropy (does not require iteration process) and so-called IAPWS special gas equation for Helmholtz energy (one iteration loop is necessary). Flow model is validated on converging-diverging supersonic nozzle with Barschdorff geometry. Simulations were performed by in-house CFD code based on finite volume method and stiff character of equations was solved by symmetrical time operator splitting. Achieved results satisfactorily agreed with experimental data.

  11. Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Ho?ava–Lifshitz early universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodadi, M. Sepangi, H.R.

    2014-07-15

    We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 ?s old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Ho?ava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigate the effects of the running coupling constants of Ho?ava–Lifshitz gravity, ?, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (?)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Ho?ava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively.

  12. Contribution to Nanotechnology Manufacturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shares Nano 50 award for directed assembly September 3, 2008 Contribution to Nanotechnology Manufacturing LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, September 3, 2008-A team of scientists spanning three institutions, including Los Alamos National Laboratory, has discovered a more efficient way of fusing charge-carrying electrical contacts to tiny "nanowires" of silicon to create the nanotechnology at the heart of potential future advances in modern electronics, sensing, and energy collection. Nanotech

  13. Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology PDF icon CX rulemaking files More Documents & Publications Volume II, ...

  14. NON-EQUILIBRIUM DYNAMICS OF MANY-BODY QUANTUM SYSTEMS: FUNDAMENTALS AND NEW FRONTIER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMille, David; LeHur, Karyn

    2013-11-27

    Rapid progress in nanotechnology and naofabrication techniques has ushered in a new era of quantum transport experiments. This has in turn heightened the interest in theoretical understanding of nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated quantum systems. This project has advanced the frontiers of understanding in this area along several fronts. For example, we showed that under certain conditions, quantum impurities out of equilibrium can be reformulated in terms of an effective equilibrium theory; this makes it possible to use the gamut of tools available for quantum systems in equilibrium. On a different front, we demonstrated that the elastic power of a transmitted microwave photon in circuit QED systems can exhibit a many-body Kondo resonance. We also showed that under many circumstances, bipartite fluctuations of particle number provide an effective tool for studying many-body physics—particularly the entanglement properties of a many-body system. This implies that it should be possible to measure many-body entanglement in relatively simple and tractable quantum systems. In addition, we studied charge relaxation in quantum RC circuits with a large number of conducting channels, and elucidated its relation to Kondo models in various regimes. We also extended our earlier work on the dynamics of driven and dissipative quantum spin-boson impurity systems, deriving a new formalism that makes it possible to compute the full spin density matrix and spin-spin correlation functions beyond the weak coupling limit. Finally, we provided a comprehensive analysis of the nonequilibrium transport near a quantum phase transition in the case of a spinless dissipative resonant-level model. This project supported the research of two Ph.D. students and two postdoctoral researchers, whose training will allow them to further advance the field in coming years.

  15. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ADEPS » MPA » MPA-CINT Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies Nanomaterials integration is one of many approaches we take in addressing a range of challenges, from human health to national defense. Contact Us CINT Co-Director Quanxi Jia Email Deputy Group Leader (acting) Alex Lacerda Email Group Office (505) 667-9243 First in-situ images of void collapse in explosives Los Alamos researchers and collaborators demonstrated a crucial diagnostic for studying how voids affect explosives under shock

  16. Influence of Penning effect on the plasma features in a non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Zhengshi; Zhang, Guanjun; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Zexian

    2014-03-14

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a cold plasma source that promises various innovative applications. The influence of Penning effect on the formation, propagation, and other physical properties of the plasma bullets in APPJ remains a debatable topic. By using a 10?cm wide active electrode and a frequency of applied voltage down to 0.5?Hz, the Penning effect caused by preceding discharges can be excluded. It was found that the Penning effect originating in a preceding discharge helps build a conductive channel in the gas flow and provide seed electrons, thus the discharge can be maintained at a low voltage which in turn leads to a smaller propagation speed for the plasma bullet. Photographs from an intensified charge coupled device reveal that the annular structure of the plasma plume for He is irrelevant to the Penning ionization process arising from preceding discharges. By adding NH{sub 3} into Ar to introduce Penning effect, the originally filamentous discharge of Ar can display a rather extensive plasma plume in ambient as He. These results are helpful for the understanding of the behaviors of non-equilibrium APPJs generated under distinct conditions and for the design of plasma jet features, especially the spatial distribution and propagation speed, which are essential for application.

  17. Comparative analysis of quantum cascade laser modeling based on density matrices and non-equilibrium Green's functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindskog, M. Wacker, A.; Wolf, J. M.; Liverini, V.; Faist, J.; Trinite, V.; Maisons, G.; Carras, M.; Aidam, R.; Ostendorf, R.

    2014-09-08

    We study the operation of an 8.5 μm quantum cascade laser based on GaInAs/AlInAs lattice matched to InP using three different simulation models based on density matrix (DM) and non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formulations. The latter advanced scheme serves as a validation for the simpler DM schemes and, at the same time, provides additional insight, such as the temperatures of the sub-band carrier distributions. We find that for the particular quantum cascade laser studied here, the behavior is well described by simple quantum mechanical estimates based on Fermi's golden rule. As a consequence, the DM model, which includes second order currents, agrees well with the NEGF results. Both these simulations are in accordance with previously reported data and a second regrown device.

  18. The non-equilibrium response of a superconductor to pair-breaking radiation measured over a broad frequency band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visser, P. J. de; Yates, S. J. C.; Guruswamy, T.; Goldie, D. J.; Withington, S.; Neto, A.; Llombart, N.; Baryshev, A. M.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2015-06-22

    We have measured the absorption of terahertz radiation in a BCS superconductor over a broad range of frequencies from 200 GHz to 1.1 THz, using a broadband antenna-lens system and a tantalum microwave resonator. From low frequencies, the response of the resonator rises rapidly to a maximum at the gap edge of the superconductor. From there on, the response drops to half the maximum response at twice the pair-breaking energy. At higher frequencies, the response rises again due to trapping of pair-breaking phonons in the superconductor. In practice, this is a measurement of the frequency dependence of the quasiparticle creation efficiency due to pair-breaking in a superconductor. The efficiency, calculated from the different non-equilibrium quasiparticle distribution functions at each frequency, is in agreement with the measurements.

  19. Heat Transfer and Fluid Transport of Supercritical CO2 in Enhanced Geothermal System with Local Thermal Non-equilibrium Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Le; Luo, Feng; Xu, Ruina; Jiang, Peixue; Liu, Huihai

    2014-12-31

    The heat transfer and fluid transport of supercritical CO2 in enhanced geothermal system (EGS) is studied numerically with local thermal non-equilibrium model, which accounts for the temperature difference between solid matrix and fluid components in porous media and uses two energy equations to describe heat transfer in the solid matrix and in the fluid, respectively. As compared with the previous results of our research group, the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium mainly depends on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient ah, which has a significant effect on the production temperature at reservoir outlet and thermal breakthrough time. The uniformity of volumetric heat transfer coefficient ah has little influence on the thermal breakthrough time, but the temperature difference become more obvious with time after thermal breakthrough with this simulation model. The thermal breakthrough time reduces and the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium becomes significant with decreasing ah.

  20. Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vicki Colvin

    2009-05-14

    Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

  1. Nanotechnology | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotechnology Subscribe to RSS - Nanotechnology Nanomaterials, which are measured in billionths of a meter, are prized for their use in everything from golf clubs and swimwear to microchips, paints and pharmaceutical products, thanks to their singular properties. These include exceptional strength and flexibility and high electrical conductivity. Carbon nanotubes, for example, are tens of thousands of times thinner than a human hair, yet are stronger than steel on an ounce-per-ounce basis. PPPL

  2. Soft-spring wall based non-periodic boundary conditions for non-equilibrium molecular dynamics of dense fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatage, Dhairyashil; Tomar, Gaurav Shukla, Ratnesh K.

    2015-03-28

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations require imposition of non-periodic boundary conditions (NPBCs) that seamlessly account for the effect of the truncated bulk region on the simulated MD region. Standard implementation of specular boundary conditions in such simulations results in spurious density and force fluctuations near the domain boundary and is therefore inappropriate for coupled atomistic-continuum calculations. In this work, we present a novel NPBC model that relies on boundary atoms attached to a simple cubic lattice with soft springs to account for interactions from particles which would have been present in an untruncated full domain treatment. We show that the proposed model suppresses the unphysical fluctuations in the density to less than 1% of the mean while simultaneously eliminating spurious oscillations in both mean and boundary forces. The model allows for an effective coupling of atomistic and continuum solvers as demonstrated through multiscale simulation of boundary driven singular flow in a cavity. The geometric flexibility of the model enables straightforward extension to nonplanar complex domains without any adverse effects on dynamic properties such as the diffusion coefficient.

  3. Discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition in a threshold Schloegl model for autocatalysis: Generic two-phase coexistence and metastability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chi -Jen; Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-28

    Threshold versions of Schloegl’s model on a lattice, which involve autocatalytic creation and spontaneous annihilation of particles, can provide a simple prototype for discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transitions. These models are equivalent to so-called threshold contact processes. A discontinuous transition between populated and vacuum states can occur selecting a threshold of N ≥ 2 for the minimum number, N, of neighboring particles enabling autocatalytic creation at an empty site. Fundamental open questions remain given the lack of a thermodynamic framework for analysis. For a square lattice with N = 2, we show that phase coexistence occurs not at a unique value but for a finite range of particle annihilation rate (the natural control parameter). This generic two-phase coexistence also persists when perturbing the model to allow spontaneous particle creation. Such behavior contrasts both the Gibbs phase rule for thermodynamic systems and also previous analysis for this model. We find metastability near the transition corresponding to a non-zero effective line tension, also contrasting previously suggested critical behavior. As a result, mean-field type analysis, extended to treat spatially heterogeneous states, further elucidates model behavior.

  4. Discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transition in a threshold Schloegl model for autocatalysis: Generic two-phase coexistence and metastability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Chi -Jen; Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-28

    Threshold versions of Schloegl’s model on a lattice, which involve autocatalytic creation and spontaneous annihilation of particles, can provide a simple prototype for discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transitions. These models are equivalent to so-called threshold contact processes. A discontinuous transition between populated and vacuum states can occur selecting a threshold of N ≥ 2 for the minimum number, N, of neighboring particles enabling autocatalytic creation at an empty site. Fundamental open questions remain given the lack of a thermodynamic framework for analysis. For a square lattice with N = 2, we show that phase coexistence occurs not at a unique valuemore » but for a finite range of particle annihilation rate (the natural control parameter). This generic two-phase coexistence also persists when perturbing the model to allow spontaneous particle creation. Such behavior contrasts both the Gibbs phase rule for thermodynamic systems and also previous analysis for this model. We find metastability near the transition corresponding to a non-zero effective line tension, also contrasting previously suggested critical behavior. As a result, mean-field type analysis, extended to treat spatially heterogeneous states, further elucidates model behavior.« less

  5. Stark broadening for diagnostics of the electron density in non-equilibrium plasma utilizing isotope hydrogen alpha lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Lin; Tan, Xiaohua; Wan, Xiang; Chen, Lei; Jin, Dazhi; Qian, Muyang; Li, Gongping

    2014-04-28

    Two Stark broadening parameters including FWHM (full width at half maximum) and FWHA (full width at half area) of isotope hydrogen alpha lines are simultaneously introduced to determine the electron density of a pulsed vacuum arc jet. To estimate the gas temperature, the rotational temperature of the C{sub 2} Swan system is fit to 2500?±?100?K. A modified Boltzmann-plot method with b{sub i}-factor is introduced to determine the modified electron temperature. The comparison between results of atomic and ionic lines indicates the jet is in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium and the electron temperature is close to 13?000?±?400?K. Based on the computational results of Gig-Card calculation, a simple and precise interpolation algorithm for the discrete-points tables can be constructed to obtain the traditional n{sub e}-T{sub e} diagnostic maps of two Stark broadening parameters. The results from FWHA formula by the direct use of FWHM?=?FWHA and these from the diagnostic map are different. It can be attributed to the imprecise FWHA formula form and the deviation between FWHM and FWHA. The variation of the reduced mass pair due to the non-equilibrium effect contributes to the difference of the results derived from two hydrogen isotope alpha lines. Based on the Stark broadening analysis in this work, a corrected method is set up to determine n{sub e} of (1.10?±?0.08)?×?10{sup 21}?m{sup ?3}, the reference reduced mass ?{sub 0} pair of (3.30?±?0.82 and 1.65?±?0.41), and the ion kinetic temperature of 7900?±?1800?K.

  6. THE ABUNDANCE OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN AND ITS CORRELATION WITH MIDPLANE PRESSURE IN GALAXIES: NON-EQUILIBRIUM, TURBULENT, CHEMICAL MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Glover, Simon C. O. E-mail: glover@uni-heidelberg.de

    2012-02-20

    Observations of spiral galaxies show a strong linear correlation between the ratio of molecular to atomic hydrogen surface density R{sub mol} and midplane pressure. To explain this, we simulate three-dimensional, magnetized turbulence, including simplified treatments of non-equilibrium chemistry and the propagation of dissociating radiation, to follow the formation of H{sub 2} from cold atomic gas. The formation timescale for H{sub 2} is sufficiently long that equilibrium is not reached within the 20-30 Myr lifetimes of molecular clouds. The equilibrium balance between radiative dissociation and H{sub 2} formation on dust grains fails to predict the time-dependent molecular fractions we find. A simple, time-dependent model of H{sub 2} formation can reproduce the gross behavior, although turbulent density perturbations increase molecular fractions by a factor of few above it. In contradiction to equilibrium models, radiative dissociation of molecules plays little role in our model for diffuse radiation fields with strengths less than 10 times that of the solar neighborhood, because of the effective self-shielding of H{sub 2}. The observed correlation of R{sub mol} with pressure corresponds to a correlation with local gas density if the effective temperature in the cold neutral medium of galactic disks is roughly constant. We indeed find such a correlation of R{sub mol} with density. If we examine the value of R{sub mol} in our local models after a free-fall time at their average density, as expected for models of molecular cloud formation by large-scale gravitational instability, our models reproduce the observed correlation over more than an order-of-magnitude range in density.

  7. National Needs Drivers for Nanotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonas, G.; Picraux, S.T.

    2000-10-09

    Societal needs related to demographics, resources, and human behavior will drive technological advances over the next 20 years. Nanotechnology is anticipated to be an important enabler of these advances, and thus maybe anticipated to have significant influence on new systems approaches to solving societal problems as well as on extending current science and technology-based applications. To examine the potential implications of nanotechnology a societal needs-driven approach is taken. Thus the methodology is to present the definition of the problem, and then examine system concepts, technology issues, and promising future directions. We approach the problem definition from a national and global security perspective and identify three key areas involving the condition of the planet, the human condition, and global security. In anticipating societal issues in the context of revolutionary technologies, such as maybe enabled by nanoscience, the importance of working on the entire life cycle of any technological solution is stressed.

  8. Altair Nanotechnologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of proprietary technology for making nanocrystalline materials. Applications include batteryfuel cell development. References: Altair Nanotechnologies Inc1 This article is a...

  9. SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "Light and Nanotechnology- Engineering ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 2013, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "Light and Nanotechnology- Engineering & So Much More" Professor Claire Gmachl Department of Electrical...

  10. DOE Science Showcase - Nanotechnology | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Science Showcase - Nanotechnology Nanotechnology has a vitally important role to play ... to spotlight needs and target resources in this critical area of science and technology. ...

  11. Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 at the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 at the Bradbury Science Museum The Bradbury Science Museum is ...

  12. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling ...

  13. Strong lattice correlation of non-equilibrium quasiparticles in a pseudospin-1/2 Mott insulator Sr2IrO4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Yuelin; Schaller, Richard D.; Zhu, Mengze; Walko, Donald A.; Kim, Jungho; Ke, Xianglin; Miao, Ludi; Mao, Z. Q.

    2016-01-20

    In correlated oxides the coupling of quasiparticles to other degrees of freedom such as spin and lattice plays critical roles in the emergence of symmetry-breaking quantum ordered states such as high temperature superconductivity. We report a strong lattice coupling of photon-induced quasiparticles in spin-orbital coupling Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 probed via optical excitation. Combining time-resolved x-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy techniques, we reconstruct a spatiotemporal map of the diffusion of these quasiparticles. Lastly, due to the unique electronic configuration of the quasiparticles, the strong lattice correlation is unexpected but extends the similarity between Sr2IrO4 and cuprates to a new dimension ofmore » electron-phonon coupling which persists under highly non-equilibrium conditions.« less

  14. Nanotechnology: Small Materials Making a Big Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanotechnology: Small Materials Making a Big Impact Nanotechnology: Small Materials Making a Big Impact December 14, 2010 - 12:35pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs This past Thursday, Secretary Chu delivered remarks to the Nanotechnology Innovation Summit in National Harbor, Maryland on how breakthroughs in nanotechnology are poised to transform the energy landscape. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative,

  15. Spin-polarization and spin-dependent logic gates in a double quantum ring based on Rashba spin-orbit effect: Non-equilibrium Green's function approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslami, Leila, E-mail: Leslami@iust.ac.ir; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi, E-mail: mahdi@iust.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-28

    Spin-dependent electron transport in an open double quantum ring, when each ring is made up of four quantum dots and threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. Two independent and tunable gate voltages are applied to induce Rashba spin-orbit effect in the quantum rings. Using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we study the effects of electron-electron interaction on spin-dependent electron transport and show that although the electron-electron interaction induces an energy gap, it has no considerable effect when the bias voltage is sufficiently high. We also show that the double quantum ring can operate as a spin-filter for both spin up and spin down electrons. The spin-polarization of transmitted electrons can be tuned from ?1 (pure spin-down current) to +1 (pure spin-up current) by changing the magnetic flux and/or the gates voltage. Also, the double quantum ring can act as AND and NOR gates when the system parameters such as Rashba coefficient are properly adjusted.

  16. In the OSTI Collections: Nanotechnology | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In the OSTI Collections: Nanotechnology Consider how far it is from New York to Los ... But these tiny distances are becoming significant in the new field of nanotechnology --the ...

  17. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    uncertainty, that attracted international NM experts to recommend this qualitative risk assessment approach for NM. However, since their CB recommendation was only in theory, we took on the challenge of developing a working toolkit, the CB Nanotool (see Zalk et al. 2009 and Paik et al. 2008), as a means to perform a risk assessment and protect researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. While it's been acknowledged that engineered NM have potentially endless benefits for society, it became clear to us that the very properties that make nanotechnology so useful to industry could also make them dangerous to humans and the environment. Among the uncertainties and unknowns with NM are: the contribution of their physical structure to their toxicity, significant differences in their deposition and clearance in the lungs when compared to their parent material (PM), a lack of agreement on the appropriate indices for exposure to NM, and very little background information on exposure scenarios or populations at risk. Part of this lack of background information can be traced to the lack of risk assessments historically performed in the industry, with a recent survey indicating that 65% of companies working with NM are not doing any kind of NM-specific risk assessment as they focus on traditional PM methods for IH (Helland et al. 2009). The good news is that the amount of peer-reviewed publications that address environmental, health and safety aspects of NM has been increasing over the last few years; however, the percentage of these that address practical methods to reduce exposure and protect workers is orders of magnitude lower. Our intent in developing the CB Nanotool was to create a simplified approach that would protect workers while unraveling the mysteries of NM for experts and non-experts alike. Since such a large part of the toxicological effects of both the physical and chemical properties of NM were unknown, not to mention changing logarithmically as new NM

  18. Using Nanotechnology to Fight Friction and Wear | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Nanotechnology to Fight Friction and Wear Tiny diamonds wrapped in graphene help achieve "superlubricity," in which friction drops to near zero. Graphene "nanoscrolls" could...

  19. December 3, 2003: Bush signs Nanotechnology R&D Act | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3, 2003: Bush signs Nanotechnology R&D Act December 3, 2003: Bush signs Nanotechnology R&D Act December 3, 2003: Bush signs Nanotechnology R&D Act December 3, 2003 Secretary Abraham attends the signing of the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act by President Bush. The act authorizes funding for nanotechnology research and development over four years and puts into law programs and activities supported by President Bush's National Nanotechnology Initiative. The act

  20. National Nanotechnology Initiative's Signature Initiative Sustainable Nanomanufacturing: Creating the Industries of the Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation for the Sustainable Nanomaterials Workshop by National Nanotechnology Coordination Office held on June 26, 2012

  1. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: From Energy Applications to Advanced Medical Therapies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tijana Rajh

    2010-01-08

    Dr. Rajh will present a general talk on nanotechnology ? an overview of why nanotechnology is important and how it is useful in various fields. The specific focus will be on Solar energy conversion, environmental applications and advanced medical therapies. She has broad expertise in synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials that are used in nanotechnology including novel hybrid systems connecting semiconductors to biological molecules like DNA and antibodies. This technology could lead to new gene therapy procedures, cancer treatments and other medical applications. She will also discuss technologies made possible by organizing small semiconductor particles called quantum dots, materials that exhibit a rich variety of phenomena that are size and shape dependent. Development of these new materials that harnesses the unique properties of materials at the 1-100 nanometer scale resulted in the new field of nanotechnology that currently affects many applications in technological and medical fields.

  2. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  3. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies 2011 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, Antonya

    2012-06-21

    We are pleased to share with you this 2011 edition of the Annual Report from the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) and the growing excitement we feel around cementing our brand as a leader in integration nanoscience. This can be seen most readily in the momentum we have achieved in our signature Integration Focus Activities (IFAs). These efforts unite our scientists across our four scientific Thrust areas with our users to concentrate research on larger-scale nanoscience integration challenges for specific classes of nanomaterials, systems, and phenomena. All three of our current IFAs (p. 10) now have a full head of steam, and nearly 30% of our current user projects map in some meaningful way to one of these IFAs. As part of our redoubled effort to increase our industrial user base, we are also looking to leverage these IFAs to build a stronger link to and spur recruitment within our industrial user community. We believe that the IFAs are a natural community-building tool with an intrinsic value proposition for industry; an R&D pipeline that can lead to more mature, more commercially well-positioned technologies. Finally, as nanoscience and nanotechnology are maturing, we as a research community are beginning to see our efforts extend in many exciting new directions. Our focus on nanoscience integration positions us very well to capitalize on new opportunities including the emerging Mesoscale Initiative within the DOE Office of Science. Many aspects of mesoscale science are embodied in the integration of nanoscale building blocks. We are equally proud of our continuing strong performance in support of our user program. We have fully transitioned to our new user proposal database providing enhanced convenience and flexibility for proposal submission and review. In our two regular proposal calls this year we received a total of 225 proposals, an increase of 10% over our 2010 performance. Our official count on number of users for the period remains at

  4. Non-Equilibrium Nanoscale Self-Organization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aziz, Michael J

    2006-03-09

    Self-organized one- and two-dimensional arrays of nanoscale surface features ("ripples" and "dots") sometimes form spontaneously on initially flat surfaces eroded by a directed ion beam in a process called "sputter patterning". Experiments on this sputter patterning process with focused and unfocused ion beams, combined with theoretical advances, have been responsible for a number of scientific advances. Particularly noteworthy are (i) the discovery of propagative, rather than dissipative, behavior under some ion erosion conditions, permitting a pattern to be fabricated at a large length scale and propagated over large distances while maintaining, or even sharpening, the sharpest features; (ii) the first demonstration of guided self-organization of sputter patterns, along with the observation that defect density is minimized when the spacing between boundaries is near an integer times the natural spatial period; and (iii) the discovery of metastability of smooth surfaces, which contradicts the nearly universally accepted linear stability theory that predicts that any surface is linearly unstable to sinusoidal perturbations of some wave vector.

  5. Nanotechnology Energizing Our Future | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Energy Needs: The Big Picture .ppt file (15.7MB) Patricia Dehmer, DOE Nanotechnology 101 .ppt file (7.6MB) Paul Alivisatos, LBNL Nanotechnology for the Hydrogen Economy .ppt file ...

  6. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Física del Plasma , Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  7. Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-30

    The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

  8. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atalla, Rajai; Beecher, James; Caron, Robert; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Deng, Yulin; Glasser, Wolfgang; Gray, Derek; Haigler, Candace; Jones, Philip; Joyce, Margaret; Kohlman, Jane; Koukoulas, Alexander; Lancaster, Peter; Perine, Lori; Rodriguez, Augusto; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wegner, Theodore; Zhu, Junyong

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the Y0 WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 and the Y1 WISE J035000.32–565830.2: The importance of non-equilibrium chemistry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leggett, Sandy K.; Tremblin, Patrick; Saumon, Didier; Marley, Mark S.; Morley, Caroline V.; Amundsen, David S.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Chabrier, Gilles

    2016-06-03

    Here, we present new near-infrared spectra, obtained at Gemini Observatory, for two Y dwarfs: WISE J035000.32–565830.2 (W0350) and WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 (W1738). A FLAMINGOS-2 R = 540 spectrum was obtained for W0350, coveringmore » $$1.0\\lt \\lambda \\;\\mu {\\rm{m}}$$ $$\\lt \\;1.7$$, and a cross-dispersed Gemini near-infrared spectrograph R = 2800 spectrum was obtained for W1738, covering 0.993–1.087 μm, 1.191–1.305 μm, 1.589–1.631 μm, and 1.985–2.175 μm, in four orders. We also present revised YJH photometry for W1738, using new NIRI Y and J imaging, and a re-analysis of the previously published NIRI H-band images. We compare these data, together with previously published data for late-T and Y dwarfs, to cloud-free models of solar metallicity, calculated both in chemical equilibrium and with disequilibrium driven by vertical transport. We find that for the Y dwarfs, the non-equilibrium models reproduce the near-infrared data better than the equilibrium models. The remaining discrepancies suggest that fine-tuning the CH4/CO and NH3/N2 balance is needed. Improved trigonometric parallaxes would improve the analysis. Despite the uncertainties and discrepancies, the models reproduce the observed near-infrared spectra well. We find that for the Y0, W1738, $${T}_{{\\rm{eff}}}=425\\pm 25\\;{\\rm{K}}$$, and log $$g=4.0\\pm 0.25$$, and for the Y1, W0350, $${T}_{{\\rm{eff}}}=350\\pm 25\\;{\\rm{K}}$$, and log $$g=4.0\\pm 0.25$$. W1738 may be metal-rich. Based on evolutionary models, these temperatures and gravities correspond to a mass range for both Y dwarfs of 3–9 Jupiter masses, with W0350 being a cooler, slightly older, version of W1738; the age of W0350 is 0.3–3 Gyr, and the age of W1738 is 0.15–1 Gyr.« less

  10. DOE Science Showcase - Nanotechnology | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information Nanotechnology Nanotechnology has a vitally important role to play in addressing the nation's energy, climate change and national security challenges. DOE maintains a strong commitment to the initiative, which has served as an effective and valuable way to spotlight needs and target resources in this critical area of science and technology. Courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory Courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory Nanotechnology Research

  11. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Scientific User Facilities (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) The Molecular Foundry (TMF) Projects Accelerator & Detector Research Science Highlights Principal Investigators'

  12. APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMATERIALS: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOFILMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.; Berry, T.; Narayan, R.

    2010-11-29

    Biotechnology is the application of biological techniques to develop new tools and products for medicine and industry. Due to various properties including chemical stability, biocompatibility, and specific activity, e.g. antimicrobial properties, many new and novel materials are being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. Many of these materials are less than 100 nanometers in size. Nanotechnology is the engineering discipline encompassing designing, producing, testing, and using structures and devices less than 100 nanometers. One of the challenges associated with biomaterials is microbial contamination that can lead to infections. In recent work we have examined the functionalization of nanoporous biomaterials and antimicrobial activities of nanocrystalline diamond materials. In vitro testing has revealed little antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria and associated biofilm formation that enhances recalcitrance to antimicrobial agents including disinfectants and antibiotics. Laser scanning confocal microscopy studies further demonstrated properties and characteristics of the material with regard to biofilm formation.

  13. Argonne Creates Collaborative Centers to Connect Business with Energy Storage, Nanotechnology Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy storage and nanotechnology have the potential to transform the way we look at clean energy.  Advances in energy storage research will revolutionize the way the world generates and stores...

  14. NREL Nano-Technology Solar Cell Achieves 18.2% Efficiency - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Nano-Technology Solar Cell Achieves 18.2% Efficiency Breakthrough should eliminate need for anti-reflection layer, cutting costs October 12, 2012 Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have produced solar cells using nanotechnology techniques at an efficiency - 18.2% -- that is competitive. The breakthrough should be a major step toward helping lower the cost of solar energy. NREL tailored a nanostructured surface while ensuring that

  15. TRADITIONAL METALLURGY, NANOTECHNOLOGIES AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS: A SORBY AWARD LECTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louthan, M

    2007-07-17

    Traditional metallurgical processes are among the many ''old fashion'' practices that use nanoparticles to control the behavior of materials. Many of these practices were developed long before microscopy could resolve nanoscale features, yet the practitioners learned to manipulate and control microstructural elements that they could neither see nor identify. Furthermore, these early practitioners used that control to modify microstructures and develop desired material properties. Centuries old colored glass, ancient high strength steels and medieval organ pipes derived many of their desirable features through control of nanoparticles in their microstructures. Henry Sorby was among the first to recognize that the properties of rocks, minerals, metals and organic materials were controlled by microstructure. However, Mr. Sorby was accused of the folly of trying to study mountains with a microscope. Although he could not resolve nanoscale microstructural features, Mr. Sorby's observations revolutionized the study of materials. The importance of nanoscale microstructural elements should be emphasized, however, because the present foundation for structural materials was built by manipulating those features. That foundation currently supports several multibillion dollar industries but is not generally considered when the nanomaterials revolution is discussed. This lecture demonstrates that using nanotechnologies to control the behavior of metallic materials is almost as old as the practice of metallurgy and that many of the emergent nanomaterials technologists are walking along pathways previously paved by traditional metallurgists.

  16. Developing nanotechnology for biofuel and plant science applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenstein, Justin

    2012-06-20

    This dissertation presents the research on the development of mesoporous silica based nanotechnology for applications in biofuels and plant science. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been the subject of great interest in the last two decades due to their unique properties of high surface area, tunable pore size and particle morphology. The robust nature of the silica framework is easily functionalized to make the MSNs a promising option for selective separations. Also, the independent channels that form the pores of MSN have been exploited in the use of particles as platforms for molecular delivery. Pore size and organic functionality are varied to identify the ideal adsorbent material for free fatty acids (FFAs). The resulting material is able to sequester FFAs with a high degree of selectivity from a simulated solution and microalgal oil. The recyclability and industrial implications are also explored. A continuation of the previous material, further tuning of MSN pore size was investigated. Particles with a smaller diameter selectively sequester polyunsaturated free fatty acids (PUFAs) over monounsaturated FFAs and saturated FFAs. The experimental results were verified with molecular modeling. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials with a pore diameter of 10 nm (MSN-10) were decorated with small gold nanoparticles. The resulting materials were shown to deliver proteins and DNA into plant cells using the biolistic method.

  17. Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 at the Bradbury

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Museum Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 at the Bradbury Science Museum The Bradbury Science Museum is opening two new exhibits as part of the Laboratory's 70th Anniversary celebration. July 22, 2013 What if you could power your life using pond scum? Los Alamos researchers are working to make this a reality. What if you could power your life using pond scum? Los Alamos researchers are working to make this a

  18. Modeling non-equilibrium phase transitions in isentropically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In the experiments, the Bi samples are attached to windows of LiF or sapphire, and the velocity history of the sample-window interface is recorded with line VISAR. The 1D response ...

  19. Non-Equilibrium Magnetohydrodynamic Behavior of Plasmas having...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Plasmas having Complex, Evolving Morphology Citation Details In-Document Search ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND ...

  20. Non-Equilibrium Magnetohydrodynamic Behavior of Plasmas having...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    has been doing lab experiments where plasmas having morphology and behavior similar to solar and astrophysical plasmas are produced and studied. The solar experiment is mounted on...

  1. Non-equilibrium electronic and phononic specific heat in systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Related Information: Proposed for publication in ...

  2. Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1 ; Hungerford, Aimee L. 1 ; Fryer, Christopher L. 1 ; Hughes, John P. 2 ; Smith, Randall K. 3 ; Badenes, Carles 4 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National ...

  3. Fe Atomic Data for Non-equilibrium Ionization Plasmas (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: AtomDB Work Week and Workshop ; 2012-08-06 - 2012-08-10 ; Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ...

  4. Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Friday, February 27, 2015 The energy density of current batteries is limited by the practical capacity of the positive electrode, which is the determined by the properties of the ...

  5. Modeling non-equilibrium phase transitions in isentropically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The pressure drive is deduced by back integration of VISAR data from shots performed with Al samples. Authors: Kane, J ; Smith, R Publication Date: 2005-09-19 OSTI Identifier: ...

  6. Non-equilibrium chemical partitioning calculation for phase transforma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and time dependent phase selection. The calculation programs were developed in C++ and fortran. In this program, we will integrate the existing calculation programs. Research area:...

  7. Forty years of molecular electronics: Non-equilibrium heat and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Volume: 250; Related Information: CBES partners with Northwestern University (lead); Harvard University; New York University; Pennsylvania State University; University of...

  8. Transport properties of non-equilibrium metallic alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, K.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    A systematic and quantitative study of upper critical fields, H/sub C2/(T), in disordered bulk alloys with increasing atomic numbers was carried out. They include alloys of Ti-Mo, Ti-Pd, Zr-Mo, Zr-Pd, Zr-Rh, Hf-Mo, and Hf-Ta. A least-squares fitting routine was performed on H/sub C2/(T) with the Werthamer, Helfand, Hohenberg, and Maki theory of dirty superconductors. The localization effects on H/sub C2/(T) were examined by comparing the electronic density of states obtained from specific heat measurements (absence of field-induced delocalization effects) and those derived from fitting critical field data. Measurements on bulk Zr-Ni, Zr-Rh and Hf-Mo alloys gave the first direct confirmation of theoretical predictions on H/sub C2/(T) for the weakly localized 3D systems. To further test the localization theories, magnetoresistance was measured on amorphous Lu-Pd and Lu-Ni alloys. The author also investigated a wide compositional range of U-Fe, U-Co, and U-Ni metallic glasses which contain f-electrons. These uranium glasses exhibit unusual resistivity and superconducting behaviors and have very large upper-critical-field gradients.

  9. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission of complex fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, D.R.

    1989-08-01

    Complex fragment emission (Z{gt}2) has been studied in the reactions of 50, 80, and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C, and 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au. Charge, angle, and energy distributions were measured inclusively and in coincidence with other complex fragments, and were used to extract the source rapidities, velocity distributions, and cross sections. The experimental emission velocity distributions, charge loss distributions, and cross sections have been compared with calculations based on statistical compound nucleus decay. The binary signature of the coincidence events and the sharpness of the velocity distributions illustrate the primarily 2-body nature of the {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reaction mechanism between 50 and 100 MeV/u. The emission velocities, angular distributions, and absolute cross sections of fragments of 20{le}Z{le}35 at 50 MeV/u, 19{le}Z{le}28 at 80 MeV/u, and 17{le}Z{le}21 at 100 MeV/u indicate that these fragments arise solely from the binary decay of compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion reactions in which the {sup 139}La projectile picks up about one-half of the {sup 12}C target. In the 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au reactions, the disappearance of the binary signature in the total charge and velocity distributions suggests and increase in the complex fragment and light charged particle multiplicity with increasing target mass. As in the 80 and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reactions, the lighter complex fragments exhibit anisotropic angular distributions and cross sections that are too large to be explained exclusively by statistical emission. 143 refs., 67 figs.

  10. Connecticut State University System Initiative for Nanotechnology-Related Equipment, Faculty Development and Curriculum Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broadbridge, Christine C.

    2013-03-28

    DOE grant used for partial fulfillment of necessary laboratory equipment for course enrichment and new graduate programs in nanotechnology at the four institutions of the Connecticut State University System (CSUS). Equipment in this initial phase included variable pressure scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis capability [at Southern Connecticut State University]; power x-ray diffractometer [at Central Connecticut State University]; a spectrophotometer and spectrofluorimeter [at Eastern Connecticut State University; and a Raman Spectrometer [at Western Connecticut State University]. DOE's funding was allocated for purchase and installation of this scientific equipment and instrumentation. Subsequently, DOE funding was allocated to fund the curriculum, faculty development and travel necessary to continue development and implementation of the System's Graduate Certificate in Nanotechnology (GCNT) program and the ConnSCU Nanotechnology Center (ConnSCU-NC) at Southern Connecticut State University. All of the established outcomes have been successfully achieved. The courses and structure of the GCNT program have been determined and the program will be completely implemented in the fall of 2013. The instrumentation has been purchased, installed and has been utilized at each campus for the implementation of the nanotechnology courses, CSUS GCNT and the ConnSCU-NC. Additional outcomes for this grant include curriculum development for non-majors as well as faculty and student research.

  11. Nanotechnology Energizing Our Future | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Presentations » Nanotechnology Energizing Our Future Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Program Summaries Brochures Reports Accomplishments Presentations BES and Congress Science for Energy Flow Seeing Matter Nano for Energy Scale of Things Chart Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000

  12. Nanotechnology applications to desalination : a report for the joint water reuse & desalination task force.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Mayer, Tom; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials and nanotechnology methods have been an integral part of international research over the past decade. Because many traditional water treatment technologies (e.g. membrane filtration, biofouling, scale inhibition, etc.) depend on nanoscale processes, it is reasonable to expect one outcome of nanotechnology research to be better, nano-engineered water treatment approaches. The most immediate, and possibly greatest, impact of nanotechnology on desalination methods will likely be the development of membranes engineered at the near-molecular level. Aquaporin proteins that channel water across cell membranes with very low energy inputs point to the potential for dramatically improved performance. Aquaporin-laced polymer membranes and aquaporin-mimicking carbon nanotubes and metal oxide membranes developed in the lab support this. A critical limitation to widespread use of nanoengineered desalination membranes will be their scalability to industrial fabrication processes. Subsequent, long-term improvements in nanoengineered membranes may result in self-healing membranes that ideally are (1) more resistant to biofouling, (2) have biocidal properties, and/or (3) selectively target trace contaminants.

  13. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved

  14. Nanotechnology and textiles engineered by carbon nanotubes for the realization of advanced personal protective equipments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andretta, Antonio; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Lavecchia, Teresa; Gay, Stefano; Tamburri, Emanuela; Picano, Alfredo; Mascioletti, Alessandro; Stirpe, Daniele; Dugnani, Giovanni; Gatti, Davide; Laria, Giuseppe; Codenotti, Barbara; Maldini, Giorgio; Roth, Siegmar; Passeri, Daniele; Rossi, Marco

    2014-06-19

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and CNT-based active materials have been used to assemble the gas sensing unit of innovative platforms able to detect toxic atmospheres developing in confined workplaces. The main goal of the project was to realize a full-featured, operator-friendly safety detection and monitoring system based on multifunctional textiles nanotechnologies. The fabricated sensing platform consists of a multiple gas detector coupled with a specifically designed telecommunication infrastructure. The portable device, totally integrated in the workwear, offers several advantages over the conventional safety tools employed in industrial work activities.

  15. In the OSTI Collections: Nanotechnology | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information Nanotechnology Consider how far it is from New York to Los Angeles. Now compare that distance to the length of the "l" in "Angeles". That's roughly how one meter compares to one nanometer. A nanometer-one billionth of a meter-is a very small distance almost any way you look at it. One nanometer is about six times the width of a carbon atom. Distances of tens of nanometers are barely significant in much present-day technology, in which

  16. Scaling to Nanotechnology Limits with the PIMS Computer Architecture and a new Scaling Rule.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debenedictis, Erik

    2015-02-01

    We describe a new approach to computing that moves towards the limits of nanotechnology using a newly formulated sc aling rule. This is in contrast to the current computer industry scali ng away from von Neumann's original computer at the rate of Moore's Law. We extend Moore's Law to 3D, which l eads generally to architectures that integrate logic and memory. To keep pow er dissipation cons tant through a 2D surface of the 3D structure requires using adiabatic principles. We call our newly proposed architecture Processor In Memory and Storage (PIMS). We propose a new computational model that integrates processing and memory into "tiles" that comprise logic, memory/storage, and communications functions. Since the programming model will be relatively stable as a system scales, programs repr esented by tiles could be executed in a PIMS system built with today's technology or could become the "schematic diagram" for implementation in an ultimate 3D nanotechnology of the future. We build a systems software approach that offers advantages over and above the technological and arch itectural advantages. Firs t, the algorithms may be more efficient in the conventional sens e of having fewer steps. Second, the algorithms may run with higher power efficiency per operation by being a better match for the adiabatic scaling ru le. The performance analysis based on demonstrated ideas in physical science suggests 80,000 x improvement in cost per operation for the (arguably) gene ral purpose function of emulating neurons in Deep Learning.

  17. Integrated nanotechnology platform for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and therapeutic cargo release

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hosoya, Hitomi; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Cristini, Vittorio; Brinker, Lina M.; Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Cardó-Vila, Marina; D’Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Proneth, Bettina; et al

    2016-02-02

    A major challenge of targeted molecular imaging and drug delivery in cancer is establishing a functional combination of ligand-directed cargo with a triggered release system. Here we develop a hydrogel-based nanotechnology platform that integrates tumor targeting, photon-to-heat conversion, and triggered drug delivery within a single nanostructure to enable multimodal imaging and controlled release of therapeutic cargo. In proof-of-concept experiments, we show a broad range of ligand peptide-based applications with phage particles, heat-sensitive liposomes, or mesoporous silica nanoparticles that self-assemble into a hydrogel for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Because nanoparticles pack densely within the nanocarrier, their surface plasmon resonance shifts to near-infrared,more » thereby enabling a laser-mediated photothermal mechanism of cargo release. We demonstrate both noninvasive imaging and targeted drug delivery in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer. Finally, we applied mathematical modeling to predict and confirm tumor targeting and drug delivery. We conclude that these results are meaningful steps toward the design and initial translation of an enabling nanotechnology platform with potential for broad clinical applications.« less

  18. Semiconductor Nanotechnology: Novel Materials and Devices for Electronics, Photonics, and Renewable Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodnick, Stephen; Korkin, Anatoli; Krstic, Predrag S; Mascher, Peter; Preston, John; Zaslavsky, Alex

    2010-03-01

    Electronic and photonic information technology and renewable energy alternatives, such as solar energy, fuel cells and batteries, have now reached an advanced stage in their development. Cost-effective improvements to current technological approaches have made great progress, but certain challenges remain. As feature sizes of the latest generations of electronic devices are approaching atomic dimensions, circuit speeds are now being limited by interconnect bottlenecks. This has prompted innovations such as the introduction of new materials into microelectronics manufacturing at an unprecedented rate and alternative technologies to silicon CMOS architectures. Despite the environmental impact of conventional fossil fuel consumption, the low cost of these energy sources has been a long-standing economic barrier to the development of alternative and more efficient renewable energy sources, fuel cells and batteries. In the face of mounting environmental concerns, interest in such alternative energy sources has grown. It is now widely accepted that nanotechnology offers potential solutions for securing future progress in information and energy technologies. The Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference (CSTC) forum was established 25 years ago in Ottawa as an important symbol of the intrinsic strength of the Canadian semiconductor research and development community, and the Canadian semiconductor industry as a whole. In 2007, the 13th CSTC was held in Montreal, moving for the first time outside the national capital region. The first three meetings in the series of Nano and Giga Challenges in Electronics and Photonics NGCM2002 in Moscow, NGCM2004 in Krakow, and NGC2007 in Phoenix were focused on interdisciplinary research from the fundamentals of materials science to the development of new system architectures. In 2009 NGC2009 and the 14th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference (CSTC2009) were held as a joint event, hosted by McMaster University (10 14 August

  19. Enhancing Graduate Student Communication to General Audiences through Blogging about Nanotechnology and Sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, Lee M.; Tillman, Ayesha S.; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Klaper, Rebecca D.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Pedersen, Joel A.; DeStefano, Lizanne; Hamers, Robert J.

    2014-10-14

    We have developed and assessed a multiauthor science blog on the topic of nanotechnology and sustainability as a tool to improve the written communication and public engagement skills of graduate students. Focus group studies revealed that after participation in the blog, student authors felt more confident and capable of communicating technical topics to general audiences. Students' research mentors viewed this as an important component of their students' education, as indicated by survey data. Important design aspects of this effort include participation of an editor as well as having flexible content and target-audience guidelines. We have explicitly outlined aspects of the effort we see as critical in order to enable others to replicate this model in related settings.

  20. Application of an Informatics-Based Decision-Making Framework and Process to the Assessment of Radiation Safety in Nanotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, Mark D.; Myers, David S.; Cash, Leigh J.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Oberdörster, Günter; Smith, Rachel; Cassata, James R.; Boecker, Bruce B.; Grissom, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has established NCRP Scientific Committee 2-6 to develop a report on the current state of knowledge and guidance for radiation safety programs involved with nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. While the full report is in preparation, this article presents and applies an informatics-based decision-making framework and process through which the radiation protection community can anticipate that nano-enabled applications, processes, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles are likely to become present or are already present in radiation-related activities; recognize specific situations where environmental and worker safety, health, well-being, and productivity may be affected by nano-related activities; evaluate how radiation protection practices may need to be altered to improve protection; control information, interpretations, assumptions, and conclusions to implement scientifically sound decisions and actions; and confirm that desired protection outcomes have been achieved. This generally applicable framework and supporting process can be continuously applied to achieve health and safety at the convergence of nanotechnology and radiation-related activities.

  1. Application of an Informatics-Based Decision-Making Framework and Process to the Assessment of Radiation Safety in Nanotechnology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoover, Mark D.; Myers, David S.; Cash, Leigh J.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Oberdörster, Günter; Smith, Rachel; Cassata, James R.; Boecker, Bruce B.; Grissom, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has established NCRP Scientific Committee 2-6 to develop a report on the current state of knowledge and guidance for radiation safety programs involved with nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. While the full report is in preparation, this article presents and applies an informatics-based decision-making framework and process through which the radiation protection community can anticipate that nano-enabled applications, processes, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles are likely to become present or are alreadymore » present in radiation-related activities; recognize specific situations where environmental and worker safety, health, well-being, and productivity may be affected by nano-related activities; evaluate how radiation protection practices may need to be altered to improve protection; control information, interpretations, assumptions, and conclusions to implement scientifically sound decisions and actions; and confirm that desired protection outcomes have been achieved. This generally applicable framework and supporting process can be continuously applied to achieve health and safety at the convergence of nanotechnology and radiation-related activities.« less

  2. Micro- & Nano-Technology: A Critical Design Key in Advanced Thermoelectric Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.

    2009-07-01

    Advanced, thermoelectric cooling technologies now are receiving more research attention to provide cooling in advanced vehicles and residential systems to assist in increasing overall system energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas impacts from leakage by current R-134a systems. This work explores the systems-related impacts, barriers, and challenges of using micro-technology solutions integrated with advances in nano-scale thermoelectric materials in advanced TE cooling systems. Integrated system-level analyses that simultaneously account for thermal energy transport into / dissipation out of the TE device, environmental effects, temperature-dependent TE and thermo-physical properties, thermal losses, and thermal and electrical contact resistances are presented to establish accurate optimum system designs using both BixSb2-xTe3 / Bi2Te3 TE systems and Bi2Te3 TE systems. This work established the design trends and identified optimum design regimes and metrics for these types of systems that will minimize system mass, volume and cost to maximize their commercialization potential in vehicular and residential applications. The relationships between important design metrics, like coefficient of performance, specific cooling capacity and cooling heat flux requirements, upper limits, and critical differences in these metrics in BixSb2-xTe3 / Bi2Te3 TE systems and Bi2Te3 TE systems are explored and quantified. Finally, the work discusses the critical role that micro-technologies and nano-technologies can play in enabling miniature TE cooling systems in advanced vehicle and residential applications and gives some key relevant examples.

  3. Where Are We Heading in Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety and Materials Characterization?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nel, Andre; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Chan, Warren C.; Xia, Tian; Hersam, Mark C.; Brinker, C. J.; Zink, Jeffery I.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Baer, Donald R.; Weiss, Paul S.

    2015-06-23

    Every chemist, material scientist, physicist, engineer, or commercial enterprise involved in the synthesis and/or production of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) or nano-enabled products aspires to develop safe materials. Nanotechnology environmental health and safety (nanoEHS) is a research discipline that involves the study of the possible adverse health and biological effects that nanomaterials may have on humans and environmental organisms and ecosystems. NanoEHS research has provided a body of experimental evidence indicating the possibility of hazardous outcomes as a result of the interactions of unique ENM physicochemical properties with similar scale processes occurring at a wide range of nano/bio interfaces, including at biomolecular, cellular, subcellular, organ, systemic, whole organism, or ecosystems levels. This projected hazard and risk potential warrants rigorous attention to safety assessment, safe use, safe implementation, benign design, regulatory oversight, governance, and public awareness to address the possibility and prevention of nanotoxicity, now or at any time in the future.1 Thus, we should understand the properties of the ENMs that are responsible for the toxicological response, so that we can re-engineer their physicochemical characteristics for risk prevention and safer ENM design.2 However, in spite of widespread use, no human toxicological disease or major environmental impact has been reported for ENMs. Thus, while “Nanotoxicology” is a thriving sub-discipline of Nano-EHS, the use of the “root” word toxicology may elicit a feeling that nanomaterials are inherently toxic despite the fact that toxicity has not been established in real-life use so far. As a community, we may want to rename this sub-discipline as “Nanosafety,” since the objective is to use toxicology information to guide the design of safer nanomaterials for use in medicine, biology, electronics, lighting systems, etc. At ACS Nano, we are interested in

  4. Microscopic analysis of non-equilibrium dynamics in the semiconductor-laser gain medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, S. W.

    2014-04-14

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to analyze the carrier dynamics in situations where a strong sub-picosecond pulse interacts with an inverted semiconductor quantum well. Electron-electron and electron-phonon scatterings are calculated on a second Born-Markov level. Intra-subband scatterings on a scale of tens of femtoseconds are shown to quickly re-fill the kinetic holes created in the carrier distributions during the pulse amplification. Even for sub-100 fs pulses, this significantly influences the pulse amplification as well as its spectral dependence. Interband scatterings on a few picosecond timescale limit the possibly achievable repetition rate in pulsed semiconductor lasers.

  5. Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored CO2 in Organic Rocks Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, Vivak

    2014-06-30

    The USA is embarking upon tackling the serious environmental challenges posed to the world by greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). The dimension of the problem is daunting. In fact, according to the Energy Information Agency, nearly 6 billion metric tons of CO2 were produced in the USA in 2007 with coal-burning power plants contributing about 2 billion metric tons. To mitigate the concerns associated with CO2 emission, geological sequestration holds promise. Among the potential geological storage sites, unmineable coal seams and shale formations in particular show promise because of the probability of methane recovery while sequestering the CO2. However. the success of large-scale sequestration of CO2 in coal and shale would hinge on a thorough understanding of CO2's interactions with host reservoirs. An important parameter for successful storage of CO2 reservoirs would be whether the pressurized CO2 would remain invariant in coal and shale formations under reasonable internal and/or external perturbations. Recent research has brought to the fore the potential of induced seismicity, which may result in caprock compromise. Therefore, to evaluate the potential risks involved in sequestering CO2 in Illinois bituminous coal seams and shale, we studied: (i) the mechanical behavior of Murphysboro (Illinois) and Houchin Creek (Illinois) coals, (ii) thermodynamic behavior of Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ≤ T ≤ 300oC, (iii) how high pressure CO2 (up to 20.7 MPa) modifies the viscosity of the host, (iv) the rate of emission of CO2 from Illinois bituminous coal and shale cores if the cores, which were pressurized with high pressure (≤ 20.7 MPa) CO2, were exposed to an atmospheric pressure, simulating the development of leakage pathways, (v) whether there are any fractions of CO2 stored in these hosts which are resistance to emission by simply exposing the cores to atmospheric pressure, and (vi) how compressive shockwaves applied to the coal and shale cores, which were pressurized with high pressure CO2, determine the fate of sequestered CO2 in these cores. Our results suggested that Illinois bituminous coal in its unperturbed state, i.e., when not pressurized with CO2, showed large variations in the mechanical properties. Modulus varied from 0.7 GPa to 3.4 GPa even though samples were extracted from a single large chunk of coal. We did not observe any glass transition for Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ≤ T ≤ 300oC, however, when the coal was pressurized with CO2 at ambient ≤ P ≤ 20.7 MPa, the viscosity of the coal decreased and inversely scaled with the CO2 pressure. The decrease in viscosity as a function of pressure could pose CO2 injection problems for coal as lower viscosity would allow the solid coal to flow to plug the fractures, fissures, and cleats. Our experiments also showed a very small fraction of CO2 was absorbed in coal; and when CO2 pressurized coals were exposed to atmospheric conditions, the loss of CO2 from coals was massive. Half of the sequestered gas from the coal cores was lost in less than 20 minutes. Our shockwave experiments on Illinois bituminous coal, New Albany shale (Illinois), Devonian shale (Ohio), and Utica shale (Ohio) presented clear evidence that the significant emission of the sequestered CO2 from these formations cannot be discounted during seismic activity, especially if caprock is compromised. It is argued that additional shockwave studies, both compressive and transverse, would be required for successfully mapping the risks associated with sequestering high pressure CO2 in coal and shale formations.

  6. Non-equilibrium dynamics in disordered materials: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohmura, Satoshi; Nagaya, Kiyonobu; Yao, Makoto; Shimojo, Fuyuki

    2015-08-17

    The dynamic properties of liquid B{sub 2}O{sub 3} under pressure and highly-charged bromophenol molecule are studied by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on density functional theory (DFT). Diffusion properties of covalent liquids under high pressure are very interesting in the sense that they show unexpected pressure dependence. It is found from our simulation that the magnitude relation of diffusion coefficients for boron and oxygen in liquid B{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows the anomalous pressure dependence. The simulation clarified the microscopic origin of the anomalous diffusion properties. Our simulation also reveals the dissociation mechanism in the coulomb explosion of the highly-charged bromophenol molecule. When the charge state n is 6, hydrogen atom in the hydroxyl group dissociates at times shorter than 20 fs while all hydrogen atoms dissociate when n is 8. After the hydrogen dissociation, the carbon ring breaks at about 100 fs. There is also a difference on the mechanism of the ring breaking depending on charge states, in which the ring breaks with expanding (n = 6) or shrink (n = 8)

  7. Stochastic thermodynamics of fluctuating density fields: Non-equilibrium free energy differences under coarse-graining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, T.; Lander, B.; Seifert, U.; Speck, T.

    2013-11-28

    We discuss the stochastic thermodynamics of systems that are described by a time-dependent density field, for example, simple liquids and colloidal suspensions. For a time-dependent change of external parameters, we show that the Jarzynski relation connecting work with the change of free energy holds if the time evolution of the density follows the Kawasaki-Dean equation. Specifically, we study the work distributions for the compression and expansion of a two-dimensional colloidal model suspension implementing a practical coarse-graining scheme of the microscopic particle positions. We demonstrate that even if coarse-grained dynamics and density functional do not match, the fluctuation relations for the work still hold albeit for a different, apparent, change of free energy.

  8. Non-Equilibrium Magnetohydrodynamic Behavior of Plasmas having Complex, Evolving Morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellan, Paul M.

    2014-03-13

    Our main activity has been doing lab experiments where plasmas having morphology and behavior similar to solar and astrophysical plasmas are produced and studied. The solar experiment is mounted on one end of a large vacuum chamber while the astrophysical jet experiment is mounted on the other end. Diagnostics are shared between the two experiments. The solar experiment produces arched plasma loops that behave very much like solar corona loops. The astrophysical jet experiment produces plasma jets that are very much like astrophysical jets. We have also done work on plasma waves, including general wave dispersions, and specific properties of kinetic Alfven waves and of whistler waves.

  9. The behavior of matter under non-equilibrium conditions: Fundamental aspects and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prigogine, I.

    1992-04-01

    This report briefly discusses concepts of chaotic systems. The topics discusses are: Bernoulli maps; mathematical aspects of the complex spectral representations; and large poincare systems. (LSP)

  10. Non-Equilibrium Superconductivity and Quasiparticle Dynamics in YBaCuO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siders, J.L.W.; Jacobs, R.N.; Siders, C.W.; Trugman, S.A.; Taylor, A.J.

    1999-05-21

    The authors use optical pump, coherent terahertz probe spectroscopy to transiently excite nonequilibrium populations of quasiparticles in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7.{delta}} and monitor, with picosecond resolution, the superfluid and quasiparticle dynamics.

  11. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure microplasma jet: An approach to endoscopic therapies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Xiao; Wei, Yu; Wei Chen, Long; Dong Meng, Yue; Collaboration: Plasma Medicine Team

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric pressure microplasma jet generated in a long hollow core optical fiber is studied to verify the potential feasibility of endoscopic therapies. Thermal damage and electric shock to the human body were suppressed by two technical methods, i.e., the high-voltage resistant flexible tube wrapped on the optical fiber and a power resistor of 100 k? connected between the power supply and the copper foil electrode. Optical emission spectra analysis indicated that many kinds of active radicals like excited atomic O and OH, were generated in the microplasma jet. In addition, the applications of the microplasma jet on sterilization and lung cancer cell apoptosis were presented. After 5 min of exposures to the microplasma jet, the cell viability and the bacillus subtilis replication decreased to about 3% and zero, respectively. More investigations are needed to improve the plasma-aided endoscopic therapies.

  12. Systematic validation of non-equilibrium thermochemical models using Bayesian inference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miki, Kenji; Panesi, Marco; Prudhomme, Serge

    2015-10-01

    The validation process proposed by Babuška et al. [1] is applied to thermochemical models describing post-shock flow conditions. In this validation approach, experimental data is involved only in the calibration of the models, and the decision process is based on quantities of interest (QoIs) predicted on scenarios that are not necessarily amenable experimentally. Moreover, uncertainties present in the experimental data, as well as those resulting from an incomplete physical model description, are propagated to the QoIs. We investigate four commonly used thermochemical models: a one-temperature model (which assumes thermal equilibrium among all inner modes), and two-temperature models developed by Macheret et al. [2], Marrone and Treanor [3], and Park [4]. Up to 16 uncertain parameters are estimated using Bayesian updating based on the latest absolute volumetric radiance data collected at the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) installed inside the NASA Ames Research Center. Following the solution of the inverse problems, the forward problems are solved in order to predict the radiative heat flux, QoI, and examine the validity of these models. Our results show that all four models are invalid, but for different reasons: the one-temperature model simply fails to reproduce the data while the two-temperature models exhibit unacceptably large uncertainties in the QoI predictions.

  13. High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies: Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Sheetak is developing a thermoelectric-based solid state cooling system to replace typical air conditioners that use vapor compression to cool air. With noisy mechanical components, vapor compression systems use a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. With no noisy moving parts or polluting refrigerants, thermoelectric systems rely on an electrical current being passed through the junction of the two different conducting materials to change temperature. Using advanced semiconductor technology, Sheetak is improving solid state cooling systems by using proprietary thermoelectric materials along with other innovations to achieve significant energy efficiency. Sheetak’s new design displaces compressor-based technology; improves reliability; and decreases energy usage. Sheetak’s use of semiconductor manufacturing methods leads to less material use—facilitating cheaper production.

  14. Visualizing non-equilibrium lithiation of spinel oxide via in situ transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Kai; Zhang, Sen; Li, Jing; Yu, Xiqian; Meng, Qingping; Zhu, Yizhou; Hu, Enyuan; Sun, Ke; Yun, Hongseok; Yang, Xiao -Qing; et al

    2016-05-09

    In this study, spinel transition metal oxides are an important class of materials that are being considered as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, due to their low cost and high theoretical capacity. The lithiation of these compounds is known to undergo a two-step reaction, whereby intercalation and conversion occur in a sequential fashion. These two reactions are known to have distinct reaction dynamics, but it is unclear how the kinetics of these processes affect the overall electrochemical response. Here, we explore the lithiation of nanosized magnetite (Fe3O4) by employing a new strain-sensitive, bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy approach.

  15. Relationship between population dynamics and the self-energy in driven non-equilibrium systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kemper, Alexander F.; Freericks, James K.

    2016-05-13

    We compare the decay rates of excited populations directly calculated within a Keldysh formalism to the equation of motion of the population itself for a Hubbard-Holstein model in two dimensions. While it is true that these two approaches must give the same answer, it is common to make a number of simplifying assumptions, within the differential equation for the populations, that allows one to interpret the decay in terms of hot electrons interacting with a phonon bath. Furthermore, we show how care must be taken to ensure an accurate treatment of the equation of motion for the populations due tomore » the fact that there are identities that require cancellations of terms that naively look like they contribute to the decay rates. In particular, the average time dependence of the Green's functions and self-energies plays a pivotal role in determining these decay rates.« less

  16. A coupled implicit method for chemical non-equilibrium flows at all speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuen, J.S.; Choi, Y. ); Chen, K.H. )

    1993-06-01

    A time-accurate, coupled solution procedure is described for the chemical nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes equations over a wide range of Mach numbers. This method employs the strong conservation form of the governing equations, but uses primitive variables (p[sub g], u, v, h, Y[sub i]) as unknowns. Real gas properties and nonequilibrium chemistry are considered. Numerical tests include steady convergent-divergent nozzle flows with air dissociation/recombination chemistry, dump combustor flows with n-pentan air chemistry, and nonreacting unsteady driven cavity flows. Numerical results for both the steady and unsteady flows demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the present algorithm for Mach numbers ranging from the incompressible limit to supersonic speeds. 26 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... How- ever, since this approach relies primarily on static or area sampling, some ... Environ Health Perspect 114(1):51-58. Fuchs NA 1964. The mechanics of aerosols. Ox- ...

  18. Non-Equilibrium Vibrational Kinetics in Radiofrequency H2 Plasmas: a Comparison Between Theoretical and Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capitelli, M.; De Pascale, O.; Shakatov, V.; Hassouni, K.; Lombardi, G.; Gicquel, A.

    2005-05-16

    Vibrational and rotational experimental temperatures of molecular hydrogen obtained by Coherent Anti-Stokes Spectroscopy (CARS) in Radiofrequency Inductive Plasmas have been analyzed and interpreted in terms of vibration, electron, dissociation-recombination and attachment kinetics. The analysis clarifies the role of atomic hydrogen and its heterogeneous recombination in affecting the vibrational content of the molecules.

  19. Visualizing the non-equilibrium dynamics of photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer with femtosecond X-ray pulses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Canton, Sophie E.; Kjær, Kasper S.; Vankó, György; van Driel, Tim B.; Adachi, Shin -ichi; Bordage, Amélie; Bressler, Christian; Chabera, Pavel; Christensen, Morten; Dohn, Asmus O.; et al

    2015-03-02

    Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer preceding energy equilibration still poses many experimental and conceptual challenges to the optimization of photoconversion since an atomic-scale description has so far been beyond reach. Here we combine femtosecond transient optical absorption spectroscopy with ultrafast X-ray emission spectroscopy and diffuse X-ray scattering at the SACLA facility to track the non-equilibrated electronic and structural dynamics within a bimetallic donor–acceptor complex that contains an optically dark centre. Exploiting the 100-fold increase in temporal resolution as compared with storage ring facilities, these measurements constitute the first X-ray-based visualization of a non-equilibrated intramolecular electron transfer process over large interatomic distances.more » Thus experimental and theoretical results establish that mediation through electronically excited molecular states is a key mechanistic feature. The present study demonstrates the extensive potential of femtosecond X-ray techniques as diagnostics of non-adiabatic electron transfer processes in synthetic and biological systems, and some directions for future studies, are outlined.« less

  20. Visualizing the non-equilibrium dynamics of photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer with femtosecond X-ray pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canton, Sophie E.; Kjćr, Kasper S.; Vankó, György; van Driel, Tim B.; Adachi, Shin -ichi; Bordage, Amélie; Bressler, Christian; Chabera, Pavel; Christensen, Morten; Dohn, Asmus O.; Galler, Andreas; Gawelda, Wojciech; Gosztola, David; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Harlang, Tobias; Liu, Yizhu; Mřller, Klaus B.; Németh, Zoltán; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Pápai, Mátyás; Sato, Tokushi; Sato, Takahiro; Suarez-Alcantara, Karina; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Uhlig, Jens; Vithanage, Dimali A.; Wärnmark, Kenneth; Yabashi, Makina; Zhang, Jianxin; Sundström, Villy; Nielsen, Martin M.

    2015-03-02

    Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer preceding energy equilibration still poses many experimental and conceptual challenges to the optimization of photoconversion since an atomic-scale description has so far been beyond reach. Here we combine femtosecond transient optical absorption spectroscopy with ultrafast X-ray emission spectroscopy and diffuse X-ray scattering at the SACLA facility to track the non-equilibrated electronic and structural dynamics within a bimetallic donor–acceptor complex that contains an optically dark centre. Exploiting the 100-fold increase in temporal resolution as compared with storage ring facilities, these measurements constitute the first X-ray-based visualization of a non-equilibrated intramolecular electron transfer process over large interatomic distances. Thus experimental and theoretical results establish that mediation through electronically excited molecular states is a key mechanistic feature. The present study demonstrates the extensive potential of femtosecond X-ray techniques as diagnostics of non-adiabatic electron transfer processes in synthetic and biological systems, and some directions for future studies, are outlined.

  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Nanotechnology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Adam Cohen has been named Deputy Under Secretary for Science and Energy in Washington D.C....

  2. Modeling of ground water aquifer remediation by pulsed pumping when contaminant transport is affected by physical, non-equilibrium sorption and desorption. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspers, J.L.

    1994-08-12

    This research postulates and demonstrates incorporating rate-limited sorption effects in the USGS SUTRA code for cleanup of a hypothetical sandy aquifer by pump-and-treat remediation methods. Contaminant transport is assumed to be affected by advection, dispersion, and rate-limited sorption/desorption. Sorption is assumed to be either equilibrium or rate-limited, with the rate-limitation described by either a first-order law, or by Fickian diffusion of contaminant through a spherical immobile pore region. Solutions are arrived at by split operator methods for the transport and one-dimensional Galerkin solutions for the solute concentration equations. The resulting model is tested against an analytical Laplace transform model for both first-order and Fickian diffusion methods in a radial pumping simulation. Model simulations are used to evaluate equilibrium, first-order and Fickian diffusion effects for pulsed and continuous pumping solutions within a hypothetical sandy aquifer. These show that equilibrium methods under-predicted rebound while first-order methods may both under and over predict rebound within the matrix for certain regions and may be equivalent to Fickian diffusion in equilibrium regimes for cleanup time prediction. Model simulations are then used to show the efficiency of pulsed pumping methods in cleanup mass extraction per pumped volume for a contaminated aquifer pump-and-treat remediation activity versus more conventional, continuous pumping methods.

  3. Non-equilibrium synthesis by laser cladding of Ni, Nb and Mg alloys for improved environmental resistance. Final report, Nov 88-Oct 91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazumder, J.; Kar, A.; Tewari, S.K.; Ribaudo, C.R.

    1992-03-30

    The technique of laser surface modification provides a unique means of synthesizing novel nonequilibrium materials in near net shape. The goal of the proposed program is to develop a science base for synthesis of nonequilibrium metastable alloys by laser processing. This report summarizes experimental and theoretical studies carried out during the period of November 1988 to October 1991 on laser surface modification of Ni, Nb and Mg alloys for improved environmental resistance at high temperature. A microstructural evolution model of NbAl3 was developed and the relative oxidation resistance of claddings of several Nb-based alloys were investigated. Initial work with V revealed that V increases the ductility, and decreases the oxidation resistance of laser clad NbAl3. Oxidation behavior of alloys with Ti, B and Hf as a ternary alloy addition were identified: Oxidation tests at 800, 1200, and 1400 deg C were conducted on NbAl3-0 at %B (O B), NbAl3-0.5 at %B (0.5 B), NbAl3-1.0 at %B (1.0 B), NbAl3-1.0 at B-3 at %Ti (3 Ti), NbAl3-1.0 at %B-6 at %Ti (6 Ti) and NbAl3-1.5 at %Hf (1.5 Hf) alloys. An external layer of x-alumina formed on samples of alloys 0.5 B and 1.0 B isothermally oxidized in air at 800, 1200 and 1400 deg C. A mixture of alumina and NbAl04 formed on the samples of alloy 0 B exposed to same testing conditions.

  4. The behavior of matter under non-equilibrium conditions: Fundamental aspects and applications. Progress report, July 15, 1991--July 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prigogine, I.

    1992-04-01

    This report briefly discusses concepts of chaotic systems. The topics discusses are: Bernoulli maps; mathematical aspects of the complex spectral representations; and large poincare systems. (LSP)

  5. A general unified non-equilibrium model for predicting saturated and subcooled critical two-phase flow rates through short and long tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, D.W.H.; Abdelmessih, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    A general unified model is developed to predict one-component critical two-phase pipe flow. Modelling of the two-phase flow is accomplished by describing the evolution of the flow between the location of flashing inception and the exit (critical) plane. The model approximates the nonequilibrium phase change process via thermodynamic equilibrium paths. Included are the relative effects of varying the location of flashing inception, pipe geometry, fluid properties and length to diameter ratio. The model predicts that a range of critical mass fluxes exist and is bound by a maximum and minimum value for a given thermodynamic state. This range is more pronounced at lower subcooled stagnation states and can be attributed to the variation in the location of flashing inception. The model is based on the results of an experimental study of the critical two-phase flow of saturated and subcooled water through long tubes. In that study, the location of flashing inception was accurately controlled and adjusted through the use of a new device. The data obtained revealed that for fixed stagnation conditions, the maximum critical mass flux occurred with flashing inception located near the pipe exit; while minimum critical mass fluxes occurred with the flashing front located further upstream. Available data since 1970 for both short and long tubes over a wide range of conditions are compared with the model predictions. This includes test section L/D ratios from 25 to 300 and covers a temperature and pressure range of 110 to 280{degrees}C and 0.16 to 6.9 MPa. respectively. The predicted maximum and minimum critical mass fluxes show an excellent agreement with the range observed in the experimental data.

  6. Fundamental enabling issues in nanotechnology : (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stresses generated during thin film growth strongly influence component lifetime and performance; stress has also been proposed as a mechanism for stabilizing supported nanoscale ...

  7. Challenges and opportunities for structural DNA nanotechnology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In particular, we highlight the potential use of DNA nanostructures in molecular and cellular biophysics, as biomimetic systems, in energy transfer and photonics, and in ...

  8. Tools for Nanotechnology Education Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorothy Moore

    2010-09-27

    The overall focus of this project was the development of reusable, cost-effective educational modules for use with the table top scanning electron microscope (TTSEM). The goal of this project's outreach component was to increase students' exposure to the science and technology of nanoscience.

  9. National Nanotechnology Initiative's Signature Initiative Sustainable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NSF NIH OMB OSTP DHS NRC FDA CPSC ITC USPTO NIOSH DOCBIS USDAFS DOEd DOL DOD DOE NASA ... Agencies involved: DOD, DOE, EPA, ICDNI, NASA, NIH, NIOSH, NIST, NSF, OSHA, USDAFS ...

  10. Solar Cell Nanotechnology Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Biswajit

    2014-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a low cost nonlithographic nanofabrication technology for the fabrication of thin film porous templates as well as uniform arrays of semiconductor nanostructures for the implementation of high efficiency solar cells. Solar cells based on semiconductor nanostructures are expected to have very high energy conversion efficiencies due to the increased absorption coefficients of semiconductor nanostructures. In addition, the thin film porous template can be used for optimum surface texturing of solar cells leading to additional enhancement in energy conversion efficiency. An important requirement for these applications is the ability to synthesize nanostructure arrays of different dimensions with good size control. This project employed nanoporous alumina templates created by the anodization of aluminum thin films deposited on glass substrates for the fabrication of the nanostructures and optimized the process parameters to obtain uniform pore diameters. An additional requirement is uniformity or regularity of the nanostructure arrays. While constant current anodization was observed to provide controlled pore diameters, constant voltage anodization was needed for regularity of the nanostructure arrays. Thus a two-step anodization process was investigated and developed in this project for improving the pore size distribution and pore periodicity of the nanoporous alumina templates. CdTe was selected to be the active material for the nanowires, and the process for the successful synthesis of CdTe nanowires was developed in this project. Two different synthesis approaches were investigated in this project, electrochemical and electrophoretic deposition. While electrochemical synthesis was successfully employed for the synthesis of nanowires inside the pores of the alumina templates, the technique was determined to be non-optimum due to the need of elevated temperature that is detrimental to the structural integrity of the nanoporous alumina templates. In order to eliminate this problem, electrophoretic deposition was selected as the more appropriate technique, which involves the guided deposition of semiconductor nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasonic energy to form the crystalline nanowires. Extensive experimental research was carried out to optimize the process parameters for formation of crystalline nanowires. It was observed that the environmental bath temperature plays a critical role in determining the structural integrity of the nanowires and hence their lengths. Investigation was carried out for the formation of semitransparent ohmic contacts on the nanowires to facilitate photocurrent spectroscopy measurements as well as for solar cell implementation. Formation of such ohmic contacts was found to be challenging and a process involving mechanical and electrochemical polishing was developed to facilitate such contacts. The use of nanoporous alumina templates for the surface texturing of mono- and multi-crystalline solar cells was extensively investigated by electrochemical etching of the silicon through the pores of the nanoporous templates. The processes for template formation as well as etching were optimized and the alumina/silicon interface was investigated using capacitance-voltage characterization. The process developed was found to be viable for improving solar cell performance.

  11. Fundamental enabling issues in nanotechnology : (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Yet the intrinsic connections between the evolving morphology of supported nanostructures and stress generation are still a matter of debate. This report presents results from a ...

  12. DOE Science Showcase - Nanotechnology | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to spotlight needs and target resources in this critical area of science and technology. ... DOepatents ScienceCinema Energy Citations Database Science.gov WorldWideScience.org ...

  13. Argonne National Laboratory Scientists Invent Breakthrough Technique in Nanotechnology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For many years, scientists have searched for ways to assemble nanoparticles (millions of times smaller than the tip of a pencil) into larger structures of any shape and design. Argonne's team created an assembled, continuous filament of carbon and gold nanoparticles that followed the path of the laser as if it was a magic wand.

  14. In the OSTI Collections: Nanotechnology | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... catalysis; theory, modeling and simulation; electronic materials; nanoscale photonics; soft and biological materials; imaging and spectroscopy; and nanoscale integration. ...

  15. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented hendricks.pdf ...

  16. Fuel and cladding nano-technologies based solutions for long life heat-pipe based reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popa-Simil, L.

    2012-07-01

    A novel nuclear reactor concept, unifying the fuel pipe with fuel tube functionality has been developed. The structure is a quasi-spherical modular reactor, designed for a very long life. The reactor module unifies the fuel tube with the heat pipe and a graphite beryllium reflector. It also uses a micro-hetero-structure that allows the fission products to be removed in the heat pipe flow and deposited in a getter area in the cold zone of the heat pipe, but outside the neutron flux. The reactor operates as a breed and burn reactor - it contains the fuel pipe with a variable enrichment, starting from the hot-end of the pipe, meant to assure the initial criticality, and reactor start-up followed by area with depleted uranium or thorium that get enriched during the consumption of the first part of the enriched uranium. (authors)

  17. Formation of a memristor matrix based on titanium oxide and investigation by probe-nanotechnology methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avilov, V. I.; Ageev, O. A.; Kolomiitsev, A. S.; Konoplev, B. G. Smirnov, V. A.; Tsukanova, O. G.

    2014-12-15

    The results of investigation of a memristor-matrix model on the basis of titanium-oxide nanoscale structures (ONSs) fabricated by methods of focused ion beams and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) are presented. The effect of the intensity of interaction between the AFM probe and the sample surface on the memristor effect in the titanium ONS is shown. The memristor effect in the titanium ONS is investigated by an AFM in the mode of spreading-resistance map. The possibility of the recording and erasure of information in the submicron cells is shown on the basis of using the memristor effect in the titanium ONS, which is most promising for developing the technological processes of the formation of resistive operation memory cells.

  18. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Compares thermo-hydraulic performance and cost of micro-honeycombs to conventional heat exchange structures to highlight performance enhancement mechanisms

  19. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented

  20. A Nanotechnology-Based, Self-Healing, Chromate-Free Conversion...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... The DOE SBIR funded R&D enabled NEI to advance the PT-60 technology readiness level from 3 (laboratory proof of concept) to 6 (prototype demonstration in a relevant environment) in ...

  1. Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Sites National Nanotechnology Initiative Nano Technology Industries Advanced Materials Research Institute Institute of Physics Max-Planck Institute for Kohlenforschung The institute of nanotechnology Nanotechnology Now Nanotechnology - Education Nanojournals Chancellor's Distinguished Lectureship Series Patent Analytics and Patent Searching

  2. CAMD Nanofabrication Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure :: News :: Related sites National Nanotechnology Initiative Nano Technology Industries Advanced Materials Research Institute Institute of Physics Max-Planck Institute for Kohlenforschung The institute of nanotechnology Nanotechnology Now Nanotechnology - Education Nanojournals Chancellor's Distinguished Lectureship Series

  3. Thickness-dependent charge transport in few-layer MoS 2 field...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Nanotechnology (Print) Additional Journal Information: Journal Name: Nanotechnology (Print); Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: ...

  4. Analytical Estimations for Thermal Crosstalk Retention and Scaling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nanotechnology; Related Information: Proposed for publication in Nanotechnology. Research Org: Sandia National ...

  5. Layout 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chancellor's Distinguished Lectureship Series Nanotechnology: Thinking Small or Small Thinking? Chad Mirkin Northwestern University Director of Institute for Nanotechnology...

  6. Nanoscience Research for Energy Needs. Report of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Grand Challenge Workshop, March 16-18, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alivisatos, P.; Cummings, P.; De Yoreo, J.; Fichthorn, K.; Gates, B.; Hwang, R.; Lowndes, D.; Majumdar, A.; Makowski, L.; Michalske, T.; Misewich, J.; Murray, C.; Sibener, S.; Teague, C.; Williams, E.

    2004-03-18

    This document is the report of a workshop held under NSET auspices in March 2004 aimed at identifying and articulating the relationship of nanoscale science and technology to the Nation's energy future.

  7. Communication: Energy-dependent resonance broadening in symmetric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy-dependent resonance broadening in symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions from an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function approach Title: Communication: Energy-depen...

  8. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Richland, WA (United States) Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho Falls, ID ... By using the non-equilibrium Green function method with the slave-boson mean field ...

  9. Microsoft Word - strickland_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quark gluon plasma Dr. Michael Strickland Gettysburg College Abstract: In this talk I will review our theoretical understanding of the dynamics of a non- equilibrium quark ...

  10. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Spintronic devices promise new faster and lower energy-consumption electronic systems. ... In this paper, by utilizing density functional theory and non-equilibrium green function ...

  11. Nonequilibrium volumetric response of shocked polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, B E

    2009-01-01

    Polymers are well known for their non-equilibrium deviatoric behavior. However, investigations involving both high rate shock experiments and equilibrium measured thermodynamic quantities remind us that the volumetric behavior also exhibits a non-equilibrium response. Experiments supporting the notion of a non-equilibrium volumetric behavior will be summarized. Following that discussion, a continuum-level theory is proposed that will account for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium response. Upon finding agreement with experiment, the theory is used to study the relaxation of a shocked polymer back towards its shocked equilibrium state.

  12. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nat. Photonics 2010 Bae et al. Nat. Nanotech. 2010 Understanding the non-equilibrium behavior of photoexcited graphene is important for science and applications in detectors, solar ...

  13. Electronic and spin transport properties of graphene nanoribbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (QUAMBOs), a first-principles tight binding (TB) scheme based on density functional theory (DFT), combined with a non-equilibrium Green's function. For electronic transport,...

  14. Biographical sketch - Hao Yan | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Society Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 2010. Co-Organizer, DNA Nanotechnology Workshop, Beijing, China, 2009. Co-Organizer, International Workshop on DNA-based nanotechnology: ...

  15. National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Learn More Navillum Nanotechnologies University of Utah Navillum Nanotechnologies developed a process to fabricate quantum dots and other types of semiconducting nanocrystals. When ...

  16. NuMat Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Learn More Navillum Nanotechnologies University of Utah Navillum Nanotechnologies developed a process to fabricate quantum dots and other types of semiconducting nanocrystals. When ...

  17. Mesdi Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Learn More Navillum Nanotechnologies University of Utah Navillum Nanotechnologies developed a process to fabricate quantum dots and other types of semiconducting nanocrystals. When ...

  18. Extremely durable biofouling-resistant metallic surfaces based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE physical sciences; materials science; nanotechnology Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly ...

  19. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GrantContract Number: AR0000326 Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Nanotechnology (Print) Additional Journal Information: Journal Name: Nanotechnology (Print); Journal ...

  20. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Partnering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies Designated Capabilities Sandia Partnerships Research Partnering Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies Designated Capabilities Sandia Partnerships Top of page

  1. Nanomaterial Laboratory Safety, Boise State University | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A nanomaterial, as defined by The ASTM Committee on Nanotechnology, is a particle ... Safety Implementation Plan, Ames Laboratory Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology

  2. Two new exhibits open at the Bradbury Science Museum

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    Nanotechnology and algae biofuels August 1, 2013 Two new exhibits recently opened at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum on algae biofuels and nanotechnology Two new exhibits ...

  3. Emergence of ferroelectricity in antiferroelectric nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GrantContract Number: SC0005245 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Nanotechnology (Print) Additional Journal Information: Journal Name: Nanotechnology (Print); ...

  4. High Current Rectification on Graphene-Boron Nitride Nanotube...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nature Nanotechnology; Related Information: Proposed for publication in Nature Nanotechnology. Research Org: Sandia ...

  5. Molecular Foundry

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    Research Performed by Foundry Industrial Users Honored by Nanotechnology Journal User work on printable photonics was selected as a Highlight of the Year by Nanotechnology in the ...

  6. Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanotechnology User Conference held September 19-20, 2012 in Albuquerque, NM.; Related Information: Proposed for presentation at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnology User ...

  7. New Argonne centers connect business with energy storage, nanotechnolo...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Argonne centers connect business with energy storage, nanotechnology research By Greg ... Nanotechnology has already transformed the electronics industry and is bringing a new set ...

  8. Energy Citations Database (ECD) - Former Highlights

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Archived Features Nanotechnology nanoclusterhand Photo Courtesy of LANL Nanotechnology has a vitally important role to play in addressing the nation's energy, climate change and...

  9. Early Career. Harnessing nanotechnology for fusion plasma-material interface research in an in-situ particle-surface interaction facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allain, Jean Paul

    2014-08-08

    This project consisted of fundamental and applied research of advanced in-situ particle-beam interactions with surfaces/interfaces to discover novel materials able to tolerate intense conditions at the plasma-material interface (PMI) in future fusion burning plasma devices. The project established a novel facility that is capable of not only characterizing new fusion nanomaterials but, more importantly probing and manipulating materials at the nanoscale while performing subsequent single-effect in-situ testing of their performance under simulated environments in fusion PMI.

  10. DOE Announces Selection of National Laboratory Center for Solid-State Lighting R&D and Seven Projects for Core Technology Research in Nanotechnology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce the selection of the National Laboratory Center for Solid-State Lighting...

  11. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of a magnetic atom on graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In this study, the Kondo effect in the system consisting of a magnetic adatom on the graphene is studied. By using the non-equilibrium Green function method with the slave-boson ...

  12. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... By using the non-equilibrium Green function method with the slave-boson mean field approximation, the local density of state (LDOS) and the conductance are calculated. For a doped ...

  13. CX-004918: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sheetak -Non-Equilibrium Asymmetric Thermoelectric DevicesCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/10/2010Location(s): Austin, TexasOffice(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy

  14. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of a magnetic atom on graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ... By using the non-equilibrium Green function method with the slave-boson mean field ...

  15. Reversibility and criticality in amorphous solids (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We compare this non-equilibrium critical behaviour to the prevailing concept of a 'front depinning' transition that has been used to describe steady-state avalanche behaviour in ...

  16. Nonequilibrium Thermoelectrics: Low-Cost, High-Performance Materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Materials selection and processing has led to the development of several systems with a figure of merit, ZT, of nearly unity. By using non-equilibrium techniques, we have ...

  17. May

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    By using the non-equilibrium Green function method with the slave-boson mean field ... But for the undoped graphene, the Kondo phase only exists if the adatom's energy level is ...

  18. Search for: kondo effect | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    By using the non-equilibrium Green function method with the slave-boson mean field ... But for the undoped graphene, the Kondo phase only exists if the adatom's energy level is ...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... By using the non-equilibrium Green function method with the slave-boson mean field ... But for the undoped graphene, the Kondo phase only exists if the adatom's energy level is ...

  20. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of a magnetic atom on graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    By using the non-equilibrium Green function method with the slave-boson mean field ... But for the undoped graphene, the Kondo phase only exists if the adatom's energy level is ...

  1. Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory nanoactuation (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; BENDING; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CRYSTALS; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; ...

  2. Giant Magneto-Resistance in Epitaxial (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)0.5: (ZnO...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; CAI suggestions; ZINC OXIDES; MAGNETORESISTANCE; EPITAXY; NANOCOMPOSITES; ...

  3. Enhancement of thermoelectric performance in InAs nanotubes by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; GREEN FUNCTION; INDIUM ...

  4. Process-Dependent Properties in Colloidally Synthesized "Giant...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by protracted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) leads to ... 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ADSORPTION; DECAY; EXCITONS; FLUORESCENCE; ...

  5. Nanomechanical switch for integration with CMOS logic. (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; FABRICATION; PERFORMANCE; SWITCHES; TESTING; NANOSTRUCTURES; ...

  6. Probing electronic transport of individual nanostructures with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanostructures, including silicide atomic wires, carbon nanotubes, and copper nanowires. ... Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ACCURACY; CARBON; CONTAMINATION; COPPER; ...

  7. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Informatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Communications Nanoone billionth Nanotechnologythe manipulation of matter on an ... Check out Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: From Energy Applications to Advanced Medical ...

  8. Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; COATINGS; INDIUM PHOSPHIDES; MICROSCOPY; OXIDATION; ...

  9. "Giant" nanocrystal quantum dots for light-emission applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: Energy Sciences; Material Science; Applied Life Science(60); Energy Conservation, Consumption, & Utilization(32); Materials Science(36); Nanoscience & Nanotechnology(77) ...

  10. Synthesis of Non-blinking Semiconductor Quantum Dots Emitting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ALIGNMENT; CADMIUM; EMISSION SPECTRA; FLUORESCENCE; ...

  11. Chemical synthesis, characterizations and magnetic properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ALLOYS; BCC LATTICES; COERCIVE FORCE; CRYSTALS; LATTICE PARAMETERS; MAGNETIC...

  12. Two dimensional electron transport in modulation-doped In{sub...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ALUMINIUM ARSENIDES; ANTIMONIDES; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DOPED MATERIALS;...

  13. Controlled synthesis and gas sensing properties of In{sub 2}O...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Materials Research Bulletin; ... ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ...

  14. CX-010707: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    materials, biological and ecological systems, energy science, manufacturing, nanotechnology, national security, neutron sciences, chemical sciences, and nuclear physics ...

  15. Center for Nanoscale Materials Fact Sheet | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    instruments, and infrastructure for interdisciplinary nanoscience and nanotechnology research. Academic, industrial, and international researchers can access the center...

  16. Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; COATINGS; INDIUM PHOSPHIDES; ...

  17. OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... scientific challenges in the fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, genomics, biochemistry, biofuels, nanotechnology, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, and homeland security. ...

  18. Defect-reduction mechanism for improving radiative efficiency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CAPACITANCE; ...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Idaho National Laboratory Specific Manufacturing Plant Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho ... (1) nanoparticles (1) nanoscience and nanotechnology (1) nanostructures (1) photoelectron ...

  20. Plasmonic Figures of Merit in a Doped Graphene Sheet | MIT-Harvard...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in peer-reviewed international journals including Science, Nature Materials, Nature Nanotechnology, Nature Photonics, Nature Communications, and Physical Review Letters

  1. Introduction to Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) failure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; COMMERCIALIZATION; ELECTROMECHANICS; NANOSTRUCTURES; ...

  2. Engineering Multimetallic FePt-based nanowires for enhancing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Inorganic, Organic, Physical, & Analytical Chemistry(37); Materials Science(36); Nanoscience & Nanotechnology(77) ...

  3. Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Inorganic, Organic, Physical, & Analytical Chemistry(37); Nanoscience & Nanotechnology(77) Analytical Chemistry; ...

  4. Scanning Photocurrent Microscopy of Si and Ge nanowires (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; CATALYSTS; DIFFUSION LENGTH; MICROSCOPY; PHOTOCURRENTS; ...

  5. Nanoparticle modifications of photodefined nanostructures for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; CARBON; ELECTRODES; FABRICATION; MODIFICATIONS; NANOSTRUCTURES; POLYMERS Word ...

  6. Analytical Modeling and Simulation of Thermoelectric Devices...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Technologies Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

  7. Sunnyside Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies, Inc Place: Minneapolis, Minnesota Zip: 55413 Sector: Carbon, Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Technology firm developing advanced materials and nanotechnologies including...

  8. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... structure (1) nanoscience and nanotechnology solar (photovoltaic), solar (thermal), phonons, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric, electrodes - solar, defects, charge transport, ...

  9. Ultra-rapid sample preconcentration under slant E-field using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    United States Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; MEMBRANES; PORE STRUCTURE; NANOSTRUCTURES; ...

  10. Arrowhead Research Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research Corporation Place: Pasadena, California Zip: 91106 Product: Diversified nanotechnology company focusing on electronics, life sciences, and energy products. References:...

  11. Layout 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications Chad Mirkin Northwestern University Director of Institute for Nanotechnology Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Technical Talk Tuesday, September 20, 2005...

  12. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects on isentropic coefficient in argon and helium thermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Rohit; Singh, Kuldip

    2014-03-15

    In the present work, two cases of thermal plasma have been considered; the ground state plasma in which all the atoms and ions are assumed to be in the ground state and the excited state plasma in which atoms and ions are distributed over various possible excited states. The variation of Z?, frozen isentropic coefficient and the isentropic coefficient with degree of ionization and non-equilibrium parameter ?(= T{sub e}/T{sub h}) has been investigated for the ground and excited state helium and argon plasmas at pressures 1?atm, 10?atm, and 100?atm in the temperature range from 6000?K to 60?000?K. For a given value of non-equilibrium parameter, the relationship of Z? with degree of ionization does not show any dependence on electronically excited states in helium plasma whereas in case of argon plasma this dependence is not appreciable till degree of ionization approaches 2. The minima of frozen isentropic coefficient shifts toward lower temperature with increase of non-equilibrium parameter for both the helium and argon plasmas. The lowering of non-equilibrium parameter decreases the frozen isentropic coefficient more emphatically in helium plasma at high pressures in comparison to argon plasma. The increase of pressure slightly reduces the ionization range over which isentropic coefficient almost remains constant and it does not affect appreciably the dependence of isentropic coefficient on non-equilibrium parameter.

  13. An approximate framework for quantum transport calculation with model order reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Quan; Li, Jun; Yam, Chiyung; Zhang, Yu; Wong, Ngai; Chen, Guanhua

    2015-04-01

    A new approximate computational framework is proposed for computing the non-equilibrium charge density in the context of the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method for quantum mechanical transport problems. The framework consists of a new formulation, called the X-formulation, for single-energy density calculation based on the solution of sparse linear systems, and a projection-based nonlinear model order reduction (MOR) approach to address the large number of energy points required for large applied biases. The advantages of the new methods are confirmed by numerical experiments.

  14. Entropy in an Arc Plasma Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminska, A.; Dudeck, M

    2008-03-19

    The entropy properties in a D.C. argon arc plasma source are studied. The local thermodynamical entropy relations are established for a set of uniform sub-systems (Ar, Ar{sup +}, e) in order to deduce the entropy balance equation in presence of dissipative effects and in the case of a thermal non equilibrium. Phenomenological linear laws are deduced in near equilibrium situation. The flow parameters inside the plasma source are calculated by a Navier-Stokes fluid description taking into account a thermal local non equilibrium. The entropy function is calculated in the plasma source using the values of the local variables obtained from the numerical code.

  15. Relaxation dynamics in correlated quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andergassen, S.; Schuricht, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Schoeller, H.

    2014-12-04

    We study quantum many-body effects on the real-time evolution of the current through quantum dots. By using a non-equilibrium renormalization group approach, we provide analytic results for the relaxation dynamics into the stationary state and identify the microscopic cutoff scales that determine the transport rates. We find rich non-equilibrium physics induced by the interplay of the different energy scales. While the short-time limit is governed by universal dynamics, the long-time behavior features characteristic oscillations as well as an interplay of exponential and power-law decay.

  16. Upscaling of the waterflood reservoir properties on the core level: Laboratory study, macro and micro modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Polyanin, A.D.; Zhurov, A.I.; Potsch, K.T.

    1995-10-01

    The aim of the paper is to develop a mathematical model for waterflooding at high velocities in short cores under laboratory conditions. The model is based on the theory of non-equilibrium two-phase flow in a porous medium. The asymptotic solution includes the capillary pressure and non-equilibrium effects. It allows for determining an expression for he stabilized zone, which leads to an optimal core length and an optimal displacement velocity. With these parameters it is possible to plan waterflooding tests for determining the relative phase permeabilities with a given accuracy.

  17. NSS-8 Workshop Summary International Workshop on Nanoscale Spectroscopy and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotechnology | Argonne National Laboratory NSS-8 Workshop Summary International Workshop on Nanoscale Spectroscopy and Nanotechnology August 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Organized by Center for Nanoscale Materials and Advanced Photon Source The International Workshop on Nanoscale Spectroscopy and Nanotechnology 8 (NSS-8), organized by the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) and Advanced Photon Source (APS), was held under sunny, summer skies from July 28-31, 2014, in the world-class Gleacher

  18. Science Museum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotechnology and algae biofuels exhibits open July 26 at the Bradbury Science Museum July 22, 2013 LOS ALAMOS, N.M., July 22, 2013-Los Alamos National Laboratory's Bradbury Science Museum is opening two new exhibits July 26 as part of the Laboratory's 70th Anniversary celebration. One is a nanotechnology exhibit featuring the Laboratory's Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) and the other is an algae biofuel exhibit from the Laboratory and the New Mexico Consortium. An opening

  19. Negotiable Technology Licensing | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navillum Nanotechnologies National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Navillum Nanotechnologies University of Utah Navillum Nanotechnologies' innovative method for fabricating quantum dots and other types of semiconducting nanocrystals at commercial scale that can both save energy and produce renewable energy. Quantum dots emit light at specific colors when stimulated by light or applied electrical source. Semiconducting nanocrystals can make solar panels up to 45 percent more efficient,

  20. EERE Success Story-Argonne Creates Collaborative Centers to Connect

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Business with Energy Storage, Nanotechnology Research | Department of Energy Argonne Creates Collaborative Centers to Connect Business with Energy Storage, Nanotechnology Research EERE Success Story-Argonne Creates Collaborative Centers to Connect Business with Energy Storage, Nanotechnology Research November 19, 2015 - 11:53am Addthis Argonne’s Tijana Rajh explains recently synthesized metal oxide nanoparticle samples with controlled amounts of structural defects to NDW Director

  1. Genetics in the courts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyle, Heather; Drell, Dan

    2000-12-01

    Various: (1)TriState 2000 Genetics in the Courts (2) Growing impact of the new genetics on the courts (3)Human testing (4) Legal analysis - in re G.C. (5) Legal analysis - GM ''peanots'', and (6) Legal analysis for State vs Miller

  2. CI-ON Ex A (Rev. 0.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

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    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 24 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-A1 COMMERCIAL ITEMS (Mar 2012)............................................................................................ 2 GC-1B DEFINITIONS (Mar 2012) ......................................................................................................... 4 GC-2B CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jan 2010) ....................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO

  3. CI-ON Ex A (Rev. 0.2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 12 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-A1 COMMERCIAL ITEMS (Mar 2012)............................................................................................ 2 GC-1B DEFINITIONS (Mar 2012) ......................................................................................................... 4 GC-2B CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jan 2010) ....................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO

  4. CI-ON Ex A (Rev. 0.4, 8/20/14) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 8/20/14) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 13 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-A1 COMMERCIAL ITEMS (Aug 2014) ........................................................................................... 2 GC-1B DEFINITIONS (Mar 2012) ......................................................................................................... 4 GC-2B CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jan 2010) ....................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO

  5. CI-ON Ex A (Rev. 0.5, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 14 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-A1 COMMERCIAL ITEMS (Aug 2014) ........................................................................................... 2 GC-1B DEFINITIONS (Mar 2012) ......................................................................................................... 4 GC-2B CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jan 2010) ....................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO

  6. CI-ON Ex A (Rev. 0.7, 11/9/15) Exhibit A General Conditions

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    7, 11/9/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 14 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-A1 COMMERCIAL ITEMS (May 2015) ....................................................................................... 2 GC-1B DEFINITIONS (Mar 2012) ..................................................................................................... 4 GC-2B CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jan 2010) ...................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul

  7. CI-ON Exhibit A General Conditions (Rev 0.3, 9-27-13)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 9/27/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 12 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-A1 COMMERCIAL ITEMS (Mar 2012) ........................................................................................... 2 GC-1B DEFINITIONS (Mar 2012) ......................................................................................................... 4 GC-2B CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jan 2010) ....................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO

  8. Examining Atomistic Defect/Boundary Interactions Induced by Light...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: DOELANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Engineering(42); Materials Science(36); Nanoscience & Nanotechnology(77) Word Cloud More ...

  9. Argonne Creates Collaborative Centers to Connect Business with...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Also pictured are Argonne researchers Elena Rozhkova (left) and Elena Shevchenko. Energy storage and nanotechnology have the potential to transform the way we look at clean energy. ...

  10. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and nanotechnology (6) physics of elementary particles ... Manipulating single electrons in semiconductor devices for ... Silicon nanoelectronics for solid-state quantum computing. ...

  11. National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    University of Utah Navillum Nanotechnologies developed a process to fabricate quantum dots and other types of semiconducting nanocrystals. When used in liquid crystal...

  12. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... and chemistry by design (1) nanoscience and nanotechnology solar (photovoltaic) (1) optics (1) radiations (1) solar (fuels) (1) solid state lighting (1) synthesis (novel ...

  13. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - News

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    Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine 8 Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE,...

  14. Press Pass - Press Release - LHC First Beam

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    for other sciences such as medicine, climate studies, bioinformatics, nanotechnology, geography and education. A question and answer period with the CERN Director General, Robert...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

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    (6) nanoscience and nanotechnology (4) direct energy conversion (3) hydrogen (3) solar energy (3) absorptivity (1) accuracy (1) energy planning, policy and economy (1) ...

  16. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and analytical chemistry (3) magnetic fields (3) nanoscience and nanotechnology (3) solar energy (3) x-ray diffraction (3) anodization (2) barium oxides (2) coatings (2) condensed ...

  17. Textured metastable VO{sub 2} (B) thin films on SrTiO{sub 3}...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) ...

  18. Biomolecular interactions and responses of human epithelial and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of inhaled nanoparticles to cross the blood-brain barrier; Kwon et al., 2008, J. Occup. ... AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ASPECT RATIO; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; CELL MEMBRANES; CHEMISTRY; ...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... energy storage (5) nanoscience and nanotechnology (4) direct energy conversion (3) hydrogen (3) solar energy (3) absorptivity (1) accuracy (1) energy planning, policy and ...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (4) adsorption (3) anions (3) aqueous solutions (3) defects (3) evaporation (3) hydrogen (3) ions (3) kinetics (3) lithium (3) nanoscience and nanotechnology (3) Filter by ...

  1. Evaluation Project 4492

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Tool in the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT). Installation and hydrogen-gas operation of the Atomic-Precision Fabrication Tool, to be located in the CINT ...

  2. Graphene Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Texas Sector: Carbon Product: Graphene develops nano-technology based ultracapacitors for energy storage using a unique form of carbon, called graphene, for electrode material....

  3. A Nanocrystal Sensor for Luminescence Detection of Cellular Forces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States Language: English Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION tetrapod stress gauge, luminescent nanocrystals, cellular forces Word Cloud More...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (2) density functional method (2) inorganic, organic, physical and analytical chemistry (2) magnetization (2) molecules (2) nanoscience and nanotechnology (2) resistivity ...

  5. Nano Design Works | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano Design Works Share Speakers Andreas Roelofs Topic Programs Materials science Nanoscience Nano Design Works (NDW) capitalizes on the power of nanotechnology and provides ...

  6. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CA (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY...

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (12) nanoscience and nanotechnology (8) copper (6) scanning tunneling microscopy (6) ... and preferred molecular orientation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules on ...

  8. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (12) nanoscience and nanotechnology (8) copper (6) scanning tunneling microscopy (6) ... are fabricated on silicide atomic wires, carbon nanotubes, and copper nanowires. ...

  9. Recovery Act Provides $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Here's a closer look at each of the projects and their potential impact: Dais Analytic Corporation (Odessa, FL) - Nanotechnology Membrane-Based Dehumidifier In warm and humid ...

  10. Stiff and Electrically Conductive Composites of Carbon Nanotube...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ...