Sample records for nanostructured materials 2d

  1. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Sung Mi

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology ...

  2. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  3. Nanostructured magnetic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Keith T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetism and Magnetic Materials Conference, Atlanta, GA (Nanostructured Magnetic Materials by Keith T. Chan Doctor ofinduced by a Si-based material occurs at a Si/Ni interface

  4. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  5. Nanostructured Materials for Energy Generation and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Javed Miller

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    xi Material CharacterizationThermoelectric Materials . . . . . . . . Graphene-Like5 Nanostructured Materials for Electrochemical Energy

  6. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    and batteries/fuel cells. Nanostructured electrode materials have demonstrated superior electrochemical of polymethine dyes electronic spectra is crucial for successful design of the new molecules with optimized

  7. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  8. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  9. Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Frank (Bud) Bridges, University of California-Santa Cruz

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The two-and-a-half day symposium on the "Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials" will be the first comprehensive meeting on this topic held under the auspices of a major U.S. professional society. Spring MRS Meetings provide a natural venue for this symposium as they attract a broad audience of researchers that represents a cross-section of the state-of-the-art regarding synthesis, structure-property relations, and applications of nanostructured materials. Close interactions among the experts in local structure measurements and materials researchers will help both to identify measurement needs pertinent to â??real-worldâ?ť materials problems and to familiarize the materials research community with the state-of-the-art local structure measurement techniques. We have chosen invited speakers that reflect the multidisciplinary and international nature of this topic and the need to continually nurture productive interfaces among university, government and industrial laboratories. The intent of the symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and exchange of ideas on the recent progress in quantitative characterization of structural order in nanomaterials using different experimental techniques and theory. The symposium is expected to facilitate discussions on optimal approaches for determining atomic structure at the nanoscale using combined inputs from multiple measurement techniques.

  10. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power Generation Modules Home Author: T. Hogan, A. Downey, J. Short, S. D. Mahanti, H. Schock, E. Case Year: 2007...

  11. XPS Analysis of Nanostructured Materials and Biological Surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Nanostructured Materials and Biological Surfaces. XPS Analysis of Nanostructured Materials and Biological Surfaces. Abstract: This paper examines the types of...

  12. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel ThermoelectricMaterials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking &...

  13. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nanostructured materials are excellent candidates for integrating into electronic and energy-storage devices,

  14. Electrifying inks with 2D materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrisi, Felice; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    conventional silicon-based technologies. Electronic devices including radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, light emitting diodes, batteries, and transistors can be built by printing liquid-dispersed functional materials such as organic polymers... , mechanical robustness, environmental stability and potential for low-cost production. Before an ink can be produced, graphene must first be dispersed as nanosheets in a liquid. Graphene suspensions can be produced from graphite by oxidization to produce...

  15. Synthesis and processing of nanostructured materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, R.W.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant and growing interest is being exhibited in the novel and enhanced properties of nanostructured materials. These materials, with their constituent phase or grain structures modulated on a length scale less than 100 nm, are artificially synthesized by a wide variety of physical, chemical, and mechanical methods. In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, where mechanical behavior is emphasized, nanostructured materials with modulation dimensionalities from one (multilayers) to three (nanophase materials) are mainly considered. No attempt is made in this review to cover in detail all of the diverse methods available for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. Rather, the basic principles involved in their synthesis are discussed in terms of the special properties sought using examples of particular synthesis and processing methodologies. Some examples of the property changes that can result from one of these methods, cluster assembly of nanophase materials, are presented.

  16. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo Rodriguez-Lopez; Wang-Kong Tse; Diego A. R. Dalvit

    2015-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  17. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synthesis of inorganic semiconductor-based nanostructured materials;inorganic materials. 16,35,62?72 In the synthesis, we begin

  18. Nanostructure material for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.; Chu, C.T.; Wei, Q.; Zheng, H.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal nitrides and carbonitride materials were fabricated via sol-gel technology. The transition metal amides were synthesized by two methods: chemical route and electrolysis. The transition metal amides were then further polymerized, sintering to high temperature in an inert or reduced atmosphere. Transition metal nitrides and carbonitrides powders with surface area up to 160 m{sup 2}/g were obtained. The resultant electrode material showed high specific capacitance as crystalline ruthenium oxide.

  19. Aerogel Derived Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendell E Rhine, PI; Dong, Wenting; Greg Caggiano, PM

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    America’s dependence on foreign sources for fuel represents a economic and security threat for the country. These non renewable resources are depleting, and the effects of pollutants from fuels such as oil are reaching a problematic that affects the global community. Solar concentration power (SCP) production systems offer the opportunity to harness one of the United States’ most under utilized natural resources; sunlight. While commercialization of this technology is increasing, in order to become a significant source of electricity production in the United States the costs of deploying and operating SCP plants must be further reduced. Parabolic Trough SCP technologies are close to meeting energy production cost levels that would raise interest in the technology and help accelerate its adoption as a method to produce a significant portion of the Country’s electric power needs. During this program, Aspen Aerogels will develop a transparent aerogel insulation that can replace the costly vacuum insulation systems that are currently used in parabolic trough designs. During the Phase I program, Aspen Aerogels will optimize the optical and thermal properties of aerogel to meet the needs of this application. These properties will be tested, and the results will be used to model the performance of a parabolic trough HCE system which uses this novel material in place of vacuum. During the Phase II program, Aspen Aerogels will scale up this technology. Together with industry partners, Aspen Aerogels will build and test a prototype Heat Collection Element that is insulated with the novel transparent aerogel material. This new device will find use in parabolic trough SCP applications.

  20. Workshop in Novel Emitters and Nanostructured Materials | U.S...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Workshop in Novel Emitters and Nanostructured Materials Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events...

  1. 2D Dirac Materials: From Graphene to Topological Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teweldebrhan, Desalegne Bekuretsion

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2D Topological Insulators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .structure for a topological insulator. The Dirac cone fallsband structure for topological insulators. With the Fermi

  2. Nanostructured Materials for Energy Generation and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Javed Miller

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2D Titanium Telluride Crystals for Direct Energy Conversion2D Titanium Telluride Crystals for Direct Energy Conver-

  3. Chemistry and Processing of Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, G A; Baumann, T F; Hope-Weeks, L J; Vance, A L

    2002-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured materials can be formed through the sol-gel polymerization of inorganic or organic monomer systems. For example, a two step polymerization of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) was developed such that silica aerogels with densities as low as 3 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx} two times the density of air) could be achieved. Organic aerogels based upon resorcinol-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde can also be prepared using the sol-gel process. Materials of this type have received significant attention at LLNL due to their ultrafine cell sizes, continuous porosity, high surface area and low mass density. For both types of aerogels, sol-gel polymerization depends upon the transformation of these monomers into nanometer-sized clusters followed by cross-linking into a 3-dimensional gel network. While sol-gel chemistry provides the opportunity to synthesize new material compositions, it suffers from the inability to separate the process of cluster formation from gelation. This limitation results in structural deficiencies in the gel that impact the physical properties of the aerogel, xerogel or nanocomposite. In order to control the properties of the resultant gel, one should be able to regulate the formation of the clusters and their subsequent cross-linking. Towards this goal, we are utilizing dendrimer chemistry to separate the cluster formation from the gelation so that new nanostructured materials can be produced. Dendrimers are three-dimensional, highly branched macromolecules that are prepared in such a way that their size, shape and surface functionality are readily controlled. The dendrimers will be used as pre-formed clusters of known size that can be cross-linked to form an ordered gel network.

  4. Rheological and morphological characterization of hierarchically nanostructured materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Benjamin Ning-Haw

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hierarchically nanostructured materials exhibit order on multiple length scales, with at least one of a few nanometers. The expected enhancements for applications using these materials include improved mechanical, thermal ...

  5. 2D Dirac Materials: From Graphene to Topological Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teweldebrhan, Desalegne Bekuretsion

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    x Graphene Preparation and2008). Chapter 3 Graphene Preparation and CharacterizationPreparation Methods of Atomically-Thin 2D Graphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  6. Nanostructured Materials for Energy Generation and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Javed Miller

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Electrochemical Energy Storage Nanostructured ElectrodesCells for Energy Storage and Generation . . . . . . . . . .batteries and their energy storage efficiency. vii Contents

  7. Quasi 2D Materials: Raman Nanometrology and Thermal Management Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahil, Khan Mohammad Farhan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based Thermal Interface Materials for the Next GenerationA), Applications and Materials 208, 1, 144-146 (2011). M. Z.A) Applications and Materials 208, 1, 144-146 (2011). M. Z.

  8. Understanding and engineering molecular interactions and electronic transport at 2D materials interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Chih-Jen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2D materials are defined as solids with strong in-plane chemical bonds but weak out-of-plane, van der Waals (vdW) interactions. In order to realize potential applications of 2D materials in the areas of optoelectronics, ...

  9. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials: From Superlattices to Nanocomposites Ronggui Yang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Gang

    Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials: From Superlattices to Nanocomposites Ronggui Yang1 conductivity led to a large increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit in several superlattice systems. Materials with a large thermoelectric figure of merit can be used to develop efficient solid-state devices

  10. Nanostructured Tin Dioxide Materials for Gas Sensor Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    CHAPTER 30 Nanostructured Tin Dioxide Materials for Gas Sensor Applications T. A. Miller, S. D) levels for some species. Tin dioxide (also called stannic oxide or tin oxide) semi- conductor gas sensors undergone extensive research and development. Tin dioxide (SnO2) is the most important material for use

  11. Preparation of nanostructured materials having improved ductility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian T.

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing a nanostructured aluminum alloy involves heating an aluminum alloy workpiece at temperature sufficient to produce a single phase coarse grained aluminum alloy, then refining the grain size of the workpiece at a temperature at or below room temperature, and then aging the workpiece to precipitate second phase particles in the nanosized grains of the workpiece that increase the ductility without decreasing the strength of the workpiece.

  12. Nanostructured Materials as Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash,EnergyNanophosphateas Anodes Nanostructured

  13. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  14. Group Members Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials Advanced Characterization Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of nanostructured materials. · Applications in nanophotonics, nanoelectronics, and energy. Experimental techniques, S. Gradecak,"Graphene cathode-based ZnO nanowire hybrid solar cells", Nano Letters 13, 233-239 (2013 particle composition to control structural and optical properties of GaN nanowires", Nanotechnology 23

  15. Novel thermal properties of nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, J. A.

    1999-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. For example, an approximately 20% improvement in effective thermal conductivity is observed when 5 vol.% CuO nanoparticles are added to water. Even more importantly, the heat transfer coefficient of water under dynamic flow conditions is increased more than 15% with the addition of less than 1 vol.% CuO particles. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films are being produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques. Preliminary results have indicated that the thermal conductivity is reduced by approximately a factor-of-two at room temperature in 10 nm grain-sized YSZ compared to coarse-grained or single crystal YSZ.

  16. Thermoelectric energy conversion using nanostructured materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Gang

    High performance thermoelectric materials in a wide range of temperatures are essential to broaden the application spectrum of thermoelectric devices. This paper presents experiments on the power and efficiency characteristics ...

  17. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  18. Chemistry Controls Material's Nanostructure | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma of theChemistry Oxide Interfaces

  19. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto (University of New Mexico); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  20. Nanostructuring superconductors by ion beams: A path towards materials engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerbaldo, Roberto; Ghigo, Gianluca; Gozzelino, Laura; Laviano, Francesco [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino c.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy and INFN Sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Amato, Antonino; Rovelli, Alberto [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Cherubini, Roberto [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, viale dell'Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper deals with nanostructuring of superconducting materials by means of swift heavy ion beams. The aim is to modify their structural, optical and electromagnetic properties in a controlled way, to provide possibility of making them functional for specific applications. Results are presented concerning flux pinning effects (implantation of columnar defects with nanosize cross section to enhance critical currents and irreversibility fields), confined flux-flow and vortex guidance, design of devices by locally tailoring the superconducting material properties, analysis of disorder-induced effects in multi-band superconductors. These studies were carried out on different kinds of superconducting samples, from single crystals to thin films, from superconducting oxides to magnesium diboride, to recently discovered iron-based superconductors.

  1. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  2. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  3. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  4. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  5. Chemical Functionalization of Nanostructured Materials Using Supercritical Reaction Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemanian, Thomas S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Liu, Jun; Mattigod, Shas V.; Shin, Yongsoon; Franz, James A.; Ustyugov, Oleksiy A.; Nie, Zimin

    2001-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There exists a need for durable and thin functional coatings to utilize the afforded surface area of highly porous ceramic materials. Deposition of silane-based Self Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) has thus far been limited to maximum coverages of 4-5 molecules/nm2 and long processing times (up to 2 weeks), due to the restricted internal geometry of the substrates. Results are presented for SAMs deposited on high surface area silica from supercritical fluids (SCFs). The SAMs so produced display unprecedented coverages, high monolayer integrity, and extremely low surface defect density. Moreover, the depositions and subsequent removal of reaction byproducts are complete in a matter of minutes rather than days. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of the surface modified silica are presented, demonstrating the SAM integrity and evolution over time. Sorption of aqueous metal ions is demonstrated, and results are given demonstrating the broad pH stability of the deposited SAMs. A chemical explanation for the enhanced deposition is posited, and the kinetics of mass transport into and out of the nanostructured spaces are discussed.Related experiments using zeolite substrates show deposition of thiol-terminated silanes to internal surfaces of 6? microporous material. After oxidation of the thiol functional group size selective chemistry was demonstrated using the produced catalyst, proving the efficacy of the supercritical reaction medium for installing functional coatings inside pores of similar diameters to the chain length of the deposited molecule[]. Comparisons are made between the response of the different substrates to the supercritical fluid-based processing, and remarks on the utility of SCF based processing of nanostructured materials are presented.

  6. Nanostructured materials for energy storage and energy conversion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reisner, D.E.; Xiao, T.D.; Strutt, P.R. [US Nanocorp, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Salkind, A.J. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    US Nanocorp, Inc. (USN) has developed an aqueous solution reaction (ASR) technique scalable for high volume production of nanostructured materials (n-materials) for a wide range of applications. By definition, nanophase materials have at least one physical dimension less than 10 nanometers (nm) in length, an attribute which imparts exceptional properties to them because the particle dimensions are close to atomic dimensions and there are a very high fraction of atoms residing at nanocrystalline grain boundaries. The high surface area of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage devices with electrochemical active sites (batteries, ultracapacitors) and energy conversion devices depending on catalytic sites or defect structure (e.g., fuel cells and thermoelectric devices). Potential application areas in both energy conversion and energy storage are discussed. Morphological studies of manganese dioxide have revealed the existence of both nanoporosity and mesoporosity within unusual superstructures comprised of nanorod building blocks. Nanophase nickel hydroxide has also been synthesized. Preliminary electrochemical studies are reported.

  7. Characterization of nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustyn, Veronica

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reactivity of vanadium oxide aerogels." Electrochimica Acta,B. Dunn. “Vanadium Oxide Aerogels: Nanostructured MaterialsE. & Dunn, B. V 2 O 5 aerogel as a versatile host for metal

  8. Adaptive Hierarchical Multiscale Framework for Modeling the Deformation of Ultra-Strong Nano-structured Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    , we plan to investigate the deformation characteris- tics of two classes of nano-structured materials. The proposed research will also impact graduate education world-wide by the developme

  9. Tuning energy transport in solar thermal systems using nanostructured materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar thermal energy conversion can harness the entire solar spectrum and theoretically achieve very high efficiencies while interfacing with thermal storage or back-up systems for dispatchable power generation. Nanostructured ...

  10. Method of making nanopatterns and nanostructures and nanopatterned functional oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dravid, Vinayak P; Donthu, Suresh K; Pan, Zixiao

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for nanopatterning of inorganic materials, such as ceramic (e.g. metal oxide) materials, and organic materials, such as polymer materials, on a variety of substrates to form nanopatterns and/or nanostructures with control of dimensions and location, all without the need for etching the materials and without the need for re-alignment between multiple patterning steps in forming nanostructures, such as heterostructures comprising multiple materials. The method involves patterning a resist-coated substrate using electron beam lithography, removing a portion of the resist to provide a patterned resist-coated substrate, and spin coating the patterned resist-coated substrate with a liquid precursor, such as a sol precursor, of the inorganic or organic material. The remaining resist is removed and the spin coated substrate is heated at an elevated temperature to crystallize the deposited precursor material.

  11. Impact of the Carbon and Tungsten Wall Materials on Deuterium Recycling and Neutral Fuelling in JET using EDGE2D/EIRENE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of the Carbon and Tungsten Wall Materials on Deuterium Recycling and Neutral Fuelling in JET using EDGE2D/EIRENE

  12. Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity and Conductivity in Advanced Nanostructured Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teweldebrhan, Desalegne Bekuretsion

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Magnetic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viimportants of understanding materials properties typicallyY.S. Ju, Annual Review of Materials Science, 29, 261 (1999).

  13. Electrochemical Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructured Chalcogenide Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chong Hyun

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superlattice Thermoelectric Materials and Devices. ScienceCarbon Nanotube Composite Materials. Langmuir 2004, 20, (nanotubes composite materials in solution. Chem. Phys. Lett.

  14. SPECIAL ISSUE: NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS 2010 Cyclodextrin modified gold nanoparticles-based open-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miksik, Ivan

    SPECIAL ISSUE: NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS 2010 Cyclodextrin modified gold nanoparticles-based open Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract In this study, spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) of 14 Capillary electrochromatography Á Gold nanoparticles Á b-Cyclodextrin Á Stationary phase Introduction

  15. Development of Nanostructured Materials with Improved Radiation Tolerance for Advanced Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinghang Zhang; K. Ted Hartwig

    2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will explore the fundamental mechanisms through which interfaces in nanolayered structures and grain boundaries of bulk nanomaterials are able to attract and rapidly eliminate point defects and unwanted foreign species. Candidate materials that will be studied include both nanostructured multilayer composites synthesized by magnetron sputtering and structural bulk nanomaterials produced by severed plastic deformation, equal channel angular extrusion.

  16. Post-doc position : Nanostructured materials for the realization of enhanced micro-supercapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingrand, François

    Post-doc position : Nanostructured materials for the realization of enhanced micro-supercapacitors and temperature range. The integration of low-profile, miniaturized supercapacitors could, CDC, CNT, RuO2...) for the development of micro-supercapacitors. An attractive

  17. Novel applications exploiting the thermal properties of nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, J. A.

    1998-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers.

  18. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  19. Nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries: Surface conductivity vs. bulk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Dominic

    Nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries: Surface conductivity vs. bulk ion cathode materials for high capacity lithium-ion batteries. Owing to their inherently low electronic-ion batteries. Lithium transition metal phosphates such as LiFePO4,1 LiMnPO4,2 Li3V2(PO4)3 3 and LiVPO4F4 have

  20. Exciton transport and coherence in molecular and nanostructured materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akselrod, Gleb M. (Gleb Markovitch)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 20 years a new classes of optically active materials have been developed that are composites of nano-engineered constituents such as molecules, polymers, and nanocrystals. These disordered materials have ...

  1. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bridge between the structural complexity of templated porous materials, and the electronic and optical complexity of semiconductor

  2. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based materials are used as EDLC electrodes due to theiror “mirror” behavior. In an EDLC, the adsorption of ions on

  3. Method of producing catalytic materials for fabricating nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of fabricating nano-catalysts are described. In some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a powder-based substrate material and is some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a solid-based substrate material. In some embodiments the substrate material may include metal, ceramic, or silicon or another metalloid. The nano-catalysts typically have metal nanoparticles disposed adjacent the surface of the substrate material. The methods typically include functionalizing the surface of the substrate material with a chelating agent, such as a chemical having dissociated carboxyl functional groups (--COO), that provides an enhanced affinity for metal ions. The functionalized substrate surface may then be exposed to a chemical solution that contains metal ions. The metal ions are then bound to the substrate material and may then be reduced, such as by a stream of gas that includes hydrogen, to form metal nanoparticles adjacent the surface of the substrate.

  4. Membranes from nanoporous 1D and 2D materials: A review of opportunities, developments, and challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    : Membranes Layered materials Nanoporous Nanotubes Separations Nanocomposites a b s t r a c t Membranes (composite/hybrid) or single-phase membranes. The influence of surface chemistry and processing techniques

  5. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason A. (Upton, NY); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Ahn, Channing (Pasadena, CA); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0

  6. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    band impact ionization and solar cell efficiency,” J. Appl.Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92, 273, (2008). [28]third generation solar cells Solar cells may be formed using

  7. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  8. JOM, 2013, Vol. 65, No. 2, pp. TBD. Modeling and simulation in composite materials integration from nanostructure to component level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    . In the long term, these resources are expected to enable development of new materials for critical application1 JOM, 2013, Vol. 65, No. 2, pp. TBD. Modeling and simulation in composite materials ­ integration from nanostructure to component level design Nikhil Gupta Composite Materials and Mechanics Laboratory

  9. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate.

  10. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Woan, Karran V. (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL); Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  11. Reactive Ballistic Deposition of Nanostructured Model Materials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flaherty, David W.; Hahn, Nathan T.; May, Robert A.; Berglund, Sean P.; Lin, Yong-Mao; Stevenson, Keith J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.; Mullins, C. Buddie

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Finely structured, supported thin films offer a host of opportunities for fundamental and applied research. Nanostructured materials often exhibit physical properties which differ from their bulk counterparts due to the increased importance of the surface in determining the thermodynamics and behavior of the system. Thus, control of the characteristic size, porosity, morphology, and surface area presents opportunities to tailor new materials which are useful platforms for elucidating the fundamental processes related to energy conversion and storage. The ability to produce high purity materials with direct control of relevant film parameters such as porosity, film thickness, and film morphology is of immediate interest in the fields of electrochemistry, photocatalysis, and thermal catalysis. Studies of various photoactive materials have introduced questions concerning the effects of film architecture and surface structure on the performance of the materials, while recent work has demonstrated that nanostructured, mesoporous, or disordered materials often deform plastically, making them robust in applications where volumetric expansion and phase transformations occur, such as in materials for lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, renewed emphasis has been placed on the formation of semi-conductive electrodes with controlled pore-size and large surface areas for the study and application of pseudo-capacitance and cation insertion processes for electrical energy storage. Understanding how the performance of such materials depends on morphology, porosity, and surface structure and area requires a synthesis technique which provides for incremental variations in structure and facilitates assessment of the performance with the appropriate analytical tools, preferably those that provide both structural information and kinetic insight into photoelectrochemical processes.

  12. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Charles L. (Cross Junction, VA); Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA); Vsevolodov, Nikolai N. (Kensington, MD)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  13. The optical applications of 3D sub-wavelength block-copolymer nanostructured functional materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, Zsolt; Ohodnicki, Paul; Chen, Kevin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to engineer the refractive indices of functional materials (TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, SiO2), by nanostructuring in the deep sub-wavelength regime (optical design techniques such as thin film optimization methods, transformation optics and conformal mapping. Refractive index optimized multi-layer anti-reflection coatings on crystalline silicon, which reduce light reflections from 38% down to ~3% with a wide angular span, are demonstrated with the developed wet processing route. A high temperature oxygen free fiber optic hydrogen sensor realized by accessing nano-engine...

  14. Electrochemical Properties of Nanostructured Al1-xCux Alloys as Anode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    controlling these two properties is the mag- nitude of interaction between the active and the inactiveElectrochemical Properties of Nanostructured Al1-xCux Alloys as Anode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries C. Y. Wang,a, * Y. S. Meng,b, * G. Ceder,c, *,z and Y. Lia,d,z a Advanced Materials

  15. Final Technical Summary: Center for Fundamental and Applied Research in Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Mullins, Tony Rogers, Julia King, Jason Keith, Bahne Cornilsen, Jeffrey Allen, Ryan Gilbert, Joseph Holles.

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The core projects for this DOE-sponsored Center at Michigan Tech have focused on several of the materials problems identified by the NAS. These include: new electrode materials, enhanced PEM materials, lighter and more effective bipolar plates, and improvement of the carbon used as a current carrier. This project involved fundamental and applied research in the development and testing of lightweight and nanostructured materials to be used in fuel cell applications and for chemical synthesis. The advent of new classes of materials engineered at the nanometer level can produce materials that are lightweight and have unique physical and chemical properties. The grant was used to obtain and improve the equipment infrastructure to support this research and also served to fund seven research projects. These included: 1. Development of lightweight, thermally conductive bipolar plates for improved thermal management in fuel cells; 2. Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts for fuel cells; 3. Development of hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites with improved ionic and electronic properties; 4. Development of oriented polymeric materials for membrane applications; 5. Preparation of a graphitic carbon foam current collectors; 6. The development of lightweight carbon electrodes using graphitic carbon foams for battery and fuel cell applications; and 7. Movement of water in fuel cell electrodes.

  16. NiO-silica based nanostructured materials obtained by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaly, M.; Comanescu, A.F. [University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)] [University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Rogozea, A.E. [ILIE MURGULESCU Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)] [ILIE MURGULESCU Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Vasile, E. [METAV Research and Development, 31 C.A. Rosetti, 020011 Bucharest (Romania)] [METAV Research and Development, 31 C.A. Rosetti, 020011 Bucharest (Romania); Meghea, A., E-mail: a.meghea@gmail.com [University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of NiO/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Highlights: {yields} Microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure for NiO silica nanomaterials synthesis. {yields} Controlling the size and shape of nanoparticles and avoiding their aggregation. {yields} Narrow band-gap semiconductors (energies <3 eV) absorbing VIS or near-UV light biologically and chemically inert semiconductors entrapping/coating in silica network. {yields} Low cost as the microemulsion is firstly used in water metallic cation extraction. -- Abstract: NiO-silica based materials have been synthesized by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure. The versatility of these soft nanotechnology techniques has been exploited in order to obtain different types of nanostructures, such as NiO nanoparticles, NiO silica coated nanoparticles and NiO embedded in silica matrix. These materials have been characterized by adequate structural and morphology techniques: DLS, HR-TEM/SAED, BET, AFM. Optical and semiconducting properties (band-gap values) of the synthesized materials have been quantified by means of VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra, thus demonstrating their applicative potential in various electron transfer phenomena such as photocatalysis, electrochromic thin films, solid oxide fuel cells.

  17. Converting environmentally hazardous materials into clean energy using a novel nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Yong X., E-mail: yong.gan@utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gan, Bo J. [Ottawa Hills High School, 2532 Evergreen Road, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)] [Ottawa Hills High School, 2532 Evergreen Road, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Clark, Evan; Su, Lusheng [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Zhang, Lihua [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)] [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? A photoelectrochemical fuel cell has been made from TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. ? The fuel cell decomposes environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity. ? Doping the anode with a transition metal oxide increases the visible light sensitivity. ? Loading the anode with a conducting polymer enhances the visible light absorption. -- Abstract: In this work, a novel photoelectrochemical fuel cell consisting of a titanium dioxide nanotube array photosensitive anode and a platinum cathode was made for decomposing environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity and clean fuel. Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO{sub 2} NTs) were prepared via electrochemical oxidation of pure Ti in an ammonium fluoride and glycerol-containing solution. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the morphology of the nanotubes. The average diameter, wall thickness and length of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} NTs were determined. The photosensitive anode made from the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} NTs has good photo-catalytic property, as proven by the decomposition tests on urea, ammonia, sodium sulfide and automobile engine coolant under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To improve the efficiency of the fuel cell, doping the TiO{sub 2} NTs with a transition metal oxide, NiO, was performed and the photosensitivity of the doped anode was tested under visible light irradiation. It is found that the NiO-doped anode is sensitive to visible light. Also found is that polyaniline-doped photosensitive anode can harvest photon energy in the visible light spectrum range much more efficiently than the NiO-doped one. It is concluded that the nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell can generate electricity and clean fuel by decomposing hazardous materials under sunlight.

  18. Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods Nanostructure, Chemistry and...

  19. Diffusion and related phenomena in bulk nanostructured materials Corresponding author: A. P. Zhilyaev, e-mail: AlexZh@mail.rb.ru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ovid'ko Ilya A.

    the paper on finding of low temperature and/or high strain rate superplasticity in nanocrystalline metals Chernogolovka, Moscow District, Russia 6 Institute for Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation and their microstructural characterization, evolution of bulk nanostructured materials during heating. Experimental study

  20. Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogale, Amod A

    2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear energy is a dependable and economical source of electricity. Because fuel supply sources are available domestically, nuclear energy can be a strong domestic industry that can reduce dependence on foreign energy sources. Commercial nuclear power plants have extensive security measures to protect the facility from intruders [1]. However, additional research efforts are needed to increase the inherent process safety of nuclear energy plants to protect the public in the event of a reactor malfunction. The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is envisioned to utilize a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design with an operating temperature of 650-1000�°C [2]. One of the most important safety design requirements for this reactor is that it must be inherently safe, i.e., the reactor must shut down safely in the event that the coolant flow is interrupted [2]. This next-generation Gen IV reactor must operate in an inherently safe mode where the off-normal temperatures may reach 1500�°C due to coolant-flow interruption. Metallic alloys used currently in reactor internals will melt at such temperatures. Structural materials that will not melt at such ultra-high temperatures are carbon/graphtic fibers and carbon-matrix composites. Graphite does not have a measurable melting point; it is known to sublime starting about 3300�°C. However, neutron radiation-damage effects on carbon fibers are poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this project is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nanotexture on the properties of resulting carbon fibers and their neutron-damage characteristics. Although polygranular graphite has been used in nuclear environment for almost fifty years, it is not suitable for structural applications because it do not possess adequate strength, stiffness, or toughness that is required of structural components such as reaction control-rods, upper plenum shroud, and lower core-support plate [2,3]. For structural purposes, composites consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

  1. Identifying topological-band insulator transitions in silicene and other 2D gapped Dirac materials by means of Rényi-Wehrl entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Calixto; E. Romera

    2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new method to identify transitions from a topological insulator to a band insulator in silicene (the silicon equivalent of graphene) in the presence of perpendicular magnetic and electric fields, by using the R\\'enyi-Wehrl entropy of the quantum state in phase space. Electron-hole entropies display an inversion/crossing behavior at the charge neutrality point for any Landau level, and the combined entropy of particles plus holes turns out to be maximum at this critical point. The result is interpreted in terms of delocalization of the quantum state in phase space. The entropic description presented in this work will be valid in general 2D gapped Dirac materials, with a strong intrinsic spin-orbit interaction, isoestructural with silicene.

  2. Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures as cathode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y.H., E-mail: yhding@xtu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Ren, H.M. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Huang, Y.Y. [BTR New Energy Materials Inc., Shenzhen 518000 (China); Chang, F.H.; Zhang, P. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} composites as a high-performance cathode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries have been prepared by using a co-precipitation method to synthesize graphene/LiFePO4 powders as precursors and then followed by a solvent evaporation process. - Highlights: • Flexible LiFePO{sub 4}/graphene films were prepared first time by a solvent evaporation process. • The flexible electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity without conductive additives. • Graphene network offers the electrode adequate strength to withstand repeated flexing. - Abstract: Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures for flexible lithium-ion batteries were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Structural characteristics of flexible electrodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance of graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} was examined by a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures showed high electrochemical properties and significant flexibility. The composites with low graphene content exhibited a high capacity of 163.7 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.1 C and 114 mAh g{sup ?1} at 5 C without further incorporation of conductive agents.

  3. Graphene and its Hybrid Nanostructures for Nanoelectronics and Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LIN, JIAN

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructure for Enhanced Hydrogen Storage. Nano Letters,Electrochemical storage of hydrogen in nanotube materials.

  4. Synthesis of nanostructured materials in supercritical ammonia: nitrides, metals and oxides Desmoulins-Krawiec S., Aymonier C., Loppinet-Serani A., Weill F., Grosse S., Etourneau J., Cansell F.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    N in supercritical cryogenic nitrogen by self-propagating-high- temperature synthesis (6.21 MPa, ­141 °C);19 (ii) GaSynthesis of nanostructured materials in supercritical ammonia: nitrides, metals and oxides. Abstract : In this study, the synthesis of nanostructured particles of nitrides (Cr2N, Co2N, Fe4N, Cu3N, Ni

  5. Deeply-trapped molecules in self-nanostructured gas-phase material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alharbi, M; Debord, B; Gerome, F; Benabid, F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the advent of atom laser-cooling, trapping or cooling natural molecules has been a long standing and challenging goal. Here, we demonstrate a method for laser-trapping molecules that is radically novel in its configuration, in its underlined physical dynamics and in its outcomes. It is based on self-optically spatially-nanostructured high pressure molecular hydrogen confined in hollow-core photonic-crystal-fibre. An accelerating molecular-lattice is formed by a periodic potential associated with Raman saturation except for a 1-dimentional array of nanometer wide and strongly-localizing sections. In these sections, molecules with a speed of as large as 1800 m/s are trapped, and stimulated Raman scattering in the Lamb-Dicke regime occurs to generate high power forward and backward-Stokes continuous-wave laser with sideband-resolved sub-Doppler emission spectrum. The spectrum exhibits a central line with a sub-recoil linewidth of as low as 14 kHz, more than 5 orders-of-magnitude narrower than in convention...

  6. Deeply-trapped molecules in self-nanostructured gas-phase material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Alharbi; A. Husakou; B. Debord; F. Gerome; F. Benabid

    2015-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the advent of atom laser-cooling, trapping or cooling natural molecules has been a long standing and challenging goal. Here, we demonstrate a method for laser-trapping molecules that is radically novel in its configuration, in its underlined physical dynamics and in its outcomes. It is based on self-optically spatially-nanostructured high pressure molecular hydrogen confined in hollow-core photonic-crystal-fibre. An accelerating molecular-lattice is formed by a periodic potential associated with Raman saturation except for a 1-dimentional array of nanometer wide and strongly-localizing sections. In these sections, molecules with a speed of as large as 1800 m/s are trapped, and stimulated Raman scattering in the Lamb-Dicke regime occurs to generate high power forward and backward-Stokes continuous-wave laser with sideband-resolved sub-Doppler emission spectrum. The spectrum exhibits a central line with a sub-recoil linewidth of as low as 14 kHz, more than 5 orders-of-magnitude narrower than in conventional Raman scattering, and sidebands comprising Mollow triplet, molecular motional-sidebands and four-wave-mixing.

  7. Characterization of nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustyn, Veronica

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of High Energy-Density Batteries. Electrochemistry: Past and1971). Huggins, R. A. Advanced Batteries: Materials ScienceC. A. & Scrosati, B. Modern Batteries: An Introduction to

  8. An Experimental Study of Deformation and Fracture of a Nanostructured Metallic Material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel Al, Nisrin Rizek

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    with the finest microstructure. They also point to the need for careful characterization of temperature effects before such materials can be considered in structural applications....

  9. Nanostructured thin film thermoelectric composite materials using conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuryak, Chris A. (Chris Adam)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric materials have the ability to convert heat directly into electricity. This clean energy technology has advantages over other renewable technologies in that it requires no sunlight, has no moving parts, and ...

  10. Molecular Level Assessment of Thermal Transport and Thermoelectricity in Materials: From Bulk Alloys to Nanostructures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinaci, Alper

    2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    applications. Carbon- and boron nitride-based nanomaterials also offer new opportunities in many applications from thermoelectrics to fast heat removers. For these materials, molecular dynamics calculations are used to evaluate lattice thermal transport. To do...

  11. Incorporation of Novel Nanostructured Materials into Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua; Holland, Andrew; Hunt, Alan; Bitterwolf, Thomas; Qiang, You; Bergman, Leah; Berven, Christine; Punnoose, Alex; Tenne, Dmitri

    2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Each of the investigators on this project has had significant accomplishments toward the production of semiconductor nanoparticles, particles, and thin films and attempts to incorporate these materials into photovoltaics or sensors; to use them for improving fluorescence diagnostics; or to employ them as cancer fighting agents. The synthesis and characterization of the nanomaterials, and more recently the device construction and testing of these materials, have been the subject of several publications and presentations by team members. During the course of the investigations, several students were fully involved as part of their graduate and undergraduate training. The nature of these projects in material development dictates that the students have gained significant experience in a diverse array of material-related topics.

  12. Facile synthesis of nanostructured vanadium oxide as cathode materials for efficient Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -ion batteries Yanyi Liu,a Evan Uchaker,a Nan Zhou,ab Jiangang Li,ac Qifeng Zhanga and Guozhong Cao*a Received 23 and VO2 (B) nanorods were tested as active cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The V2O5 sheet for efficient Li-ion batteries. Introduction The expansion and demands for energy use in the past several

  13. Vanadium oxide based nanostructured materials for catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane : effect of heterometallic centers on the catalyst performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, M. I.; Deb, S.; Aydemir, K.; Alwarthan, A. A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Miller, J. T.; Marshall, C. L. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Illinois Inst. of Tech.); (King Saud Univ.)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic properties of a series of new class of catalysts materials-[Co{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42} (XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Co), [Fe{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Fe) (X = V, S) and [H{sub 6}Mn{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(VO{sub 4})].30H{sub 2}O for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane is studied. The open-framework nanostructures in these novel materials consist of three-dimensional arrays of {l_brace}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4}){r_brace} (X = V, S) clusters interconnected by {l_brace}-O-M-O-{r_brace} (M = Mn, Fe, Co) linkers. The effect of change in the heterometallic center M (M = Mn, Co, Fe) of the linkers on the catalyst performance was studied. The catalyst material with Co in the linker showed the best performance in terms of propane conversion and selectivity at 350 C. The material containing Fe was most active but least selective and Mn containing catalyst was least active. The catalysts were characterized by Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), BET surface area measurement, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. TPR results show that all three catalysts are easily reducible and therefore are active at relatively low temperature. In situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) studies revealed that the oxidation state of Co(II) remained unchanged up to 425 C (even after pretreatment). The reduction of Co(II) into metallic form starts at 425 C and this process is completed at 600 C.

  14. Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods DOE 2011 Vehicle Technologies...

  15. Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Yu (Saline, MI); Banerjee, Debasish (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

  16. Nanostructured Materials for Advanced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    on an already stretched world energy infrastructure. One alternative ener- gy/power source under serious consid of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). High energy and high power densities for such electrochemical energy stor- age and conversion. It has been inten- sively studied for use as power supplies

  17. NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lumin [Regents of the University of Michigan; Lu, Wei [Regents of the University of Michigan

    2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energetic ion bombardment can lead to the development of complex and diverse nanostructures on or beneath the material surface through induced self-organization processes. These self-organized structures have received particular interest recently as promising candidates as simple, inexpensive, and large area patterns, whose optical, electronic and magnetic properties are different from those in the bulk materials [1-5]. Compared to the low mass efficiency production rate of lithographic methods, these self-organized approaches display new routes for the fabrication of nanostructures over large areas in a short processing time at the nanoscale, beyond the limits of lithography [1,4]. Although it is believed that surface nanostructure formation is based on the morphological instability of the sputtered surface, driven by a kinetic balance between roughening and smoothing actions [6,7], the fundamental mechanisms and experimental conditions for the formation of these nanostructures has still not been well established, the formation of the 3-D naopatterns beneath the irradiated surface especially needs more exploration. During the last funding period, we have focused our efforts on irradiation-induced nanostructures in a broad range of materials. These structures have been studied primarily through in situ electron microscopy during electron or ion irradiation. In particular, we have performed studies on 3-D void/bubble lattices (in metals and CaF2), embedded sponge-like porous structure with uniform nanofibers in irradiated semiconductors (Ge, GaSb, and InSb), 2-D highly ordered pattern of nanodroplets (on the surface of GaAs), hexagonally ordered nanoholes (on the surface of Ge), and 1-D highly ordered ripple and periodic arrays (of Cu nanoparticles) [3,8-11]. The amazing common feature in those nanopatterns is the uniformity of the size of nanoelements (nanoripples, nanodots, nanovoids or nanofibers) and the distance separating them. Our research focuses on the understanding of fundamental scientific basis for the irradiation-induced self-organization processes. The fundamental physical mechanisms underlying ordered pattern formation, which include defect production and migration, ion sputtering, redeposition, viscous flow and diffusion, are investigated through a combination of modeling and in situ and ex-situ observations [3,9,11]. In addition, these nanostructured materials exhibit considerable improvement of optical properties [9,12,13]. For example, patterned Ge with a hexagonally ordered, honeycomb-like structure of nanoscale holes possesses a high surface area and a considerably blue-shifted energy gap [9], and oxidation of ordered Ga droplets shows noticeable enhancement of optical transmission [12]. This research has addressed nanopattern formation in a variety of materials under ion bombardment and provided a fundamental understanding of the dynamic mechanisms involved. In addition, have also stared to systematically investigate pattern formation under ion irradiation for more systems with varied experimental conditions and computation, including the collaboration with Dr. Veena Tikare of Sandia National Laboratory with a hybrid computation method at the ending this grant. A more detailed relationship between nanostructure formation and experimental conditions will be revealed with our continued efforts.

  18. Materials Synthesis and Characterization | Center for Functional...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Synthesis and Characterization Facility materials synthesis The Materials Synthesis and Characterization Facility includes laboratories for producing nanostructured...

  19. Micrometer-Thin Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cells Integrating Numerically Optimized 2-D Photonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Depauw, V; Daif, O El; Gomard, G; Lalouat, L; Drouard, E; Trompoukis, C; Fave, A; Seassal, C; Gordon, I

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2-D photonic crystal was integrated experimentally into a thin-film crystalline-silicon solar cell of 1-{\\mu}m thickness, after numerical optimization maximizing light absorption in the active material. The photonic crystal boosted the short-circuit current of the cell, but it also damaged its open-circuit voltage and fill factor, which led to an overall decrease in performances. Comparisons between modeled and actual optical behaviors of the cell, and between ideal and actual morphologies, show the global robustness of the nanostructure to experimental deviations, but its particular sensitivity to the conformality of the top coatings and the spread in pattern dimensions, which should not be neglected in the optical model. As for the electrical behavior, the measured internal quantum efficiency shows the strong parasitic absorptions from the transparent conductive oxide and from the back-reflector, as well as the negative impact of the nanopattern on surface passivation. Our exemplifying case, thus, illustr...

  20. ESSDERC, Bucharest, Sep. 19, 2013.Kaustav Banerjee, UCSB 2D Electronics: Graphene and Beyond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liebling, Michael

    ESSDERC, Bucharest, Sep. 19, 2013.Kaustav Banerjee, UCSB 2D Electronics: Graphene and Beyond Electronics? I will use 2D electronic materials: Graphene and Beyond #12;ESSDERC, Bucharest, Sep. 19, 2013.Kaustav Banerjee, UCSB 2D Electronic Materials 2D family tree TMD family Graphene family Other families

  1. Novel photonic phenomena in nanostructured material systems with applications and mid-range efficient insensitive wireless energy-transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karalis, Aristeidis, 1978-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of novel mechanisms for the manipulation of light in the nanoscale is provided. In the class of all-dielectric material systems, techniques for the suppression of radiative loss from incomplete-photonic-bandgap ...

  2. Biomedical applications of nanostructured polymer films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Jonathan Brian

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Functional polymeric thin films are often stratified with nanometer level structure and distinct purposes for each layer. These nanostructured polymeric materials are useful in a wide variety of applications including drug ...

  3. dirfield2d.m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % function dirfield2d % This program plots a direction field for an ODE x'=Ax, where A is % a 2x2 matrix, with the option of also plotting solution curves to % initial ...

  4. Solving the Capacitive Paradox of 2D MXene using Electrochemical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * DOI: 10.1002aenm.201400815 energy storage applications, such as bat- tery and supercapacitor electrodes. 4,5 These 2D materials are so labeled because, they are produced...

  5. Dendritic metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  6. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices."devices for energy harvesting, storage, and conversion are based on the incorporation of nanostructured

  7. Two-dimensional polymer synthesis : towards a two-dimensional replicating system for nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosley, David W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general concept of a replicating monolayer system is introduced as a new method of nanostructure synthesis. One possible implementation of a 2-D replicating system is pursued which uses a diacetylene moiety for ...

  8. Reliability of Nano-Structured Nickel Interconnections Replacing FlipChip Solder Assembly without Underfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    Reliability of Nano-Structured Nickel Interconnections Replacing FlipChip Solder Assembly without nano-structured nickel as the primary interconnection material. Assembly was accomplished materials such as nanostructured copper and nickel, novel bonding and barrier layers to provide both

  9. Electrochemical Nanoscale Templating: Laterally Self-Aligned Growth of Organic-Metal Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    attractive for a wide range of applications such as the fabrication of nanoscale devices, energy storage of nanostructures into 2D or 3D arrays is necessary for the further hierarchical development of devices. TemplatingElectrochemical Nanoscale Templating: Laterally Self-Aligned Growth of Organic-Metal Nanostructures

  10. Ceramic nanostructures and methods of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Structures and methods for the fabrication of ceramic nanostructures. Structures include metal particles, preferably comprising copper, disposed on a ceramic substrate. The structures are heated, preferably in the presence of microwaves, to a temperature that softens the metal particles and preferably forms a pool of molten ceramic under the softened metal particle. A nano-generator is created wherein ceramic material diffuses through the molten particle and forms ceramic nanostructures on a polar site of the metal particle. The nanostructures may comprise silica, alumina, titania, or compounds or mixtures thereof.

  11. Determining Transition State Geometries in Liquids Using 2D-IR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahoon, James

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Material Determining transition state geometries in liquidsDetermining transition state geometries in liquids using 2D-are determined by the transition state connecting reactant

  12. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in nanostructured materials. Fieldstechniques include scanning probe microscopy, neutron scattering, optical spectroscopy and soft-matter electron and helium ion...

  13. Nanostructures DOI: 10.1002/anie.200600429

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Moore, Yong Ding, and Zhong Lin Wang* Wurtzite-structured materials, such as ZnO, ZnS, GaN, and Al, these nanostructures have been mainly observed for ZnO, although nanosprings of wurtzite-structured AlN[5] and rutile member in the wurtzite family and one of the most important materials in photonics, is a direct wide

  14. Synthesis and Enhanced Intercalation Properties of Nanostructured Vanadium Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    intercalation properties of nanostructured vanadium oxides for energy storage as well as other applications-volume, and environment friendly energy storage/conversion devices are developed, and nanomaterials are attracting great-18 The nanostructured form of this material has been employed in FETs,19 sensors,20,21 spintronic devices,22

  15. Stepwise Nanopore Evolution in One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    dielectric layers in microelectronic devices,5 hydrogen storage materi- als,6 supercapacitor electrodes,7Stepwise Nanopore Evolution in One-Dimensional Nanostructures Jang Wook Choi,, James Mc be used to produce nanopores inside various useful one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as zinc oxide

  16. Oriented Nanostructures for Energy Conversion and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong H.; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; DuBois, Daniel L.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Graff, Gordon L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the role of nanostructured materials in addressing the challenges in energy and natural resources has attracted wide attention. In particular, oriented nanostructures have demonstrated promising properties for energy harvesting, conversion and storage. The purpose of the paper is to review the synthesis and application of oriented nanostructures in a few key areas of energy technologies, namely photovoltaics, batteries, supercapacitors and thermoelectrics. Although the applications differ from field to field, one of the fundamental challenges is to improve the generation and transport of electrons and ions. We will first briefly review the several major approaches to attain oriented nanostructured films that are applicable for energy applications. We will then discuss how such controlled nanostructures can be used in photovoltaics, batteries, capacitors, thermoelectrics, and other unconventional ways of energy conversion. We will highlight the role of high surface area to maximize the surface activity, and the importance of optimum dimension and architecture, controlled pore channels and alignment of the nanocrystalline phase to optimize the electrons and ion transport. Finally, the paper will discuss the challenges in attaining integrated architectures to achieve the desired performance. Brief background information will be provided for the relevant technologies, but the emphasis is focused mainly on the nanoeffects of mostly inorganic based materials and devices.

  17. Colloidal Manipulation of Nanostructures: Stable Dispersion and Self-assembly 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dazhi

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation work addresses two important aspects of nanotechnology - stable dispersion and self-assembly of colloidal nanostructures. Three distinctly different types of nano-scaled materials have been studied: 0-dimensional ZnO quantum dots...

  18. Towards electroformed nanostructured aluminum alloys with high strength and ductility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruan, Shiyun

    Nanostructured Al–Mn alloys are proposed as high-strength low-density materials, which can be electroformed (i.e., produced electrolytically and removed from the substrate) from ionic liquid. A variety of current waveforms, ...

  19. Fabrication of gold nanostructures through pulsed laser interference patterning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Dajun, E-mail: dajun.yuan@gmail.com; Acharya, Ranadip, E-mail: racharya@gatech.edu [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)] [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Das, Suman, E-mail: sumandas@gatech.edu [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States) [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we report on the experimental development and computational modeling of a simple, one-step method for the fabrication of diverse 2D and 3D periodic nanostructures derived from gold films on silicon substrates and over areas spanning 1?cm{sup 2}. These nanostructures can be patterned on films of thickness ranging from 50?nm to 500?nm with pulsed interfering laser beams. A finite volume-based inhomogeneous multiphase model of the process shows reasonable agreement with the experimentally obtained topographies and provides insights on the flow physics including normal and radial expansion that results in peeling of film from the substrate.

  20. Models of the formation of oxide phases in nanostructured materials based on lead chalcogenides subjected to treatment in oxygen and iodine vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maraeva, E. V., E-mail: jenvmar@mail.ru; Moshnikov, V. A.; Tairov, Yu. M. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University 'LETI' (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University 'LETI' (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Model concepts concerning control over the formation of oxide layers during the course of oxidation are developed on the basis of experimental results of studies of systematic features of the formation of nanostructured layers after diffusion annealing. Data on a variation in the composition of oxide phases as the extent of deviation from stoichiometry is changed in the initial lead chalcogenide are presented. Model concepts related to the possibility of varying the thickness of the coating oxide phases using annealing in an oxygen-containing medium are developed. It is shown that annealing in an iodine atmosphere ensures the effective penetration of oxygen into the grains, which is necessary for an increase in the photoluminescence efficiency.

  1. Magnetic/metallic thin films and nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    examples. During the past decade applications of nano-scale magnetic devices to data storage have hadMagnetic/metallic thin films and nanostructures The College of William and MarY;'l Virginia http://www.as.wm.cdu/Faculty/Lukaszcw.html It is widely believed that revolutionary progress can be made as materials and devices are developed to operate

  2. Patterned Magnetic Nanostructures and Quantized Magnetic Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -increasing demands in data storage and to new applications of magnetic devices in the field of sensors. NewPatterned Magnetic Nanostructures and Quantized Magnetic Disks STEPHEN Y. CHOU Invited Paper, opens up new opportunities for engineering innovative magnetic materials and devices, developing ultra

  3. Phonon engineering for nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubry, Sylvie (Stanford University); Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Peebles, Diane Elaine; Hurley, David H. (Idaho National Laboratory); Shinde, Subhash L.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Emerson, John Allen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for {Sigma}29(001) and {Sigma}3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.

  4. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  5. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentry, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wehlburg, Christine M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wehlburg, Joseph C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Mark W. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Jody L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  6. Nanostructures in Skutterudites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In-situ synthesis by thermodynamic means such as phase segregation, for fabricating skutterudite-based nanocomposites yield robust and stable nanostructure phases likely to survive harsh thermoelectric power generation environments

  7. Trends in Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals with Designed Nanoarchitecture Trends in Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals with Designed...

  8. Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  9. Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application...

  10. Molecular Variables in the Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    for materials in order to understand some of the central issues in the creation of supramolecular materi- alsMolecular Variables in the Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Nanostructures Martin U. Pralle, Craig M. Whitaker, Paul V. Braun, and Samuel I. Stupp* Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department

  11. Nanowires, nanostructures and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arun (Orinda, CA); Shakouri, Ali (Santa Cruz, CA); Sands, Timothy D. (Moraga, CA); Yang, Peidong (Berkeley, CA); Mao, Samuel S. (Berkeley, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA); Feick, Henning (Kensington, CA); Weber, Eicke R. (Oakland, CA); Kind, Hannes (Schaffhausen, CH); Huang, Michael (Los Angeles, CA); Yan, Haoquan (Albany, CA); Wu, Yiying (Albany, CA); Fan, Rong (El Cerrito, CA)

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  12. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 628 2000 Materials Research Society Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Diblock Copolymers. Nanostructure in Polyhedral Oligomeric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Our main approach to the synthesis and study of hybrid organic/inorganic materials involvesMat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 628 © 2000 Materials Research Society CC2.6.1 Hybrid Inorganic the synthesis of melt processable, linear hybrid polymers containing pendent inorganic clusters, and allows us

  13. TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.

  14. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  15. Finite Heat conduction in 2D Lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Yang; Yang Kongqing

    2001-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a 2D hamonic lattices model with missing bond defects, when the capacity ratio of defects is enough large, the temperature gradient can be formed and the finite heat conduction is found in the model. The defects in the 2D harmonic lattices impede the energy carriers free propagation, by another words, the mean free paths of the energy carrier are relatively short. The microscopic dynamics leads to the finite conduction in the model.

  16. Implementation, study and calibration of a modified ASM2d for the simulation of SBR processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sludge Model n. 2d, its new features are the splitting of the nitrification stage in a two-step process for the "train" of the controller. Materials and method In Table 1, the characteristics of the synthetic f

  17. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  18. Thin films versus 2D sheets in layered structures: graphene and 2D metallic sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo E. Sernelius

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study an interface between two media separated by a strictly 2D sheet. We show how the amplitude reflection coefficient can be modeled by that for an interface where the 2D sheet has been replaced by a film of small but finite thickness. We give the relationship between the 3D dielectric function of the thin film and the 2D dielectric function of the sheet. We choose graphene and a 2D metallic sheet as illustrative examples. This approach turns out to be very useful when treating graphene or graphene like sheets in non-planar structures

  19. Multiscale materials design of natural exoskeletons : fish armor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Juha

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological materials have developed hierarchical and heterogeneous material nanostructures and microstructures to provide protection against various environmental threats that, in turn, provide bioinspired clues to man-made, ...

  20. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W., E-mail: cwdomier@ucdavis.edu; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  1. Quasi 2D Materials: Raman Nanometrology and Thermal Management Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahil, Khan Mohammad Farhan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and methods of graphene preparation. Low TBR of graphenemethod [1-3] and graphene composite preparation techniques [The graphene-MLG concentrations utilized for preparation of

  2. Quasi 2D Materials: Raman Nanometrology and Thermal Management Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahil, Khan Mohammad Farhan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high degree of crystalinity. 4.2.3 Stoichiometric Composition and Crystallinity: Energy Dispersive Spectrometry

  3. Quasi 2D Materials: Raman Nanometrology and Thermal Management Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahil, Khan Mohammad Farhan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    centrifugation time. (b) Epoxy resin mixed with curing agentcentrifugation time (b) Epoxy resin mixed with curing agentand MLG with n=2-10. The epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of

  4. Quasi 2D Materials: Raman Nanometrology and Thermal Management Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahil, Khan Mohammad Farhan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BTE Electrical self- heating Electrical Theory: MD Theory:optothermal Electrical self- heating Electrical Theory:VFF,study, which used an electrical self-heating method, found K

  5. Structural design of 2D materials for electronic and optoelectronic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ... Strengthening a solidRadiation

  6. NANO EXPRESS Fabrication of Large Area Periodic Nanostructures Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohseni, Hooman

    , such as photonic band-gap materials, high dense data storage, and photonic devices. We have developed a maskless areas, such as photonic band-gap materials [1], high dense data storage [2], and photonic devices [3NANO EXPRESS Fabrication of Large Area Periodic Nanostructures Using Nanosphere Photolithography

  7. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  8. Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells...

  9. Animation : 2D versus 3D and their combined effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Au, Kristin C

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis studies the differences in the perception of space and character movement between 2D and 3D animation. 2D animation is defined by elements constructed in a 2D environment while 3D animation by elements constructed ...

  10. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 44, NO. 7, JULY 2008 1935 Reversal Mechanisms in Ferromagnetic Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeyeye, Adekunle

    devices. A major challenge for technological applications of magnetic nanostructures arrays is the precise Nanostructures A. O. Adeyeye, S. Goolaup, N. Singh, W. Jun, C. C. Wang, S. Jain, and D. Tripathy Information Storage Materials Laboratory (ISML), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National

  11. NANOSTRUCTURED SOLAR CELLS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY PHOTOVOLTAICS Christiana B. Honsberg1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    mechanisms and device structures and materials to implement nanostructured solar cells, and low cost to lattice matching and; (3) the potential for low cost solar cell structures using self to circumvent both existing efficiency and cost drivers. While nanostructured solar cells have significant

  12. Methods for and products of processing nanostructure nitride, carbonitride and oxycarbonitride electrode power materials by utilizing sol gel technology for supercapacitor applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yuhong (West Hills, CA); Wei, Oiang (West Hills, CA); Chu, Chung-tse (Chatsworth, CA); Zheng, Haixing (Oak Park, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder with high surface area (up to 150 m.sup.2 /g) is prepared by using sol-gel process. The metal organic precursor, alkoxides or amides, is synthesized firstly. The metal organic precursor is modified by using unhydrolyzable organic ligands or templates. A wet gel is formed then by hydrolysis and condensation process. The solvent in the wet gel is then be removed supercritically to form porous amorphous hydroxide. This porous hydroxide materials is sintered to 725.degree. C. under the ammonia flow and porous nitride powder is formed. The other way to obtain high surface area nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder is to pyrolyze polymerized templated metal amides aerogel in an inert atmosphere. The electrochemical capacitors are prepared by using sol-gel prepared nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder. Two methods are used to assemble the capacitors. Electrode is formed either by pressing the mixture of nitride powder and binder to a foil, or by depositing electrode coating onto metal current collector. The binder or coating is converted into a continuous network of electrode material after thermal treatment to provide enhanced energy and power density. Liquid electrolyte is soaked into porous electrode. The electrochemical capacitor assembly further has a porous separator layer between two electrodes/electrolyte and forming a unit cell.

  13. 3D rotational diffusion microrheology using 2D video microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rémy Colin; Minhao Yan; Loudjy Chevry; Jean-François Berret; Bérengčre Abou

    2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple way to perform three-dimensional (3D) rotational microrheology using two-dimensional (2D) video microscopy. The 3D rotational brownian motion of micrometric wires in a viscous fluid is deduced from their projection on the focal plane of an optical microscope objective. The rotational diffusion coefficient of the wires of length between 1-100 \\mu m is extracted, as well as their diameter distribution in good agreement with electron microscopy measurements. This is a promising way to characterize soft visco-elastic materials, and probe the dimensions of anisotropic objects.

  14. Engineering nanostructured electrodes away from equilibrium for lithium-ion Yanyi Liu, Dawei Liu, Qifeng Zhang and Guozhong Cao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    - izations of nanostructured materials for energy storage devices. Dawei Liu Dr Dawei Liu is a postdocEngineering nanostructured electrodes away from equilibrium for lithium-ion batteries Yanyi Liu materials, Li-ion batteries have achieved significant progress in energy storage performance since

  15. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volz, Heather [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veauthier, Jackie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Marius [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  16. Note and calculations concerning elastic dilatancy in 2D glass-glass liquid foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    François Molino; Pierre Rognon; Cyprien Gay

    2010-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    When deformed, liquid foams tend to raise their liquid contents like immersed granular materials, a phenomenon called dilatancy. We have aready described a geometrical interpretation of elastic dilatancy in 3D foams and in very dry foams squeezed between two solid plates (2D GG foams). Here, we complement this work in the regime of less dry 2D GG foams. In particular, we highlight the relatively strong dilatancy effects expected in the regime where we have predicted rapid Plateau border variations.

  17. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award February...

  18. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including device integration and assembly, chemical and biological sensing, and photocatalysis. For example, a hybrid nanostructure consisting of a semiconductor rod with a...

  19. Algebraic theory of crystal vibrations: Singularities and zeros in vibrations of 1D and 2D lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Iachello; B. Dietz; M. Miski-Oglu; A. Richter

    2015-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for the calculation of the energy dispersion relation (EDR) and density of states (DOS) in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions is introduced and applied to linear lattices (1D) and square and hexagonal lattices (2D). The (van Hove) singularities and (Dirac) zeros of the DOS are discussed. Results for the 2D hexagonal lattice (graphene-like materials) are compared with experimental data in microwave photonic crystals.

  20. 2-D color code quantum computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Austin G. Fowler

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe in detail how to perform universal fault-tolerant quantum computation on a 2-D color code, making use of only nearest neighbor interactions. Three defects (holes) in the code are used to represent logical qubits. Triple defect logical qubits are deformed into isolated triangular sections of color code to enable transversal implementation of all single logical qubit Clifford group gates. CNOT is implemented between pairs of triple defect logical qubits via braiding.

  1. MESH2D GRID GENERATOR DESIGN AND USE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.; Smith, F.

    2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j{sub 0}) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations. The overall mesh is constructed from grid zones that are typically then subdivided into a collection of smaller grid cells. The grid zones usually correspond to distinct materials or larger-scale geometric shapes. The structured grid zones are identified through uppercase indices (I,J). Subdivision of zonal regions into grid cells can be done uniformly, or nonuniformly using either a polynomial or geometric skewing algorithm. Grid cells may be concentrated backward, forward, or toward both ends. Figure 1 illustrates the above concepts in the context of a simple four zone grid.

  2. Luminescent systems based on the isolation of conjugated PI systems and edge charge compensation with polar molecules on a charged nanostructured surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Zhao, Bin; Geohegan, David B.; Styers-Barnett, David J.; Hu, Hui

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A photoluminescent or electroluminescent system and method of making a non-luminescent nanostructured material into such a luminescent system is presented. The method of preparing the luminescent system, generally, comprises the steps of modifying the surface of a nanostructured material to create isolated regions to act as luminescent centers and to create a charge imbalance on the surface; applying more than one polar molecule to the charged surface of the nanostructured material; and orienting the polar molecules to compensate for the charge imbalance on the surface of the nanostructured material. The compensation of the surface charge imbalance by the polar molecules allows the isolated regions to exhibit luminescence.

  3. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  4. Wetting and phase-change phenomena on micro/nanostructures for enhanced heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro/nanostructures have been extensively studied to amplify the intrinsic wettability of materials to create superhydrophilic or superhydrophobic surfaces. Such extreme wetting properties can influence the heat transfer ...

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of 1-, 2- and 3-Dimensional Chalcogenide Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Hyunsung

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. Yan, Q. Zhang and T. M. Tritt, Unique nanostructures and128: p. 3241-3247 T. M. Tritt, THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS:B. Zhang, J. He and T. M. Tritt, Size-selective high-yield

  6. Three-dimensional nanostructures fabricated by stacking pre-patterned monocrystalline silicon nanomembranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fucetola, Corey Patrick

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers the viability of nanomembrane handling and stacking approaches to enable the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) nano-structured materials. Sequentially stacking previously-patterned membranes to ...

  7. Subwavelength resonant nanostructured films for sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Edwards, Daniel L.; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel subwavelength nanostructure architecture that may be utilized for optical standoff sensing applications. The subwavelength structures are fabricated via a combination of nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering to create metallic nanostructured films encased within a transparent media. The structures are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant LC circuits, which display a resonance frequency that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any perturbation of the nanostructured films due to chemical or environmental effects can alter the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which can shift the resonant frequency and provide an indication of the external stimulus. This shift in resonance can be interrogated remotely either actively using either laser illumination or passively using hyperspectral or multispectral sensing. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also provide polarization-sensitive interrogation. Due to the nanometer-scale of the structures, they can be tailored to be optically responsive in the visible or near infrared spectrum with a highly reflective resonant peak that is dependent solely on structural dimensions and material characteristics. We present experimental measurements of the optical response of these structures as a function of wavelength, polarization, and incident angle demonstrating the resonant effect in the near infrared region. Numerical modeling data showing the effect of different fabrication parameters such as structure parameters are also discussed.

  8. Design and Execution of Model Experiments to Validate Numerical Modelling of 2D Ship Operations in Pack Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Steve

    in Pack Ice Roelof C. Dragt Offshore Engineering Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Material Engineering of experiments to validate a Graphics Processing Unit based numerical modelling of ship operations in 2D pack ice interaction, 2D Model Experiments, Image Processing. I. INTRODUCTION A ship travelling through pack ice

  9. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  10. Giant coercivity of dense nanostructured spark plasma sintered barium hexaferrite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giant coercivity of dense nanostructured spark plasma sintered barium hexaferrite F. Mazaleyrat and dense material together. In this paper, it is shown that the spark plasma sintering method (SPS) is able, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) allows to produce nonos- tructured Ba-ferrite with a density close to 90

  11. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S-poisoning resistance. Further investigation is needed for unraveling the understanding, design and selection principles of this new class of nanostructure based monolithic catalysts.

  12. Materials that Power Our World Nanostructured Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photovoltaics (OPV) Solar C-FD* Selected Markets & Applications Status Addressable Market (2015) Timing Screens, Displays and Solar Electrodes Energy Storage Electrodes and Additives Fuel Cells Bipolar Plates Customer/ Application Business Model nano-cC-FDs & C-Inks Allows Nano-C to Focus on its Core Competencies

  13. Nanostructured Materials for Energy Generation and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Javed Miller

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy generation and battery storage via the use ofenergy generation and battery storage via the use of nanos-and storage (e.g lithium-ion rechargeable battery)

  14. Enhanced Catalytic Activities of Nanostructured Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez De La Hoz, Julibeth Milena

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    , and chemical composition of the catalysts. Fortunately, the development of nanotechnology has allowed researchers to control the structure and morphology of catalyst nanoparticles, as well as that of solid supports. Even though, these approaches have enhanced...

  15. Enhanced Catalytic Activities of Nanostructured Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez De La Hoz, Julibeth Milena

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . Current reliance of the industrial world on catalysis and rapidly increasing worldwide energy prices have motivated the search for improved catalysts allowing more energy-efficient processes. Catalysts performance is affected by the shape, structure...

  16. Chemistry Controls Material's Nanostructure | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and selenium will form selectively into shapes that look like either tadpoles or drumsticks depending on the relative reactivity of the selenium and sulfur precursors. The more...

  17. Nanostructured Assemblies of Thermoelectric Composite Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter K. Dorhout; Ellen R. Fisher

    2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    At the end of the funding period (March 2003) for our program in ferroelectric oxide nanomaterials, we had 3 publications in print, one more had been submitted and two more were in preparation in peer-reviewed journals and invited symposia lectures had been given since starting the project in the Fall of 1999. We hired two postdoctoral fellows, Dr. Ki-Seog Chang and Dr. Wenzhong Wang. We have also trained two graduate students, Ms. Keri Williams and Ms. Bernadette Hernandez, and one undergraduate student (Mr. Michael Scancella).

  18. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Alternative Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, Gregory

    2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has been in effect from July 25th, 2008 to July 24th, 2013. It supported 19 graduate students and 6 post-doctoral students and resulted in 23 publications, 7 articles in preparation, 44 presentations, and many other outreach efforts. Two representative recent publications are appended to this report. The project brought in more than $750,000 in cost share from North Carolina State University. The project funds also supported the purchase and installation of approximately $667,000 in equipment supporting solar energy research.

  19. Intensive Variables & Nanostructuring in Magnetostructural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Laura

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the course of this project, fundamental inquiry was carried out to investigate, understand and predict the effects of intensive variables, including the structural scale, on magnetostructural phase transitions in the model system of equiatomic FeRh. These transitions comprise simultaneous magnetic and structural phase changes that have their origins in very strong orbital-lattice coupling and thus may be driven by a plurality of effects.

  20. Nanostructured Materials for Energy Generation and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Javed Miller

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of new energy generation and storage technologies arenew energy generation and storage technologies is importantBased Energy Storage and Generation Technologies The world

  1. Nanostructured Materials | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota PriusNSRdiodes

  2. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued Glass-CeramicInnovationSolar

  3. Nanostructured Materials by Machining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash,EnergyNanophosphateas Anodes Nanostructuredby

  4. Subtask 5: Functional nanostructured transparent electrode materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ... StrengtheningLabSubmittingProductionCenter for

  5. Scanning Probe Direct-Write of Germanium Nanostructures. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probe Direct-Write of Germanium Nanostructures. Scanning Probe Direct-Write of Germanium Nanostructures. Abstract: Bottom-up nanostructure synthesis has played a pivotal role in...

  6. Method for producing nanostructured metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Simpson, Randall L.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Gash, Alexander

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic route for producing nanostructure metal-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing. This procedure employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-metal inorganic salts and environmentally friendly solvents such as water and ethanol. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by the addition of a proton scavenger, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively. Using this method synthesis of metal-oxide nanostructured materials have been carried out using inorganic salts, such as of Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, Hf4+, Sn4+, Zr4+, Nb5+, W6+, Pr3+, Er3+, Nd3+, Ce3+, U3+ and Y3+. The process is general and nanostructured metal-oxides from the following elements of the periodic table can be made: Groups 2 through 13, part of Group 14 (germanium, tin, lead), part of Group 15 (antimony, bismuth), part of Group 16 (polonium), and the lanthanides and actinides. The sol-gel processing allows for the addition of insoluble materials (e.g., metals or polymers) to the viscous sol, just before gelation, to produce a uniformly distributed nanocomposites upon gelation. As an example, energetic nanocomposites of FexOy gel with distributed Al metal are readily made. The compositions are stable, safe, and can be readily ignited to thermitic reaction.

  7. Nanostructured Transparent Conducting Oxides via Blockcopolymer Patterning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Joung Youn Ellie

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    . This can lead to new device designs of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS), fuel cells, displays and solar cells. Moreover, the ability to incorporate other various functional materials to form a hybrid with the nanostructured TCO allows possibilities... cell work and the XPS measurements as well as other scientific insights. I am grateful to Dr. K.K. Banger for the help with conductivity measurements as well as the collaborative work on the amorphous TCO. His insights on sol-gel chemistry as well...

  8. The Shockley-Queisser limit for nanostructured solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Yunlu; Munday, Jeremy N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Shockley-Queisser limit describes the maximum solar energy conversion efficiency achievable for a particular material and is the standard by which new photovoltaic technologies are compared. This limit is based on the principle of detailed balance, which equates the photon flux into a device to the particle flux (photons or electrons) out of that device. Nanostructured solar cells represent a new class of photovoltaic devices, and questions have been raised about whether or not they can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here we show that single-junction nanostructured solar cells have a theoretical maximum efficiency of 42% under AM 1.5 solar illumination. While this exceeds the efficiency of a non- concentrating planar device, it does not exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit for a planar device with optical concentration. We conclude that nanostructured solar cells offer an important route towards higher efficiency photovoltaic devices through a built-in optical concentration.

  9. Pauli matrices and 2D electron gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. F. Geurdes

    2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper it will be argued that transport in a 2D electron gas can be implemented as 'local hidden instrument based' variables. With this concept of instrumentalism it is possible to explain the quantum correlation, the particle-wave duality and Wheeler's 'backward causation of a particle'. In the case of quantum correlation the spin measuring variant of the Einstein Podolsky and Rosen paradox is studied. In the case of particle-wave duality the system studied is single photon Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometry with a phase shift size $\\delta$. The idea that the instruments more or less neutrally may show us the way to the particle will be replaced by the concept of laboratory equipment contributing in an unexpected way to the measurement.

  10. HEXAGONAL ARRAY STRUCTURE FOR 2D NDE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziewierz, J.; Ramadas, S. N.; Gachagan, A.; O'Leary, R. L. [Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a combination of simulation and experimentation to evaluate the advantages offered by utilizing a hexagonal shaped array element in a 2D NDE array structure. The active material is a 1-3 connectivity piezoelectric composite structure incorporating triangular shaped pillars--each hexagonal array element comprising six triangular pillars. A combination of PZFlex, COMSOL and Matlab has been used to simulate the behavior of this device microstructure, for operation around 2.25 MHz, with unimodal behavior and low levels of mechanical cross-coupling predicted. Furthermore, the application of hexagonal array elements enables the array aperture to increase by approximately 30%, compared to a conventional orthogonal array matrix and hence will provide enhanced volumetric coverage and SNR. Prototype array configurations demonstrate good corroboration of the theoretically predicted mechanical cross-coupling between adjacent array elements (approx23 dB).

  11. Electrical and dielectric properties of polyanilineAl2O3 nanocomposites derived from various Al2O3 nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    storage devices.10 Nanomaterials are one kind of materials that have sizes smaller than 100 nm in at least nanostructures Jiahua Zhu,a Suying Wei,b Lei Zhang,a Yuanbing Mao,c Jongeun Ryu,d Neel Haldolaarachchige,e David03908j Four Al2O3 nanostructures (i.e. nanofiber, nanoplatelet, nanorod and nanoflake) have been

  12. 2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai-Sheng Wang

    2009-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral presentations. Because of the important role that students and postdocs play in the future of this field, we also anticipate to select several posters from young investigators for oral presentations.

  13. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition | NationalMaterials

  14. Thermorheological properties of nanostructured dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Jeremy B

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured dispersions, which consist of nanometer-sized particles, tubes, sheets, or droplets that are dispersed in liquids, have exhibited substantially higher thermal conductivities over those of the liquids alone. ...

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, and Tribological Performance of 2D Nanomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Xingliang

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    of lubricants using novel nanostructured particles. Experimental approaches include synthesis, characterization, and tribological and rheological investigation of nanoparticles, yttrium oxide (Y_(2)O_(3)), ?-zirconium phosphate (ZrP), and boron (B...

  16. Full paper / Mmoire Self-assembly of hybrid solids consisting of 2D supramolecular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Full paper / Mémoire Self-assembly of hybrid solids consisting of 2D supramolecular networks- selected molecular building blocks may yield designed supramolecular structure in one-pot process. We have been interested in construction of the materials, where two species with different properties coexist

  17. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arun (Orinda, CA); Shakouri, Ali (Santa Cruz, CA); Sands, Timothy D. (Moraga, CA); Yang, Peidong (Berkeley, CA); Mao, Samuel S. (Berkeley, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA); Feick, Henning (Kensington, CA); Weber, Eicke R. (Oakland, CA); Kind, Hannes (Schaffhausen, CH); Huang, Michael (Los Angeles, CA); Yan, Haoquan (Albany, CA); Wu, Yiying (Albany, CA); Fan, Rong (El Cerrito, CA)

    2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  18. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arun (Orinda, CA); Shakouri, Ali (Santa Cruz, CA); Sands, Timothy D. (Moraga, CA); Yang, Peidong (Berkeley, CA); Mao, Samuel S. (Berkeley, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA); Feick, Henning (Kensington, CA); Weber, Eicke R. (Oakland, CA); Kind, Hannes (Schaffhausen, CH); Huang, Michael (Los Angeles, CA); Yan, Haoquan (Albany, CA); Wu, Yiying (Albany, CA); Fan, Rong (El Cerrito, CA)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  19. A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1998-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.

  20. Nanostructural characterization of amorphous diamondlike carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.; BARBOUR,J. CHARLES; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructural characterization of amorphous diamondlike carbon (a-C) films grown on silicon using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) is correlated to both growth energetic and film thickness. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity probe both the topological nature of 3- and 4-fold coordinated carbon atom bonding and the topographical clustering of their distributions within a given film. In general, increasing the energetic of PLD growth results in films becoming more ``diamondlike'', i.e. increasing mass density and decreasing optical absorbance. However, these same properties decrease appreciably with thickness. The topology of carbon atom bonding is different for material near the substrate interface compared to material within the bulk portion of an a-C film. A simple model balancing the energy of residual stress and the free energies of resulting carbon topologies is proposed to provide an explanation of the evolution of topographical bonding clusters in a growing a-C film.

  1. NANOSTRUCTURES, MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS AND SPINELECTRONICS Paata Kervalishvili

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to data storage, switching, lighting and other devices, can lead to substantially new hardwareNANOSTRUCTURES, MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS AND SPINELECTRONICS Paata Kervalishvili Georgian Technical and manipulation on a nanometre scale, which allows the fabrication of nanostructures with the properties mainly

  2. Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Stephan Bremner

    2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

  3. Exact solution for 2D polygonal inclusion problem in anisotropic magnetoelectroelastic full-, half-,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Ernie

    with a uniform eigenfield inside are evaluated analytically. The solution is then applied to the nanostructures

  4. Lossless Wavelet Based Image Compression with Adaptive 2D Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lossless Wavelet Based Image Compression with Adaptive 2D Decomposition Manfred Kopp Technical.kopp@ieee.org WWW: http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/~kopp/ Abstract 2D wavelets are usually generated from 1D wavelets wavelet functions based on the compression of the coefficients, but needs only the same number of 1D

  5. Controlled placement and orientation of nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alex K; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D; Fennimore, Adam M

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlled deposition and orientation of molecular sized nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) on substrates is disclosed. The method comprised: forming a thin layer of polymer coating on a substrate; exposing a selected portion of the thin layer of polymer to alter a selected portion of the thin layer of polymer; forming a suspension of nanostructures in a solvent, wherein the solvent suspends the nanostructures and activates the nanostructures in the solvent for deposition; and flowing a suspension of nanostructures across the layer of polymer in a flow direction; thereby: depositing a nanostructure in the suspension of nanostructures only to the selected portion of the thin layer of polymer coating on the substrate to form a deposited nanostructure oriented in the flow direction. By selectively employing portions of the method above, complex NEMS may be built of simpler NEMSs components.

  6. METALLIC AND HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, S.

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.

  7. Interfacing 2D and 3D Topological Insulators: Bi(111) Bilayer on Bi2Te3 Toru Hirahara,1,* Gustav Bihlmayer,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasegawa, Shuji

    Interfacing 2D and 3D Topological Insulators: Bi(111) Bilayer on Bi2Te3 Toru Hirahara,1,* Gustav Topological insulators, realized in materials with strong spin-orbit interaction, are gaining increasing-dimensional (1D) edge states compared to the 2D surface states of 3D topological insulators, only a few works

  8. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ron Zuckerman

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  9. Elastic strain engineering for unprecedented materials properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ju

    “Smaller is stronger.” Nanostructured materials such as thin films, nanowires, nanoparticles, bulk nanocomposites, and atomic sheets can withstand non-hydrostatic (e.g., tensile or shear) stresses up to a significant ...

  10. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ron Zuckerman

    2009-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  11. Application of the 3D Edge Code EMC3-EIRENE to JET Single Null Configurations by Validating Against 2D Simulations with EDGE2D-EIRENE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Application of the 3D Edge Code EMC3-EIRENE to JET Single Null Configurations by Validating Against 2D Simulations with EDGE2D-EIRENE

  12. Generation of high quality 2D meshes for given bathymetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colmenero, Jorge, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops and applies a procedure to generate high quality 2D meshes for any given ocean region with complex coastlines. The different criteria used in determining mesh element sizes for a given domain are ...

  13. 3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR INHOMOGENEOUS THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR INHOMOGENEOUS THIN FILMS plate models, periodic pr* *o- files, and within the context of optimal design for thin films 5. Third application - Optimal design of a thin film 19 6. Final Remarks

  14. Scheduling and 2D placement heuristics for partially reconfigurable systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santambrogio, Marco Domenico

    This paper proposes new scheduling and 2D placement heuristics for partially dynamically reconfigurable systems. One specific focus of this work is to deal with applications containing hundreds of tasks grouped in a few ...

  15. We report two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermions and quantum magnetoresistance (MR) in Bi square nets of CaMnBi2 crystals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    in monolayer graphene and topological insulators. Our results imply that a wide range of bulk crystals with Bi found so far in 2D materials such as graphene and topological insulators. Relativistic Fermions

  16. Sintering and ripening resistant noble metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van Swol, Frank B; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Miller, James E; Challa, Sivakumar R

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable porous metal nanostructures comprising thin metal nanosheets that are metastable under some conditions that commonly produce rapid reduction in surface area due to sintering and/or Ostwald ripening. The invention further comprises the method for making such durable porous metal nanostructures. Durable, high-surface area nanostructures result from the formation of persistent durable holes or pores in metal nanosheets formed from dendritic nanosheets.

  17. Comment on "coherence and uncertainty in nanostructured organic photovoltaics"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukamel, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    provide new probes for photovoltaics. The develop- ment ofin Nanostructured Organic Photovoltaics. J. Phys. Chem. Lettin Nanostructured Organic Photovoltaics” Shaul Mukamel

  18. Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries. Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable magnesium...

  19. Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  20. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  1. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanostructured...

  2. Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  3. Liquid Evaporation on Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) images of water evaporation from superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces are presented. The nanostructured surfaces consiste of an array of equidistant ...

  4. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decline in photovoltaic efficiency is less dramatic, butefficiency ? = V OC I ?j SC Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure So- lar Cells For this thesis, I made photovoltaic

  5. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Treatment Catalyst Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Emission Treatment Catalyst Poster presented at the 16th Directions in...

  6. Conducting polymer nanostructures for biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Electronically Conductive Polymer Nanostructures,” Acc.et al. , “Conjugated-Polymer Micro- and Milliactuators for3. Y. Berdichevsky, Y. -H. Lo, “Polymer Microvalve Based on

  7. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste...

  8. Condensation on Superhydrophobic Copper Oxide Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enright, Ryan

    Condensation is an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the ...

  9. Condensation on superhydrophobic copper oxide nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Nicholas (Nicholas Gang)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensation is an important process in many power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have unique condensation properties that may enhance heat transfer through a ...

  10. The Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Michigan State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND NANOSTRUCTURE INFLUENCES ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS Thermoelectric (TE) materials in a device, the thermoelectric material must be able to withstand the applied thermal and mechanical forces

  11. Survey of Materials for Nanoskiving and Influence of the Cutting Process on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, George M.

    Survey of Materials for Nanoskiving and Influence of the Cutting Process on the Nanostructures materials (metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and conjugated polymers), deposition techniques (evaporation. The materials tested were: aluminum, titanium, nickel, copper, palladium, silver, platinum, gold, lead, bismuth

  12. High energy density capacitors using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, many pulse power and industrial applications are limited by capacitor performance. While incremental improvements are anticipated from existing capacitor technologies, significant advances are needed in energy density to enable these applications for both the military and for American economic competitiveness. We propose a program to research and develop a novel technology for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Nano-structure multilayer technologies developed at LLNL may well provide a breakthrough in capacitor performance. Our controlled sputtering techniques are capable of laying down extraordinarily smooth sub-micron layers of dielectric and conductor materials. With this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density may be achievable. Well-understood dielectrics and new materials will be investigated for use with this technology. Capacitors developed by nano-structure multilayer technology are inherently solid state, exhibiting extraordinary mechanical and thermal properties. The conceptual design of a Notepad capacitor is discussed to illustrate capacitor and capacitor bank design and performance with this technology. We propose a two phase R&D program to address DNA`s capacitor needs for electro-thermal propulsion and similar pulse power programs. Phase 1 will prove the concept and further our understanding of dielectric materials and design tradeoffs with multilayers. Nano-structure multilayer capacitors will be developed and characterized. As our materials research and modeling prove successful, technology insertion in our capacitor designs will improve the possibility for dramatic performance improvements. In Phase 2, we will make Notepad capacitors, construct a capacitor bank and demonstrate its performance in a meaningful pulse power application. We will work with industrial partners to design full scale manufacturing and move this technology to industry for volume production.

  13. Understanding of the contact of nanostructured thermoelectric n-type Bi[subscript 2]Te[subscript 2.7]Se[subscript 0.3] legs for power generation applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Weishu

    Traditional processes of making contacts (metallization layer) onto bulk crystalline Bi2Te3-based materials do not work for nanostructured thermoelectric materials either because of weak bonding strength or an unstable ...

  14. Metal-carbon nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puretzky, A.A.; Hettich, R.L.; Jin, Changming; Haufler, R.E.; Compton, R.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tuinman, A.A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafine particles formed by XeCl laser photolysis of M(CO){sub 6}, M = V, Cr, Mo, and W, have been analyzed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry and other techniques. Novel metal carbide clusters, (MoC{sub 4}){sub n}, n = 1 {minus} 4 and (WC{sub 4}){sub m}, m = 1 {minus} 8, were detected and studied. The material produced by photolysis of V(CO){sub 6} shows a series of vanadium-oxygen clusters, V{sub x}O{sub 2x+2}, x = 2 {minus} 10. No clusters of any type were detected in the photolysis product of Cr(CO){sub 6}. Structures based on the experimental evidence are proposed and discussed in light of their chemical reactivity.

  15. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  16. Nanostructures produced by phase-separation during growth of (III-V).sub.1-x(IV.sub.2).sub.x alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Andrew G. (Evergreen, CO); Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructures (18) and methods for production thereof by phase separation during metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). An embodiment of one of the methods may comprise providing a growth surface in a reaction chamber and introducing a first mixture of precursor materials into the reaction chamber to form a buffer layer (12) thereon. A second mixture of precursor materials may be provided into the reaction chamber to form an active region (14) on the buffer layer (12), wherein the nanostructure (18) is embedded in a matrix (16) in the active region (14). Additional steps are also disclosed for preparing the nanostructure (18) product for various applications.

  17. Quantum Process Tomography by 2D Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo A. Pachon; Andrew H. Marcus; Alan Aspuru-Guzik

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement and signal-to-noise ratio ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter $\\Gamma$ of the doubly-excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  18. Quantum Process Tomography by 2D Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pachon, Leonardo A; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement and signal-to-noise ratio ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter $\\Gamma$ of the doubly-excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  19. Characterization of 3d topological insulators by 2d invariants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahul Roy

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The prediction of non-trivial topological phases in Bloch insulators in three dimensions has recently been experimentally verified. Here, I provide a picture for obtaining the $Z_{2}$ invariants for a three dimensional topological insulator by deforming suitable 2d planes in momentum space and by using a formula for the 2d $Z_{2}$ invariant based on the Chern number. The physical interpretation of this formula is also clarified through the connection between this formulation of the $Z_{2}$ invariant and the quantization of spin Hall conductance in two dimensions.

  20. Finite temperature analysis of a quasi2D dipolar gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ticknor, Christopher

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present finite temperature analysis of a quasi2D dipolar gas. To do this, we use the Hartree Fock Bogoliubov method within the Popov approximation. This formalism is a set of non-local equations containing the dipole-dipole interaction and the condensate and thermal correlation functions, which are solved self-consistently. We detail the numerical method used to implement the scheme. We present density profiles for a finite temperature dipolar gas in quasi2D, and compare these results to a gas with zero-range interactions. Additionally, we analyze the excitation spectrum and study the impact of the thermal exchange.

  1. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogen generation, and can be possibly applied to other applications such as nanostructured tandem photovoltaic

  2. Laser Directed Growth of Carbon-Based Nanostructures by Plasmon Resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Steve

    Laser Directed Growth of Carbon-Based Nanostructures by Plasmon Resonant Chemical Vapor Deposition the strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles in the catalytic decomposition of CO to grow various forms of carbonaceous materials. Irradiating gold nanoparticles in a CO environment at their plasmon resonant frequency

  3. Block selective grafting of poly(vinylphosphonic acid) from aromatic multiblock copolymers for nanostructured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -13 Various block28,29 and graft30-33 copolymers, inorganic composites34 as well as interpenetrating networks of Chemistry, Polymer & Materials Chemistry, Lund University, P.O.B. 124, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden *Corresponding be used as a general strategy to prepare durable and functional nanostructured polymer membranes

  4. PetaScale Calculations of the Electronic Structures of Nanostructures with Hundreds of Thousands of Processors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PetaScale Calculations of the Electronic Structures of Nanostructures with Hundreds of Thousands in the material science category. The DFT can be used to calculate the electronic structure, the charge density. To understand the electronic structures of such systems and the corresponding carrier dynamics is essential

  5. Sub-Nanostructured Non Transition Metal Complex Grids for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Orhan Talu; Dr. Surendra N. Tewari

    2007-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved growing sub-nanostructured metal grids to increase dynamic hydrogen storage capacity of metal hydride systems. The nano particles of any material have unique properties unlike its bulk form. Nano-structuring metal hydride materials can result in: {sm_bullet}Increased hydrogen molecule dissociation rate, {sm_bullet} Increased hydrogen atom transport rate, {sm_bullet} Decreased decrepitation caused by cycling, {sm_bullet} Increased energy transfer in the metal matrix, {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by physical adsorption, and {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by quantum effects The project succeeded in making nano-structured palladium using electrochemical growth in templates including zeolites, mesoporous silica, polycarbonate films and anodized alumina. Other metals were used to fine-tune the synthesis procedures. Palladium was chosen to demonstrate the effects of nano-structuring since its bulk hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics are well known. Reduced project funding was not sufficient for complete characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage application. The project team intends to seek further funding in the future to complete the characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage.

  6. Hierarchical Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae Yield Superior Deformability, Toughness, and Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehler, Markus J.

    Hierarchical Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae Yield Superior Deformability, Toughness algae that is mainly composed of amorphous silica, which features a hierarchical structure that ranges in diatom algae as a basis to study a bioinspired nanoporous material implemented in crystalline silica. We

  7. Nanostructured Titania-Polymer Photovoltaic Devices Made Using PFPE-Based Nanomolding Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Nanostructured Titania-Polymer Photovoltaic Devices Made Using PFPE-Based Nanomolding Techniques heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) cells using a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) elastomeric mold to control the donor photovoltaic materials because they are strong light absorbers and solution pro- cessable and can be deposited

  8. Crab Shells as Sustainable Templates from Nature for Nanostructured Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    electrodes is four times that of existing LiCoO2/graphite batteries.3-5 However, lithium reactsCrab Shells as Sustainable Templates from Nature for Nanostructured Battery Electrodes Hongbin Yao materials issues for enabling next-generation high capacity lithium ion batteries for portable electronics

  9. High-Performance Nanostructured Coating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High-Performance Nanostructured Coating fact sheet details a SunShot project led by a University of California, San Diego research team working to develop a new high-temperature spectrally selective coating for receiver surfaces. These receiver surfaces, used in concentrating solar power systems, rely on high-temperature SSCs to effectively absorb solar energy without emitting much blackbody radiation.The optical properties of the SSC directly determine the efficiency and maximum attainable temperature of solar receivers, which in turn influence the power-conversion efficiency and overall system cost.

  10. 2D Static Light Scattering for Dairy Based Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2D Static Light Scattering for Dairy Based Applications Jacob Lercke Skytte Kongens Lyngby 2014 Ph information on the microstructure. The second paper makes a direction comparison between the light scattering a recently introduced light scattering tech- nique. The system setup of the technique is highly flexible

  11. Universal topological phase of 2D stabilizer codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Bombin; Guillaume Duclos-Cianci; David Poulin

    2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Two topological phases are equivalent if they are connected by a local unitary transformation. In this sense, classifying topological phases amounts to classifying long-range entanglement patterns. We show that all 2D topological stabilizer codes are equivalent to several copies of one universal phase: Kitaev's topological code. Error correction benefits from the corresponding local mappings.

  12. EU Guide v 2d January 20141 Finance Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Gispert, Adriŕ

    EU Guide v 2d January 20141 Finance Division Procurement Services The EU Directives on Public purchasing practice and especially where funders require it as part of their grant conditions. In exceptional Andrew Reid (goods and services) or the Director of Estate Management and Building Services (property

  13. 3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR MICROMAGNETIC THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR MICROMAGNETIC THIN FILMS Classification: 35E99, 35M10, 49J45, 74K35. Keywords: -limit, thin films, micromagnetics, relaxation; 1 1. Introduction In recent years the understanding of thin film behavior has been helped

  14. H_2D^+: a light on baryonic dark matter?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cecilia Ceccarelli; Carsten Dominik

    2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that the dark halos of galaxies are constituted by cloudlets of cold ( 10^7$ cm^{-3}) molecular gas. Such gas is extremely difficult to detect, because the classical tracers of molecular gas, CO and/or dust grains, have very low abundances and their emission is exceedingly weak. For this reason, the cloudlet hypothesis remains so far substantially unproven. In this Letter we propose a new method to probe the presence of cold H_2 clouds in galactic halos: the ground transition of ortho-H_2D^+ at 372 GHz. We discuss why the H_2D^+ is abundant under the physical conditions appropriate for the cloudlets, and present a chemical model that predicts the H_2D^+ abundance as function of four key parameters: gas density and metallicity, cosmic ray ionization rate and dust grain size. We conclude that current ground-based instruments might detect the ortho-H_2D^+ line emitted by the cloudlets halo, and prove, therefore, the existence of large quantities of dark baryonic matter around galaxies.

  15. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naumov, Ivan I. (Fayetteville, AR); Bellaiche, Laurent M. (Fayetteville, AR); Prosandeev, Sergey A. (Fayetteville, AR); Ponomareva, Inna V. (Fayetteville, AR); Kornev, Igor A. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  16. Electron-beam-induced growth of silicon multibranched nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonseca, Luis F.; Resto, Oscar; Sola, Francisco [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, P. O. Box 23343, San Juan, 00931-3343 (Puerto Rico)

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Although successful nanobranching has been demonstrated for some materials using a variety of methods, the controlled fabrication of multibranched nanostructures of silicon is an important challenge faced by nanotechnologist; because it is crucial for the assembly of electronic interconnects at the atomic scale. Here, we report an electron-beam-induced approach that enables to grow silicon nanobranched structures at specific locations and to control the growth process at the nanoscale level. We further present a detailed in situ imaging of the growth dynamics and explain the results by a qualitative model based on local heating and charge concentration processes.

  17. Nanoparticle modifications of photodefined nanostructures for energy applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polsky, Ronen; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Burckel, David Bruce; Brozik, Susan Marie; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advancement of materials technology towards the development of novel 3D nanostructures for energy applications has been a long-standing challenge. The purpose of this project was to explore photolithographically defineable pyrolyzed photoresist carbon films for possible energy applications. The key attributes that we explored were as follows: (1) Photo-interferometric fabrication methods to produce highly porous (meso, micro, and nano) 3-D electrode structures, and (2) conducting polymer and nanoparticle-modification strategies on these structures to provide enhanced catalytic capabilities and increase conductivity. The resulting electrodes were then explored for specific applications towards possible use in battery and energy platforms.

  18. International Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures (Energy, Environment, and Health)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jena, Puru [Distinguished Professor of Physics, VCU

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The international Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures was held in Richmond, Virginia during November 7-10, 2011. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy, environment, and health; three of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in health included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered.

  19. Rare-Earth-Free Nanostructure Magnets: Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets for Electric Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn-Bi and M-type Hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACT Project: The University of Alabama is developing new iron- and manganese-based composite materials for use in the electric motors of EVs and renewable power generators that will demonstrate magnetic properties superior to today’s best rare-earth-based magnets. Rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to make their electric motors smaller and more powerful. The University of Alabama has the potential to improve upon the performance of current state-of-the-art rare-earth-based magnets using low-cost and more abundant materials such as manganese and iron. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate improved performance in a full-size prototype magnet at reduced cost.

  20. Materials at UC Santa Barbara Ranked in the top two programs in the country for research impact and citations, materials research at UC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhmedov, Azer

    as semiconductors · Soft cellular materials · Nanostructured materials by molecular beam epitaxy Solid chemistry to synthesize conjugated polymer composites for use in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices in energy efficiency in Buildings, Lighting, Computing, Electronics & Photonics, Energy Production & Storage

  1. Distinguishing quantum and classical transport through nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill Lambert; Clive Emary; Yueh-Nan Chen; Franco Nori

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the question of how to distinguish quantum from classical transport through nanostructures. To address this issue we have derived two inequalities for temporal correlations in nonequilibrium transport in nanostructures weakly coupled to leads. The first inequality concerns local charge measurements and is of general validity; the second concerns the current flow through the device and is relevant for double quantum dots. Violation of either of these inequalities indicates that physics beyond that of a classical Markovian model is occurring in the nanostructure.

  2. Extreme solid state refrigeration using nanostructured Bi-Te alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lima Sharma, Ana L. (San Jose State University, San Jose, CA); Spataru, Dan Catalin; Medlin, Douglas L.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Morales, Alfredo Martin

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials are desperately needed for cryogenic solid state refrigeration. We have investigated nanostructured Bi-Te alloys for their potential use in Ettingshausen refrigeration to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These alloys form alternating layers of Bi{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} blocks in equilibrium. The composition Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} was identified as having the greatest potential for having a high Ettingshausen figure of merit. Both single crystal and polycrystalline forms of this material were synthesized. After evaluating the Ettingshausen figure of merit for a large, high quality polycrystal, we simulated the limits of practical refrigeration in this material from 200 to 77 K using a simple device model. The band structure was also computed and compared to experiments. We discuss the crystal growth, transport physics, and practical refrigeration potential of Bi-Te alloys.

  3. The Dynamics of Neutrino-Driven Supernova Explosions after Shock Revival in 2D and 3D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Bernhard

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the growth of the explosion energy after shock revival in neutrino-driven explosions in two and three dimensions (2D/3D) using multi-group neutrino hydrodynamics simulations of an $11.2 M_\\odot$ star. The 3D model shows a faster and steadier growth of the explosion energy and already shows signs of subsiding accretion after one second. By contrast, the growth of the explosion energy in 2D is unsteady, and accretion lasts for several seconds as confirmed by additional long-time simulations of stars of similar masses. Appreciable explosion energies can still be reached, albeit at the expense of rather high neutron star masses. In 2D, the binding energy at the gain radius is larger because the strong excitation of downward-propagating $g$-modes removes energy from the freshly accreted material in the downflows. Consequently, the mass outflow rate is considerably lower in 2D than in 3D. This is only partially compensated by additional heating by outward-propagating acoustic waves in 2D. Moreover, the mas...

  4. 2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker{trademark}, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m{sup 2} of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology. However, for areas over approximately 600 m{sup 2}, the Wall Walker would cost less than the baseline. Using the Wall Walker 2-D LMS, ALARA exposure and worker safety is improved, and there is potential for increased productivity. This innovative technology performed better than the baseline by providing real-time monitoring of the tool or instrument position. Also, the Wall Walker 2-D LMS can traverse any two-dimensional path at constant speeds of up to 18.3 linear meters per minute (60 linear feet per minute). The survey production rate for the innovative technology was about 0.6 m{sup 2}/min (6 ft{sup 2}/min); the baseline production rate was approximately 0.3 m{sup 2}/min (3 ft{sup 2}/min), using the same surveying instrument and maximum scanning rate.

  5. 2D monolayers could yield thinnest solar cells ever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have shown how using a different type of material could yield thinner, more lightweight solar panels that provide power densities - watts per kilogram of material - orders of...

  6. Correlated exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Patrick, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The absorption and dissipation of energy in semiconductor nanostructures are often determined by excited electron dynamics. In semiconductors, one fundamentally important electronic state is an exciton, an excited electron ...

  7. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanostructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    152 6 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanostructure Characterization S. J. Pennycook. Introduction The scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is an invaluable tool atom. The STEM works on the same principle as the normal scanning electron microscope (SEM), by forming

  8. Self-Assembly of Organic Nanostructures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Albert

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focuses on investigating the morphologies, optical and photoluminescence properties of porphyrin nanostructures prepared by the self-assembly method. The study is divided into three main parts. In the first part, a large variety...

  9. Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe...

  10. Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe...

  11. Magnetic Nanostructures for post-CMOS Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -high density storage devices. Moreover, the semiconductor industry is looking beyond conventional CMOSMagnetic Nanostructures for post-CMOS Electronics NANOMATERIALS Our goal is to address storage technologies, notably magnetoresistive random access memory and bit-patterned media for ultra

  12. Gold nanostructures and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jin Z. (Santa Cruz, CA); Schwartzberg, Adam (Santa Cruz, CA); Olson, Tammy Y. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is drawn to novel nanostructures comprising hollow nanospheres and nanotubes for use as chemical sensors, conduits for fluids, and electronic conductors. The nanostructures can be used in microfluidic devices, for transporting fluids between devices and structures in analytical devices, for conducting electrical currents between devices and structure in analytical devices, and for conducting electrical currents between biological molecules and electronic devices, such as bio-microchips.

  13. A Cut-Cell Approach for 2D Cartesian Meshes that Preserves Orthogonal Grid Sweep Ordering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarrell, Joshua J [ORNL] [ORNL; Grove, Robert E [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a cut-cell methodology for solving the two-dimensional neutral-particle transport equation on an orthogonal Cartesian grid. We allow the rectangular cell to be subdivided into two polygonal subcells. We ensure that this division (or cut) conserves the volumes of the materials in the subcells and we utilize a step-characteristics (SC) slice balance approach (SBA) to calculate the angular fluxes exiting the cell as well as the average scalar fluxes in each subcell. Solving the discrete ordinates transport equation on an arbitrary mesh has historically been difficult to parallelize while maintaining good parallel efficiency. However on Cartesian meshes, the KBA algorithm maintains good parallel efficiency using a direct solve. The ability to preserve this algorithm was a driving factor in the development of our cut-cell method. This method also provides a more accurate depiction of a material interface in a cell, which leads to more accurate solutions downstream of this cell. As a result, fewer spatial cells can be utilized, resulting in reduced memory requirements. We apply this approach in the 2D/3D discrete ordinates neutral-particle transport code Denovo, where we analyze a 2D 3 x 3 lattice of pincells. We show that, for eigenvalue problems, a significant increase in accuracy for a given mesh size is gained by utilizing the cut-cell, SC equations instead of the standard homogenized-cell, SC equations.

  14. Commercial Implementation of Model-Based Manufacturing of Nanostructured Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, Terry C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational modeling is an essential tool for commercial production of nanostructured metals. Strength is limited by imperfections at the high strength levels that are achievable in nanostructured metals. Processing to achieve homogeneity at the micro- and nano-scales is critical. Manufacturing of nanostructured metals is intrinsically a multi-scale problem. Manufacturing of nanostructured metal products requires computer control, monitoring and modeling. Large scale manufacturing of bulk nanostructured metals by Severe Plastic Deformation is a multi-scale problem. Computational modeling at all scales is essential. Multiple scales of modeling must be integrated to predict and control nanostructural, microstructural, macrostructural product characteristics and production processes.

  15. Nanostructured electrocatalyst for fuel cells : silica templated synthesis of Pt/C composites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Switzer, Elise E.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Cornelius, Christopher James; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Platinum-based electrocatalysts are currently required for state-of-the-art fuel cells and represent a significant portion of the overall fuel cell cost. If fuel cell technology is to become competitive with other energy conversion technologies, improve the utilization of precious metal catalysts is essential. A primary focus of this work is on creating enhanced nanostructured materials which improve precious-metal utilization. The goal is to engineer superior electrocatalytic materials through the synthesis, development and investigation of novel templated open frame structures synthesized in an aerosol-based approach. Bulk templating methods for both Pt/C and Pt-Ru composites are evaluated in this study and are found to be limited due to the fact that the nanostructure is not maintained throughout the entire sample. Therefore, an accurate examination of structural effects was previously impossible. An aerosol-based templating method of synthesizing nanostructured Pt-Ru electrocatalysts has been developed wherein the effects of structure can be related to electrocatalytic performance. The aerosol-based templating method developed in this work is extremely versatile as it can be conveniently modified to synthesize alternative materials for other systems. The synthesis method was able to be extended to nanostructured Pt-Sn for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were evaluated in a unique approach tailored to electrocatalytic studies in alkaline media. At low temperatures, nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were found to have significantly higher ethanol oxidation activity than a comparable nanostructured Pt catalyst. At higher temperatures, the oxygen-containing species contribution likely provided by Sn is insignificant due to a more oxidized Pt surface. The importance of the surface coverage of oxygen-containing species in the reaction mechanism is established in these studies. The investigations in this work present original studies of anion exchange ionomers as entrapment materials for rotating disc electrode (RDE) studies in alkaline media. Their significance is linked to the development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with the same ionomer for a KOH-free alkaline fuel cell (AFC).

  16. Fabrication of nanostructure by physical vapor deposition with glancing angle deposition technique and its applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horprathum, M., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Eiamchai, P., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Patthanasettakul, V.; Limwichean, S.; Nuntawong, N.; Chindaudom, P. [Optical Thin-Film Laboratory National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand); Kaewkhao, J. [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Chananonnawathorn, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12121 (Thailand)

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanostructural thin film is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications in sensor, photocatalytic, and solar-cell technologies. In the past two decades, the integration of glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) technique to physical vapor deposition (PVD) process has gained significant attention for well-controlled multidimensional nanomorphologies because of fast, simple, cost-effective, and mass-production capability. The performance and functional properties of the coated thin films generally depend upon their nanostructural compositions, i.e., large aspect ratio, controllable porosity, and shape. Such structural platforms make the fabricated thin films very practical for several realistic applications. We therefore present morphological and nanostructural properties of various deposited materials, which included metals, i.e., silver (Ag), and oxide compounds, i.e., tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), and indium tin oxide (ITO). Different PVD techniques based on DC magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation, both with the integrated GLAD component, were discussed. We further explore engineered nanostructures which enable controls of optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. These improvements led to several practical applications in surface-enhanced Raman, smart windows, gas sensors, self-cleaning materials and transparent conductive oxides (TCO)

  17. Titanate and titania nanostructures and nanostructure assemblies, and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Mao, Yuanbing

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to nanomaterials and assemblies including, a micrometer-scale spherical aggregate comprising: a plurality of one-dimensional nanostructures comprising titanium and oxygen, wherein the one-dimensional nanostructures radiate from a hollow central core thereby forming a spherical aggregate.

  18. Modification of phonon processes in nano-structured rare-earth-ion-doped crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Thomas; Thiel, Charles W; Cone, Rufus L; Barclay, Paul E; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-structuring impurity-doped crystals affects the phonon density of states and thereby modifies the atomic dynamics induced by interaction with phonons. We propose the use of nano-structured materials in the form of powders or phononic bandgap crystals to enable, or improve, persistent spectral hole-burning and optical coherence for inhomogeneously broadened absorption lines in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. This is crucial for applications such as ultra-precise radio-frequency spectrum analyzers and certain approaches to optical quantum memories. We specifically discuss how phonon engineering can enable spectral hole burning in erbium-doped materials operating in the telecommunication band, and present simulations for density of states of nano-sized powders and phononic crystals for the case of Y$_2$SiO$_5$, a widely-used material in current quantum memory research.

  19. Beam-Plasma Instabilities in a 2D Yukawa Lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyrkos, S. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York 13214 (United States); Kalman, G. J. [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States); Rosenberg, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a 2D Yukawa lattice of grains, with a beam of other charged grains moving in the lattice plane. In contrast to Vlasov plasmas, where the electrostatic instability excited by the beam is only longitudinal, here both longitudinal and transverse instabilities of the lattice phonons can develop. We determine and compare the transverse and longitudinal growth rates. The growth rate spectrum in wave number space exhibits remarkable gaps where no instability can develop. Depending on the system parameters, the transverse instability can be selectively excited.

  20. Exact solutions for the 2d one component plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timothy D. Andersen

    2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2d one component gas of pointlike charges in a uniform neutralizing background interacting with a logarithmic potential is a common model for plasmas. In its classical equilibrium statistics at fixed temperature (canonical ensemble) it is formally related to certain types of random matrices with Gaussian distribution and complex eigenvalues. In this paper, I present an exact integration of this ensemble for $N$ such particles (or alternatively $N\\times N$ matrices) for all even non-negative temperatures, a significant open problem in statistical physics for several decades. I achieve this exact integration via an exact integration of a related ensemble, the two-dimensional Selberg integral.

  1. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  2. Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsui, Daniel

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.

  3. 2D spectroscopy of double-barred galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Moiseev; J. R. Valdes; V. H. Chavushyan

    2002-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The first results of the observational program of the study of 2D-kinematics in double-barred galaxies are presented. We show that, for the main part of the sample, the inner bars do not affect the circumnuclear stellar kinematics. Therefore, they are not dynamically decoupled structures. Various types of non-circular gas motion were found in many galaxies. The analysis of the ground-based and HST optical and NIR images reveals mini-spirals in about half of the investigated objects. We suggest that so called ``double-barred galaxies'' are, in fact, galaxies with very different circumnuclear structure.

  4. Droplet Impingement Cooling Experiments on Nano-structured Surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Yen-Po

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    ), was defined based on the radial temperature profiles inside the impact zone to quantify the effects of the nano-structured surface in droplet cooling. Results indicate that larger effective cooling area can be achieved using nano-structured surface...

  5. Cation dopant distributions in nanostructures of transition-metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dopant distributions in nanostructures of transition-metal doped ZnO:Monte Carlo simulations. Cation dopant distributions in nanostructures of transition-metal doped ZnO:Monte...

  6. Electronic noise in nanostructures: limitations and sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jong Un

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    and their characteristic length is close to acoustical phonon wavelength. Moreover, because nanostructures include significantly fewer charge carriers than microscale structures, electronic noise in nanostructures is enhanced compared to microscale structures. Additionally...

  7. Electronic noise in nanostructures: limitations and sensing applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jong Un

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructures are nanometer scale structures (characteristic length less than 100 nm) such as nanowires, ultra-small junctions, etc. Since nanostructures are less stable, their characteristic volume is much smaller compared to defect sizes...

  8. Nanostructured polymer composites for electronics and sensor applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    Nanostructured polymer composites for electronics and sensor applications Wednesday November 10 Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI Nanostructured composites based on polymer matrix and carbon nanotubes (CNT), metallic nanoparticles and polymer core-shell latex systems will play a critical role

  9. Jumping-Droplet-Enhanced Condensation on Scalable Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    When droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. If designed properly, these superhydrophobic nanostructured ...

  10. Jumping Droplet Dynamics on Scalable Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and high speed images of coalescence-induced droplet jumping on a nanostructured superhydrophobic copper oxide (CuO) surface are presented. Nanostructured CuO films were ...

  11. PNNL Enhanced Pool-Boiling Heat Transfer Using Nanostructured Surfaces

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Close-up video of boiling taking place on a nanostructured surface in a controlled laboratory experiment.

  12. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CdS based bifunctional core–shell nanostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Joshy; Nishad, K.K.; Sharma, M.; Gupta, D.K. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026, MP (India)] [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026, MP (India); Singh, R.R. [ITM University, NH 75, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474001, MP (India)] [ITM University, NH 75, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474001, MP (India); Pandey, R.K., E-mail: prof.rkpandey@gmail.com [ITM University, NH 75, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474001, MP (India)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? First report on a room temperature aqueous process for growth of a hybrid core shell nanostructure containing a magnetic core and a semiconducting shell. ? Formation of distinct core shell nanostructure revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. ? A bifunctional nature combining magnetic as well as photoresponce for the as synthesised core shell nanostructures demonstrated. ? A tendency towards self organisation of the core–shell nanostructure. ? Possible applications including purification and isolation of biological materials, drug delivery system, bio-labels, spintronics, etc. -- Abstract: A room temperature solution process for synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and their hybrid core shell nanostructures using CdS as the shell material has been described. The as grown particles have been characterised using XRD, Rietveld refinement, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, optical absorbance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A superparamagnetic response revealed from the magnetisation measurements of the as synthesised magnetite nanoparticles was retained even after the growth of the CdS shell. From luminescence and high resolution atomic force microscopy measurements, it is shown that the core–shell structures advantageously combine magnetic as well as fluorescence response with a tendency towards self-organization.

  13. Materials Research Department Annual Report 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Materials Research Department Annual Report 2001 P u b l i s h e d b y t h e M a t e r i a l s R e 1-3 Scientific work 4-24 A multiscale view 4-5 Metal structures 6-7 Materials mechanics 8-9 Composite materials 10-11 Nanostructured materials 12-13 The fuel cell programme 14-17 Biological physics 18

  14. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iannuzzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disk galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrised up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the midplane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically-symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second bucklin...

  15. Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO films and their electrochromic characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO 3 films and their electrochromic characteristics.1088/0022-3727/43/28/285501 Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO3 films and their electrochromic characteristics Zhihui Jiao1 , Xiao Wei and their electrochromic characteristics. Plate-like monoclinic WO3 nanostructures were grown directly on fluorine

  16. A Module for Radiation Hydrodynamic Calculations With ZEUS-2D Using Flux-Limited Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. J. Turner; J. M. Stone

    2001-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A module for the ZEUS-2D code is described which may be used to solve the equations of radiation hydrodynamics to order unity in v/c, in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation. In this approximation, the tensor Eddington factor f which closes the radiation moment equations is chosen to be an empirical function of radiation energy density. This is easier to implement and faster than full-transport techniques, in which f is computed by solving the transfer equation. However, FLD is less accurate when the flux has a component perpendicular to the gradient in radiation energy density, and in optically thin regions when the radiation field depends strongly on angle. The material component of the fluid is here assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The energy equations are operator-split, with transport terms, radiation diffusion term, and other source terms evolved separately. Transport terms are applied using the same consistent transport algorithm as in ZEUS-2D. The radiation diffusion term is updated using an alternating-direction implicit method with convergence checking. Remaining source terms are advanced together implicitly using numerical root-finding. However when absorption opacity is zero, accuracy is improved by treating compression and expansion source terms using time-centered differencing. Results are discussed for test problems including radiation-damped linear waves, radiation fronts propagating in optically-thin media, subcritical and supercritical radiating shocks, and an optically-thick shock in which radiation dominates downstream pressure.

  17. Liquid scintillator for 2D dosimetry for high-energy photon beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poenisch, Falk; Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina Marie; Sahoo, Narayan; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam; Gillin, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard., Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex radiation therapy techniques require dosimetric verification of treatment planning and delivery. The authors investigated a liquid scintillator (LS) system for application for real-time high-energy photon beam dosimetry. The system was comprised of a transparent acrylic tank filled with liquid scintillating material, an opaque outer tank, and a CCD camera. A series of images was acquired when the tank with liquid scintillator was irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam, and the light data measured with the CCD camera were filtered to correct for scattering of the optical light inside the liquid scintillator. Depth-dose and lateral profiles as well as two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions were found to agree with results from the treatment planning system. Further, the corrected light output was found to be linear with dose, dose rate independent, and is robust for single or multiple acquisitions. The short time needed for image acquisition and processing could make this system ideal for fast verification of the beam characteristics of the treatment machine. This new detector system shows a potential usefulness of the LS for 2D QA.

  18. Mn-Substituted Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials Based on ZnSe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    for optoelectronics and information storage technology. In this study, we demonstrate that the hybrid nanostructuresMn-Substituted Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials Based on ZnSe: Nanostructures That May Lead are highly desirable and extremely attractive in the development of new multifunctional devices

  19. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)] [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Kürklüoglu, Mustafa [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)] [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Lovejoy, John [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)] [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Yaniv, Ziv, E-mail: ZYaniv@childrensnational.org [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 and Departments of Pediatrics and Radiology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)] [The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 and Departments of Pediatrics and Radiology, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the authors' evaluation, the authors conclude that the registration approaches are sufficiently accurate for initializing 2D/3D registration in the OR setting, both when a tracking system is not in use (gesture based approach), and when a tracking system is already in use (AR based approach)

  20. Nanostructure and Shape Control in Polymer-Ceramic Hybrids from Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-Poly(hexyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    #12;Nanostructure and Shape Control in Polymer-Ceramic Hybrids from Poly(ethylene oxide: amphiphiles; block copolymers; morphology; nanocomposites; structure-directing agent Introduction The study of amphiphilic block copolymer-derived, organic- inorganic hybrid materials is an emerging research field

  1. From 1D Chain to 3D Network: Tuning Hybrid II-VI Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    and synthesized a family of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on II-VI semiconductorsFrom 1D Chain to 3D Network: Tuning Hybrid II-VI Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties of these nanocomposite materials have been characterized by single crystal and/or powder X-ray diffraction methods. [Zn

  2. Stratification, segregation and mixing of granular materials in quasi-2D bounded heaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi Fan; Youcef Boukerkour; Thibault Blanc; Paul B. Umbanhowar; Julio M. Ottino; Richard M. Lueptow

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Segregation and mixing of granular mixtures during heap formation have important consequences in industry and agriculture. This research investigates three different final particle configurations of bi-disperse granular mixtures -- stratified, segregated and mixed -- during filling of quasi-two dimensional silos. We consider a larger number and relatively wider range of control parameters than previous studies, including particle size ratio, flow rate, system size and heap rise velocity. The boundary between stratified and unstratified states is primarily controlled by the two-dimensional flow rate, with the critical flow rate for the transition depending weakly on particle size ratio and flowing layer length. In contrast, the transition from segregated to mixed states is controlled by the rise velocity of the heap, a control parameter not previously considered. The critical rise velocity for the transition depends strongly on the particle size ratio.

  3. Light and Fast: Probing Carriers and Vibrations in 1D and 2D Materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest Newsbiomass toInsurance | NationalMIT-Harvard

  4. Optoelectronics of 2D Materials | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize carbon dioxideCONTRACT AWARD PAGE

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Indium Under the Nanoscope In this work, Lee et al. investigated the small-scale plastic deformation of indium nanopillars, a previously unstudied material and crystal...

  6. Synthesis of nanostructured SiC using the pulsed laser deposition technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H.X. [Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23343, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Feng, P.X. [Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico); Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23343, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico)], E-mail: peterxianping@vmail.uprrp.edu; Makarov, V.; Weiner, B.R. [Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico); Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23346, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico); Morell, G. [Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico); Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23343, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico)

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the new results on the direct synthesis of nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) materials using the pulsed laser deposition technique. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that SiC nanoholes, nanosprouts, nanowires, and nanoneedles were obtained. The crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and bond structure of the nanoscale SiC materials were investigated using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The transverse optical mode and longitudinal optical mode in Raman spectra were found to become sharper as the substrate temperature was increased, while the material structure evolved from amorphous to crystalline.

  7. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivers, M. (UC)

    2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  8. Electrical spin injection in 2D semiconductors and topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golub, L. E.; Ivchenko, E. L. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a theory of spin orientation by electric current in 2D semiconductors. It is shown that the spin depends on the relation between the energy and spin relaxation times and can vary by a factor of two for the limiting cases of fast and slow energy relaxation. For symmetrically-doped (110)-grown semiconductor quantum wells the effect of current-induced spin orientation is shown to exist due to random spatial variation of the Rashba spin-orbit splitting. We demonstrate that the spin depends strongly on the correlation length of this random spin-orbit field. We calculate the spin orientation degree in two-dimensional topological insulators. In high electric fields when the “streaming” regime is realized, the spin orientation degree weakly depends on the electric field and can reach values about 5%.

  9. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R., E-mail: jrahn@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R. [Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, S. H. [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. H., E-mail: sunghapark@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  10. The 2d International Symposium on Computational Geomechanics (ComGeo II) 1 INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The 2d International Symposium on Computational Geomechanics (ComGeo II) 1 1 INTRODUCTION Last at the contacts is studied. #12;The 2d International Symposium on Computational Geomechanics (ComGeo II) 2 complex

  11. Optical 2-D Scanning System for Laser - Generated Shockwave Treatment of Wound Infections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Shahzad Neville

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biofilm structure from confocal scanning laser microscopyAngeles Optical 2-D Scanning System for Laser - GeneratedTHE THESIS Optical 2-D Scanning System for Laser-Generated

  12. Jet theoretical Yang-Mills energy in the geometric dynamics of 2D-monolayer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Neagu; N. G. Krylova; H. V. Grushevskaya

    2012-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Langmuir-Blodgett films (LB-films) consist from few LB-monolayers which are high structured nanomaterials that are very promising materials for applications. We use a geometrical approach to describe structurization into LB-monolayers. Consequently, we develop on the 1-jet space J^1([0,\\infty),R^2) the single-time Lagrange geometry (in the sense of distinguished (d-) connection, d-torsions and an abstract anisotropic electromagnetic-like d-field) for the Lagrangian governing the 2D-motion of a particle of monolayer. One assumed that an expansion near singular points for the constructed geometrical Lagrangian theory describe phase transitions to LB-monolayer. Trajectories of particles in a field of the electrocapillarity forces of monolayer have been calculated in a resonant approximation utilizing some Jacobi equations. A jet geometrical Yang-Mills energy is introduced and some physical interpretations are given.

  13. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geisz, Sarah Kurtz, M. W. Wanlass, J. S. Ward, A. Duda, D.D.J. Aiken, and M.W. Wanlass, “Direct-bonded GaAs/InGaAs

  14. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    O. 12 % Efficiency CuIn(Se,S) 2 Photovoltaic Device PreparedO. 12% Efficiency CuIn(Se,S) 2 Photovoltaic Device Preparedphotovoltaic devices have demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies

  15. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prospects for photovoltaic efficiency enhancement using low-Prospects for photovoltaic efficiency enhancement using low-Prospects for photovoltaic efficiency enhancement using low-

  16. Metal Oxide Nanostructured Materials for Optical and Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and solar fuels Sunlight is an abundant source of clean, renewable power that supplies 36,000 terawatts of power to

  17. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency of solar panels and power to weight ratio insolar cells, there exist two basic processes to convert sunlight power topower to a load connected when charged by Sun. The typical output voltage of a silicon based solar

  18. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8 (electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Letters 8,

  19. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance bySolid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with an Amphiphilicthe Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Co-Grafting

  20. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene and Graphene Oxide Films,” (In Preparation). 18.TIMs) with Graphene Fillers,” (In Preparation). 35. Yu, W. ,Graphene and Graphene Oxide Films,” (In preparation for

  1. Author's Accepted Manuscript Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    consumer electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, to large industrial scale power and energy management of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable. Owing to their capability to deliver high power performance and extremely long cycle life

  2. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    within Acoustically Hard Polycrystalline Diamond Barriers,”of CVD grown polycrystalline diamond films …………………… 42discovered that polycrystalline diamond films can be grown

  3. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Yan, Y. , Zhang, Q. and Tritt, T.M. , “High ThermoelectricOxford 1963. 3. Tritt, T.M. , “Thermal Conductivity: Theory,

  4. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1000 suns);23.22%(1 sun) Absorption Energy Overlap (eV) Fig.ways for centuries. The Sun creates its energy through aoptimum energy level separations at 1000 suns and 46050 suns

  5. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene Oxide 5.0 wt% epoxy resin Wang et al. [36] Grapheneincludes graphene, epoxy (resin+hardener) and surfactant (Density of silver epoxy (resin + hardener) was determined to

  6. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for concentrator photovoltaic cells (CPV) is 100 K – 200 Kimplementing photovoltaic and photochemical cells on largeConcentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) cells have been demonstrated

  7. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and intensity. The short circuit current can be expressed byas the sum of short circuit current and dark current, whichcondition that the short circuit current is exactly equal to

  8. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rate Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Small 2011, 7, 407–414.Rate Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Small 2011, 7, 407?414.Rate Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: Relationships among

  9. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Electrochemical Supercapacitors. ” Oral Presentation atE. Electrochemical Supercapacitors: Scientific FundamentalsOxide Thin Film Based Supercapacitors. Curr. Appl. Phys.

  10. Metal Oxide Nanostructured Materials for Optical and Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoanten- na. NatureOptical Coupling of Single “Bowtie” Nanoantennas Resonant in

  11. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the intermediate band solar cell under nonideal space chargeInGaP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 381 (band impact ionization and solar cell efficiency,” J. Appl.

  12. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Nanotubes as Supercapacitor Electrodes. J. Phys.Z. Enhancing the Supercapacitor Performance of Graphene/MnO

  13. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Networks: Ag 2 Se Gels and Aerogels by Cation ExchangeArea Vanadium Oxide Aerogels. Electrochem. Solid State Lett.of a 3D Graphene/Nanoparticle Aerogel. Adv. Mater. 2011, 23,

  14. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Boundary Resistance at GaN/substrate Interface,” Electron.Diamond with GaN Substrate for Improved ThermalDiamond with GaN Substrate for Improved Thermal

  15. Solution Phase Routes to Functional Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauda, Iris Ester

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. ; Li, J. Enhanced Photocatalysis by Doping Cerium intofrom catalysis and photocatalysis to solar energy harvestingenergy harvesting and photocatalysis generally require mid-

  16. Composite, nanostructured, super-hydrophobic material - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would like submit the

  17. Multifunctional Nanostructured Materials for Processing of Biomass | The

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'.SolarUS Dept ofActingMultidimensionalwithAmes

  18. 3D Printing of nanostructured catalytic materials | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, 2014Energy,FNeedDepartmentD Printing3D

  19. Nanostructured materials for advanced catalyst design | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued

  20. Nano-structured Materials as Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash,Energy NRELNamrata Kolachalam About UsAnodes

  1. University of Kentucky Chemical and Materials Engineering Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rankin, Stephen E.

    synthesis and characterization of materials with advanced nanostructure and properties. Examples and control the "bottom- up" formation of these inorganic materials by polymerization, controlled. Understand self-assembly and its use for materials synthesis 6. Be able to apply physical chemical

  2. University of Kentucky Chemical and Materials Engineering Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rankin, Stephen E.

    the chemical synthesis and characterization of materials with advanced nanostructure and properties. Examples and control the "bottom-up" formation of these inorganic materials by polymerization, controlled precipitation. Understand self-assembly and its use for materials synthesis 6. Be able to apply physical chemical

  3. 2D-GE IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON LEVEL-SETS E.A. Mylona a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athens, University of

    2D-GE IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON LEVEL-SETS E.A. Mylona a , M.A. Savelonas a , D. Maroulis a , M of protein spots in 2D-GE images. The proposed scheme incorporates a protein spot detection stage based both software packages in terms of segmentation performance. Index Terms--2D-GE Images, Protein Spot

  4. An Improved Ant Colony Optimisation Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoos, Holger H.

    An Improved Ant Colony Optimisation Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem Alena hydrophobic-polar (2D HP) protein folding problem. We present an improved version of our recently proposed Ant search. Overall, the results presented here establish our new ACO algorithm for 2D HP protein folding

  5. An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoos, Holger H.

    An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for the 2D HP Protein Folding Problem Alena Shmygelska, Rosal, the two dimensional hydrophobic-polar (2D HP) protein folding problem. We introduce an ant colony algorithm closely approaches that of specialised, state-of-the methods for 2D HP protein folding. 1

  6. Cylindrical 2D ALE simulations of laser interactions with flyer targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurien, Susan

    , mass density, v speed, p pressure, e specific internal energy, T temperature, heat conductivity acceleration simulated in 2D. 2 Numerical ALE method with extensions Our 2D ALE code [6] employs conservative 1 April 2006 We have developed 2D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) code in the cylindrical r - z

  7. OPTICAL AND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF UNDOPED AND DOPED SEMICONDUCTOR NANOSTRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, C D; Zhang, J Z

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides an overview of some recent research activities on the study of optical and dynamic properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. The emphasis is on unique aspects of these properties in nanostructures as compared to bulk materials. Linear, including absorption and luminescence, and nonlinear optical as well as dynamic properties of semiconductor nanoparticles are discussed with focus on their dependence on particle size, shape, and surface characteristics. Both doped and undoped semiconductor nanomaterials are highlighted and contrasted to illustrate the use of doping to effectively alter and probe nanomaterial properties. Some emerging applications of optical nanomaterials are discussed towards the end of the chapter, including solar energy conversion, optical sensing of chemicals and biochemicals, solid state lighting, photocatalysis, and photoelectrochemistry.

  8. Numerical analysis of nanostructures for enhanced light extraction from OLEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zschiedrich, L; Burger, S; Schmidt, F; 10.1117/12.2001132

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructures, like periodic arrays of scatters or low-index gratings, are used to improve the light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). In order to optimize geometrical and material properties of such structures, simulations of the outcoupling process are very helpful. The finite element method is best suited for an accurate discretization of the geometry and the singular-like field profile within the structured layer and the emitting layer. However, a finite element simulation of the overall OLED stack is often beyond available computer resources. The main focus of this paper is the simulation of a single dipole source embedded into a twofold infinitely periodic OLED structure. To overcome the numerical burden we apply the Floquet transform, so that the computational domain reduces to the unit cell. The relevant outcoupling data are then gained by inverse Flouqet transforming. This step requires a careful numerical treatment as reported in this paper.

  9. The Multidimensional Filter Diagonalization Method II. Application to 2D Projections of 2D, 3D, and 4D NMR Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelshtam, Vladimir A.

    The Multidimensional Filter Diagonalization Method II. Application to 2D Projections of 2D, 3D signals with up to four independent time variables. Direct projections of the multidimensional time- quency dimension (1). The increase in experiment time is a fair price to pay for the ability to tease out

  10. Sonochemically Prepared Nanostructured Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    . CLASSIFICATION form: amorphous, nanostructured fine powder function: hydrodesulfurization catalyst, lubricant and energy diffusion out of the bubble. As a result, extreme temperatures and pressures are achieved within/s. These unique and severe conditions can be used to drive chemical reactions within the bubble; one result

  11. VAM2D: Variably saturated analysis model in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huyakorn, P.S.; Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. (HydroGeoLogic, Inc., Herndon, VA (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a two-dimensional finite element model, VAM2D, developed to simulate water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. Both flow and transport simulation can be handled concurrently or sequentially. The formulation of the governing equations and the numerical procedures used in the code are presented. The flow equation is approximated using the Galerkin finite element method. Nonlinear soil moisture characteristics and atmospheric boundary conditions (e.g., infiltration, evaporation and seepage face), are treated using Picard and Newton-Raphson iterations. Hysteresis effects and anisotropy in the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can be taken into account if needed. The contaminant transport simulation can account for advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, linear equilibrium sorption, and first-order degradation. Transport of a single component or a multi-component decay chain can be handled. The transport equation is approximated using an upstream weighted residual method. Several test problems are presented to verify the code and demonstrate its utility. These problems range from simple one-dimensional to complex two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems. This document has been produced as a user's manual. It contains detailed information on the code structure along with instructions for input data preparation and sample input and printed output for selected test problems. Also included are instructions for job set up and restarting procedures. 44 refs., 54 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  13. 2D modeling of electromagnetic waves in cold plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crombé, K. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM - Belgian State Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Renaissancelaan 30 Avenue de la Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium and Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, B (Belgium); Van Eester, D.; Koch, R.; Kyrytsya, V. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM - Belgian State Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Renaissancelaan 30 Avenue de la Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The consequences of sheath (rectified) electric fields, resulting from the different mobility of electrons and ions as a response to radio frequency (RF) fields, are a concern for RF antenna design as it can cause damage to antenna parts, limiters and other in-vessel components. As a first step to a more complete description, the usual cold plasma dielectric description has been adopted, and the density profile was assumed to be known as input. Ultimately, the relevant equations describing the wave-particle interaction both on the fast and slow timescale will need to be tackled but prior to doing so was felt as a necessity to get a feeling of the wave dynamics involved. Maxwell's equations are solved for a cold plasma in a 2D antenna box with strongly varying density profiles crossing also lower hybrid and ion-ion hybrid resonance layers. Numerical modelling quickly becomes demanding on computer power, since a fine grid spacing is required to capture the small wavelengths effects of strongly evanescent modes.

  14. Duality between Spin networks and the 2D Ising model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentin Bonzom; Francesco Costantino; Etera R. Livine

    2015-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this paper is to exhibit a deep relation between the partition function of the Ising model on a planar trivalent graph and the generating series of the spin network evaluations on the same graph. We provide respectively a fermionic and a bosonic Gaussian integral formulation for each of these functions and we show that they are the inverse of each other (up to some explicit constants) by exhibiting a supersymmetry relating the two formulations. We investigate three aspects and applications of this duality. First, we propose higher order supersymmetric theories which couple the geometry of the spin networks to the Ising model and for which supersymmetric localization still holds. Secondly, after interpreting the generating function of spin network evaluations as the projection of a coherent state of loop quantum gravity onto the flat connection state, we find the probability distribution induced by that coherent state on the edge spins and study its stationary phase approximation. It is found that the stationary points correspond to the critical values of the couplings of the 2D Ising model, at least for isoradial graphs. Third, we analyze the mapping of the correlations of the Ising model to spin network observables, and describe the phase transition on those observables on the hexagonal lattice. This opens the door to many new possibilities, especially for the study of the coarse-graining and continuum limit of spin networks in the context of quantum gravity.

  15. Exact Solutions of 2d Supersymmetric Gauge Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhijit Gadde; Sergei Gukov; Pavel Putrov

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study dynamics of two-dimensional non-abelian gauge theories with N=(0,2) supersymmetry that include N=(0,2) supersymmetric QCD and its generalizations. In particular, we present the phase diagram of N=(0,2) SQCD and determine its massive and low-energy spectrum. We find that the theory has no mass gap, a nearly constant distribution of massive states, and lots of massless states that in general flow to an interacting CFT. For a range of parameters where supersymmetry is not dynamically broken at low energies, we give a complete description of the low-energy physics in terms of 2d N=(0,2) SCFTs using anomaly matching and modular invariance. Our construction provides a vast landscape of new N=(0,2) SCFTs which, for small values of the central charge, could be used for building novel heterotic models with no moduli and, for large values of the central charge, could be dual to AdS_3 string vacua.

  16. Research News Structured Porous Materials via Colloidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    to Metals** By Orlin D. Velev* and Eric W. Kaler The formation of nanostructured materials by using applications in optical information processing and storage, advanced coatings, catalysis, and other emerging, dried colloidal crystals are very brittle and may disperse in water. Any practical device thus requires

  17. COMMUNICATION www.MaterialsViews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    materials and other advanced designs in Li ion based storage devices. Graphitic carbon is widely used* Surface-Coverage-Dependent Cycle Stability of Core-Shell Nanostructured Electrodes for Use in Lithium Ion and portable devices. Recently, a dramatic increase in the use of smartphones and hand-held tablet devices

  18. 320 MRS BULLETIN VOLUME 38 APRIL 2013 www.mrs.org/bulletin 2013 Materials Research Society Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    due to the potential applications in electronics, biosensors, and energy storage devices.1­4 Large units with Nanostructured paper for flexible energy and electronic devices Guangyuan Zheng, Yi Cui materials on earth. In the past decade, research on nanostructures of cellu- lose has increased dramatically

  19. Neutron Scattering Studies of Nanomagnetism and Artificially Structured Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzsimmons, M.R.; Bader, S.D.; Borchers, J.A.; Felcher, G.P.; Furdyna, J.K.; Hoffmann, A.; Kortright, J.B.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Schulthess, T.C.; Sinha, S.K.; Toney, M.F.; Weller, D.; Wolf, S.

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured magnetic materials are intensively studied due to their unusual properties and promise for possible applications. The key issues in these materials relate to the connection between their physical properties (transport, magnetism, mechanical, etc.) and their chemical-physical structure. In principle, a detailed knowledge of the chemical and physical structure allows calculation of their physical properties. Theoretical and computational methods are rapidly evolving so that magnetic properties of nanostructured materials might soon be predicted. Success in this endeavor requires detailed quantitative understanding of the magnetic structure and properties.

  20. Metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S. (Stony Brook, NY); Mao, Yuanbing (Los Angeles, CA)

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes pure single-crystalline metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures, and methods of making same. These nanostructures include nanorods and nanoarrays.

  1. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts...

  2. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control...

  3. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for...

  4. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    They have demonstrated the ability to directly "write" nanostructures of Si, Ge, and SiGe with deterministic size, geometry, and placement control. As purity is essential for...

  5. amorphous biophotonic nanostructure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanostructure Anitescu, Mihai 169 Integration of amorphous and polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors through selective crystallization of amorphous silicon Engineering...

  6. Multilevel interference lithography--fabricating sub-wavelength periodic nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Hao, 1980-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Periodic nanostructures have many exciting applications, including high-energy spectroscopy, patterned magnetic media, photonic crystals, and templates for self-assembly. Interference lithography (IL) is an attractive ...

  7. OECD/MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : final report February 28, 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

    2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Although extensive research has been conducted over the last several years in the areas of Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) and debris coolability, two important issues warrant further investigation. The first issue concerns the effectiveness of water in terminating a CCI by flooding the interacting masses from above, thereby quenching the molten core debris and rendering it permanently coolable. This safety issue was investigated in the EPRI-sponsored Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program. The approach was to conduct large scale, integral-type reactor materials experiments with core melt masses ranging up to two metric tons. These experiments provided unique, and for the most part repeatable, indications of heat transfer mechanism(s) that could provide long term debris cooling. However, the results did not demonstrate definitively that a melt would always be completely quenched. This was due to the fact that the crust anchored to the test section sidewalls in every test, which led to melt/crust separation, even at the largest test section lateral span of 1.20 m. This decoupling is not expected for a typical reactor cavity, which has a span of 5-6 m. Even though the crust may mechanically bond to the reactor cavity walls, the weight of the coolant and the crust itself is expected to periodically fracture the crust and restore contact with the melt. Although crust fracturing does not ensure that coolability will be achieved, it nonetheless provides a pathway for water to recontact the underlying melt, thereby allowing other debris cooling mechanisms to proceed. A related task of the current program, which is not addressed in this particular report, is to measure crust strength to check the hypothesis that a corium crust would not be strong enough to sustain melt/crust separation in a plant accident. The second important issue concerns long-term, two-dimensional concrete ablation by a prototypic core oxide melt. As discussed by Foit the existing reactor material database for dry cavity conditions is solely one-dimensional. Although the MACE Scoping Test was carried out with a two-dimensional concrete cavity, the interaction was flooded soon after ablation was initiated to investigate debris coolability. Moreover, due to the scoping nature of this test, the apparatus was minimally instrumented and therefore the results are of limited value from the code validation viewpoint. Aside from the MACE program, the COTELS test series also investigated 2-D CCI under flooded cavity conditions. However, the input power density for these tests was quite high relative to the prototypic case. Finally, the BETA test series provided valuable data on 2-D core concrete interaction under dry cavity conditions, but these tests focused on investigating the interaction of the metallic (steel) phase with concrete. Due to these limitations, there is significant uncertainty in the partition of energy dissipated for the ablation of concrete in the lateral and axial directions under dry cavity conditions for the case of a core oxide melt. Accurate knowledge of this 'power split' is important in the evaluation of the consequences of an ex-vessel severe accident; e.g., lateral erosion can undermine containment structures, while axial erosion can penetrate the basemat, leading to ground contamination and/or possible containment bypass. As a result of this uncertainty, there are still substantial differences among computer codes in the prediction of 2-D cavity erosion behavior under both wet and dry cavity conditions. In light of the above issues, the OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program was initiated at Argonne National Laboratory. The project conducted reactor materials experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focused on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties relat

  8. Expression of Ligands for the NKG2D Activating Receptor are Linked to Proliferative Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Heiyoun

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Upon NKG2D engagement, the ITAM in DAP12 recruits ZAP70 orcontrast, DAP10 lacks an ITAM, and instead contains a YINM

  9. On 3D instabilities of 2D time-periodic flows - Department of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Karman vortex street, the 2D periodically shedding wake of a circular cylinder, is the prototypical example. We shall consider this as well as a periodically ...

  10. Catalytic Nanostructures | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C lKieling ,CatalysisPortalCatalytic

  11. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition |MaterialsMatt10Laser,Measuring

  12. LDRD final report on Bloch Oscillations in two-dimensional nanostructure arrays for high frequency applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Pan, Wei; Reno, John Louis; Wendt, Joel Robert; Barton, Daniel Lee

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the physics of Bloch oscillations (BO) of electrons, engineered in high mobility quantum wells patterned into lateral periodic arrays of nanostructures, i.e. two-dimensional (2D) quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs). A BO occurs when an electron moves out of the Brillouin zone (BZ) in response to a DC electric field, passing back into the BZ on the opposite side. This results in quantum oscillations of the electron--i.e., a high frequency AC current in response to a DC voltage. Thus, engineering a BO will yield continuously electrically tunable high-frequency sources (and detectors) for sensor applications, and be a physics tour-de-force. More than a decade ago, Bloch oscillation (BO) was observed in a quantum well superlattice (QWSL) in short-pulse optical experiments. However, its potential as electrically biased high frequency source and detector so far has not been realized. This is partially due to fast damping of BO in QWSLs. In this project, we have investigated the possibility of improving the stability of BO by fabricating lateral superlattices of periodic coupled nanostructures, such as metal grid, quantum (anti)dots arrays, in high quality GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As heterostructures. In these nanostructures, the lateral quantum confinement has been shown theoretically to suppress the optical-phonon scattering, believed to be the main mechanism for fast damping of BO in QWSLs. Over the last three years, we have made great progress toward demonstrating Bloch oscillations in QDSLs. In the first two years of this project, we studied the negative differential conductance and the Bloch radiation induced edge-magnetoplasmon resonance. Recently, in collaboration with Prof. Kono's group at Rice University, we investigated the time-domain THz magneto-spectroscopy measurements in QDSLs and two-dimensional electron systems. A surprising DC electrical field induced THz phase flip was observed. More measurements are planned to investigate this phenomenon. In addition to their potential device applications, periodic arrays of nanostructures have also exhibited interesting quantum phenomena, such as a possible transition from a quantum Hall ferromagnetic state to a quantum Hall spin glass state. It is our belief that this project has generated and will continue to make important impacts in basic science as well as in novel solid-state, high frequency electronic device applications.

  13. Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

  14. Millifluidics for time-resolved mapping of the growth of gold nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai Krishna, Katla; Navin, Chelliah; Biswas, Sanchita; Singh, Varshni; Ham, Kyungmin; Bovencamp, L. S.; Theegala, Chandra; Miller, Jeffrey T; Spivey, James J.; Kumar, Challa S.S.R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative in situ characterization tools are essential for understanding the reaction mechanisms leading to the growth of nanoscale materials. Though techniques, such as in situ transmission X-ray microscopy, fast single-particle spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, etc., are currently being developed, these tools are complex, not easily accessible, and do not necessarily provide the temporal resolution required to follow the formation of nanomaterials in real time. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the utility of a simple millifluidic chip for an in situ real time analysis of morphology and dimension-controlled growth of gold nano- and microstructures with a time resolution of 5 ms. The structures formed were characterized using synchrotron radiation-based in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, 3-D X-ray tomography, and high-resolution electron microscopy. These gold nanostructures were found to be catalytically active for conversion of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol, providing an example of the potential opportunities for time-resolved analysis of catalytic reactions. While the investigations reported here are focused on gold nanostructures, the technique can be applied to analyze the time-resolved growth of other types of nanostructured metals and metal oxides. With the ability to probe at least a 10-fold higher concentrations, in comparison with traditional microfluidics, the tool has potential to revolutionize a broad range of fields from catalysis, molecular analysis, biodefense, and molecular biology.

  15. Effect of interstitials on tensile strength and creep in nanostructured Ni

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, W.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University, Six Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Whang, S.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University, Six Metrotech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)]. E-mail: swhang@poly.edu; Mirshams, R.A. [Department of Engineering Technology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-0679 (United States)

    2005-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The tensile, creep and anelastic behavior of nanostructured nickel doped and un-doped with boron was investigated. Specimen material with an average grain size of around 30 nm produced by the pulse electrodeposition method contains impurities such as carbon, sulfur and boron. The interstitials content does not have notable impact on the tensile strength at room temperature and 373 K. But, at 473 K, the minor change in sulfur content from 0.03 to 0.061 at.% raises the ultimate strength by 150 MPa while the boron doping further improves the tensile strength. On the other hand, with increasing sulfur content in nanostructured Ni, the ductility decreases. All the specimens exhibit significant anelastic relaxation from room temperature to 473 K. The creep test results show that both minimum creep rate and creep strain significantly decrease with increasing sulfur or by doping boron in nanostructured nickel. The stress exponent in the expression of Coble-type creep increases to around five at 373 and 473 K from two at room temperature. A model for grain boundary sliding, in which grain boundary dislocations and back stress are introduced, has successfully explained the large stress exponents. The calculated back stress indicates that the interstitials in grain boundaries effectively retard the sliding of grain boundary dislocations.

  16. Nanoscience and Nanostructures for Photovoltaics and Solar Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    Nanoscience and Nanostructures for Photovoltaics and Solar Fuels Arthur J. Nozik National Renewable to enhance the power conversion efficiency of solar cells for photovoltaic and solar fuels production of the technological status of nanocrystals and nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic cells and solar fuels

  17. Nickel Electroplating for Nanostructure Mold Fabrication * Xiaohui Lin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Nickel Electroplating for Nanostructure Mold Fabrication * Xiaohui Lin1 , Xinyuan Dou1 , Xiaolong demonstrated a practical process of fabricating nickel molds for nanoimprinting. Dual-side polished glass is chosen as the substrate on which nickel nanostructures are successfully electroplated. Photonic crystal

  18. A 2D Pseudodynamic Rupture Model Generator for Earthquakes on Geometrically Complex Faults

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Eric M.

    A 2D Pseudodynamic Rupture Model Generator for Earthquakes on Geometrically Complex Faults complexity in the rupture process and resulting ground motion. We present a 2D kinematic rupture generator that emulates the strong dependence of earthquake source parameters on local fault geometry observed in dynamic

  19. A 2D Graphics Interface Based on CGI Version 1.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clausen, Michael

    ) standards for device independent driving of graphics hardware, both issued from standardization institutes#12; CGI ++ A 2D Graphics Interface Based on CGI Version 1.0 Dieter W. Fellner Martin Fischer Currently, designers of 2D graphics applications have to deal with several (and unfor­ tunately incompatible

  20. Journal of Computer Graphics Techniques Higher Quality 2D Text Rendering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Journal of Computer Graphics Techniques Higher Quality 2D Text Rendering Vol. 2, No. 1, 2013 http://jcgt.org Higher Quality 2D Text Rendering Nicolas P. Rougier INRIA Figure 1. When displaying text on low technology / Microsoft / native hinting) for crisp rendering or, to privilege glyph shapes (Quartz technology

  1. Wind Tunnel and Field Test of Three 2D Sonic Anemometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Wind Tunnel and Field Test of Three 2D Sonic Anemometers Wiel Wauben R&D Information and Observation Technology, KNMI September 17, 2007 #12;#12;Wind Tunnel and Field Test of Three 2D Sonic.....................................................................................................1 2. Wind sensors

  2. A fast multipole boundary element method for modeling 2-D multiple crack problems with constant elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yijun

    A fast multipole boundary element method for modeling 2-D multiple crack problems with constant 3 April 2014 Accepted 20 May 2014 Keywords: Fast multipole BEM 2-D multi-crack problems Constant elements Crack opening displacements Stress intensity factors a b s t r a c t A fast multipole boundary

  3. The following VS tools were compared: 2D OPENBABEL, DAYLIGHT2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Dave

    The following VS tools were compared: 2D ­ OPENBABEL, DAYLIGHT2 , MACCS. BCI, MOLPRINT2D3 3D ­ ROCS Software Inc., Cepos Insilico Ltd., Chemical Computing Group, DAYLIGHT, Chemical Information Systems and Digital Chemistry for providing Academic Licences for ROCS, ParaSurf, MOE, DAYLIGHT, and BCI, respectively

  4. Wavelet filtering to study mixing in 2D isotropic turbulence Carsten Beta a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    École Normale Supérieure

    Wavelet filtering to study mixing in 2D isotropic turbulence Carsten Beta a , Kai Schneider b simulation (CVS) filtering, based on an ortho- gonal wavelet decomposition of vorticity, to study mixing in 2; Diffusion; Wavelets 1. Introduction Decaying 2D turbulence is characterized by the emergence of long

  5. Angular momentum and energy structure of the coherent state of a 2D isotropic harmonic oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LIU Yufeng; HUO Wujun; ZENG Jinyan

    1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The angular momentum structure and energy structure of the coherent state of a 2D isotropic harmonic oscillator were investigated. Calculations showed that the average values of angular momentum and energy (except the zero point energy) of this nonspreading 2D wave packet are identical to those of the corresponding classical oscillator moving along a circular or an elliptic orbit.

  6. 2D-Zernike polynomials and coherent state quantization of the unit disc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Thirulogasanthar; Nasser Saad; G. Honnouvo

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the orthonormality of the 2D-Zernike polynomials, reproducing kernels, reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, and ensuring coherent states attained. With the aid of the so-obtained coherent states, the complex unit disc is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols and related generalized Berezin transforms also obtained. A number of necessary summation formulas for the 2D-Zernike polynomials proved.

  7. The 2013 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference/Gordon Research Seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauss, Todd D. [University of Rochester

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental properties of small particles and their potential for groundbreaking applications are among the most exciting areas of study in modern physics, chemistry, and materials science. The Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon ResearchConference and Gordon Research Seminar synthesize contributions from these inter-related fields that reflect the pivotal role of nano-particles at the interface between these disciplines. Size-dependent optical, electronic, magnetic and catalytic properties offer prospects for applications in many fields, and possible solutions for many of the grand challenges facing energy generation, consumption, delivery, and storage in the 21st century. The goal of the 2013 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference and Gordon Research Seminar is to continue the historical interdisciplinary tradition of this series and discuss the most recent advances, basic scientific questions, and emerging applications of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. The Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC/GRS traditionally brings together the leading scientific groups that have made significant recent advances in one or more fundamental nanoscience or nanotechnology areas. Broad interests of the DOE BES and Solar Photochemistry Program addressed by this meeting include the areas of solar energy to fuels conversion, new photovoltaic systems, fundamental characterization of nanomaterials, magnetism, catalysis, and quantum physics. The vast majority of speakers and attendees will address either directly the topic of nanotechnology for photoinduced charge transfer, charge transport, and catalysis, or will have made significant contributions to related areas that will impact these fields indirectly. These topics have direct relevance to the mission of the DOE BES since it is this cutting-edge basic science that underpins our energy future.

  8. Matrix-assisted energy conversion in nanostructured piezoelectric arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sirbuly, Donald J.; Wang, Xianying; Wang, Yinmin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanoconverter is capable of directly generating electricity through a nanostructure embedded in a polymer layer experiencing differential thermal expansion in a stress transfer zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or substantially vertically aligned on a substrate. The resulting nanoforest is then embedded with the polymer layer, which transfers stress to the nanostructures in the stress transfer zone, thereby creating a nanostructure voltage output due to the piezoelectric effect acting on the nanostructure. Electrodes attached at both ends of the nanostructures generate output power at densities of .about.20 nW/cm.sup.2 with heating temperatures of .about.65.degree. C. Nanoconverters arrayed in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jong Woung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devicesnanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

  10. Gradient nanostructures for interfacing microfluidics and nanofluidics Nanostructure Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gradient nanostructures for interfacing microfluidics and nanofluidics Han Caoa) Nanostructure to emerge.2,3 In order to uniformly stretch long DNA, the dimensions of nanofluidic structures should the performance of the nanofluidic devices Fig. 1 a . One solution is to fabricate a micropost array in front

  11. Thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured lead telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Takuma [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shiomi, Junichiro, E-mail: shiomi@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of lead telluride with embedded nanoinclusions was studied using Monte Carlo simulations with intrinsic phonon transport properties obtained from first-principles-based lattice dynamics. The nanoinclusion/matrix interfaces were set to completely reflect phonons to model the maximum interface-phonon-scattering scenario. The simulations with the geometrical cross section and volume fraction of the nanoinclusions matched to those of the experiment show that the experiment has already reached the theoretical limit of thermal conductivity. The frequency-dependent analysis further identifies that the thermal conductivity reduction is dominantly attributed to scattering of low frequency phonons and demonstrates mutual adaptability of nanostructuring and local disordering.

  12. Nanostructures in Skutterudites | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash,EnergyNanophosphateas AnodesNanostructures in

  13. [1] Microspheres Catalog (19982000), Polysciences, Warrington, PA. [2] D. A. Tomalia, Adv. Mater. 1994, 6, 529.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    (10), 44. [10] J. V. Sanders, Nature 1964, 204, 1151. [11] Recent studies: I. I. Tarhan, G. H. Watson, Phys, 10, 1028. b) S. H. Park, Y. Xia, Langmuir 1999, 15, 266. Template-assisted Self-assembly and Cobalt Doping of Ordered Mesoporous Titania Nanostructures** By Jin Song Yin and Zhong L. Wang* Ordered self

  14. Nanostructured bilayered vanadium oxide electrodes for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tepavcevic, S.; Xiong, H.; Stamenkovic, V.R.; Zuo, X.; Balasubramanian, M.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Johnson, C.S.; Rajh, T. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS)); ( CNM); ( MSD); (University of Chicago)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tailoring nanoarchitecture of materials offers unprecedented opportunities in utilization of their functional properties. Nanostructures of vanadium oxide, synthesized by electrochemical deposition, are studied as a cathode material for rechargeable Na-ion batteries. Ex situ and in situ synchrotron characterizations revealed the presence of an electrochemically responsive bilayered structure with adjustable intralayer spacing that accommodates intercalation of Na{sup +} ions. Sodium intake induces organization of overall structure with appearance of both long- and short-range order, while deintercalation is accompanied with the loss of long-range order, whereas short-range order is preserved. Nanostructured electrodes achieve theoretical reversible capacity for Na{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} stoichiometry of 250 mAh/g. The stability evaluation during charge-discharge cycles at room temperature revealed an efficient 3 V cathode material with superb performance: energy density of {approx}760 Wh/kg and power density of 1200 W/kg. These results demonstrate feasibility of development of the ambient temperature Na-ion rechargeable batteries by employment of electrodes with tailored nanoarchitectures.

  15. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y. H.; Yang, X. Y.; Lin, C., E-mail: linchen0812@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J., E-mail: linchen0812@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, L. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, M. [Center for Fusion Science of Southwestern Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  16. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  17. Controlled nanostructuration of polycrystalline tungsten thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girault, B. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (UMR CNRS 6183), LUNAM Universite, Universite de Nantes, Centrale Nantes, CRTT, 37 Bd de l'Universite, BP 406, 44602 Saint-Nazaire Cedex (France); Eyidi, D.; Goudeau, P.; Guerin, P.; Bourhis, E. Le; Renault, P.-O. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Sauvage, T. [CEMHTI/CNRS (UPR 3079 CNRS), Universite d'Orleans, 3A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured tungsten thin films have been obtained by ion beam sputtering technique stopping periodically the growing. The total thickness was maintained constant while nanostructure control was obtained using different stopping periods in order to induce film stratification. The effect of tungsten sublayers' thicknesses on film composition, residual stresses, and crystalline texture evolution has been established. Our study reveals that tungsten crystallizes in both stable {alpha}- and metastable {beta}-phases and that volume proportions evolve with deposited sublayers' thicknesses. {alpha}-W phase shows original fiber texture development with two major preferential crystallographic orientations, namely, {alpha}-W<110> and unexpectedly {alpha}-W<111> texture components. The partial pressure of oxygen and presence of carbon have been identified as critical parameters for the growth of metastable {beta}-W phase. Moreover, the texture development of {alpha}-W phase with two texture components is shown to be the result of a competition between crystallographic planes energy minimization and crystallographic orientation channeling effect maximization. Controlled grain size can be achieved for the {alpha}-W phase structure over 3 nm stratification step. Below, the {beta}-W phase structure becomes predominant.

  18. Silicon enhancement mode nanostructures for quantum computing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of silicon, enhancement mode nanostructures for solid-state quantum computing will be described. A primary motivation of this research is the recent unprecedented manipulation of single electron spins in GaAs quantum dots, which has been used to demonstrate a quantum bit. Long spin decoherence times are predicted possible in silicon qubits. This talk will focus on silicon enhancement mode quantum dot structures that emulate the GaAs lateral quantum dot qubit but use an enhancement mode field effect transistor (FET) structure. One critical concern for silicon quantum dots that use oxides as insulators in the FET structure is that defects in the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) stack can produce both detrimental electrostatic and paramagnetic effects on the qubit. Understanding the implications of defects in the Si MOS system is also relevant for other qubit architectures that have nearby dielectric passivated surfaces. Stable, lithographically defined, single-period Coulomb-blockade and single-electron charge sensing in a quantum dot nanostructure using a MOS stack will be presented. A combination of characterization of defects, modeling and consideration of modified approaches that incorporate SiGe or donors provides guidance about the enhancement mode MOS approach for future qubits and quantum circuit micro-architecture.

  19. Nanowires and Nanostructures That Grow Like Polymer Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, Santosh [Iowa State University; Cademartiri, Ludovico [Ames Laboratory

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Unique properties (e.g., rubber elasticity, viscoelasticity, folding, reptation) determine the utility of polymer molecules and derive from their morphology (i.e., one-dimensional connectivity and large aspect ratios) and flexibility. Crystals do not display similar properties because they have smaller aspect ratios, they are rigid, and they are often too large and heavy to be colloidally stable. We argue, with the support of recent experimental studies, that these limitations are not fundamental and that they might be overcome by growth processes that mimic polymerization. Furthermore, we (i) discuss the similarities between crystallization and polymerization, (ii) critically review the existing experimental evidence of polymer-like growth kinetic and behavior in crystals and nanostructures, and (iii) propose heuristic guidelines for the synthesis of “polymer-like” crystals and assemblies. Understanding these anisotropic materials at the boundary between molecules and solids will determine whether we can confer the unique properties of polymer molecules to crystals, expanding them with topology, dynamics, and information and not just tuning them with size.

  20. Porous Materials Porous Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Porous Materials x Porous Materials · Physical properties * Characteristic impedance p = p 0 e -jk xa- = vej[ ] p x - j ; Zc= p ve = c ka 0k = c 1-j #12;2 Porous Materials · Specific acoustic impedance Porous Materials · Finite thickness ­ blocked p e + -jk (x-d)a p e - jk (x-d)a d x #12

  1. Tunable nanostructured composite with built-in metallic wire-grid electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micheli, Davide, E-mail: davide.micheli@uniroma1.it; Pastore, Roberto; Marchetti, Mario [Department of Astronautics, Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of Rome Sapienza Via Eudossiana, 18, 00184 – Rome (Italy)] [Department of Astronautics, Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of Rome Sapienza Via Eudossiana, 18, 00184 – Rome (Italy); Gradoni, Gabriele [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Paint Branch Drive, MD-20740 (United States)] [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Paint Branch Drive, MD-20740 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the authors report an experimental demonstration of microwave reflection tuning in carbon nanostructure-based composites by means of an external voltage supplied to the material. DC bias voltages are imparted through a metal wire-grid. The magnitude of the reflection coefficient is measured upon oblique plane-wave incidence. Increasing the bias from 13 to 700 V results in a lowering of ?20 dB, and a “blueshift” of ?600 MHz of the material absorption resonance. Observed phenomena are ascribed to a change of the dielectric response of the carbon material. Inherently, the physical role of tunneling between nanofillers (carbon nanotubes) is discussed. Achievements aim at the realization of a tunable absorber. There are similar studies in literature that focus on tunable metamaterials operating at either optical or THz wavelengths.

  2. Storage and analysis techniques for fast 2-D camera data on W. M. Davisa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Storage and analysis techniques for fast 2-D camera data on NSTX W. M. Davisa *, D.M. Mastrovitoa, and this year, one new camera alone can acquire 2GB per pulse. The paper will describe the storage strategies

  3. Higher order global differentiability local approximations for 2-D and 3-D distorted element geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maduri, Rajesh Kumar

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary focus of this thesis is to present a framework to develop higher order global differentiability local approximations for 2-D and 3-D distorted element geometries. The necessity and superiority of higher order global differentiability...

  4. Hydrogen Bond Rearrangements in Water Probed with Temperature-Dependent 2D IR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

    We use temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) of dilute HOD in H2O to investigate hydrogen bond rearrangements in water. The OD stretching frequency is sensitive to its environment, and loss ...

  5. 2-D Magnetotellurics At The Geothermal Site At Soultz-Sous-Forets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Geothermal Site At Soultz-Sous-Forets- Resistivity Distribution To About 3000 M Depth Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: 2-D...

  6. adriano 2d-model tests: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a 2nd order (toroidal) field may be uniform or has a prescribed gradient. In this test phase, the 2D code is ran Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 2 Accuracy in Scientific...

  7. Prospects for high thermoelectric figures of merit in 2D systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresselhaus, M.S.; Sun, X.; Cronin, S.B.; Koga, T.; Dresselhaus, G.; Wang, K.L.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced ZT has been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally in 2D quantum wells, with good agreement between theory and experiment. Advantages of low dimensional systems for thermoelectric applications are described and prospects for further enhancement of ZT are discussed.

  8. 2D-Modelling of pellet injection in the poloidal plane: results of numerical tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2D-Modelling of pellet injection in the poloidal plane: results of numerical tests P. Lalousis developed for computing the expansion of pellet-produced clouds in the poloidal plane. The expansion

  9. Signal Integrity Analysis of a 2-D and 3-D Integrated Potentiostat for Neurotransmitter Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanacevic, Milutin

    for the substrate, power network, and through silicon vias (TSVs). These models are combined integrated implantable systems. I. INTRODUCTION A multichannel potentiostat, integrated with micro and power dissipation. Signal integrity characteristics of a 2- D and 3-D integrated potentiostat

  10. A sequential partly iterative approach for multicomponent reactive transport with CORE2D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samper, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Juncosa R. , Delgado J. and Montenegro L. (2000) CORE 2D : App. Samper, J. , Yang, C. , Montenegro, L. , 2003. CORE 2DSamper, J. , Zhang, G. , Montenegro, L. , 2006a. Coupled

  11. CONTENT-BASED 3D OBJECT RETRIEVAL USING 2D VIEWS Thibault Napoleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahbi, Hichem

    CONTENT-BASED 3D OBJECT RETRIEVAL USING 2D VIEWS Thibault Napol´eon TELECOM ParisTech, CNRS UMR 5141 46 rue Barrault 75013 Paris, France napoleon@telecom-paristech.fr Hichem Sahbi CNRS UMR 5141

  12. Development of an Independent Hip Drive for a 2D Biped Walking Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rooney, Craig

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    and Automation Laboratory (ISAL) at the University of Kansas has developed a two dimensional (2D) biped walker, nicknamed the Jaywalker, in order to study the requirements necessary for a bipedal robot to traverse uneven terrain and successfully regain stability...

  13. Compatible, energy and symmetry preserving 2D Lagrangian hydrodynamics in rz-cylindrical coordinates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shashkov, Mikhail [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendroff, Burton [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burton, Donald [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barlow, A [AWE; Hongbin, Guo [ASU

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new discretization for 2D Lagrangian hydrodynamics in rz geometry (cylindrical coordinates) that is compatible, energy conserving and symmetry preserving. We describe discretization of the basic Lagrangian hydrodynamics equations.

  14. A distributional approach to the geometry of 2D dislocations at the mesoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisbon, University of

    A distributional approach to the geometry of 2D dislocations at the mesoscale Part A: General introduce the meso-scale as defined by some average distance between the dislocations. The laws governing

  15. 2d-LC-MS/MS Method-ORNL Developed for Bacteriophage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Matthew B.

    mass spectrometry (2d-LC-MS/MS) method was optimized for bacteriophage by Kristen Corrier undergraduate should be. 4. The mass spectrometer is run in data dependent mode, specific settings should be optimized

  16. Nanostructured Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries (Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meilin Liu, James Gole

    2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to explore new ways to create nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Of particular interests are unique nanostructures created by electrochemical deposition, etching and combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Three-dimensional nanoporous Cu6Sn5 alloy has been successfully prepared using an electrochemical co-deposition process. The walls of the foam structure are highly-porous and consist of numerous small grains. This represents a novel way of creating porous structures that allow not only fast transport of gas and liquid but also rapid electrochemical reactions due to high surface area. The Cu6Sn5 samples display a reversible capacity of {approx}400 mAhg-1. Furthermore, these materials exhibit superior rate capability. At a current drain of 10 mA/cm2(20C rate), the obtainable capacity was more than 50% of the capacity at 0.5 mA/cm2 (1C rate). Highly open and porous SnO2 thin films with columnar structure were obtained on Si/SiO2/Au substrates by CCVD. The thickness was readily controlled by the deposition time, varying from 1 to 5 microns. The columnar grains were covered by nanoparticles less than 20 nm. These thin film electrodes exhibited substantially high specific capacity. The reversible specific capacity of {approx}3.3 mAH/cm2 was demonstrated for up to 80 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.3 mA/cm2. When discharged at 0.9 mA/cm2, the capacity was about 2.1 mAH/cm2. Tin dioxide box beams or tubes with square or rectangular cross sections were synthesized using CCVD. The cross-sectional width of the SnO2 tubules was tunable from 50 nm to sub-micrometer depending on synthesis temperature. The tubes are readily aligned in the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface to form tube arrays. Silicon wafers were electrochemically etched to produce porous silicon (PS) with honeycomb-type channels and nanoporous walls. The diameters of the channels are about 1 to 3 microns and the depth of the channels can be up to 100 microns. We have successfully used the PS as a matrix for Si-Li-based alloy. Other component(s) can be incorporated into the PS either by an electroless metallization or by kinetically controlled vapor deposition.

  17. Proteomic analysis of E. coli using 2D HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christopher S

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2002 Group: Life Sciences I PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF E. COLI USING 2D HPLC AND MALDI-TOF MASS SPECTROMETRY A Senior Thesis By CHRISTOPHER S. CAMPBELL... April 2002 Group: Life Sciences I ABSTRACT Proteomic Analysis of E. coli Using 2D HPLC and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. Christopher S. Campbell Department of Biochemisty/Biophysics Texac AkM University Fellows Advisor; Dr. James C. Hu Department...

  18. Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors Wendy Niu,1,a) Anna-inorganic perovskite (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4 are produced using micromechanical exfoliation. Mono- and few-layer areas microme- chanical exfoliation of 2D PbI perovskites and explore the few-layer behaviour of such systems

  19. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  20. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  1. Porous Core-Shell Nanostructures for Catalytic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewers, Trevor David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C.Y Mou. Catalytic nano-rattle of Au@ hollow silica: towardshollow nanostructures induced by the Kirkendall effect: The basic concept. NanoHollow mesoporous aluminosilica spheres with perpendicular pore channels as catalytic nanoreactors. ACS Nano,

  2. Ballistic Transport in Nanostructures, and its Application to Functionalized Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzari, Nicola

    We developed and implemented a first-principles based theory of the Landauer ballistic conductance, to determine the transport properties of nanostructures and molecular-electronics devices. Our approach starts from a ...

  3. Electric-Field-Enhanced Condensation on Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    When condensed droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump due to the conversion of excess surface energy into kinetic energy. This phenomenon has been shown to enhance ...

  4. Aktuelle Veranstaltungen Thema: Ab initio description of transport in nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeller, Ralf

    transport also phonon transport is important for example in nanostructured thermoelectrics. Further-135 Vortragender: Erandy Ramirez ICN-UNAM Mexico Inhalt: We calculate perturbed and background quantities for two

  5. Fourier Analysis and Autocorrelation Function Applied to Periodical Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    Fourier Analysis and Autocorrelation Function Applied to Periodical Nanostructures E. Cruz Microscopy (AFM) Image Fast Fourier Transformation Autocorrelation Function(AC) Angular Distribution] Fourier Analysis: analytical and geometrical aspects, Bray William O ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1994

  6. FireStem2D A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FireStem2D ­ A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury in Fires, et al. (2013) FireStem2D ­ A Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Simulating Tree Stem Injury

  7. Growth of nanostructures with controlled diameter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfefferle, Lisa; Haller, Gary; Ciuparu, Dragos

    2009-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal-substituted MCM-41 framework structures with a high degree of structural order and a narrow pore diameter distribution were reproducibly synthesized by a hydrothermal method using a surfactant and an anti-foaming agent. The pore size and the mesoporous volume depend linearly on the surfactant chain length. The transition metals, such as cobalt, are incorporated substitutionally and highly dispersed in the silica framework. Single wall carbon nanotubes with a narrow diameter distribution that correlates with the pore diameter of the catalytic framework structure were prepared by a Boudouard reaction. Nanostructures with a specified diameter or cross-sectional area can therefore be predictably prepared by selecting a suitable pore size of the framework structure.

  8. Nanostructures from hydrogen implantation of metals.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWatters, Bruce Ray (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Causey, Rion A.; DePuit, Ryan J.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Ong, Markus D.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates a pathway to nanoporous structures created by hydrogen implantation in aluminum. Previous experiments for fusion applications have indicated that hydrogen and helium ion implantations are capable of producing bicontinuous nanoporous structures in a variety of metals. This study focuses specifically on hydrogen and helium implantations of aluminum, including complementary experimental results and computational modeling of this system. Experimental results show the evolution of the surface morphology as the hydrogen ion fluence increases from 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} to 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. Implantations of helium at a fluence of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} produce porosity on the order of 10 nm. Computational modeling demonstrates the formation of alanes, their desorption, and the resulting etching of aluminum surfaces that likely drives the nanostructures that form in the presence of hydrogen.

  9. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korsah, Kofi (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R (Farragut, TN) [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  10. High Yield Synthesis of Mesoscopic Conductive and Dispersible Carbon Nanostructures via Ultrasonication of Commercial Precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Vikram K [ORNL] [ORNL; Quinlan, Ronald [ORNL] [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL] [ORNL; Kisliuk, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhat, Gajanan [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to produce large quantities of graphenic materials displaying excellent conductivity, thermal resistance, and tunable properties for industrial applications has spurred interest in new techniques for exfoliating graphite. In this paper, sonication-assisted exfoliation of graphitic precursors in the presence of chloroform is shown to produce chemically and structurally unique exfoliated graphitic materials in high yields. These exfoliated graphites, referred to as mesographite and mesographene, respectively, exhibit unique properties which depend on the number of layers and exfoliation conditions. Structural characterization of mesographene reveals the presence of nanoscale two-dimensional graphene layers, and threedimensional carbon nanostructures sandwiched between layers, similar to those found in ball-milled and intercalated graphites. The conductivities of mesographite and mesographene are 2700 and 2000 S/m, respectively, indicating high conductivity despite flake damage. Optical absorption measurements of mesographite sonicated in various solvents showed significant changes in dispersion characteristics, and also indicated significant changes to mesoscopic colloidal behavior. A mechanism for functionalization and formation of capped carbon nanostructures is proposed by integrating the chemical and structural characterization in relation to the various carbon structures observed by electron microscopy. Composites based on common polymers were prepared by solution processing, and changes in thermal properties indicate improved dispersion of mesographite in polar polymers.

  11. Nano-structure multilayer technology fabrication of high energy density capacitors for the power electronic building book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Wagner, A.V.

    1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercially available capacitors do not meet the specifications of the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) concept. We have applied our propriety nanostructure multilayer materials technology to the fabrication of high density capacitors designed to remove this impediment to PEBB progress. Our nanostructure multilayer capacitors will also be enabling technology in many industrial and military applications. Examples include transient suppression (snubber capacitors), resonant circuits, and DC filtering in PEBB modules. Additionally, weapon applications require compact energy storage for detonators and pulsed-power systems. Commercial applications run the gamut from computers to lighting to communications. Steady progress over the last five years has brought us to the threshold of commercial manufacturability. We have demonstrated a working dielectric energy density of > 11 J/cm3 in 20 nF devices designed for 1 kV operation.

  12. Amorphous Silicon-Carbon Nanostructure Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriver, Maria Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Photovoltaic Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Amorphous Silicon as a Photovoltaic Material 2.1.2ii Photovoltaic Model . . . . . . . . . . .

  13. Surface Science Letters The 2-D growth of gold on single-layer graphene/Ru(0001): Enhancement of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Surface Science Letters The 2-D growth of gold on single-layer graphene/Ru(0001): Enhancement of CO online 7 May 2011 Keywords: Graphene Ru(0001) STM 2-D Au CO adsorption IRAS The growth and morphology of two-dimensional (2-D) gold islands on a single-layer graphene supported on Ru(0001) have been studied

  14. Flicker vortex structures in multiferroic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Z.; Ding, X.; Salje, E. K. H.

    2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    combinations.2 Similar sudden changes of polar and non-polar parameters are well known in disordered materials, where they follow power law distributions with all the characteristics of avalanche dynamics.3 Avalanches form when ferroelastic nanostructures... . Long range Coulomb interactions and short range interatomic potentials govern the interaction between the two sublattices. We calculate the Coulomb interactions in the Ewald construction with a dielectric constant of 1000 which is typical...

  15. anode electrode materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anode electrode materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Nanostructured Electrode...

  16. Role of size and defects in ultrafast broadband emission dynamics of ZnO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Liu, Mingzhao; Sfeir, Matthew Y., E-mail: msfeir@bnl.gov [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As wide bandgap materials are nanostructured for optoelectronics and energy technologies, understanding how size and defects modify the carrier dynamics becomes critical. Here, we examine broadband ultraviolet-visible subpicosecond emission dynamics of prototypical ZnO in bulk, nanowire and nanosphere geometries. Using a high-sensitivity transient emission Kerr-based spectrometer, we probe exciton dynamics in the low fluence regime to determine how defects states impact thermalization and recombination rates. In contrast to steady-state measurements, we transiently identify low-energy emission features that originate from localized excitonic states rather than mid-gap states, characterized by distinct recombination kinetics, and correlate to longer thermalization times. These states are critical for understanding the overall excited state lifetime of materials in this size regime, where crystallinity rather than dimensionality plays a primary role in dictating recombination dynamics.

  17. Site-specific local structure of Mn in artificial manganese ferrite films E. Kravtsov,1,2 D. Haskel,1 A. Cady,1 A. Yang,3 C. Vittoria,3 X. Zuo,4 and V. G. Harris3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haskel, Daniel

    Site-specific local structure of Mn in artificial manganese ferrite films E. Kravtsov,1,2 D. Haskel in manganese ferrite films grown under nonequilibrium conditions. The DAFS spectra were measured at a number. INTRODUCTION There has been considerable long-term interest in spinel ferrite materials due

  18. Transparent Conducting Electrodes based on 1D and 2D Ag Nanogratings for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Beibei; Bartoli, Filbert J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical and electrical properties of optically-thin one-dimensional (1D) Ag nanogratings and two-dimensional (2D) Ag nanogrids are studied, and their use as transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics are explored. A large broadband and polarization-insensitive optical absorption enhancement in the organic light-harvesting layers is theoretically and numerically demonstrated using either single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids or two perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, and is attributed to the excitation of surface plasmon resonances and plasmonic cavity modes. Total photon absorption enhancements of 150% and 200% are achieved for the optimized single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids and double (top and bottom) perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, respectively.

  19. MODELING THE TRANSVERSE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF 2D-SICF/SIC COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hierarchical model was developed to describe the effective transverse thermal conductivity, K effective, of a 2D-SiC/SiC composite made from stacked and infiltrated woven fabric layers in terms of constituent properties and microstructural and architectural variables. The model includes the expected effects of fiber-matrix interfacial conductance as well as the effects of high fiber packing fractions within individual tows and the non-uniform nature of 2D-fabric layers that include a significant amount of interlayer porosity. Model predictions were obtained for two versions of DuPont 2D-Hi Nicalon(Trademark)/PyC/ICVI-SiC composite, one with a thin (0.110 micron) and the other with a thick (1.040 micron) PyC fiber coating. The model predicts that the matrix porosity content and porosity shape factor have a major influence on K effective(T) for such a composite.

  20. Splitting of 3d quaternion dimensions into 2d-sells and a "world screen technology"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander P. Yefremov

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of basic vectors locally describing metric properties of an arbitrary 2-dimensional (2D) surface is used for construction of fundamental algebraic objects having nilpotent and idempotent properties. It is shown that all possible linear combinations of the objects when multiplied behave as a set of hypercomples (in particular, quaternion) units; thus interior structure of the 3D space dimensions pointed by the vector units is exposed. Geometric representations of elementary surfaces (2D-sells) structuring the dimensions are studied in detail. Established mathematical link between a vector quaternion triad treated as a frame in 3D space and elementary 2D-sells prompts to raise an idea of "world screen" having 1/2 of a space dimension but adequately reflecting kinematical properties of an ensemble of 3D frames.

  1. Reversible nano-structuring of SrCrO3-? through oxidization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nano-structuring of SrCrO3- through oxidization and reduction at low temperatures. Reversible nano-structuring of SrCrO3- through oxidization and reduction at low temperatures....

  2. Two-color Laser Desorption of Nanostructured MgO Thin Films....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two-color Laser Desorption of Nanostructured MgO Thin Films. Two-color Laser Desorption of Nanostructured MgO Thin Films. Abstract: Neutral magnesium atom emission from...

  3. Covalent Stabilization of Nanostructures: Robust Block Copolymer Templates from Novel Thermoreactive Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harth, Eva M.

    platforms for the fabrication of nanostruc- tured devices for advanced storage and microelec- tronicCovalent Stabilization of Nanostructures: Robust Block Copolymer Templates from Novel, crosslinked nanostructure with greater processing and fabrication potential. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J

  4. Self-assembled TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures for Enhanced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures for Enhanced Li-ion Insertion . Self-assembled TiO2-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures for Enhanced Li-ion Insertion . Abstract: We used anionic...

  5. Size-dependent polarization distribution in ferroelectric nanostructures: Phase field simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    to memory and storage devices, sen- sors, and actuators. The properties of low-dimensional ferro- electricsSize-dependent polarization distribution in ferroelectric nanostructures: Phase field simulations distribution in ferroelectric nanostructures embedded in a nonferroelectric medium. The simulation results

  6. Study of the 2-d CP(N-1) models at ?=0 and ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Beard; M. Pepe; S. Riederer; U. J. Wiese

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present numerical results for 2-d CP(N-1) models at \\theta=0 and \\pi obtained in the D-theory formulation. In this formulation we construct an efficient cluster algorithm and we show numerical evidence for a first order transition for CP(N-1\\geq 2) models at \\theta = \\pi. By a finite size scaling analysis, we also discuss the equivalence in the continuum limit of the D-theory formulation of the 2-d CP(N-1) models and the usual lattice definition.

  7. Learning to segment texture in 2D vs. 3D : A comparative study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Se Jong

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    in Ri. Finally, we get the Gabor energy matrix E(x,y), Orientation response matrix O(x,y), and Frequency response matrix F(x,y). . . . . . . . . . . . 28 11 Generating the 2D input set (2D preprocessing). The procedure used to generate the training data... differences (such as difference in orientation) exist. According to Chubb et al. [10], any first-order (quasi- linear) mechanism cannot detect the boundary that emerges between two textures of equal mean luminance but composed of differently oriented...

  8. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  9. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obreja, Vasile V. N. [National Research and Development Institute for Microtechnologies (IMT-Bucuresti), Bucharest, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, 077190 (Romania)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes and also other materials for cell assembling and packaging are used, the above mentioned values have to be divided by a factor higher than four. As a consequence, the specific energy of a prototype cell, hardly could exceed 10 Wh/kg because of difficulties with the existing manufacturing technology. Graphene based materials and carbon nanotubes and different composites have been used in many experiments reported in the last years. Nevertheless in spite of the outstanding properties of these materials, significant increase of the specific capacitance or of the specific energy in comparison with activated or nanoporous carbon is not achieved. Use of redox materials as metal oxides or conducting polymers in combination with different nanostructured carbon materials (nanocomposite electrodes) has been found to contribute to further increase of the specific capacitance or of the specific energy. Nevertheless, few results are reported for practical cells with such materials. Many results are reported only for a three electrode system and significant difference is possible when the electrode is used in a practical supercapacitor cell. Further improvement in the electrode manufacture and more experiments with supercapacitor cells with the known electrochemical storage materials are required. Device prototypes and commercial products with an energy density towards 15-20 Wh/kg could be realized. These may be a milestone for further supercapacitor device research and development, to narrow the storage energy gap between batteries and supercapacitors.

  10. Toward Nanostructured Thermoelectrics: Synthesis and Characterization of Lead Telluride Gels and Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi; Brock, Stephanie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis and characterization of lead telluride (PbTe) gels and aerogels with nanostructured features of potential benefit for enhanced thermoelectrics is reported. In this approach, discrete thiolate-capped PbTe nanoparticles were synthesized by a solution-based approach followed by oxidation-induced nanoparticle assembly with tetranitromethane or hydrogen peroxide to form wet gels. Drying of the wet gels by supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction yielded aerogels, whereas xerogels were produced by ambient pressure bench top drying. The gels consist of an interconnected network of colloidal nanoparticles and pores with surface areas up to 74 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}. The thermal stability of the nanostructures relative to nanoparticles was probed with the help of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The aerogels were observed to sublime at a higher temperature and over a larger range (425–500 °C) relative to the precursor nanoparticles. TGA-DSC suggests that organic capping groups can be removed in the region 250–450 °C, and melting of PbTe nanoparticles occurs near the temperature for bulk materials (ca. 920 °C). The good thermal stability combined with the presence of nanoscale interfaces suggests PbTe gels may show promise in thermoelectric devices.

  11. The visibility complex made visibly simple an introduction to 2D structures of visibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durand, Frédo

    . Then a sweeping algorithm that can build the complex in O(mlog(n)) where n is the size of the visibility graph when a line becomes tangent to three objects. This is shown in the video. The complex is build usingThe visibility complex made visibly simple an introduction to 2D structures of visibility Fr

  12. Development of a Hybrid Powered 2D Biped Walking Machine Designed for Rough Terrain Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Bryce C.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    has built a three legged 2D biped walking machine to be used as a test stand for studying rough terrain walking. The specific aim of this research is to investigate how biped walkers can best maintain walking stability when acted upon by small...

  13. 2D and 3D high-resolution imaging to reconstruct the microstructure of clay media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2D and 3D high-resolution imaging to reconstruct the microstructure of clay media J.C. Robinet1 & S compacted clay (illite) system, considered to be an analogy for the clay matrix constituting clay-rocks, and three different clayrocks (Callovo-Oxfordian argilites (FR), Opalinus Clay (CH), Boom Clay (BE)). Part

  14. Wake effects characterization using wake oscillator model Comparison on 2D response with experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    forces -- Fext contain the hydrodynamic forces (drag, lift and forces issued from the potential theory oscillators is developed to predict the 2D motion in a transverse plan of two rigid cylinders in tandem. Extended studies have been conduced to describe and explain them for spring mounted uniform cylinders

  15. Application of the 2-D Continuous Wavelet Transforms for Characterization of Geological and Geophysical Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuong, Au K

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    the 2-D CWT to character- ize the surface of two samples of Fe_(2)O_(3) and three samples of calcite. For a fresh surface of the calcite mineral, a cleavage plane exposed by fracturing, the surface measurements show discrete jumps in height because...

  16. Inspection design using 2D phased array, TFM and cueMAP software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGilp, Ailidh; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Lardner, Tim; Mackersie, John; Gachagan, Anthony [Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation suite, cueMAP, has been developed to facilitate the design of inspection processes and sparse 2D array configurations. At the core of cueMAP is a Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging algorithm that enables computer assisted design of ultrasonic inspection scenarios, including the design of bespoke array configurations to match the inspection criteria. This in-house developed TFM code allows for interactive evaluation of image quality indicators of ultrasonic imaging performance when utilizing a 2D phased array working in FMC/TFM mode. The cueMAP software uses a series of TFM images to build a map of resolution, contrast and sensitivity of imaging performance of a simulated reflector, swept across the inspection volume. The software takes into account probe properties, wedge or water standoff, and effects of specimen curvature. In the validation process of this new software package, two 2D arrays have been evaluated on 304n stainless steel samples, typical of the primary circuit in nuclear plants. Thick section samples have been inspected using a 1MHz 2D matrix array. Due to the processing efficiency of the software, the data collected from these array configurations has been used to investigate the influence sub-aperture operation on inspection performance.

  17. An Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Predicting Protein Tertiary Structures in the 2D HP Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istrail, Sorin

    , predicting its tertiary structure is known as the protein folding problem. This problem has been widely genetic algo- rithm for the protein folding problem under the HP model in the two-dimensional square Genetic Algorithm, Protein Folding Problem, 2D HP Model 1. INTRODUCTION Amino acids are the building

  18. 2D Piecewise Algebraic Splines for Implicit Modeling University of Hull

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Jie

    -dimensional spline techniques based on nonregular 2D polygons, such as box spline and simplex spline, are generally. In this article, a new type of bivariate spline function is introduced. This newly proposed type of bivariate. Graph. 28, 2, Article 13 (April 2009), 19 pages. DOI = 10.1145/1516522.1516524 http://doi.acm.org/10

  19. Feature Based Rendering for 2D/3D Partial Volume Segmentation Zigang Wang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feature Based Rendering for 2D/3D Partial Volume Segmentation Datasets Zigang Wang1 and Zhengrong 11794, USA ABSTRACT In this paper, a new feature based rendering algorithm for partial volume is presented. This algorithm utilizes both surface and volume information for the rendering of the partial

  20. Nonlinear interaction of compressional waves in a 2D dusty plasma crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goree, John

    sound waves is dispersionless [4,9,10], with a speed CL = /k given in Ref. [9]. Here, 2 0 = Q2 /4 0ma3 monolayers [1], electrons on the surface of liquid helium [2], rare gas atoms ab- sorbed on graphite [3 a screened Coulomb repulsion or Yukawa potential. Sound waves, or phonons, in a 2D Yukawa lattice are well

  1. Assisted Teleoperation Strategies for Aggressively Controlling a Robot Arm with 2D Input

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Assisted Teleoperation Strategies for Aggressively Controlling a Robot Arm with 2D Input Erkang You,hauserk}@indiana.edu Abstract--This paper studies assisted teleoperation techniques for controlling a 6DOF robot arm using click, and overall satisfaction. I. INTRODUCTION Assisted teleoperation allows a user to operate a robot while

  2. Dynamics and control of the system of a 2-D rigid circular cylinder and point vortices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shashikanth, Banavara N.

    Dynamics and control of the system of a 2-D rigid circular cylinder and point vortices Zhanhua Ma dynamically interacting with N point vortices in its vicinity [16] is an idealized example of coupled solid from a fluid mechanics viewpoint as well as a dynamics and control viewpoint. The problem has many

  3. Thompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2004 2D waves 1 Two-dimensional wave propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, LuAnne

    Thompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2004 2D waves 1 Two-dimensional wave propagation So far we have talked about wave propagation in one-dimension. For two or three spatial dimensions, we vectorize our ideas propagation. For surface waves, there is no vertical propagation, and we are only concerned with the two

  4. Factorization of Darboux transformations of arbitrary order for 2D Schroedinger operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekaterina Shemyakova

    2015-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a proof of Darboux's conjecture that every Darboux transformation of arbitrary order of a 2D Schroedinger type operator can be factorized into Darboux transformations of order one. The proof is constructive. The result is obtained in the framework of an algebraic approach to Darboux transformations which is suggested in this paper and is a further improvement of S. Tsarev's earlier idea.

  5. Hydrogen Bond Migration between Molecular Sites Observed with Ultrafast 2D IR Chemical Exchange Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Hydrogen Bond Migration between Molecular Sites Observed with Ultrafast 2D IR Chemical ExchangeVed: January 12, 2010 Hydrogen-bonded complexes between phenol and phenylacetylene are studied using ultrafast hydrogen bonding acceptor sites (phenyl or acetylene) that compete for hydrogen bond donors in solution

  6. Symmetry reduction and control of the dynamics of a 2-D rigid circular cylinder and a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shashikanth, Banavara N.

    Symmetry reduction and control of the dynamics of a 2-D rigid circular cylinder and a point vortex. This dynamic model is an idealized example in an inviscid framework of fully- coupled solid-fluid systems vortex, cylinder, optimal control, reduction, scat- tering #12;Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 4 2 The SMBK model

  7. RENORMALIZED ENERGY EQUIDISTRIBUTION AND LOCAL CHARGE BALANCE IN 2D COULOMB SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RENORMALIZED ENERGY EQUIDISTRIBUTION AND LOCAL CHARGE BALANCE IN 2D COULOMB SYSTEMS SIMONA ROTA of the "Coulomb renormalized energy" of Sandier-Serfaty, which corresponds to the total Coulomb interaction point charges with Coulomb pair interaction, in a con- fining potential (minimizers of this energy also

  8. 2d International Littmann Conference Jan. 2006, Aksum, Ethiopia The National Archives and Library of Ethiopia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Anaďs Wion 2d International Littmann Conference ­ Jan. 2006, Aksum, Ethiopia PRE-PRINT The National Archives and Library of Ethiopia: six years of Ethio-French cooperation (2001-2006) Most scholars are aware traditions are a reality that should more often be discussed openly by the scholarly community. In Ethiopia

  9. The svgl toolkit: enabling fast rendering of rich 2D graphics Stephane Conversy1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The svgl toolkit: enabling fast rendering of rich 2D graphics St´ephane Conversy1,2 Jean powerful graphical processors be- come available on mainstream computers, it becomes possible , a graphical toolkit that enables programmers and design- ers of interactive applications to benefit from

  10. 2D Simultaneous Localization And Mapping for Micro Air Vehicles Adrien Angeli1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , heavy weight and high energy consumption. Instead, vision seems to be a good alternative: it is cheap2D Simultaneous Localization And Mapping for Micro Air Vehicles Adrien Angeli1 David Filliat2 St to shift from human-controlled aircrafts to partially-autonomous flying agents. Today, one of the main

  11. Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR RECEIVED ON FEBRUARY 3, 2009 C O N S P E C T U S Water is ubiquitous in nature, but it exists as pure water infrequently. From the ocean to biology, water molecules interact with a wide variety of dissolved species

  12. Definition RX Evaluate Kernels K-2d K-1d Change By definition undefined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theiler, James

    Definition RX Evaluate Kernels K-2d K-1d Change By def·i·ni·tion undefined Adventures in anomaly Alamos National Laboratory Research supported by the United States Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. #12;Theiler LA-UR-14-24429 Definition

  13. 3D Shape from Silhouette Points in Registered 2D Images Using Conjugate Gradient Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoff, William A.

    3D Shape from Silhouette Points in Registered 2D Images Using Conjugate Gradient Method Andrzej version of the conjugate gradient method. We take advantage of the structure of the problem to make polynomial function. The approximate problem is solved using a nonlinear conjugate gradient solver that takes

  14. LNG FEM: GENERATING GRADED MESHES AND SOLVING ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON 2-D DOMAINS OF POLYGONAL STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LNG FEM: GENERATING GRADED MESHES AND SOLVING ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ON 2-D DOMAINS OF POLYGONAL, Minnesota 55455­0436 Phone: 612-624-6066 Fax: 612-626-7370 URL: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;LNG FEM AND VICTOR NISTOR Abstract. We develop LNG FEM, a software package for graded mesh gen- eration

  15. Estudio de la estabilidad de una familia de toros 2D del Problema Cuasibicircular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barcelona, Universitat de

    estabilidad est'a asociado al nacimiento de las familias de toros Halo 2D. Para este trabajo se han utilizado QBCP depende de Ż, el par'ametro de masas del sistema Tierra­Luna, a s , la distancia media del Sol al s \\Gamma 1 ' 328900:54 ; ! s = 0:925195985520347 ; tomando las unidades de masa, distancia y tiempo de

  16. Collective Classification for Labeling of Places and Objects in 2D and 3D Range Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teschner, Matthias

    these representations of the environment to improve the human- robot comunication. In this work, we present an approach information to 2D maps. Koenig and Simmons (1998) apply a pre-programmed routine to detect doorways. Althaus and Christensen (2003) use sonar data to detect corridors and doorways. Moreover, Friedman et al. (2007) introduce

  17. Simulation of surface waves with porous boundaries in a 2-D numerical wave tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Weoncheol

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are obtained for an arbitrary 2-D body. The boundary element method is then extended to the problem with porous boundaries. The flow inside porous medium is based on Darcy's rule. Analytic solutions are obtained for the flat porous bottom case and compared...

  18. VISION-BASED CONTROL OF 2D PLANE POISEUILLE FLOW Romeo Tatsambon Fomena and Christophe Collewet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cemagref, INRIA Rennes-Bretagne Atlantique and Universit´e Europ´eenne de Bretagne 17 avenue de Cucill in optimizing shapes or in choosing suitable surfacing. Conversely, in active con- trol an external energy the vision-based control approach to regulate the 2D plane Poiseuille flow around its steady state

  19. Finite-element discretization of a linearized 2 -D model for lubricated oil transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    Finite-element discretization of a linearized 2 - D model for lubricated oil transportation V acts as a lubricant by coating the wall of the pipeline, thus preventing the oil from adhering is devoted to the numerical simulation of a linearized model for the lubricated trans- portation of heavy

  20. Genetic Algorithm for Predicting Protein Folding in the 2D HP Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Michael

    Genetic Algorithm for Predicting Protein Folding in the 2D HP Model A Parameter Tuning Case Study of a protein, predicting its tertiary structure is known as the protein folding problem. This problem has been. The protein folding problem in the HP model is to find a conformation (a folded sequence) with the lowest

  1. Ionwater hydrogen-bond switching observed with 2D IR vibrational echo chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Ion­water hydrogen-bond switching observed with 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange for review November 8, 2008) The exchange of water hydroxyl hydrogen bonds between anions and water oxygens of anion­ water hydroxyl hydrogen bond switching under thermal equilib- rium conditions as Taw 7 1 ps. Pump

  2. Neuroglobin dynamics observed with ultrafast 2D-IR vibrational echo spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Neuroglobin dynamics observed with ultrafast 2D-IR vibrational echo spectroscopy Haruto Ishikawa Contributed by Michael D. Fayer, August 15, 2007 (sent for review July 25, 2007) Neuroglobin (Ngb), a protein energy minimum. myoglobin mutants protein dynamics energy landscape Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently

  3. Size-dependent ultrafast structural dynamics inside phospholipid vesicle bilayers measured with 2D IR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Size-dependent ultrafast structural dynamics inside phospholipid vesicle bilayers measured with 2D 25, 2013) The ultrafast structural dynamics inside the bilayers of dilauroyl- phosphatidylcholine was used as a vibrational probe and provided information on spectral diffusion (structural dynam- ics

  4. 2D control of field-driven magnetic bubble movement using Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petit, Dorothée; Seem, Peter R.; Tillette, Marine; Mansell, Rhodri; Cowburn, Russell P.

    2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    . Fukushima and S. Yuasa, Nature Phys. 7, 626 (2011) 2D. A. Allwood, G. Xiong, C. C. Faulkner, D. Atkinson, D. Petit and R. P. Cowburn, Science 309, 1688 (2005) 3D. A. Allwood, G. Xiong, M. D. Cooke, C. C. Faulkner,D. Atkin- son, N. Vernier and R. P. Cowburn...

  5. Creative Character Design Based on Combination of 2D and 3D Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salimi Beni, Anahita

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This research combines the need for innovation in character design with the idea of combining 2D and 3D characteristics to create an original and appealing character style. The goal has been to benefit from the capabilities of 3D animation while...

  6. Robust and Efficient Adaptive Moving Mesh Solution of the 2-D Euler equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zegeling, Paul

    to track individual features of the physi- cal solutions, such as shocks and emerging instabilities [2] in which the difficult choice of a user-defined adaptivity constant in the monitor function lists our conclusions. 2 The 2D Euler equations The two-dimensional Euler equations of gas dynamics

  7. GREIT: a unified approach to 2D linear EIT reconstruction of lung images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Andy

    GREIT: a unified approach to 2D linear EIT reconstruction of lung images Andy Adler1 , John H the distribution of ventilation. However, most clinical and physiological research in lung EIT is done using older algorithm for lung EIT, called GREIT (Graz consensus Reconstruction algorithm for EIT). This paper describes

  8. Plateau border bulimia transition: discontinuities expected in three simple experiments on 2D liquid foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be observable. II. 2D GLASS-GLASS FOAM GEOMETRICAL VADEMECUM In the present section, we shall provide a geometri- cal description and some corresponding results for two- dimensional foams squeezed between two glass liquid foams Pierre Rognon, Fran¸cois Molino, and Cyprien Gay Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, CNRS, UPR

  9. Plateau border bulimia transition: discontinuities expected in three simple experiments on 2D liquid foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recanati, Catherine

    be observable. II. 2D GLASS-GLASS FOAM GEOMETRICAL VADEMECUM In the present section, we shall provide a geometri- cal description and some corresponding results for two- dimensional foams squeezed between two glass liquid foams Pierre Rognon, Fran#24;cois Molino, and Cyprien Gay #3; Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal

  10. Synthesis of thin films and materials utilizing a gaseous catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Daniel E; Schwenzer, Birgit; Gomm, John R; Roth, Kristian M; Heiken, Brandon; Brutchey, Richard

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the fabrication of nanostructured semiconducting, photoconductive, photovoltaic, optoelectronic and electrical battery thin films and materials at low temperature, with no molecular template and no organic contaminants. High-quality metal oxide semiconductor, photovoltaic and optoelectronic materials can be fabricated with nanometer-scale dimensions and high dopant densities through the use of low-temperature biologically inspired synthesis routes, without the use of any biological or biochemical templates.

  11. Characterization of heterogeneous near-surface materials by joint 2D inversion of dc resistivity and seismic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meju, Max

    multidimensional non- invasive dc resistivity and seismic refraction investigations of the near-surface have and seismic data Luis A. Gallardo1 and Max A. Meju Department of Environmental Science, Lancaster University-gradients of electrical resistivity and seismic velocity as constraints so as to investigate more precisely

  12. Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Robert K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bogart, Gregory R. (Corrales, NM); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL)

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

  13. Bulk Nanostructured FCC Steels With Enhanced Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xinghang; Hartwig, K. Ted; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2012-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase radiation tolerance in austenitic steels through optimization of grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics. The focus will be on nanocrystalline austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with an fcc crystal structure. The long-term goal is to design and develop bulk nanostructured austenitic steels with enhanced void swelling resistance and substantial ductility, and to enhance their creep resistance at elevated temperatures via GB engineering. The combination of grain refinement and grain boundary engineering approaches allows us to tailor the material strength, ductility, and resistance to swelling by 1) changing the sink strength for point defects, 2) by increasing the nucleation barriers for bubble formation at GBs, and 3) by changing the precipitate distributions at boundaries. Compared to ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels (SS) possess good creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures, and better toughness at low temperature. However, a major disadvantage of austenitic SS is that they are vulnerable to significant void swelling in nuclear reactors, especially at the temperatures and doses anticipated in the Advanced Burner Reactor. The lack of resistance to void swelling in austenitic alloys led to the switch to ferritic/martensitic steels as the preferred material for the fast reactor cladding application. Recently a type of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS, was developed at ORNL, and is expected to show enhanced void swelling resistance through the trapping of point defects at nanometersized carbides. Reducing the grain size and increasing the fraction of low energy grain boundaries should reduce the available radiation-produced point defects (due to the increased sink area of the grain boundaries), should make bubble nucleation at the boundaries less likely (by reducing the fraction of high-energy boundaries), and improve the strength and ductility under radiation by producing a higher density of nanometer sized carbides on the boundaries. This project will focus on void swelling but advances in processing of austenitic steels are likely to also improve the radiation response of the mechanical properties.

  14. Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Said, A. S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa, E-mail: a.s.el-said@hzdr.de [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), 01328 Dresden (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Djebli, M. [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics USTHB, B.P. 32 Bab Ezzour, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1?keV and 23.3?keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

  15. Charge-free method of forming nanostructures on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffbauer; Mark (Los Alamos, NM), Akhadov; Elshan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge-free method of forming a nanostructure at low temperatures on a substrate. A substrate that is reactive with one of atomic oxygen and nitrogen is provided. A flux of neutral atoms of least one of oxygen and nitrogen is generated within a laser-sustained-discharge plasma source and a collimated beam of energetic neutral atoms and molecules is directed from the plasma source onto a surface of the substrate to form the nanostructure. The energetic neutral atoms and molecules in the beam have an average kinetic energy in a range from about 1 eV to about 5 eV.

  16. Improved Solar Cell Efficiency Through the Use of an Additive Nanostructure-Based Optical Downshifter: Final Subcontract Report, January 28, 2010 -- February 28, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtin, J.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report summarizes all SpectraWatt's progress in achieving a boost in solar cell efficiency using an optical downshifter. Spectrawatt's downshifting technology is based on a nanostructured material system which absorbs high energy (short wavelength) light and reemits it at a lower energy (long wavelength) with high efficiency. This system has shown unprecedented performance parameters including near unity quantum yield and high thermal stability.

  17. 2011 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai-Sheng Wang

    2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Small particles have been at the heart of nanoscience since the birth of the field and now stand ready to make significant contributions to the big challenges of energy, health and sustainability. Atomic clusters show exquisite size-dependent electronic and magnetic properties and offer a new level of control in catalyses, sensors and biochips; functionalised nanocrystals offer remarkable optical properties and diverse applications in electronic devices, solar energy, and therapy. Both areas are complemented by a raft of recent advances in fabrication, characterization, and performance of a diversity of nanomaterials from the single atom level to nanowires, nanodevices, and biologically-inspired nanosystems. The goal of the 2011 Gordon Conference is thus to continue and enhance the interdisciplinary tradition of this series and discuss the most recent advances, fundamental scientific questions, and emerging applications of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. A single conference covering all aspects of nanoscience from fundamental issues to applications has the potential to create new ideas and stimulate cross fertilization. The meeting will therefore provide a balance among the three sub-components of the conference, true to its title, with a selection of new topics added to reflect rapid advances in the field. The open atmosphere of a Gordon conference, emphasizing the presentation of unpublished results and extensive discussions, is an ideal home for this rapidly developing field and will allow all participants to enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Historically, this Gordon conference has been oversubscribed, so we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral presentations. Given the important role students and postdocs play in the future of this field, we also anticipate several talks of this kind from young investigators.

  18. Templated Self Assemble of Nano-Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo, Zhigang [Harvard University

    2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will identify and model mechanisms that template the self-assembly of nanostructures. We focus on a class of systems involving a two-phase monolayer of molecules adsorbed on a solid surface. At a suitably elevated temperature, the molecules diffuse on the surface to reduce the combined free energy of mixing, phase boundary, elastic field, and electrostatic field. With no template, the phases may form a pattern of stripes or disks. The feature size is on the order of 1-100 nm, selected to compromise the phase boundary energy and the long-range elastic or electrostatic interaction. Both experimental observations and our theoretical simulations have shown that the pattern resembles a periodic lattice, but has abundant imperfections. To form a perfect periodic pattern, or a designed aperiodic pattern, one must introduce a template to guide the assembly. For example, a coarse-scale pattern, lithographically defined on the substrate, will guide the assembly of the nanoscale pattern. As another example, if the molecules on the substrate surface carry strong electric dipoles, a charged object, placed in the space above the monolayer, will guide the assembly of the molecular dipoles. In particular, the charged object can be a mask with a designed nanoscale topographic pattern. A serial process (e.g., e-beam lithography) is necessary to make the mask, but the pattern transfer to the molecules on the substrate is a parallel process. The technique is potentially a high throughput, low cost process to pattern a monolayer. The monolayer pattern itself may serve as a template to fabricate a functional structure. This project will model fundamental aspects of these processes, including thermodynamics and kinetics of self-assembly, templated self-assembly, and self-assembly on unconventional substrates. It is envisioned that the theory will not only explain the available experimental observations, but also motivate new experiments.

  19. UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA MICROWAVE ABSORPTION IN NANOSTRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belanger, David P.

    -magnetic interference and materials that provide cheap and effective shielding from the unwanted radiation. In aerospace is an essential part of the stealth technology where it is used to minimize the reflection of a radar beam from A Data Formatting 28 B Material Analysis 31 Bibliography 39 #12;v List of Figures 2.1 Boundary components

  20. 2D Simulations of the Line-Driven Instability in Hot-Star Winds: II. Approximations for the 2D Radiation Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc Dessart; S. P. Owocki

    2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present initial attempts to include the multi-dimensional nature of radiation transport in hydrodynamical simulations of the small-scale structure that arises from the line-driven instability in hot-star winds. Compared to previous 1D or 2D models that assume a purely radial radiation force, we seek additionally to treat the lateral momentum and transport of diffuse line-radiation, initially here within a 2D context. A key incentive is to study the damping effect of the associated diffuse line-drag on the dynamical properties of the flow, focusing particularly on whether this might prevent lateral break-up of shell structures at scales near the lateral Sobolev angle of ca. $1^{\\rm o}$. We first explore nonlinear simulations that cast the lateral diffuse force in the simple, local form of a parallel viscosity. Second, to account for the lateral mixing of radiation associated with the radial driving, we next explore models in which the radial force is azimuthally smoothed over a chosen scale. Third, to account for both the lateral line-drag and the lateral mixing in a more self-consistent way, we explore further a method first proposed by Owocki (1999), which uses a restricted 3-ray approach that combines a radial ray with two oblique rays set to have an impact parameter $p < R_{\\ast}$ within the stellar core. From numerical simulations, we find that, compared to equivalent 1-ray simulations, the high-resolution 3-ray models show systematically a much higher lateral coherence.... (Full abstract in paper)