National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for nanostructured materials 0d

  1. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  2. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  3. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  4. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  5. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  6. Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Frank Bridges, University of California-Santa Cruz

    2010-08-05

    The two-and-a-half day symposium on the "Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials" will be the first comprehensive meeting on this topic held under the auspices of a major U.S. professional society. Spring MRS Meetings provide a natural venue for this symposium as they attract a broad audience of researchers that represents a cross-section of the state-of-the-art regarding synthesis, structure-property relations, and applications of nanostructured materials. Close interactions among the experts in local structure measurements and materials researchers will help both to identify measurement needs pertinent to ??real-world? materials problems and to familiarize the materials research community with the state-of-the-art local structure measurement techniques. We have chosen invited speakers that reflect the multidisciplinary and international nature of this topic and the need to continually nurture productive interfaces among university, government and industrial laboratories. The intent of the symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and exchange of ideas on the recent progress in quantitative characterization of structural order in nanomaterials using different experimental techniques and theory. The symposium is expected to facilitate discussions on optimal approaches for determining atomic structure at the nanoscale using combined inputs from multiple measurement techniques.

  7. Multifunctional Nanostructured Materials for Processing of Biomass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical commodities. The nanostructured materials will be composed of organic and inorganic species that will work cooperatively to effectively promote chemical conversions...

  8. Nanostructured Materials | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanostructured Materials Nanostructured Materials The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 1:51 min. Roland Seals talks about carbon nanotubes developed at Y-12. These revolutionary materials are useful in everything from makeup to steel beams to aircraft

  9. Nanostructured Materials for Improved Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Sarah E.; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Rawlins, James W.

    2004-07-18

    This research addresses the fundamental issues of cell morphology and phase dimensions that determine conversion efficiency in polymeric organic photovoltaic devices. The approach will help explain the relationships between morphological control, domain size, and power conversion efficiency in OPV devices, with the goal of providing direction for development of OPV systems with greater efficiency. The program addresses the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy goals of providing economically sustainable clean energy technologies to reduce dependence on foreign oil. This research focused on synthesis, fabrication and analysis of both active and protective layers for improved organic and inorganic hybrid PV (PhotoVoltaic) materials. A systematic study of phase size, shape, and distance was conducted to determine the effects of morphology in each process. Four classes of nanostructured materials were studied: 1) functional block copolymers (AB, acceptor-donor blocks) that self-assemble into matched domain sizes 2) synthetic core-shell particles with separate acceptor and donor layers 3) bacterial micro-compartment (BMC) proteins as self-assembling shells for core-shell nanoparticle constructs and 4) polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanostructured chemicals for enhanced efficiency and durability.

  10. Subtask 5: Functional nanostructured transparent electrode materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5: Functional nanostructured transparent electrode materials All papers by year Subtask 1 Subtask 2 Subtask 3 Subtask 4 Subtask 5 Jeon, K.-W. and Seo, D.-K. (2014) Concomitant...

  11. Nanostructured Materials by Machining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Machining Nanostructured Materials by Machining Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_trumble.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-Fine Grain Foils and Sheets by Large-Strain Extrusion Machining 2011 Annual Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials Vehicle

  12. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation Modules | Energy Frontier Research Centers Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power Generation Modules Home Author: T. Hogan, A. Downey, J. Short, S. D. Mahanti, H. Schock, E. Case Year: 2007 Abstract: For thermoelectric applications, the best materials have high electrical conductivity and thermopower and, simultaneously, low thermal conductivity. Such a combination of properties is usually found in heavily doped semiconductors. Renewed interest in this

  13. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel ThermoelectricMaterials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new concepts for high performance nanostructured bulk thermoelectric materials PDF icon lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Materials for Automotive Applications...

  14. Chemistry Controls Material's Nanostructure | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Controls Material's Nanostructure Tweaking the chemicals used to form nanorods can be used to control their shape.Controlling a nanorod's shape is a key to controlling its properties. Researchers used a combined experimental and theoretical approach to show that precursor reactivity determines the relative ease of formation of different nanocrystals. Specifically, photocatalysts made from tiny amounts of cadmium, sulfur and selenium will form selectively into shapes that look like

  15. Aerogel Derived Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendell E Rhine, PI; Dong, Wenting; Greg Caggiano, PM

    2010-10-08

    Americas dependence on foreign sources for fuel represents a economic and security threat for the country. These non renewable resources are depleting, and the effects of pollutants from fuels such as oil are reaching a problematic that affects the global community. Solar concentration power (SCP) production systems offer the opportunity to harness one of the United States most under utilized natural resources; sunlight. While commercialization of this technology is increasing, in order to become a significant source of electricity production in the United States the costs of deploying and operating SCP plants must be further reduced. Parabolic Trough SCP technologies are close to meeting energy production cost levels that would raise interest in the technology and help accelerate its adoption as a method to produce a significant portion of the Countrys electric power needs. During this program, Aspen Aerogels will develop a transparent aerogel insulation that can replace the costly vacuum insulation systems that are currently used in parabolic trough designs. During the Phase I program, Aspen Aerogels will optimize the optical and thermal properties of aerogel to meet the needs of this application. These properties will be tested, and the results will be used to model the performance of a parabolic trough HCE system which uses this novel material in place of vacuum. During the Phase II program, Aspen Aerogels will scale up this technology. Together with industry partners, Aspen Aerogels will build and test a prototype Heat Collection Element that is insulated with the novel transparent aerogel material. This new device will find use in parabolic trough SCP applications.

  16. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  17. Chemistry and Processing of Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, G A; Baumann, T F; Hope-Weeks, L J; Vance, A L

    2002-01-18

    Nanostructured materials can be formed through the sol-gel polymerization of inorganic or organic monomer systems. For example, a two step polymerization of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) was developed such that silica aerogels with densities as low as 3 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx} two times the density of air) could be achieved. Organic aerogels based upon resorcinol-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde can also be prepared using the sol-gel process. Materials of this type have received significant attention at LLNL due to their ultrafine cell sizes, continuous porosity, high surface area and low mass density. For both types of aerogels, sol-gel polymerization depends upon the transformation of these monomers into nanometer-sized clusters followed by cross-linking into a 3-dimensional gel network. While sol-gel chemistry provides the opportunity to synthesize new material compositions, it suffers from the inability to separate the process of cluster formation from gelation. This limitation results in structural deficiencies in the gel that impact the physical properties of the aerogel, xerogel or nanocomposite. In order to control the properties of the resultant gel, one should be able to regulate the formation of the clusters and their subsequent cross-linking. Towards this goal, we are utilizing dendrimer chemistry to separate the cluster formation from the gelation so that new nanostructured materials can be produced. Dendrimers are three-dimensional, highly branched macromolecules that are prepared in such a way that their size, shape and surface functionality are readily controlled. The dendrimers will be used as pre-formed clusters of known size that can be cross-linked to form an ordered gel network.

  18. Preparation of nanostructured materials having improved ductility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian T.

    2010-04-20

    A method for preparing a nanostructured aluminum alloy involves heating an aluminum alloy workpiece at temperature sufficient to produce a single phase coarse grained aluminum alloy, then refining the grain size of the workpiece at a temperature at or below room temperature, and then aging the workpiece to precipitate second phase particles in the nanosized grains of the workpiece that increase the ductility without decreasing the strength of the workpiece.

  19. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: For thermoelectric applications, the best materials have high electrical conductivity and thermopower and, simultaneously, low thermal conductivity. Such a combination...

  20. Composite, nanostructured, super-hydrophobic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Urso, Brian R. (Clinton, TN); Simpson, John T. (Clinton, TN)

    2007-08-21

    A hydrophobic disordered composite material having a protrusive surface feature includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a protrusive surface feature, the protrusive feature being hydrophobic.

  1. Arc Plasma Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials: Techniques and Innovations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, A. K.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kakati, M.; Karmakar, Soumen

    2008-10-23

    Arc plasma aided synthesis of nanostructured materials has the potential of producing complex nano phase structures in bulk quantities. Successful implementation of this potential capability to industrial scale nano generation needs establishment of a plasma parameter control regime in terms of plasma gas, flow pattern, pressure, local temperature and the plasma fields to obtain the desired nano phase structures. However, there is a need to design innovative in situ experiments for generation of an extensive database and subsequently to correlate plasma parameters to the size, shape and phase of the generated nanostructures. The present paper reviews the various approaches utilized in the field of arc plasma nanosynthesis in general and in the authors' laboratories in particular. Simple plasma diagnostics and monitoring schemes have been used in conjunction with nano materials characterization tools to explore the possibility of controlling the size, shape, yield and phase composition of the arc generated nanostructures through plasma control. Case studies related to synthesis of AlN, Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, ZnO), magnetic (e.g. {gamma}-Fe2O3, Fe3O4) and single elemental materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes) are presented.

  2. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  3. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  4. Nanostructured Systems > Complex Oxides > Research > The Energy Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center at Cornell Nanostructured Systems Nanostructured materials could revolutionize electrochemical devices such as fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors. An affordable and scalable approach to nanostructure materials is with block copolymers (Fig 1). Block copolymers are large molecules with chemically disimilar regions such as those depicted red and yellow. We can take advantage of these disimilar regions by selectively encorporating nanoparticles into just one of the polymer's

  5. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  6. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  7. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  8. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  9. Nanostructuring superconductors by ion beams: A path towards materials engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerbaldo, Roberto; Ghigo, Gianluca; Gozzelino, Laura; Laviano, Francesco; Amato, Antonino; Rovelli, Alberto; Cherubini, Roberto

    2013-07-18

    The paper deals with nanostructuring of superconducting materials by means of swift heavy ion beams. The aim is to modify their structural, optical and electromagnetic properties in a controlled way, to provide possibility of making them functional for specific applications. Results are presented concerning flux pinning effects (implantation of columnar defects with nanosize cross section to enhance critical currents and irreversibility fields), confined flux-flow and vortex guidance, design of devices by locally tailoring the superconducting material properties, analysis of disorder-induced effects in multi-band superconductors. These studies were carried out on different kinds of superconducting samples, from single crystals to thin films, from superconducting oxides to magnesium diboride, to recently discovered iron-based superconductors.

  10. Chemical Functionalization of Nanostructured Materials Using Supercritical Reaction Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemanian, Thomas S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Liu, Jun; Mattigod, Shas V.; Shin, Yongsoon; Franz, James A.; Ustyugov, Oleksiy A.; Nie, Zimin

    2001-12-15

    There exists a need for durable and thin functional coatings to utilize the afforded surface area of highly porous ceramic materials. Deposition of silane-based Self Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) has thus far been limited to maximum coverages of 4-5 molecules/nm2 and long processing times (up to 2 weeks), due to the restricted internal geometry of the substrates. Results are presented for SAMs deposited on high surface area silica from supercritical fluids (SCFs). The SAMs so produced display unprecedented coverages, high monolayer integrity, and extremely low surface defect density. Moreover, the depositions and subsequent removal of reaction byproducts are complete in a matter of minutes rather than days. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of the surface modified silica are presented, demonstrating the SAM integrity and evolution over time. Sorption of aqueous metal ions is demonstrated, and results are given demonstrating the broad pH stability of the deposited SAMs. A chemical explanation for the enhanced deposition is posited, and the kinetics of mass transport into and out of the nanostructured spaces are discussed.Related experiments using zeolite substrates show deposition of thiol-terminated silanes to internal surfaces of 6? microporous material. After oxidation of the thiol functional group size selective chemistry was demonstrated using the produced catalyst, proving the efficacy of the supercritical reaction medium for installing functional coatings inside pores of similar diameters to the chain length of the deposited molecule[]. Comparisons are made between the response of the different substrates to the supercritical fluid-based processing, and remarks on the utility of SCF based processing of nanostructured materials are presented.

  11. 3D Printing of nanostructured catalytic materials | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the nano and the macro scales, this bridge is known as the mesoscale. We are currently learning and developing tools to orderly assemble nanostructures at the mesoscale, i.e....

  12. Workshop in Novel Emitters and Nanostructured Materials | U.S. DOE Office

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    of Science (SC) Workshop in Novel Emitters and Nanostructured Materials Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications History Contact BES Home 09.01.11 Workshop in Novel Emitters and Nanostructured Materials Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page The Solid-State Lighting Science Energy Frontier Research Center (SSLS EFRC) is hosting a workshop in conjunction with

  13. Quantum Simulations of Materials and Nanostructures (Q-SIMAN). Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galli, Giulia; Bai, Zhaojun; Ceperley, David; Cai, Wei; Gygi, Francois; Marzari, Nicola; Pickett, Warren; Spaldin, Nicola; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Schwegler, Eric

    2015-09-16

    The focus of this SciDAC SAP (Scientific Application) is the development and use of quantum simulations techniques to understand materials and nanostructures at the microscopic level, predict their physical and chemical properties, and eventually design integrated materials with targeted properties. (Here the word ‘materials’ is used in a broad sense and it encompasses different thermodynamic states of matter, including solid, liquids and nanostructures.) Therefore our overarching goal is to enable scientific discoveries in the field of condensed matter and advanced materials through high performance computing.

  14. Transformational, Large Area Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials Using Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will address critical additional steps over large areas of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing, phase transformation, or activation of dopants, dramatically reducing the processing costs of the solid-state lighting and photovoltaic materials.

  15. Method of making nanopatterns and nanostructures and nanopatterned functional oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dravid, Vinayak P; Donthu, Suresh K; Pan, Zixiao

    2014-02-11

    Method for nanopatterning of inorganic materials, such as ceramic (e.g. metal oxide) materials, and organic materials, such as polymer materials, on a variety of substrates to form nanopatterns and/or nanostructures with control of dimensions and location, all without the need for etching the materials and without the need for re-alignment between multiple patterning steps in forming nanostructures, such as heterostructures comprising multiple materials. The method involves patterning a resist-coated substrate using electron beam lithography, removing a portion of the resist to provide a patterned resist-coated substrate, and spin coating the patterned resist-coated substrate with a liquid precursor, such as a sol precursor, of the inorganic or organic material. The remaining resist is removed and the spin coated substrate is heated at an elevated temperature to crystallize the deposited precursor material.

  16. Nanostructure-enhanced Chemical Reactivity and Detonation in Energetic Materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Aidan P.

    2015-09-01

    Scientific impact: The project supports the investigation of energetic materials. This work is providing fundamental insight into initiation mechanisms in energetic materials.

  17. Method of producing catalytic materials for fabricating nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-19

    Methods of fabricating nano-catalysts are described. In some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a powder-based substrate material and is some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a solid-based substrate material. In some embodiments the substrate material may include metal, ceramic, or silicon or another metalloid. The nano-catalysts typically have metal nanoparticles disposed adjacent the surface of the substrate material. The methods typically include functionalizing the surface of the substrate material with a chelating agent, such as a chemical having dissociated carboxyl functional groups (--COO), that provides an enhanced affinity for metal ions. The functionalized substrate surface may then be exposed to a chemical solution that contains metal ions. The metal ions are then bound to the substrate material and may then be reduced, such as by a stream of gas that includes hydrogen, to form metal nanoparticles adjacent the surface of the substrate.

  18. Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of MaterialNanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of Material ... of a new type of scanning acoustic microscope for ... to conventional lightwave or electron microscopies. ...

  19. Nanostructured materials for advanced catalyst design | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The students will be trained in the synthesis and characterization of hybrid mesoporous materials. They will use a series of analytical methods including powder x-ray...

  20. CRYOGENIC ADSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES OVER NANO-STRUCTURED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, S.; Heung, L.

    2010-10-07

    Porous materials such as zeolites, activated carbon, silica gels, alumina and a number of industrial catalysts are compared and ranked for hydrogen and deuterium adsorption at liquid nitrogen temperature. All samples show higher D{sub 2} adsorption than that of H{sub 2}, in which a HY sample has the greatest isotopic effect while 13X has the highest hydrogen uptake capacity. Material's moisture content has significant impact to its hydrogen uptake. A material without adequate drying could result in complete loss of its adsorption capacity. Even though some materials present higher H{sub 2} adsorption capacity at full pressure, their adsorption at low vapor pressure may not be as good as others. Adsorption capacity in a dynamic system is much less than in a static system. A sharp desorption is also expected in case of temperature upset.

  1. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason A. (Upton, NY); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Ahn, Channing (Pasadena, CA); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA)

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0

  2. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  3. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  4. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1998-04-21

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate. 1 fig.

  5. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-04-21

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate.

  6. MATERIALS, FABRICATION, AND MANUFACTURING OF MICRO/NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES FOR PHASE-CHANGE HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M; Gerasopoulos, K; Maroo, SC; Hart, AJ

    2014-07-23

    This article describes the most prominent materials, fabrication methods, and manufacturing schemes for micro- and nanostructured surfaces that can be employed to enhance phase-change heat transfer phenomena. The numerous processes include traditional microfabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, lithography, and etching, as well as template-assisted and template-free nanofabrication techniques. The creation of complex, hierarchical, and heterogeneous surface structures using advanced techniques is also reviewed. Additionally, research needs in the field and future directions necessary to translate these approaches from the laboratory to high-performance applications are identified. Particular focus is placed on the extension of these techniques to the design of micro/nanostructures for increased performance, manufacturability, and reliability. The current research needs and goals are detailed, and potential pathways forward are suggested.

  7. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Charles L. (Cross Junction, VA); Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA); Vsevolodov, Nikolai N. (Kensington, MD)

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  8. Center for Fundamental and Applied Research in Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials. Final Technical Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullins, Michael; Rogers, Tony; King, Julia; Keith, Jason; Cornilsen, Bahne; Allen, Jeffrey; Gilbert, Ryan; Holles, Joseph

    2010-09-28

    The core projects for this DOE-sponsored Center at Michigan Tech have focused on several of the materials problems identified by the NAS. These include: new electrode materials, enhanced PEM materials, lighter and more effective bipolar plates, and improvement of the carbon used as a current carrier. This project involved fundamental and applied research in the development and testing of lightweight and nanostructured materials to be used in fuel cell applications and for chemical synthesis. The advent of new classes of materials engineered at the nanometer level can produce materials that are lightweight and have unique physical and chemical properties. The grant was used to obtain and improve the equipment infrastructure to support this research and also served to fund seven research projects. These included: 1. Development of lightweight, thermally conductive bipolar plates for improved thermal management in fuel cells; 2. Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts for fuel cells; 3. Development of hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites with improved ionic and electronic properties; 4. Development of oriented polymeric materials for membrane applications; 5. Preparation of a graphitic carbon foam current collectors; 6. The development of lightweight carbon electrodes using graphitic carbon foams for battery and fuel cell applications; and 7. Movement of water in fuel cell electrodes.

  9. Precursor Derived Nanostructured Si-C-X Materials for Nuclear Applications. Final Report, October 2010 - September 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordia, Rajendra; Tomar, Vikas; Henager, Chuck

    2015-04-08

    Polymer derived ceramic route is an attractive approach to make structural materials with unique nanostructures that have very desirable high temperature properties. Processing techniques to make a variety of needed shapes and forms (e.g. coatings, matrices for fiber reinforced composites, porous ceramics) have been developed. With appropriate high temperature processing, the precursors can be converted to nano-crystalline materials. In this collaborative project, we investigated the processing, stability and properties of nanostructured Si-C materials, derived from polymeric precursors, and their performance under conditions appropriate for nuclear energy applications. All the milestones of the project were accomplished. Some of the results are being currently analyzed and additional papers being prepared in which support from NEUP will be acknowledged. So far, eight peer-reviewed papers have been published and one invention disclosure made. In this report, we summarize the major findings of this project.

  10. Converting environmentally hazardous materials into clean energy using a novel nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Yong X.; Gan, Bo J.; Clark, Evan; Su, Lusheng; Zhang, Lihua

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ? A photoelectrochemical fuel cell has been made from TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. ? The fuel cell decomposes environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity. ? Doping the anode with a transition metal oxide increases the visible light sensitivity. ? Loading the anode with a conducting polymer enhances the visible light absorption. -- Abstract: In this work, a novel photoelectrochemical fuel cell consisting of a titanium dioxide nanotube array photosensitive anode and a platinum cathode was made for decomposing environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity and clean fuel. Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO{sub 2} NTs) were prepared via electrochemical oxidation of pure Ti in an ammonium fluoride and glycerol-containing solution. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the morphology of the nanotubes. The average diameter, wall thickness and length of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} NTs were determined. The photosensitive anode made from the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} NTs has good photo-catalytic property, as proven by the decomposition tests on urea, ammonia, sodium sulfide and automobile engine coolant under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To improve the efficiency of the fuel cell, doping the TiO{sub 2} NTs with a transition metal oxide, NiO, was performed and the photosensitivity of the doped anode was tested under visible light irradiation. It is found that the NiO-doped anode is sensitive to visible light. Also found is that polyaniline-doped photosensitive anode can harvest photon energy in the visible light spectrum range much more efficiently than the NiO-doped one. It is concluded that the nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell can generate electricity and clean fuel by decomposing hazardous materials under sunlight.

  11. Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods Nanostructure, Chemistry and ...

  12. Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogale, Amod A

    2012-04-27

    Nuclear energy is a dependable and economical source of electricity. Because fuel supply sources are available domestically, nuclear energy can be a strong domestic industry that can reduce dependence on foreign energy sources. Commercial nuclear power plants have extensive security measures to protect the facility from intruders [1]. However, additional research efforts are needed to increase the inherent process safety of nuclear energy plants to protect the public in the event of a reactor malfunction. The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is envisioned to utilize a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design with an operating temperature of 650-1000?°C [2]. One of the most important safety design requirements for this reactor is that it must be inherently safe, i.e., the reactor must shut down safely in the event that the coolant flow is interrupted [2]. This next-generation Gen IV reactor must operate in an inherently safe mode where the off-normal temperatures may reach 1500?°C due to coolant-flow interruption. Metallic alloys used currently in reactor internals will melt at such temperatures. Structural materials that will not melt at such ultra-high temperatures are carbon/graphtic fibers and carbon-matrix composites. Graphite does not have a measurable melting point; it is known to sublime starting about 3300?°C. However, neutron radiation-damage effects on carbon fibers are poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this project is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nanotexture on the properties of resulting carbon fibers and their neutron-damage characteristics. Although polygranular graphite has been used in nuclear environment for almost fifty years, it is not suitable for structural applications because it do not possess adequate strength, stiffness, or toughness that is required of structural components such as reaction control-rods, upper plenum shroud, and lower core-support plate [2,3]. For structural purposes, composites consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

  13. Electrodeposited manganese dioxide nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fibers: High performance materials for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazemi, Sayed Habib; Maghami, Mostafa Ghaem; Kiani, Mohammad Ali

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: We report a facile method for fabrication of MnO{sub 2} nanostructures on electro-etched carbon fiber. MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode shows outstanding supercapacitive behavior even at high discharge rates. Exceptional cycle stability was achieved for MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode. The coulombic efficiency of MnO{sub 2}-ECF electrode is nearly 100%. - Abstract: In this article we introduce a facile, low cost and additive/template free method to fabricate high-rate electrochemical capacitors. Manganese oxide nanostructures were electrodeposited on electro-etched carbon fiber substrate by applying a constant anodic current. Nanostructured MnO{sub 2} on electro-etched carbon fiber was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The electrochemical behavior of MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode was investigated by electrochemical techniques including cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A maximum specific capacitance of 728.5 F g{sup ?1} was achieved at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup ?1} for MnO{sub 2} electro-etched carbon fiber electrode. Also, this electrode showed exceptional cycle stability, suggesting that it can be considered as a good candidate for supercapacitor electrodes.

  14. Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures as cathode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y.H., E-mail: yhding@xtu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Ren, H.M. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Huang, Y.Y. [BTR New Energy Materials Inc., Shenzhen 518000 (China); Chang, F.H.; Zhang, P. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} composites as a high-performance cathode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries have been prepared by using a co-precipitation method to synthesize graphene/LiFePO4 powders as precursors and then followed by a solvent evaporation process. - Highlights: Flexible LiFePO{sub 4}/graphene films were prepared first time by a solvent evaporation process. The flexible electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity without conductive additives. Graphene network offers the electrode adequate strength to withstand repeated flexing. - Abstract: Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures for flexible lithium-ion batteries were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Structural characteristics of flexible electrodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance of graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} was examined by a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures showed high electrochemical properties and significant flexibility. The composites with low graphene content exhibited a high capacity of 163.7 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.1 C and 114 mAh g{sup ?1} at 5 C without further incorporation of conductive agents.

  15. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended...

  16. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print The inherently high surface area of bimetallic nanoparticles makes them especially attractive materials for heterogeneous...

  17. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print The inherently high surface area of bimetallic nanoparticles makes them especially attractive materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The...

  18. Catalytic Nanostructures | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chemical commodities. The nanostructured materials will be composed of organic and inorganic species that will work cooperatively to effectively promote chemical conversions...

  19. Incorporation of Novel Nanostructured Materials into Solar Cells and Nanoelectronic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Rene; Pak, Joshua; Holland, Andrew; Hunt, Alan; Bitterwolf, Thomas; Qiang, You; Bergman, Leah; Berven, Christine; Punnoose, Alex; Tenne, Dmitri

    2011-11-11

    Each of the investigators on this project has had significant accomplishments toward the production of semiconductor nanoparticles, particles, and thin films and attempts to incorporate these materials into photovoltaics or sensors; to use them for improving fluorescence diagnostics; or to employ them as cancer fighting agents. The synthesis and characterization of the nanomaterials, and more recently the device construction and testing of these materials, have been the subject of several publications and presentations by team members. During the course of the investigations, several students were fully involved as part of their graduate and undergraduate training. The nature of these projects in material development dictates that the students have gained significant experience in a diverse array of material-related topics.

  20. Vanadium oxide based nanostructured materials for catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane : effect of heterometallic centers on the catalyst performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, M. I.; Deb, S.; Aydemir, K.; Alwarthan, A. A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Miller, J. T.; Marshall, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic properties of a series of new class of catalysts materials-[Co{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42} (XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Co), [Fe{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4})].24H{sub 2}O (VNM-Fe) (X = V, S) and [H{sub 6}Mn{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(VO{sub 4})].30H{sub 2}O for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane is studied. The open-framework nanostructures in these novel materials consist of three-dimensional arrays of {l_brace}V{sub 18}O{sub 42}(XO{sub 4}){r_brace} (X = V, S) clusters interconnected by {l_brace}-O-M-O-{r_brace} (M = Mn, Fe, Co) linkers. The effect of change in the heterometallic center M (M = Mn, Co, Fe) of the linkers on the catalyst performance was studied. The catalyst material with Co in the linker showed the best performance in terms of propane conversion and selectivity at 350 C. The material containing Fe was most active but least selective and Mn containing catalyst was least active. The catalysts were characterized by Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), BET surface area measurement, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. TPR results show that all three catalysts are easily reducible and therefore are active at relatively low temperature. In situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) studies revealed that the oxidation state of Co(II) remained unchanged up to 425 C (even after pretreatment). The reduction of Co(II) into metallic form starts at 425 C and this process is completed at 600 C.

  1. Nanostructured electrochromic smart windows: traditional materials and NIR-selective plasmonic nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runnerstrom, EL; Llordes, A; Lounis, SD; Milliron, DJ

    2014-06-04

    Electrochromic devices, which dynamically change colour under applied potential, are widely studied for use in energy-efficient smart windows. To improve the viability of smart windows, many researchers are utilizing nanomaterials, which can provide electrochromic devices with improved colouration efficiencies, faster switching times, longer cycle lives, and potentially reduced costs. In an effort to demonstrate a new type of electrochromic device that goes beyond the capabilities of commonly used electrochromic materials, researchers have turned to plasmonic transparent conductive oxide (TCO) nanocrystals. Electrochemical injection of electrons into plasmonic TCO nanocrystal films induces a shift in the plasmon frequency and gives rise to the new functionality of selective optical modulation in the near-infrared region of the solar spectrum. These nanocrystals can be used as building blocks to enable creation of advanced electrochromic devices containing mesoporous electrodes or nanocrystal-in-glass composites. Such devices have been important in advancing the field towards achieving the ideal smart window with independent control over visible and NIR transmittance.

  2. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: A customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolpak, AM; Grossman, JC

    2013-01-21

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and store solar energy as latent heat in a closed cycle. In this paper, we present a set of novel hybrid photoisomer/template solar thermal fuels that can potentially circumvent these challenges. Using first-principles computations, we demonstrate that these fuels, composed of organic photoisomers bound to inexpensive carbon-based templates, can reversibly store solar energy at densities comparable to Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, we show that variation of the template material in combination with the photoisomer can be used to optimize many of the key performance metrics of the fuel-i.e., the energy density, the storage lifetime, the temperature of the output heat, and the efficiency of the solar-to-heat conversion. Our work suggests that the solar thermal fuels concept can be translated into a practical and highly customizable energy storage and conversion technology. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4773306

  3. Superhydrophilic nanostructure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Zormpa, Vasileia; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-05-12

    An embodiment of a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are formed into porous clusters. The porous clusters are formed into aggregate clusters. An embodiment of an article of manufacture includes the superhydrophilic nanostructure on a substrate. An embodiment of a method of fabricating a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes applying a solution that includes nanoparticles to a substrate. The substrate is heated to form aggregate clusters of porous clusters of the nanoparticles.

  4. Nanostructured Materials as Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  5. Nanostructures in Skutterudites | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanostructures in Skutterudites Nanostructures in Skutterudites In-situ synthesis by thermodynamic means such as phase segregation, for fabricating skutterudite-based nanocomposites yield robust and stable nanostructure phases likely to survive harsh thermoelectric power generation environments PDF icon uher.pdf More Documents & Publications Nanostructures in Skutterudites Recent Progress in the Development of N-type Skutterudites Overview of Research on Thermoelectric Materials and Devices

  6. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  7. Nanostructures for enzyme stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jungbae; Grate, Jay W.; Wang, Ping

    2006-02-02

    The last decade has witnessed notable breakthroughs in nanotechnology with development of various nanostructured materials such as mesoporous materials and nanoparticles. These nanostructures have been used as a host for enzyme immobilization via various approaches, such as enzyme adsorption, covalent attachment, enzyme encapsulation, and sophisticated combinations of methods. This review discusses the stabilization mechanisms behind these diverse approaches; such as confinement, pore size and volume, charge interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and multipoint attachment. In addition, we will introduce recent rigorous approaches to improve the enzyme stability in these nanostructures or develop new nanostructures for the enzyme stabilization. Especially, we will introduce our recent invention of a nanostructure, called single enzyme nanoparticles (SENs). In the form of SENs, each enzyme molecule is surrounded with a nanometer scale network, resulting in stabilization of enzyme activity without any serious limitation for the substrate transfer from solution to the active site. SENs can be further immobilized into mesoporous silica with a large surface area, providing a hierarchical approach for stable, immobilized enzyme systems for various applications, such as bioconversion, bioremediation, and biosensors.

  8. Piezoelectric and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; NANOSTRUCTURES; ZINC OXIDES; PIEZOELECTRICITY; LUMINESCENCE; SILVER; SUBSTRATES Word Cloud ...

  9. Nanostructured Organometal Halide Perovskites | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    them in the construction of new porous and nanostructured solar cell architectures. Research area: Materials Sciences Program mentor: Javier Vela, Assistant Professor of Chemistry...

  10. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01

    This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

  11. Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Yu (Saline, MI); Banerjee, Debasish (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2007-11-13

    The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

  12. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale

  13. Pore-Controlled Formation of 0D Metal Complexes in Anionic 3D...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pore-Controlled Formation of 0D Metal Complexes in Anionic 3D Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Muwei Zhang, Mathieu Boscha and Hong-Cai Zhou, Cryst. Eng. Comm, 17,...

  14. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 29 September 2010 00:00 The inherently high surface area of bimetallic nanoparticles makes them especially attractive materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The ability to selectively grow these and other types of nanoparticles on a desired surface is ideal for the fabrication of higher-order nanoscale architectures. However, the growth mechanism for bimetallic nanoparticles

  15. Polymer mold makes perfect silicon nanostructures > EMC2 News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made such a mold for nanostructures that can shape liquid silicon out of an organic polymer material. This paves the way for perfect, 3-D, single crystal nanostructures. The...

  16. Nanoparticle modifications of photodefined nanostructures for energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    applications. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Nanoparticle modifications of photodefined nanostructures for energy applications. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoparticle modifications of photodefined nanostructures for energy applications. The advancement of materials technology towards the development of novel 3D nanostructures for energy applications has been a long-standing challenge. The purpose of this project was to explore photolithographically defineable pyrolyzed

  17. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering | Department of Energy Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering Presents new concepts for high performance nanostructured bulk thermoelectric materials PDF icon lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Materials for Automotive Applications The Bottom-Up Approach

  18. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanomanufacturing: Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings nanostructuredsuperhydrophobiccoatings.pdf More...

  19. Nanostructures, systems, and methods for photocatalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reece, Steven Y.; Jarvi, Thomas D.

    2015-12-08

    The present invention generally relates to nanostructures and compositions comprising nanostructures, methods of making and using the nanostructures, and related systems. In some embodiments, a nanostructure comprises a first region and a second region, wherein a first photocatalytic reaction (e.g., an oxidation reaction) can be carried out at the first region and a second photocatalytic reaction (e.g., a reduction reaction) can be carried out at the second region. In some cases, the first photocatalytic reaction is the formation of oxygen gas from water and the second photocatalytic reaction is the formation of hydrogen gas from water. In some embodiments, a nanostructure comprises at least one semiconductor material, and, in some cases, at least one catalytic material and/or at least one photosensitizing agent.

  20. Dendritic metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

    2010-08-31

    Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  1. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of removing-silicon (and germanium) nanostructures at precise wafer locations. This strategy holds the potential for fabricating transistors in fewer steps with less material...

  2. Mesoporous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructured material synthesized by one-step soft-templating: A magnetic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyraz, Altug S.; Kuo, Chung-Hao; Li, Nan; Hines, William A. Perry, David M.; Suib, Steven L.

    2014-03-21

    A combined magnetization and zero-field {sup 59}Co spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study has been carried out on one member of a recently developed class of highly ordered mesoporous nanostructured materials, mesoporous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (designated UCT-8, University of Connecticut, mesoporous materials). The material was synthesized using one-step soft-templating by an inverse micelles packing approach. Characterization of UCT-8 by powder x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy reveals that the mesostructure consists of random close-packed Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles ??12?nm in diameter. The N{sub 2} sorption isotherm for UCT-8, which is type IV with a type H1 hysteresis loop, yields a 134 m{sup 2}/g BET surface area and a 7.7?nm BJH desorption pore diameter. The effect of heat treatment on the structure is discussed. The antiferromagnetic Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have a Nel temperature T{sub N}?=?27?K, somewhat lower than the bulk. A fit to the Curie-Weiss law over the temperature range 75?K???T???300?K yields an effective magnetic moment of ?{sub eff}?=?4.36??{sub B} for the Co{sup 2+} ions, indicative of some orbital contribution, and a Curie-Weiss temperature ??=??93.5?K, consistent with antiferromagnetic ordering. The inter-sublattice and intra-sublattice exchange constants for the Co{sup 2+} ions are J{sub 1}/k{sub B}?=?(?)4.75?K and J{sub 2}/k{sub B}?=?(?)0.87?K, respectively, both corresponding to antiferromagnetic coupling. The presence of uncompensated surface spins is observed below T{sub N} with shifts in the hysteresis loops, i.e., an exchange-bias effect. The {sup 59}Co NMR spectrum for UCT-8, which is attributed to Co{sup 2+} ions at the tetrahedral A sites, is asymmetrically broadened with a peak at ?55?MHz (T?=?4.2?K). Since there is cubic symmetry at the A-sites, the broadening is indicative of a magnetic field distribution due to the uncompensated surface spins. The spectrum is consistent with antiferromagnetically ordered particles that are nanometer in size and single domain.

  3. MODELING RESONANCE INTERFERENCE BY 0-D SLOWING-DOWN SOLUTION WITH EMBEDDED SELF-SHIELDING METHOD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MODELING RESONANCE INTERFERENCE BY 0-D SLOWING-DOWN SOLUTION WITH EMBEDDED SELF-SHIELDING METHOD Yuxuan Liu and William Martin Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences University of Michigan 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 yuxuanl@umich.edu; wrm@umich.edu Kang-Seog Kim and Mark Williams Oak Ridge National Laboratory One Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172, USA kimk1@ornl.gov; williamsml@ornl.gov ABSTRACT The resonance integral table based

  4. Pore-Controlled Formation of 0D Metal Complexes in Anionic 3D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Pore-Controlled Formation of 0D Metal Complexes in Anionic 3D Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Muwei Zhang, Mathieu Boscha and Hong-Cai Zhou, Cryst. Eng. Comm, 17, 996-1000 (2015) DOI: 10.1039/C4CE02261K GA Abstract: The host-guest chemistry between a series of anionic MOFs and their trapped counterions was investigated by single crystal XRD. The PCN-514 series contains

  5. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  6. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  7. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  8. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  9. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  10. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  11. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  12. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  13. Ceramic nanostructures and methods of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-11-24

    Structures and methods for the fabrication of ceramic nanostructures. Structures include metal particles, preferably comprising copper, disposed on a ceramic substrate. The structures are heated, preferably in the presence of microwaves, to a temperature that softens the metal particles and preferably forms a pool of molten ceramic under the softened metal particle. A nano-generator is created wherein ceramic material diffuses through the molten particle and forms ceramic nanostructures on a polar site of the metal particle. The nanostructures may comprise silica, alumina, titania, or compounds or mixtures thereof.

  14. Nanostructured Thermoelectrics. The New Paradigm | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics. The New Paradigm Nanostructured Thermoelectrics. The New Paradigm Highlights advances and future strategies for enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit of bulk nanostructured thermoelectric and materials using low cost earth abundant elements PDF icon kanatzidis.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE/NSF Thermoelectric Partnership Project SEEBECK Saving Energy Effectively By Engaging in Collaborative Research and Sharing Knowledge Thermoelectric Materials for Automotive

  15. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print The inherently high surface area of bimetallic nanoparticles makes them especially attractive materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The ability to selectively grow these and other types of nanoparticles on a desired surface is ideal for the fabrication of higher-order nanoscale architectures. However, the growth mechanism for bimetallic nanoparticles on a surface is expected to be quite different than that for free particles in

  16. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print The inherently high surface area of bimetallic nanoparticles makes them especially attractive materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The ability to selectively grow these and other types of nanoparticles on a desired surface is ideal for the fabrication of higher-order nanoscale architectures. However, the growth mechanism for bimetallic nanoparticles on a surface is expected to be quite different than that for free particles in

  17. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print The inherently high surface area of bimetallic nanoparticles makes them especially attractive materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The ability to selectively grow these and other types of nanoparticles on a desired surface is ideal for the fabrication of higher-order nanoscale architectures. However, the growth mechanism for bimetallic nanoparticles on a surface is expected to be quite different than that for free particles in

  18. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print The inherently high surface area of bimetallic nanoparticles makes them especially attractive materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The ability to selectively grow these and other types of nanoparticles on a desired surface is ideal for the fabrication of higher-order nanoscale architectures. However, the growth mechanism for bimetallic nanoparticles on a surface is expected to be quite different than that for free particles in

  19. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print The inherently high surface area of bimetallic nanoparticles makes them especially attractive materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The ability to selectively grow these and other types of nanoparticles on a desired surface is ideal for the fabrication of higher-order nanoscale architectures. However, the growth mechanism for bimetallic nanoparticles on a surface is expected to be quite different than that for free particles in

  20. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print The inherently high surface area of bimetallic nanoparticles makes them especially attractive materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The ability to selectively grow these and other types of nanoparticles on a desired surface is ideal for the fabrication of higher-order nanoscale architectures. However, the growth mechanism for bimetallic nanoparticles on a surface is expected to be quite different than that for free particles in

  1. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print The inherently high surface area of bimetallic nanoparticles makes them especially attractive materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The ability to selectively grow these and other types of nanoparticles on a desired surface is ideal for the fabrication of higher-order nanoscale architectures. However, the growth mechanism for bimetallic nanoparticles on a surface is expected to be quite different than that for free particles in

  2. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print The inherently high surface area of bimetallic nanoparticles makes them especially attractive materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The ability to selectively grow these and other types of nanoparticles on a desired surface is ideal for the fabrication of higher-order nanoscale architectures. However, the growth mechanism for bimetallic nanoparticles on a surface is expected to be quite different than that for free particles in

  3. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 29 June 2011 00:00 Nanostructured materials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoclusters, graphene) are attractive possible alternatives to traditionally microfabricated silicon in continuing the miniaturization trend in the electronics industry. To go from nanomaterials to electronics, however, the precise one-by-one assembly of billions of nanoelements into a functioning circuit is

  4. Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RTI International PDF icon 2002_deer_venkatasubramanian1.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 2 Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Thermoelectric Developments for Vehicular Applications

  5. Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 2 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RTI International PDF icon 2002_deer_venkatasubramanian2.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI The 60% Efficient Diesel Engine: Probably, Possible, Or Just a Fantasy?

  6. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 29 September 2010 00:00 The inherently high surface area...

  7. Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods | Department of Energy Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer

  8. Oriented Nanostructures for Energy Conversion and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong H.; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; DuBois, Daniel L.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Graff, Gordon L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2008-08-28

    Recently the role of nanostructured materials in addressing the challenges in energy and natural resources has attracted wide attention. In particular, oriented nanostructures have demonstrated promising properties for energy harvesting, conversion and storage. The purpose of the paper is to review the synthesis and application of oriented nanostructures in a few key areas of energy technologies, namely photovoltaics, batteries, supercapacitors and thermoelectrics. Although the applications differ from field to field, one of the fundamental challenges is to improve the generation and transport of electrons and ions. We will first briefly review the several major approaches to attain oriented nanostructured films that are applicable for energy applications. We will then discuss how such controlled nanostructures can be used in photovoltaics, batteries, capacitors, thermoelectrics, and other unconventional ways of energy conversion. We will highlight the role of high surface area to maximize the surface activity, and the importance of optimum dimension and architecture, controlled pore channels and alignment of the nanocrystalline phase to optimize the electrons and ion transport. Finally, the paper will discuss the challenges in attaining integrated architectures to achieve the desired performance. Brief background information will be provided for the relevant technologies, but the emphasis is focused mainly on the nanoeffects of mostly inorganic based materials and devices.

  9. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-scale Implementation of Nanostructured Superhydrophobic (SH) Powders for Breakthrough Energy Savings

  10. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing low-cost nanofabrication method to develop nanostructured, dye-sensitized solar cells

  11. Computational Challenges for Nanostructure Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenges for Nanostructure Solar Cells Computational Challenges for Nanostructure Solar Cells ZZ2.jpg Key Challenges: Current nanostructure solar cells often have energy...

  12. EERE Success Story-Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award | Department of Energy Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award EERE Success Story-Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award February 10, 2014 - 5:31pm Addthis Incorporating graphene, a team of scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Vorbeck Materials Corporation, and Princeton University have developed a nanocomposite material that can greatly improve

  13. Measuring Strong Nanostructures

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Andy Minor

    2010-01-08

    Andy Minor of Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy explains measuring stress and strain on nanostructures with the In Situ Microscope. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-relea...

  14. High-Yield Synthesis of Stoichiometric Boron Nitride Nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nocua, José E.; Piazza, Fabrice; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Boron nimore » tride (BN) nanostructures are structural analogues of carbon nanostructures but have completely different bonding character and structural defects. They are chemically inert, electrically insulating, and potentially important in mechanical applications that include the strengthening of light structural materials. These applications require the reliable production of bulk amounts of pure BN nanostructures in order to be able to reinforce large quantities of structural materials, hence the need for the development of high-yield synthesis methods of pure BN nanostructures. Using borazine ( B 3 N 3 H 6 ) as chemical precursor and the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique, pure BN nanostructures with cross-sectional sizes ranging between 20 and 50 nm were obtained, including nanoparticles and nanofibers. Their crystalline structure was characterized by (XRD), their morphology and nanostructure was examined by (SEM) and (TEM), while their chemical composition was studied by (EDS), (FTIR), (EELS), and (XPS). Taken altogether, the results indicate that all the material obtained is stoichiometric nanostructured BN with hexagonal and rhombohedral crystalline structure.« less

  15. Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) ...

  16. Novel Nanostructured Thermoelectrics | Center for Energy Efficient

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Novel Nanostructured Thermoelectrics While the ultimate CEEM goal is the development of materials with improved thermoelectric power generation capabilities, the path to that goal involves discovering and using the important physics of the electrical transport, thermoelectric potentials and heat transport in the new structures that we prepare. This involves importantly understanding and engineering the inclusion, transport and scattering of mobile charge carriers and the

  17. Nanostructured Water Oxidation Catalysts - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanostructured Water Oxidation Catalysts Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryHeinz Frei and Feng Jiao of Berkeley Lab have developed a visible light driven catalytic system for oxidizing water. Efficient catalytic water oxidation is a critical step for any artificial sunlight-to-fuel conversion system.

  18. Probing structure-induced optical behavior in a new class of self-activated luminescent 0D/1D CaWO? metal oxide CdSe nanocrystal composite heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Hoy, Jessica; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Zhuo-Qun; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Misewich, James A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-01-30

    In this report, we synthesize and characterize the structural and optical properties of novel heterostructures composed of (i) semiconducting nanocrystalline CdSe quantum dot (QDs) coupled with (ii) both one and zero-dimensional (1D and 0D) motifs of self-activated luminescence CaWO? metal oxides. Specifically, ~4 nm CdSe QDs have been anchored onto (i) high-aspect ratio 1D nanowires, measuring ~230 nm in diameter and ~3 ?m in length, as well as onto (ii) crystalline 0D nanoparticles (possessing an average diameter of ~ 80 nm) of CaWO? through the mediation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a connecting linker. Composite formation was confirmed by complementary electron microscopy and spectroscopy (i.e. IR and Raman) data. In terms of luminescent properties, our results show that our 1D and 0D heterostructures evince photoluminescence (PL) quenching and shortened PL lifetimes of CaWO? as compared with unbound CaWO?. We propose that a photo-induced electron transfer process occurs from CaWO? to CdSe QDs, a scenario which has been confirmed by NEXAFS measurements and which highlights a decrease in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the conduction bands of CdSe QDs. By contrast, the PL signature and lifetimes of MPA-capped CdSe QDs within these heterostructures do not exhibit noticeable changes as compared with unbound MPA-capped CdSe QDs. The striking difference in optical behavior between CaWO? nanostructures and CdSe QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. In addition, the PL quenching behaviors for CaWO? within the heterostructure configuration were examined by systematically varying (i) the quantities and coverage densities of CdSe QDs as well as (ii) the intrinsic morphology (and by extension, the inherent crystallite size) of CaWO? itself.

  19. Bioinspired Materials | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanostructure Pilots Badwater Bacteria Read More Previous Pause Next Synthesis Nature is replete with hierarchically assembled hybrid materials where the multi-scale...

  20. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  1. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I.; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2015-12-22

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  2. Nanowires, nanostructures and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arun (Orinda, CA); Shakouri, Ali (Santa Cruz, CA); Sands, Timothy D. (Moraga, CA); Yang, Peidong (Berkeley, CA); Mao, Samuel S. (Berkeley, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA); Feick, Henning (Kensington, CA); Weber, Eicke R. (Oakland, CA); Kind, Hannes (Schaffhausen, CH); Huang, Michael (Los Angeles, CA); Yan, Haoquan (Albany, CA); Wu, Yiying (Albany, CA); Fan, Rong (El Cerrito, CA)

    2005-04-19

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  3. Synthesis of porphyrin nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou; Bai, Feng

    2014-10-28

    The present disclosure generally relates to self-assembly methods for generating porphyrin nanostructures. For example, in one embodiment a method is provided that includes preparing a porphyrin solution and a surfactant solution. The porphyrin solution is then mixed with the surfactant solution at a concentration sufficient for confinement of the porphyrin molecules by the surfactant molecules. In some embodiments, the concentration of the surfactant is at or above its critical micelle concentration (CMC), which allows the surfactant to template the growth of the nanostructure over time. The size and morphology of the nanostructures may be affected by the type of porphyrin molecules used, the type of surfactant used, the concentration of the porphyrin and surfactant the pH of the mixture of the solutions, and the order of adding the reagents to the mixture, to name a few variables.

  4. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  5. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Nanostructured materials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoclusters, graphene) are attractive possible alternatives to traditionally microfabricated silicon in continuing the miniaturization trend in the electronics industry. To go from nanomaterials to electronics, however, the precise one-by-one assembly of billions of nanoelements into a functioning circuit is required-clearly not a simple task. An interdisciplinary team from the University

  6. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Nanostructured materials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoclusters, graphene) are attractive possible alternatives to traditionally microfabricated silicon in continuing the miniaturization trend in the electronics industry. To go from nanomaterials to electronics, however, the precise one-by-one assembly of billions of nanoelements into a functioning circuit is required-clearly not a simple task. An interdisciplinary team from the University

  7. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Nanostructured materials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoclusters, graphene) are attractive possible alternatives to traditionally microfabricated silicon in continuing the miniaturization trend in the electronics industry. To go from nanomaterials to electronics, however, the precise one-by-one assembly of billions of nanoelements into a functioning circuit is required-clearly not a simple task. An interdisciplinary team from the University

  8. Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct-Write of Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures Print Nanostructured materials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanoclusters, graphene) are attractive possible alternatives to traditionally microfabricated silicon in continuing the miniaturization trend in the electronics industry. To go from nanomaterials to electronics, however, the precise one-by-one assembly of billions of nanoelements into a functioning circuit is required-clearly not a simple task. An interdisciplinary team from the University

  9. 15.02.27 RH Unique Nanostructure - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Nanostructure Revealed in New OER Electrocatalyst Haber, J. A., Anzenburg, E., Yano, J., Kisielowski, C. & Gregoire, J. M. Multiphase Nanostructure of a Quinary Metal Oxide Electrocatalyst Reveals a New Direction for OER Electrocatalyst Design. Advanced Energy Materials, DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201402307 (2015). Scientific Achievement JCAP discovered a new electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) containing 5 elements: Ni, Fe, Co, Ce, and O. Further detailed investigation

  10. Tuning and synthesis of metallic nanostructures by mechanical compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou; Li, Binsong

    2015-11-17

    The present invention provides a pressure-induced phase transformation process to engineer metal nanoparticle architectures and to fabricate new nanostructured materials. The reversible changes of the nanoparticle unit cell dimension under pressure allow precise control over interparticle separation in 2D or 3D nanoparticle assemblies, offering unique robustness for interrogation of both quantum and classic coupling interactions. Irreversible changes above a threshold pressure of about 8 GPa enables new nanostructures, such as nanorods, nanowires, or nanosheets.

  11. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2015-11-24

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  12. Methods for and products of processing nanostructure nitride, carbonitride and oxycarbonitride electrode power materials by utilizing sol gel technology for supercapacitor applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yuhong (West Hills, CA); Wei, Oiang (West Hills, CA); Chu, Chung-tse (Chatsworth, CA); Zheng, Haixing (Oak Park, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Metal nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder with high surface area (up to 150 m.sup.2 /g) is prepared by using sol-gel process. The metal organic precursor, alkoxides or amides, is synthesized firstly. The metal organic precursor is modified by using unhydrolyzable organic ligands or templates. A wet gel is formed then by hydrolysis and condensation process. The solvent in the wet gel is then be removed supercritically to form porous amorphous hydroxide. This porous hydroxide materials is sintered to 725.degree. C. under the ammonia flow and porous nitride powder is formed. The other way to obtain high surface area nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder is to pyrolyze polymerized templated metal amides aerogel in an inert atmosphere. The electrochemical capacitors are prepared by using sol-gel prepared nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder. Two methods are used to assemble the capacitors. Electrode is formed either by pressing the mixture of nitride powder and binder to a foil, or by depositing electrode coating onto metal current collector. The binder or coating is converted into a continuous network of electrode material after thermal treatment to provide enhanced energy and power density. Liquid electrolyte is soaked into porous electrode. The electrochemical capacitor assembly further has a porous separator layer between two electrodes/electrolyte and forming a unit cell.

  13. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  14. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2015-09-29

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  15. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  16. Direct imaging of LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} nanostructures using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Direct imaging of LaAlOsub 3SrTiOsub 3 nanostructures using piezoresponse force ... (United States) Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of ...

  17. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Materials Access to Hopper Phase II (Cray XE6) If you are a current NERSC user, you are enabled to use Hopper Phase II. Use your SSH client to connect to Hopper II:...

  18. Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells...

  19. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings Large-scale Implementation of Nanostructured Superhydrophobic (SH) Powders for Breakthrough Energy Savings Nanostructured superhydrophobic (SH) powders cause water to bead off of surfaces, resulting in surfaces that are non-wetting and water-repelling. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a set of SH powders that are more water repellent and more durable than anything found in nature. Based on the extreme water repellency of uniform glass

  20. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (SXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical...

  1. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging...

  2. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in...

  3. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    might be used to perform various functions, including device integration and assembly, chemical and biological sensing, and photocatalysis. For example, a hybrid nanostructure...

  4. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik P; Tappan, Bryce; Mueller, Alex; Mihaila, Bogdan; Volz, Heather; Cardenas, Andreas; Papin, Pallas; Veauthier, Jackie; Stan, Marius

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  5. Probing structure-induced optical behavior in a new class of self-activated luminescent 0D/1D CaWO₄ metal oxide – CdSe nanocrystal composite heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Hoy, Jessica; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Zhuo-Qun; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Taylor, Gordon T.; et al

    2015-01-30

    In this report, we synthesize and characterize the structural and optical properties of novel heterostructures composed of (i) semiconducting nanocrystalline CdSe quantum dot (QDs) coupled with (ii) both one and zero-dimensional (1D and 0D) motifs of self-activated luminescence CaWO₄ metal oxides. Specifically, ~4 nm CdSe QDs have been anchored onto (i) high-aspect ratio 1D nanowires, measuring ~230 nm in diameter and ~3 μm in length, as well as onto (ii) crystalline 0D nanoparticles (possessing an average diameter of ~ 80 nm) of CaWO₄ through the mediation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a connecting linker. Composite formation was confirmed by complementarymore » electron microscopy and spectroscopy (i.e. IR and Raman) data. In terms of luminescent properties, our results show that our 1D and 0D heterostructures evince photoluminescence (PL) quenching and shortened PL lifetimes of CaWO₄ as compared with unbound CaWO₄. We propose that a photo-induced electron transfer process occurs from CaWO₄ to CdSe QDs, a scenario which has been confirmed by NEXAFS measurements and which highlights a decrease in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the conduction bands of CdSe QDs. By contrast, the PL signature and lifetimes of MPA-capped CdSe QDs within these heterostructures do not exhibit noticeable changes as compared with unbound MPA-capped CdSe QDs. The striking difference in optical behavior between CaWO₄ nanostructures and CdSe QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. In addition, the PL quenching behaviors for CaWO₄ within the heterostructure configuration were examined by systematically varying (i) the quantities and coverage densities of CdSe QDs as well as (ii) the intrinsic morphology (and by extension, the inherent crystallite size) of CaWO₄ itself.« less

  6. Chemistry Controls Material's Nanostructure | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cadmium, sulfur and selenium will form selectively into shapes that look like either tadpoles or drumsticks depending on the relative reactivity of the selenium and sulfur...

  7. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Alternative Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, Gregory

    2013-07-24

    This project has been in effect from July 25th, 2008 to July 24th, 2013. It supported 19 graduate students and 6 post-doctoral students and resulted in 23 publications, 7 articles in preparation, 44 presentations, and many other outreach efforts. Two representative recent publications are appended to this report. The project brought in more than $750,000 in cost share from North Carolina State University. The project funds also supported the purchase and installation of approximately $667,000 in equipment supporting solar energy research.

  8. Intensive Variables & Nanostructuring in Magnetostructural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Laura

    2014-08-13

    Over the course of this project, fundamental inquiry was carried out to investigate, understand and predict the effects of intensive variables, including the structural scale, on magnetostructural phase transitions in the model system of equiatomic FeRh. These transitions comprise simultaneous magnetic and structural phase changes that have their origins in very strong orbital-lattice coupling and thus may be driven by a plurality of effects.

  9. Composite, nanostructured, super-hydrophobic material - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent...

  10. Nano-structured Materials as Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  11. Parallel macromolecular delivery and biochemical/electrochemical interface to cells employing nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli V; Griffin, Guy D; Guillorn, Michael A; Merkulov, Vladimir L; Simpson, Michael L

    2015-03-31

    Systems and methods are described for parallel macromolecular delivery and biochemical/electrochemical interface to whole cells employing carbon nanostructures including nanofibers and nanotubes. A method includes providing a first material on at least a first portion of a first surface of a first tip of a first elongated carbon nanostructure; providing a second material on at least a second portion of a second surface of a second tip of a second elongated carbon nanostructure, the second elongated carbon nanostructure coupled to, and substantially parallel to, the first elongated carbon nanostructure; and penetrating a boundary of a biological sample with at least one member selected from the group consisting of the first tip and the second tip.

  12. High Strength Nano-Structured Steel - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Return to Search High Strength Nano-Structured Steel Idaho National Laboratory Success Story Details Partner Location Agreement Type Publication Date Nanosteel, Inc. Providence, Rhode Island License Work for Others (WFO) June 4, 2013 Video Bulk Materials Nanotechnology Summary The NanoSteel Company Complex modern challenges are driving new industrial market demands for metal alloys with properties and performance capabilities outside the known boundaries of

  13. Mega-Pore Nano-Structured Carbon - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Mega-Pore Nano-Structured Carbon Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryCurrent supercapacitor technologies cannot meet the growing demands for high-power energy storage. Meeting this challenge requires the development of new electrode materials.DescriptionScientists at ORNL have developed robust carbon monolithic having hierarchical

  14. Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of Material

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanostructures-Embracing the Ultrasmall, Ultrafast, and the Invisible (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of Material Nanostructures-Embracing the Ultrasmall, Ultrafast, and the Invisible Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of Material Nanostructures-Embracing the Ultrasmall, Ultrafast, and the Invisible The goal of this grant was the development of a

  15. Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of Material

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanostructures-Embracing the Ultrasmall, Ultrafast, and the Invisible (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of Material Nanostructures-Embracing the Ultrasmall, Ultrafast, and the Invisible Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of Material Nanostructures-Embracing the Ultrasmall, Ultrafast, and the Invisible The goal of this grant was the development of a new type of scanning acoustic microscope for

  16. Method for producing nanostructured metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Simpson, Randall L.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Gash, Alexander

    2006-01-17

    A synthetic route for producing nanostructure metal-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing. This procedure employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-metal inorganic salts and environmentally friendly solvents such as water and ethanol. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by the addition of a proton scavenger, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively. Using this method synthesis of metal-oxide nanostructured materials have been carried out using inorganic salts, such as of Fe.sup.3+, Cr.sup.3+, Al.sup.3+, Ga.sup.3+, In.sup.3+, Hf.sup.4+, Sn.sup.4+, Zr.sup.4+, Nb.sup.5+, W.sup.6+, Pr.sup.3+, Er.sup.3+, Nd.sup.3+, Ce.sup.3+, U.sup.3+ and Y.sup.3+. The process is general and nanostructured metal-oxides from the following elements of the periodic table can be made: Groups 2 through 13, part of Group 14 (germanium, tin, lead), part of Group 15 (antimony, bismuth), part of Group 16 (polonium), and the lanthanides and actinides. The sol-gel processing allows for the addition of insoluble materials (e.g., metals or polymers) to the viscous sol, just before gelation, to produce a uniformly distributed nanocomposites upon gelation. As an example, energetic nanocomposites of Fe.sub.xO.sub.y gel with distributed Al metal are readily made. The compositions are stable, safe, and can be readily ignited to thermitic reaction.

  17. Luminescent systems based on the isolation of conjugated PI systems and edge charge compensation with polar molecules on a charged nanostructured surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Zhao, Bin; Geohegan, David B.; Styers-Barnett, David J.; Hu, Hui

    2014-07-15

    A photoluminescent or electroluminescent system and method of making a non-luminescent nanostructured material into such a luminescent system is presented. The method of preparing the luminescent system, generally, comprises the steps of modifying the surface of a nanostructured material to create isolated regions to act as luminescent centers and to create a charge imbalance on the surface; applying more than one polar molecule to the charged surface of the nanostructured material; and orienting the polar molecules to compensate for the charge imbalance on the surface of the nanostructured material. The compensation of the surface charge imbalance by the polar molecules allows the isolated regions to exhibit luminescence.

  18. Ultrathin Li3VO4 Nanoribbon/Graphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Ultrathin Li3VO4 NanoribbonGraphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures with Ultrahigh Lithium ion Storage Properties Two-dimensional (2D) "graphene-like" inorganic materials, ...

  19. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S-poisoning resistance. Further investigation is needed for unraveling the understanding, design and selection principles of this new class of nanostructure based monolithic catalysts.

  20. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - CNMS User Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Designing New Materials with Nanostructures as Building Blocks Vincent Meunier and Sefa Dag, CNMS Jose Manuel Romo Herrera, Mauricio Terrones and Humberto Terrones, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, San Luis Potosi, Mexico Novel and robust networks, tailored from nanostructures as building blocks, are the foundations for constructing nano- and microdevices. However, assembling nanostructures into ordered micronetworks remains a significant challenge in nanotechnology.

  1. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics Low-Cost Nanofabrication Method To Develop Nanostructured, Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Introduction Photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a renewable, carbon-free source of energy for the United States. However, the high temperatures required to manufacture conventional silicon-based crystalline PV cells result in a manufacturing process that is energy-intensive and expensive. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which

  2. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 28 March 2012 00:00 Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the

  3. 2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai-Sheng Wang

    2009-07-19

    For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral presentations. Because of the important role that students and postdocs play in the future of this field, we also anticipate to select several posters from young investigators for oral presentations.

  4. Data:Ae277b8a-06b7-4666-8b14-8019b0d7753c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ae277b8a-06b7-4666-8b14-8019b0d7753c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading......

  5. Data:F3d511d9-6321-49ce-b5b2-a0d21fd28d52 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    d9-6321-49ce-b5b2-a0d21fd28d52 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1....

  6. Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

  7. Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries New Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Increase Energy Density Four-Fold Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), managing contractor of the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy, has developed new anodes for lithium-ion batteries

  8. Growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelnutt, John A; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J

    2006-03-08

    Our overall goal has been to understand and develop a light-driven approach to the controlled growth of novel metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures when exposed to visible light, providing metal nucleation and growth centers. The photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location of the deposition of metal and therefore the morphology of the nanostructures that are grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods we are using for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, each photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition near the photocatalyst and ultimately the synthesis of new metallic nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Georgia. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled nanosynthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. Our specific goals for the past three years have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic metal (Pt, Pd, Au) nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient conditions and the synthesis of photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes) as templates for fabrication of photo-active metal-composite nanodevices. The proposed nanoscience concentrates on two thematic research areas: (1) the creation of metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials for realizing novel catalytic phenomena and quantum control, (2) understanding photocatalytic metal deposition processes at the nanoscale especially on photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures such as nanotubes, and (3) the development and use of multi-scale, multi-phenomena theory and simulation for ionic self-assembly and catalytic processes.

  9. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arun (Orinda, CA); Shakouri, Ali (Santa Cruz, CA); Sands, Timothy D. (Moraga, CA); Yang, Peidong (Berkeley, CA); Mao, Samuel S. (Berkeley, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA); Feick, Henning (Kensington, CA); Weber, Eicke R. (Oakland, CA); Kind, Hannes (Schaffhausen, CH); Huang, Michael (Los Angeles, CA); Yan, Haoquan (Albany, CA); Wu, Yiying (Albany, CA); Fan, Rong (El Cerrito, CA)

    2009-08-04

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  10. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arun (Orinda, CA); Shakouri, Ali (Santa Cruz, CA); Sands, Timothy D. (Moraga, CA); Yang, Peidong (Berkeley, CA); Mao, Samuel S. (Berkeley, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA); Feick, Henning (Kensington, CA); Weber, Eicke R. (Oakland, CA); Kind, Hannes (Schaffhausen, CH); Huang, Michael (Los Angeles, CA); Yan, Haoquan (Albany, CA); Wu, Yiying (Albany, CA); Fan, Rong (El Cerrito, CA)

    2010-11-16

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  11. Crossing Over: Nanostructures that Move Electrons and Ions Across Cellular Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo-Franklin, C. M.; Noy, A.

    2015-04-27

    Critical biological processes such as energy generation and signal transduction are driven by the flow of electrons and ions across the membranes of living cells. As a result, there is substantial interest in creating nanostructured materials that control transport of these charged species across biomembranes. The recent advances in the synthesis of de novo and protein nanostructures for transmembrane ion and electron transport and the mechanistic understanding underlying this transport are described. Moreover, this body of work highlights the promise such nanostructures hold for directing transmembrane transport of charged species as well as challenges that must be overcome to realize that potential.

  12. Crossing Over: Nanostructures that Move Electrons and Ions Across Cellular Membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ajo-Franklin, C. M.; Noy, A.

    2015-04-27

    Critical biological processes such as energy generation and signal transduction are driven by the flow of electrons and ions across the membranes of living cells. As a result, there is substantial interest in creating nanostructured materials that control transport of these charged species across biomembranes. The recent advances in the synthesis of de novo and protein nanostructures for transmembrane ion and electron transport and the mechanistic understanding underlying this transport are described. Moreover, this body of work highlights the promise such nanostructures hold for directing transmembrane transport of charged species as well as challenges that must be overcome to realizemore » that potential.« less

  13. Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Stephan Bremner

    2010-07-21

    The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

  14. Nanoparticle modifications of photodefined nanostructures for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; CARBON; ELECTRODES; FABRICATION; MODIFICATIONS; NANOSTRUCTURES; POLYMERS Word...

  15. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, ... More Documents & Publications Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and ...

  16. Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presents nanostructured thermalelectrical interface tape concept involving carbon nanotube and metal nanowire films to improve thermomechanical cycling behavior of automotive ...

  17. Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modules Application | Department of Energy Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Presents nanostructured thermal/electrical interface tapeŽ concept involving carbon nanotube and metal nanowire films to improve thermomechanical cycling behavior of automotive TEGs PDF icon asheghi.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive

  18. Ultrathin Li3VO4 Nanoribbon/Graphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultrahigh Lithium ion Storage Properties (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Ultrathin Li3VO4 Nanoribbon/Graphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures with Ultrahigh Lithium ion Storage Properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrathin Li3VO4 Nanoribbon/Graphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures with Ultrahigh Lithium ion Storage Properties Two-dimensional (2D) "graphene-like" inorganic materials, because of the short lithium ion

  19. Investigation into Nanostructured Lanthanum Halides and CeBr{sub 3} for Nuclear Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, P., Guise, R., Mukhopadhyay, S., Yuan, D.

    2011-06-22

    This slide-show presents work on radiation detection with nanostructured lanthanum halides and CeBr{sub 3}. The goal is to extend the gamma energy response on both low and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy x-rays and relatively high-energy activation prompt gamma rays simultaneously using the nano-structured lanthanum bromide, lanthanum fluoride, cerium bromide, or other nanocrystal material. Homogeneous and nano structure cases are compared.

  20. asjc0d2.tmp

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... analysis (MacMurdo and Bowman, 1978), cancer brachytherapy (insertion of 252Cf sources ... Irradiation of cancer cells Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) experiments on the ...

  1. Controlled placement and orientation of nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alex K; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D; Fennimore, Adam M

    2014-04-08

    A method for controlled deposition and orientation of molecular sized nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) on substrates is disclosed. The method comprised: forming a thin layer of polymer coating on a substrate; exposing a selected portion of the thin layer of polymer to alter a selected portion of the thin layer of polymer; forming a suspension of nanostructures in a solvent, wherein the solvent suspends the nanostructures and activates the nanostructures in the solvent for deposition; and flowing a suspension of nanostructures across the layer of polymer in a flow direction; thereby: depositing a nanostructure in the suspension of nanostructures only to the selected portion of the thin layer of polymer coating on the substrate to form a deposited nanostructure oriented in the flow direction. By selectively employing portions of the method above, complex NEMS may be built of simpler NEMSs components.

  2. Tuning and synthesis of semiconductor nanostructures by mechanical compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou; Li, Binsong

    2015-11-17

    A mechanical compression method can be used to tune semiconductor nanoparticle lattice structure and synthesize new semiconductor nanostructures including nanorods, nanowires, nanosheets, and other three-dimensional interconnected structures. II-VI or IV-VI compound semiconductor nanoparticle assemblies can be used as starting materials, including CdSe, CdTe, ZnSe, ZnS, PbSe, and PbS.

  3. Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs > Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highlights > Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries

  4. Role of an Oxygen Vacancy Nanostructure on the Switchable Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effect in BiFeO3 | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Role of an Oxygen Vacancy Nanostructure on the Switchable Photovoltaic Effect in BiFeO3 Monday, February 29, 2016 In all oxide compounds, oxygen vacancies intrinsically exist and their role and impact on materials' properties have been studied for several decades. Mostly they have been considered as defects that disturb a 'perfect world'. Nowadays, however, researchers consider them as new parameters for controlling

  5. METALLIC AND HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, S.

    2012-05-02

    This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.

  6. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging for the

  7. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging for the

  8. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  9. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  10. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  11. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  12. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  13. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  14. Sintering and ripening resistant noble metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van Swol, Frank B; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Miller, James E; Challa, Sivakumar R

    2013-09-24

    Durable porous metal nanostructures comprising thin metal nanosheets that are metastable under some conditions that commonly produce rapid reduction in surface area due to sintering and/or Ostwald ripening. The invention further comprises the method for making such durable porous metal nanostructures. Durable, high-surface area nanostructures result from the formation of persistent durable holes or pores in metal nanosheets formed from dendritic nanosheets.

  15. A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. Measurements of the electrical and thermal transport properties of one-dimensional nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes and nanowires) typically are obtained without detailed knowledge of the specimen's atomic-scale structure or defects. To address this deficiency we have developed a microfabricated, chip-based characterization

  16. Improved medical implants comes from nanostructuring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improved medical implants comes from nanostructuring Improved medical implants comes from nanostructuring Together, LANL and Russia institutes modify metals to better match and integrate, or bond, with human bone tissue. April 3, 2012 Improved medical implants comes from nanostructuring In addition to possessing strength beyond what is possible in conventional pure metals, Biotanium(tm) has also been optimized for integration with living bone. Scientific studies of the attachment and growth of

  17. Trends in Particulate Nanostructure | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Nanostructure Trends in Particulate Nanostructure This work attempts to explain the differences in the physical characteristics (nanostructure) of the soot across platforms, heavy-duty and light-duty, and biodiesel blend level. PDF icon p-10_strzelec.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty Diesel Particulate: Contrasting O2 and NO2 Oxidation Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency

  18. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: ... Improving charge time and these other battery characteristics could significantly expand ...

  19. Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus for micro-supercapacitors in solid Nafion ... Title: Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus ...

  20. Nanoparticle modifications of photodefined nanostructures for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; CARBON; ELECTRODES; FABRICATION; MODIFICATIONS; NANOSTRUCTURES; POLYMERS Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size N...

  1. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste ...

  2. Nanostructures having crystalline and amorphous phases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-04-28

    The present invention includes a nanostructure, a method of making thereof, and a method of photocatalysis. In one embodiment, the nanostructure includes a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase in contact with the crystalline phase. Each of the crystalline and amorphous phases has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes a nanoparticle comprising a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase. The amorphous phase is in a selected amount. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes crystalline titanium dioxide and amorphous titanium dioxide in contact with the crystalline titanium dioxide. Each of the crystalline and amorphous titanium dioxide has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale.

  3. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Treatment Catalyst Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Emission Treatment Catalyst Poster presented at the 16th Directions in...

  4. Manipulation of Electromagnetic Fields with Plasmonic Nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Manipulation of Electromagnetic Fields with Plasmonic Nanostructures and Metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Manipulation of Electromagnetic Fields with ...

  5. Nanogeochemistry: Nanostructures emergent properties and their...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    their control on geochemical reactions and mass transfer. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanogeochemistry: Nanostructures emergent properties and their control on ...

  6. Tunable quantum temperature oscillations in graphene nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanostructures Authors: Bergfield, Justin P. ; Ratner, Mark A. ; Stafford, Charles A. ; Di Ventra, Massimiliano Publication Date: 2015-03-05 OSTI Identifier: 1181399 Grant...

  7. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries and the CP-Odd Fraction in the Decay B0->D*+D*-

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-07-06

    We present an updated measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B{sup 0} D*{sup +}D*{sup -} using 232 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.125 {+-} 0.044(stat) {+-} 0.007(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters C{sub +} and S{sub +} are determined to be 0.06 {+-} 0.17(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst) and -0.75 {+-} 0.25(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst), respectively. The Standard Model predicts these parameters to be 0 and -sin2{beta}, respectively, in the absence of penguin amplitude contributions.

  8. D{sup 0}, D{sup +}, D{sub s}{sup +}, and {lambda}{sub c}{sup +} fragmentation functions from CERN LEP1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kramer, Gustav

    2005-05-01

    We present new sets of nonperturbative fragmentation functions for D{sup 0}, D{sup +}, and D{sub s}{sup +} mesons as well as for {lambda}{sub c}{sup +} baryons, both at leading and next-to-leading order in the MS factorization scheme with five massless quark flavors. They are determined by fitting data of e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation taken by the OPAL Collaboration at CERN LEP1. We take the charm-quark fragmentation function to be of the form proposed by Peterson et al. and thus obtain new values of the {epsilon}{sub c} parameter, which are specific for our choice of factorization scheme.

  9. Giant Nonhysteretic Responses of Two-Phase Nanostructured Alloys...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Giant Nonhysteretic Responses of Two-Phase Nanostructured Alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Giant Nonhysteretic Responses of Two-Phase Nanostructured Alloys ...

  10. Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Un-Nanostructuring Solar Cells

  11. Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next...

  13. Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong Bonding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong...

  14. Nanostructures boost the thermoelectric performance of PbS (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanostructures boost the thermoelectric performance of PbS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanostructures boost the thermoelectric performance of PbS In situ ...

  15. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ron Zuckerman

    2010-01-08

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  16. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  17. One-Dimensional Nanostructures for Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yong; Eapen, Jacob; Hawari, Ayman

    2015-05-04

    We have investigated the structure and electronic properties of BN [1-4] and BC4N [5] nanotubes using density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The interaction between boron and neutron produce Li which has the potential to destabilize the structure as well as adversely affect the electronic properties. We have observed that addition of Li reduces the band gap of BNNT and BC4N nanotubes and makes them almost metallic. To prevent the reduction of band gap and to maintain structural integrity, we have proposed adding dopants in the nanotubes prior to irradiation with neutrons. We have successfully identified several dopants (F, O, Cl) which can retain the semiconducting and structural properties of BC4N nanostructures. In addition to BN NT, another promising nanostructure material for neutron detection is the BC4N nanotube (BC4N NT). BC4N nanotube brushes have been synthesized by the high temperature reaction of amorphous carbon nanotube (a-CNT) brushes with a mixture of boric acid and urea [5]. The most stable structure is predicted to be the one where BN3 and NB3 units are connected by a BN bond. The ground-state structures of BC4N nanotubes having different chirality; configurations (6,0) and (8,0) zigzag nanotubes, and (6,6) armchair nanotube have been reported to be semi conducting with various energy gaps. The (6,6) armchair BC4N nanotube shows the largest band gap (1.0 eV). The thermal stability of the BC4N nanotube is very high (up to 900 K); the presence of B and N makes this system more stable compared to the well-known carbon nanotube. Lithium produced due to interaction of boron and neutron modifies the structure and the electronic properties of the nanotube material. After losing its energy, Li can be absorbed in the vacant sites (e.g., N or B in BN NT or N, B or C in BC4N NT, or absorbed as an adatom in various parts of the nanotube system. So the nanostructure material which is initially suitable for direct conversion neutron detection can deteriorate after the accumulation of lithium. Our strategy in this study is to tailor the initial configuration such that the accumulation of lithium does not alter the properties. In this annual report we present the structure and electronic properties of pure BN NT and BC4N nanotubes, followed by an investigation on the effect of lithium (as adatoms and substitutional dopants in both BN NT and BC4N NT). Finally we tune the properties of (BNNT + Li) and (BC4N NT + Li) systems by adding appropriate dopants to negate the adverse effects of lithium.

  18. Nanostructure of Metallic Particles in Light Water Reactor Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Mcnamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2015-03-11

    The extraordinary nano-structure of metallic particles in light water reactor fuels points to possible high reactivity through increased surface area and a high concentration of high energy defect sites. We have analyzed the metallic epsilon particles from a high burn-up fuel from a boiling water reactor using transmission electron microscopy and have observed a much finer nanostructure in these particles than has been reported previously. The individual round particles that varying in size between ~20 and ~50 nm appear to consist of individual crystallites on the order of 2-3 nm in diameter. It is likely that in-reactor irradiation induce displacement cascades results in the formation of the nano-structure. The composition of these metallic phases is variable yet the structure of the material is consistent with the hexagonal close packed structure of epsilon-ruthenium. These findings suggest that unusual catalytic behavior of these materials might be expected, particularly under accident conditions.

  19. High-Performance Nanostructured Coating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High-Performance Nanostructured Coating fact sheet details a SunShot project led by a University of California, San Diego research team working to develop a new high-temperature spectrally selective coating for receiver surfaces. These receiver surfaces, used in concentrating solar power systems, rely on high-temperature SSCs to effectively absorb solar energy without emitting much blackbody radiation.The optical properties of the SSC directly determine the efficiency and maximum attainable temperature of solar receivers, which in turn influence the power-conversion efficiency and overall system cost.

  20. High energy density capacitors using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    Today, many pulse power and industrial applications are limited by capacitor performance. While incremental improvements are anticipated from existing capacitor technologies, significant advances are needed in energy density to enable these applications for both the military and for American economic competitiveness. We propose a program to research and develop a novel technology for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Nano-structure multilayer technologies developed at LLNL may well provide a breakthrough in capacitor performance. Our controlled sputtering techniques are capable of laying down extraordinarily smooth sub-micron layers of dielectric and conductor materials. With this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density may be achievable. Well-understood dielectrics and new materials will be investigated for use with this technology. Capacitors developed by nano-structure multilayer technology are inherently solid state, exhibiting extraordinary mechanical and thermal properties. The conceptual design of a Notepad capacitor is discussed to illustrate capacitor and capacitor bank design and performance with this technology. We propose a two phase R&D program to address DNA`s capacitor needs for electro-thermal propulsion and similar pulse power programs. Phase 1 will prove the concept and further our understanding of dielectric materials and design tradeoffs with multilayers. Nano-structure multilayer capacitors will be developed and characterized. As our materials research and modeling prove successful, technology insertion in our capacitor designs will improve the possibility for dramatic performance improvements. In Phase 2, we will make Notepad capacitors, construct a capacitor bank and demonstrate its performance in a meaningful pulse power application. We will work with industrial partners to design full scale manufacturing and move this technology to industry for volume production.

  1. Local deposition of high-purity Pt nanostructures by combining electron beam induced deposition and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackus, A. J. M.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Kessels, W. M. M.; Mulders, J. J. L.

    2010-06-15

    An approach for direct-write fabrication of high-purity platinum nanostructures has been developed by combining nanoscale lateral patterning by electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with area-selective deposition of high quality material by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Because virtually pure, polycrystalline Pt nanostructures are obtained, the method extends the application possibilities of EBID, whereas compared to other area-selective ALD approaches, a much higher resolution is attainable; potentially down to sub-10 nm lateral dimensions.

  2. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RTI | Department of Energy Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Reviews work in engineered thin-film nanoscale thermoelectric materials and nano-bulk materials with high ZT undertaken by RTI in collaboration with its research partners PDF icon venkatasubramanian.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 Nano-structures Thermoelectric

  3. Nanotwinned Materials for Energy Technologies | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotwinned Materials for Energy Technologies Research Personnel Updates Publications Imperfections at Boundaries Key to Understanding Nanostructured Materials Read More Imperfections at Boundaries Key to Understanding Nanostructured Materials Read More Previous Pause Next Synthesis Nanotwinned metals and alloys are emerging as a particular form of nanoscaled material that can exhibit high strength coupled with improved thermal stability, both of which are yet unexplained. We have developed an

  4. Rare-Earth-Free Nanostructure Magnets: Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets for Electric Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn-Bi and M-type Hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Alabama is developing new iron- and manganese-based composite materials for use in the electric motors of EVs and renewable power generators that will demonstrate magnetic properties superior to todays best rare-earth-based magnets. Rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to make their electric motors smaller and more powerful. The University of Alabama has the potential to improve upon the performance of current state-of-the-art rare-earth-based magnets using low-cost and more abundant materials such as manganese and iron. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate improved performance in a full-size prototype magnet at reduced cost.

  5. Sub-Nanostructured Non Transition Metal Complex Grids for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Orhan Talu; Dr. Surendra N. Tewari

    2007-10-27

    This project involved growing sub-nanostructured metal grids to increase dynamic hydrogen storage capacity of metal hydride systems. The nano particles of any material have unique properties unlike its bulk form. Nano-structuring metal hydride materials can result in: {sm_bullet}Increased hydrogen molecule dissociation rate, {sm_bullet} Increased hydrogen atom transport rate, {sm_bullet} Decreased decrepitation caused by cycling, {sm_bullet} Increased energy transfer in the metal matrix, {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by physical adsorption, and {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by quantum effects The project succeeded in making nano-structured palladium using electrochemical growth in templates including zeolites, mesoporous silica, polycarbonate films and anodized alumina. Other metals were used to fine-tune the synthesis procedures. Palladium was chosen to demonstrate the effects of nano-structuring since its bulk hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics are well known. Reduced project funding was not sufficient for complete characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage application. The project team intends to seek further funding in the future to complete the characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage.

  6. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naumov, Ivan I. (Fayetteville, AR); Bellaiche, Laurent M. (Fayetteville, AR); Prosandeev, Sergey A. (Fayetteville, AR); Ponomareva, Inna V. (Fayetteville, AR); Kornev, Igor A. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  7. Nanostructures produced by phase-separation during growth of (III-V).sub.1-x(IV.sub.2).sub.x alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, Andrew G.; Olson, Jerry M.

    2007-06-12

    Nanostructures (18) and methods for production thereof by phase separation during metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). An embodiment of one of the methods may comprise providing a growth surface in a reaction chamber and introducing a first mixture of precursor materials into the reaction chamber to form a buffer layer (12) thereon. A second mixture of precursor materials may be provided into the reaction chamber to form an active region (14) on the buffer layer (12), wherein the nanostructure (18) is embedded in a matrix (16) in the active region (14). Additional steps are also disclosed for preparing the nanostructure (18) product for various applications.

  8. International Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures (Energy, Environment, and Health)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jena, Puru

    2011-11-10

    The international Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures was held in Richmond, Virginia during November 7-10, 2011. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy, environment, and health; three of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in health included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered.

  9. Materials Videos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Videos Materials

  10. Nanostructured tungsten carbide/cobalt alloys: Processing and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Li

    1993-12-31

    This research represents an extension of previous work on the synthesis and processing of nanostructured WC/Co alloys. The earlier work resulted in a novel thermochemical process for making nanostructured WC/Co powders (3-30 wt% Co), which involved the reductive decomposition and gas phase carburization of homogeneous precursor powders, prepared by spray drying aqueous solution mixtures of W and Co salts. A shortcoming of the process was the formation of a relatively large amount of uncombined carbon during gas phase carburization using pre CO. AnOtherr unsolved problem was the rapid coarsening of WC particles during liquid phase sintering, making it difficult to achieve the desired nanostructures in the fully consolidated materials. In the present work, both problems have been addressed and successfully overcome. Carburization in CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures has been shown to be superior to carburization in pure CO, in that it avoids the formation of excess carbon without sacrificing the desirable high carburization rate. Another advantage is the finer WC grain size achieved, because of the shorter reaction time at relatively low temperatures, 650-750{degrees}C. Othe carbon source gases, such as CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gas mixtures, cannot produce tungsten monocarbide at such low temperatures. Thus, carburization in CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures appears to be optimal for synthesizing nanostructured WC/Co powders. As to liquid phase sintering of powder compacts, it has been demonstrated that mechanical mixing of a small amount of VC powder with the nanograined WC/Co powder inhibits grain growth. A striking result was the linear increase in hardness of WC/7 wt% Co with the amount of VC added, at least up to the solubility limit (about 10 wt%) of VC in liquid cobalt at the sintering temperature. Preliminary work has also demonstrated the feasibility of plasma spraying low-density nanostructured powders to produce dense, wear resistant coatings.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-09-15

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S{sub BET}) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  12. Emission spectra analysis of arc plasma for synthesis of carbon nanostructures in various magnetic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jian; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Arc discharge supported by the erosion of anode materials is one of the most practical and efficient methods to synthesize various high-quality carbon nanostructures. By introducing a non-uniform magnetic field in arc plasmas, high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and large-scale graphene flakes can be obtained in a single step. In this paper, ultraviolet-visible emission spectra of arc in different spots under various magnetic conditions are analyzed to provide an in situ investigation for transformation processes of evaporated species and growth of carbon nanostructures in arc. Based on the arc spectra of carbon diatomic Swan bands, vibrational temperature in arc is determined. The vibrational temperature in arc center was measured around 6950 K, which is in good agreement with our simulation results. Experimental and simulation results suggest that SWCNT are formed in the arc periphery region. Transmission electronic microscope and Raman spectroscope are also employed to characterize the properties of carbon nanostructures.

  13. Extreme solid state refrigeration using nanostructured Bi-Te alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lima Sharma, Ana L.; Spataru, Dan Catalin; Medlin, Douglas L.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Morales, Alfredo Martin

    2009-09-01

    Materials are desperately needed for cryogenic solid state refrigeration. We have investigated nanostructured Bi-Te alloys for their potential use in Ettingshausen refrigeration to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These alloys form alternating layers of Bi{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} blocks in equilibrium. The composition Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} was identified as having the greatest potential for having a high Ettingshausen figure of merit. Both single crystal and polycrystalline forms of this material were synthesized. After evaluating the Ettingshausen figure of merit for a large, high quality polycrystal, we simulated the limits of practical refrigeration in this material from 200 to 77 K using a simple device model. The band structure was also computed and compared to experiments. We discuss the crystal growth, transport physics, and practical refrigeration potential of Bi-Te alloys.

  14. Production of fullerenic nanostructures in flames

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Vander Sande, John B. (Newbury, MA); Chowdhury, K. Das (Cambridge, MA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for the production of fullerenic nanostructures is described in which unsaturated hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen are combusted in a burner chamber at a sub-atmospheric pressure, thereby establishing a flame. The condensibles of the flame are collected at a post-flame location. The condensibles contain fullerenic nanostructures, such as single and nested nanotubes, single and nested nanoparticles and giant fullerenes. The method of producing fullerenic soot from flames is also described.

  15. Nanogeochemistry: Nanostructures emergent properties and their implications

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to chemical reactions and mass transfers. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Nanogeochemistry: Nanostructures emergent properties and their implications to chemical reactions and mass transfers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanogeochemistry: Nanostructures emergent properties and their implications to chemical reactions and mass transfers. Abstract not provided. Authors: Wang, Yifeng Publication Date: 2014-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1140980 Report Number(s): SAND2014-1872C

  16. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Julia; Liu, Jun

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  17. Assembly and electrical transport characterization of nanostructures.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Assembly and electrical transport characterization of nanostructures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assembly and electrical transport characterization of nanostructures. Abstract not provided. Authors: Talin, Albert Alec Publication Date: 2007-07-01 OSTI Identifier: 1147806 Report Number(s): SAND2007-4779C 522431 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: NINE Short Course held July

  18. Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: National Center for Microgravity Research PDF icon 2004_deer_vander_wal.pdf More Documents & Publications Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate Traps X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What It Can Do for You

  19. Carbon nanostructures-elixir or poison?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon nanostructures-elixir or poison? Carbon nanostructures-elixir or poison? A LANL toxicologist and a team of researchers have documented potential cellular damage from "fullerenes"-soccer-ball-shaped, cage-like molecules composed of 60 carbon atoms. March 31, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy

  20. Gold nanostructures and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jin Z.; Schwartzberg, Adam; Olson, Tammy Y.

    2012-03-20

    The invention is drawn to novel nanostructures comprising hollow nanospheres and nanotubes for use as chemical sensors, conduits for fluids, and electronic conductors. The nanostructures can be used in microfluidic devices, for transporting fluids between devices and structures in analytical devices, for conducting electrical currents between devices and structure in analytical devices, and for conducting electrical currents between biological molecules and electronic devices, such as bio-microchips.

  1. Gold nanostructures and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jin Z.; Schwartzberg, Adam; Olson, Tammy Y.

    2016-03-01

    The invention is drawn to novel nanostructures comprising hollow nanospheres and nanotubes for use as chemical sensors, conduits for fluids, and electronic conductors. The nanostructures can be used in microfluidic devices, for transporting fluids between devices and structures in analytical devices, for conducting electrical currents between devices and structure in analytical devices, and for conducting electrical currents between biological molecules and electronic devices, such as bio-microchips.

  2. Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    metamaterials (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic metamaterials Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM) are of great interest due to their ability to break the diffraction limit for imaging and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer. Here we demonstrate that an annular, transparent HMM enables

  3. Titanate and titania nanostructures and nanostructure assemblies, and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Mao, Yuanbing

    2013-05-14

    The invention relates to nanomaterials and assemblies including, a micrometer-scale spherical aggregate comprising: a plurality of one-dimensional nanostructures comprising titanium and oxygen, wherein the one-dimensional nanostructures radiate from a hollow central core thereby forming a spherical aggregate.

  4. Nanostructured electrocatalyst for fuel cells : silica templated synthesis of Pt/C composites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Switzer, Elise E.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Cornelius, Christopher James; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    Platinum-based electrocatalysts are currently required for state-of-the-art fuel cells and represent a significant portion of the overall fuel cell cost. If fuel cell technology is to become competitive with other energy conversion technologies, improve the utilization of precious metal catalysts is essential. A primary focus of this work is on creating enhanced nanostructured materials which improve precious-metal utilization. The goal is to engineer superior electrocatalytic materials through the synthesis, development and investigation of novel templated open frame structures synthesized in an aerosol-based approach. Bulk templating methods for both Pt/C and Pt-Ru composites are evaluated in this study and are found to be limited due to the fact that the nanostructure is not maintained throughout the entire sample. Therefore, an accurate examination of structural effects was previously impossible. An aerosol-based templating method of synthesizing nanostructured Pt-Ru electrocatalysts has been developed wherein the effects of structure can be related to electrocatalytic performance. The aerosol-based templating method developed in this work is extremely versatile as it can be conveniently modified to synthesize alternative materials for other systems. The synthesis method was able to be extended to nanostructured Pt-Sn for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were evaluated in a unique approach tailored to electrocatalytic studies in alkaline media. At low temperatures, nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were found to have significantly higher ethanol oxidation activity than a comparable nanostructured Pt catalyst. At higher temperatures, the oxygen-containing species contribution likely provided by Sn is insignificant due to a more oxidized Pt surface. The importance of the surface coverage of oxygen-containing species in the reaction mechanism is established in these studies. The investigations in this work present original studies of anion exchange ionomers as entrapment materials for rotating disc electrode (RDE) studies in alkaline media. Their significance is linked to the development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with the same ionomer for a KOH-free alkaline fuel cell (AFC).

  5. DNA Gridiron Nanostructures Based on Four-Arm Junctions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DNA Gridiron Nanostructures Based on Four-Arm Junctions Authors: Han, D., Pal, S., Yang, Y., Jiang, S., Nangreave, J., Liu, Y., and Yan, H. Title: DNA Gridiron Nanostructures Based...

  6. PNNL Enhanced Pool-Boiling Heat Transfer Using Nanostructured Surfaces

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-31

    Close-up video of boiling taking place on a nanostructured surface in a controlled laboratory experiment.

  7. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics PDF icon process_development_nanostructured_pv.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials, January 2011 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2013 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and

  8. Nanostructured carbon materials for adsorption of methane and other gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stadie, Nicholas P.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Murialdo, Maxwell

    2015-06-30

    Provided are methods for storing gases on porous adsorbents, methods for optimizing the storage of gases on porous adsorbents, methods of making porous adsorbents, and methods of gas storage of optimized compositions, as in systems containing porous adsorbents and gas adsorbed on the surface of the porous adsorbent. The disclosed methods and systems feature a constant or increasing isosteric enthalpy of adsorption as a function of uptake of the gas onto the exposed surface of a porous adsorbent. Adsorbents with a porous geometry and surface dimensions suited to a particular adsorbate are exposed to the gas at elevated pressures in the specific regime where n/V (density) is larger than predicted by the ideal gas law by more than several percent.

  9. Workshop in Novel Emitters and Nanostructured Materials | U.S...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Page The Solid-State Lighting Science Energy Frontier Research Center (SSLS EFRC) is ... Registration for the SSLS EFRC portion of the workshop is free, and can be found at ...

  10. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical...

  11. Comparative Study of Structural Damage Under Irradiation in SiC Nano-structured and Conventional Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, Yann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Reynaud, Cecile; Thome, Lionel

    2008-07-01

    In the context of research on new materials for next generation nuclear reactors, it becomes more and more interesting to know what can be the advantages of nano-structured materials for such applications. In this study, we performed irradiation experiments on micro-structured and nano-structured {beta}-SiC samples, with 95 MeV Xe and 4 MeV Au ions. The structure of the samples was characterized before and after irradiation by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the occurrence of a synergy between electronic and nuclear energy loss in both samples with 95 MeV Xe ions, while the nano-structured pellet was found to have a better resistance to the irradiation with 4 MeV Au ions. (authors)

  12. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CdS based bifunctional core–shell nanostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Joshy; Nishad, K.K.; Sharma, M.; Gupta, D.K.; Singh, R.R.; Pandey, R.K.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► First report on a room temperature aqueous process for growth of a hybrid core shell nanostructure containing a magnetic core and a semiconducting shell. ► Formation of distinct core shell nanostructure revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. ► A bifunctional nature combining magnetic as well as photoresponce for the as synthesised core shell nanostructures demonstrated. ► A tendency towards self organisation of the core–shell nanostructure. ► Possible applications including purification and isolation of biological materials, drug delivery system, bio-labels, spintronics, etc. -- Abstract: A room temperature solution process for synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and their hybrid core shell nanostructures using CdS as the shell material has been described. The as grown particles have been characterised using XRD, Rietveld refinement, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, optical absorbance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A superparamagnetic response revealed from the magnetisation measurements of the as synthesised magnetite nanoparticles was retained even after the growth of the CdS shell. From luminescence and high resolution atomic force microscopy measurements, it is shown that the core–shell structures advantageously combine magnetic as well as fluorescence response with a tendency towards self-organization.

  13. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R., E-mail: jrahn@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R. [Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, S. H. [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. H., E-mail: sunghapark@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-09

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  14. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    26 May 2010 00:00 Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical...

  15. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es064_dillon_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon Anodes Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects

  16. Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry biometrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leclerc, Marion; Bowen, Benjamin; Northen, Trent

    2015-09-08

    Several embodiments described herein are drawn to methods of identifying an analyte on a subject's skin, methods of generating a fingerprint, methods of determining a physiological change in a subject, methods of diagnosing health status of a subject, and assay systems for detecting an analyte and generating a fingerprint, by nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS).

  17. Hydrogen effects in dilute III-N-V alloys: From defect engineering to nanostructuring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettinari, G.; Felici, M.; Capizzi, M.; Polimeni, A.; Trotta, R.

    2014-01-07

    The variation of the band gap energy of III-N-V semiconductors induced by hydrogen incorporation is the most striking effect that H produces in these materials. A special emphasis is given here to the combination of N-activity passivation by hydrogen with H diffusion kinetics in dilute nitrides. Secondary ion mass spectrometry shows an extremely steep (smaller than 5?nm/decade) forefront of the H diffusion profile in Ga(AsN) under appropriate hydrogenation conditions. This discovery prompts the opportunity for an in-plane nanostructuring of hydrogen incorporation and, hence, for a modulation of the material band gap energy at the nanoscale. The properties of quantum dots fabricated by a lithographically defined hydrogenation are presented, showing the zero-dimensional character of these novel nanostructures. Applicative prospects of this nanofabrication method are finally outlined.

  18. Stability of Y Ti O Precipitates in Friction Stir Welded Nanostructured Ferritic Alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xinghua; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Miller, Michael K; David, Stan A; Feng, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs), which have complex microstructures consisting of ultrafine ferritic grains with a dispersion of stable oxide particles and nanoclusters (NC), are promising materials for fuel cladding and structural applications in the next generation nuclear reactor. This study evaluates microstructure of friction stir welded NFA using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography (APT) techniques. APT results revealed NCs are coarsened and inhomogeneously distributed in the stir zone. Three hypotheses on coarsening of NC are presented.

  19. Optical limiting effects in nanostructured silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borshch, A A; Starkov, V N; Volkov, V I; Rudenko, V I; Boyarchuk, A Yu; Semenov, A V

    2013-12-31

    We present the results of experiments on the interaction of nanosecond laser radiation at 532 and 1064 nm with nanostructured silicon carbide thin films of different polytypes. We have found the effect of optical intensity limiting at both wavelengths. The intensity of optical limiting at ? = 532 nm (I{sub cl} ? 10{sup 6} W cm{sup -2}) is shown to be an order of magnitude less than that at ? = 1064 nm (I{sub cl} ? 10{sup 7} W cm{sup -2}). We discuss the nature of the nonlinearity, leading to the optical limiting effect. We have proposed a method for determining the amount of linear and two-photon absorption in material media. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  20. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y. -C.; Reuter, M. C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F. M.

    2015-07-13

    Nanowire growth by the vapour–liquid–solid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a ‘mixing bowl’, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystalsmore » that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.« less

  1. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y. -C.; Reuter, M. C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F. M.

    2015-07-13

    Nanowire growth by the vapourliquidsolid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a mixing bowl, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.

  2. Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

    1999-11-29

    The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

  3. Development of nanostructured and surface modified semiconductors for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Julia, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Solar energy conversion is increasingly being recognized as one of the principal ways to meet future energy needs without causing detrimental environmental impact. Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells (SCs) are attracting particular interest due to the potential for low cost manufacturing and for use in new applications, such as consumer electronics, architectural integration and light-weight sensors. Key materials advantages of these next generation SCs over conventional semiconductor SCs are in design opportunities--since the different functions of the SCs are carried out by different materials, there are greater materials choices for producing optimized structures. In this project, we explore the hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell system that consists of oxide, primarily ZnO, nanostructures as the electron transporter and poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the light-absorber and hole transporter. It builds on our capabilities in the solution synthesis of nanostructured semiconducting oxide arrays to this photovoltaic (PV) technology. The three challenges in this hybrid material system for solar applications are (1) achieving inorganic nanostructures with critical spacing that matches the exciton diffusion in the polymer, {approx} 10 nm, (2) infiltrating the polymer completely into the dense nanostructure arrays, and (3) optimizing the interfacial properties to facilitate efficient charge transfer. We have gained an understanding and control over growing oriented ZnO nanorods with sub-50 nm diameters and the required rod-to-rod spacing on various substrates. We have developed novel approaches to infiltrate commercially available P3HT in the narrow spacing between ZnO nanorods. Also, we have begun to explore ways to modify the interfacial properties. In addition, we have established device fabrication and testing capabilities at Sandia for prototype devices. Moreover, the control synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays lead to the development of an efficient anti-reflection coating for multicrystalline Si solar cells. An important component of this project is the collaboration with Dr. Dave Ginley's group at NREL. The NREL efforts, which are funded by NREL's LDRD program, focus on measuring device performance, external quantum efficiency, photoconductance through highly specialized non-contact time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) measurements, and vapor phase deposition of oxide materials. The close collaboration with NREL enables us to enter this competitive field in such short time. Joint publications and presentations have resulted from this fruitful collaboration. To this date, 5 referred journal papers have resulted from this project, with 2 more in preparation. Several invited talks and numerous contributed presentations in international conferences are also noted. Sandia has gained the reputation of being one of forefront research groups on nanostructured hybrid solar cells.

  4. Lensless MAD Imaging of Nonperiodic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless MAD Imaging of Nonperiodic Nanostructures figure 1 Figure 1: MAD imaging setup: The sample (SEM image) is illuminated with a monochromatized and spatially coherent source (red). MAD phasing exploits the energy-dependent interference of the resonant exit wave (red) with the nonresonant exit wave (blue). The interference patterns recorded with a CCD detector reveal notable changes in vicinity of the carbon K edge. The exposure times were in the range of 700-1000 seconds with a coherent

  5. Ruthenium on Carbon Nanostructures for Supercapacitor Electrodes - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Ruthenium on Carbon Nanostructures for Supercapacitor Electrodes Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology <p> Process flow for deposition of a smooth and conformal noble metal adlayer onto a carbon nanostructure</p> Process flow for deposition of a smooth and conformal noble metal adlayer onto a carbon nanostructure Technology Marketing Summary Supercapacitors are

  6. Self-Assembled, Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Treatment | Department of Energy Self-Assembled, Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and Water Treatment Self-Assembled, Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and Water Treatment PDF icon nanostructured_carbon.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Nanomanufacturing: Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials, January 2011 Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries Synthesis and Characterization

  7. Optimal quantum control in nanostructures: Theory and application to a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    generic three-level system (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Optimal quantum control in nanostructures: Theory and application to a generic three-level system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optimal quantum control in nanostructures: Theory and application to a generic three-level system Coherent carrier control in quantum nanostructures is studied within the framework of optimal control. We develop a general solution scheme for the optimization of an external control (e.g.,

  8. Fuel Impacts on Soot Nanostructure and Reactivity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts on Soot Nanostructure and Reactivity Fuel Impacts on Soot Nanostructure and Reactivity 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: The Pennsylvania State University PDF icon 2004_deer_song.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission Control Effect of Alternative Fuels on Soot Properties and Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filters Impact of EGR on Soot Nanostructure and Reactivity

  9. Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es126_stefan_2013_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2012: Silicon Nanostructure-based Technology for Next Generation Energy Storage Vehicle

  10. Highly Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Bi for Mg Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Gu, Meng; Li, Xiaolin; Nie, Zimin; Zuo, Pengjian; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Xiao, Jie; Cheng, Yingwen; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-08

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have attracted wide attention for energy storage. Currently, most studies focus on Mg metal as the anode, but this approach is still limited by the properties of the electrolyte and poor control of the Mg plating/stripping processes.1,2 Here we report the synthesis and application of Bi nanotubes as a high performance anode material for rechargeable Mg ion batteries. The nanostructured Bi anode delivers a high reversible specific capacity (350 mAh/gBi, or 3430 mAh/cm3 Bi), excellent stability, and high columbic efficiency (95 % initial and very close to 100% afterwards). The good performance is attributed to the unique properties of in-situ formed, interconnected nanoporous bismuth. Such nanostructures can effectively accommodate the large volume change without losing electric contact and significantly reduce diffusion length for Mg2+. Significantly, the nanostructured Bi anode can be used with conventional electrolytes which will open new opportunities to study Mg ion battery chemistry and further improve the properties. The performance and the stability of a full cell Mg ion battery have been demonstrated with conventional electrolytes. This work suggests that other high energy density alloy compounds may also be considered for Mg-ion chemistry for high capacity electrode materials.

  11. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...

  12. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

  13. Structure and Dynamics of Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of ferroelectric domains in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures by advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques in close collaboration with phase field...

  14. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for ...

  15. Metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S. (Stony Brook, NY); Mao, Yuanbing (Los Angeles, CA)

    2009-08-18

    The present invention includes pure single-crystalline metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures, and methods of making same. These nanostructures include nanorods and nanoarrays.

  16. Semiconductor Nanostructures By Scientific Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galli, Guilia

    2015-02-12

    The goals and objectives of the present proposal are very much aligned with those of the previous award cycle. In the last three years we investigated semiconducting nanoparticles, nanowires and nanocomposites to understand and optimize their optical properties for solar applications and their heat transport properties for thermoelectric applications. We focused on understanding the role of surfaces and interfaces; our study included the investigation of surfactants, in particular of the role of van der Waals forces in binding surfactants to specific substrates. In addition to addressing specific nanoscience and materials science problems, we developed techniques and codes of general applicability. The investigations carried out in the past three years have resulted in 10 published papers in peer reviewed journals (including NL, ACS Nano and PRL) and in 3 papers submitted for publication in 2012 (now appeared).

  17. Plasmonic giant quantum dots: Hybrid nanostructures for truly simultaneous

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    optical imaging, photothermal effect and thermometry (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Plasmonic giant quantum dots: Hybrid nanostructures for truly simultaneous optical imaging, photothermal effect and thermometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plasmonic giant quantum dots: Hybrid nanostructures for truly simultaneous optical imaging, photothermal effect and thermometry Hybrid semiconductor-metal nanoscale constructs are of both fundamental and practical interest.

  18. Trends in Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designed Nanoarchitecture | Department of Energy Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals with Designed Nanoarchitecture Trends in Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals with Designed Nanoarchitecture Discusses Angstrom-length scale approach for solid-state reaction pathways composition control to interleave on the nanoscale two or more compounds with different crystal structures PDF icon johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Ferecrystals:

  19. Quantum confinement in Si and Ge nanostructures: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbagiovanni, Eric G.; Lockwood, David J.; Simpson, Peter J.; Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2014-03-15

    The role of quantum confinement (QC) in Si and Ge nanostructures (NSs) including quantum dots, quantum wires, and quantum wells is assessed under a wide variety of fabrication methods in terms of both their structural and optical properties. Structural properties include interface states, defect states in a matrix material, and stress, all of which alter the electronic states and hence the measured optical properties. We demonstrate how variations in the fabrication method lead to differences in the NS properties, where the most relevant parameters for each type of fabrication method are highlighted. Si embedded in, or layered between, SiO{sub 2}, and the role of the sub-oxide interface states embodies much of the discussion. Other matrix materials include Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Si NSs exhibit a complicated optical spectrum, because the coupling between the interface states and the confined carriers manifests with varying magnitude depending on the dimension of confinement. Ge NSs do not produce well-defined luminescence due to confined carriers, because of the strong influence from oxygen vacancy defect states. Variations in Si and Ge NS properties are considered in terms of different theoretical models of QC (effective mass approximation, tight binding method, and pseudopotential method). For each theoretical model, we discuss the treatment of the relevant experimental parameters.

  20. Matrix-assisted energy conversion in nanostructured piezoelectric arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sirbuly, Donald J.; Wang, Xianying; Wang, Yinmin

    2013-01-01

    A nanoconverter is capable of directly generating electricity through a nanostructure embedded in a polymer layer experiencing differential thermal expansion in a stress transfer zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or substantially vertically aligned on a substrate. The resulting nanoforest is then embedded with the polymer layer, which transfers stress to the nanostructures in the stress transfer zone, thereby creating a nanostructure voltage output due to the piezoelectric effect acting on the nanostructure. Electrodes attached at both ends of the nanostructures generate output power at densities of .about.20 nW/cm.sup.2 with heating temperatures of .about.65.degree. C. Nanoconverters arrayed in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries.

  1. Hierarchical Ag/ZnO micro/nanostructure: Green synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Shuyan; Jia, Xiaoxia; Yang, Shuxia; Li, Zhengdao; Jiang, Kai

    2011-04-15

    Ag/ZnO metal-semiconductor nanocomposites with hierarchical micro/nanostructure have been prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results suggest that this biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal method is an efficient route for the fabrication of Ag/ZnO nanocomposites by using BSA both a shape controller and a reducing agent of Ag{sup +} ions. Moreover, Ag nanoparticles on the ZnO act as electron sinks, improving the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, increasing the surface hydroxyl contents of ZnO, facilitating trapping the photoinduced electrons and holes to form more active hydroxyl radicals, and thus, enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO. This is a good example for the organic combination of green chemistry and functional materials. -- Graphical Abstract: A green strategy is report to construct Ag/ZnO metal-semiconductor nanocomposites with hierarchical micro/nanostructure and enhanced photocatalytic activity. Display Omitted Research highlights: > Hierarchical micro/nanostructured Ag/ZnO nanocomposites have been prepared via a green route. > Ag nanoparticles improve the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. > This facilitates trapping the photoinduced electrons and holes to form more hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, it enhances the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO.

  2. Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-01-31

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide and study of their optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.; Gharbi, N.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured ZnO were successfully obtained by a hydrothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic precursor and molar ratio are key factors for morphology and particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties were also studied. -- Abstract: Nanostructured ZnO (nanorods, nanoshuttles) have been synthesized by hydrothermal approach using ZnCl{sub 2} or Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as zinc sources and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent. Techniques X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the nanostructured zinc oxide. The optical properties of the as-obtained materials were also studied and showing that it is possible to apply the ZnO nanoshuttles and nanorods on the UV filter, photocatalysis, and special optical devices.

  4. Millifluidics for time-resolved mapping of the growth of gold nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai Krishna, Katla; Navin, Chelliah; Biswas, Sanchita; Singh, Varshni; Ham, Kyungmin; Bovencamp, L. S.; Theegala, Chandra; Miller, Jeffrey T; Spivey, James J.; Kumar, Challa S.S.R.

    2013-04-10

    Innovative in situ characterization tools are essential for understanding the reaction mechanisms leading to the growth of nanoscale materials. Though techniques, such as in situ transmission X-ray microscopy, fast single-particle spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, etc., are currently being developed, these tools are complex, not easily accessible, and do not necessarily provide the temporal resolution required to follow the formation of nanomaterials in real time. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the utility of a simple millifluidic chip for an in situ real time analysis of morphology and dimension-controlled growth of gold nano- and microstructures with a time resolution of 5 ms. The structures formed were characterized using synchrotron radiation-based in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, 3-D X-ray tomography, and high-resolution electron microscopy. These gold nanostructures were found to be catalytically active for conversion of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol, providing an example of the potential opportunities for time-resolved analysis of catalytic reactions. While the investigations reported here are focused on gold nanostructures, the technique can be applied to analyze the time-resolved growth of other types of nanostructured metals and metal oxides. With the ability to probe at least a 10-fold higher concentrations, in comparison with traditional microfluidics, the tool has potential to revolutionize a broad range of fields from catalysis, molecular analysis, biodefense, and molecular biology.

  5. The 2013 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference/Gordon Research Seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauss, Todd D.

    2014-11-25

    The fundamental properties of small particles and their potential for groundbreaking applications are among the most exciting areas of study in modern physics, chemistry, and materials science. The Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon ResearchConference and Gordon Research Seminar synthesize contributions from these inter-related fields that reflect the pivotal role of nano-particles at the interface between these disciplines. Size-dependent optical, electronic, magnetic and catalytic properties offer prospects for applications in many fields, and possible solutions for many of the grand challenges facing energy generation, consumption, delivery, and storage in the 21st century. The goal of the 2013 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference and Gordon Research Seminar is to continue the historical interdisciplinary tradition of this series and discuss the most recent advances, basic scientific questions, and emerging applications of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. The Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC/GRS traditionally brings together the leading scientific groups that have made significant recent advances in one or more fundamental nanoscience or nanotechnology areas. Broad interests of the DOE BES and Solar Photochemistry Program addressed by this meeting include the areas of solar energy to fuels conversion, new photovoltaic systems, fundamental characterization of nanomaterials, magnetism, catalysis, and quantum physics. The vast majority of speakers and attendees will address either directly the topic of nanotechnology for photoinduced charge transfer, charge transport, and catalysis, or will have made significant contributions to related areas that will impact these fields indirectly. These topics have direct relevance to the mission of the DOE BES since it is this cutting-edge basic science that underpins our energy future.

  6. Nanostructure Arrays for Multijunction Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 12 May 1999--11 July 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, B.

    2004-06-01

    This project developed the process technologies for the fabrication of high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaic cells using semiconductor nanostructure arrays. These devices are expected to provide increased energy conversion efficiency, as well as increased carrier collection efficiency. In addition, this approach provides the ability to tune the absorption spectrum to match selected windows of the solar spectrum. At the same time, these devices can be fabricated using existing industrial electrochemical processing techniques that can substantially reduce the cost of each device. The fabrication technique is based on electrochemical synthesis of II-VI semiconductor quantum wires using a preformed alumina template. This project focused on and solved the technical challenges that need to be addressed for the implementation of such devices. Specific issues addressed include (a) improved pore ordering on thin-film templates, (b) synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanostructures by both AC and DC deposition, (c) an in-situ barrier-layer engineering process that allow the fabrication of superior-quality materials and improved template/substrate interface, (d) characterization techniques for templates, (e) process technology for creating stacked layers of nanostructures, (f) process throughput and improved apparatus, (g) modeling tools, (h) use of glass substrates, and (i) a nonlithographic surface texturing technique for silicon PV cells. An important outcome of this project is the demonstration of the fabrication technique on glass substrates. This breakthrough provides the possibility of covering buildings with''transparent'' solar cells fabricated on architectural glass. The accomplishments of this project position it well for the next phase of research, namely, creation and optimization of the nanostructure-based PV cells.

  7. Final Technical Report: Nanostructured Shape Memory ALloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendy Crone; Walter Drugan; Arthur Ellis; John Perepezko

    2005-07-28

    With this grant we explored the properties that result from combining the effects of nanostructuring and shape memory using both experimental and theoretical approaches. We developed new methods to make nanostructured NiTi by melt-spinning and cold rolling fabrication strategies, which elicited significantly different behavior. A template synthesis method was also used to created nanoparticles. In order to characterize the particles we created, we developed a new magnetically-assisted particle manipulation technique to manipulate and position nanoscale samples for testing. Beyond characterization, this technique has broader implications for assembly of nanoscale devices and we demonstrated promising applications for optical switching through magnetically-controlled scattering and polarization capabilities. Nanoparticles of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy were also produced using thin film deposition technology and nanosphere lithography. Our work revealed the first direct evidence that the thermally-induced martensitic transformation of these films allows for partial indent recovery on the nanoscale. In addition to thoroughly characterizing and modeling the nanoindentation behavior in NiTi thin films, we demonstrated the feasibility of using nanoindentation on an SMA film for write-read-erase schemes for data storage.

  8. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-12-15

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  9. UNCLASSIFIED Institute for Materials Science Sponsored Lecture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Garritt Tucker Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Atomistic Methods to Quantify Nanoscale Strain and Deformation Mechanisms in Nanostructured Materials Thursday, August 27, 2015 3:00 - 4:00pm MSL Auditorium (TA-03, Bldg. 1698, Room A103) Abstract: As the theoretical physicist, Sir Frederick Charles Franck, said, 'Crystals are like people: it is the defects in them that make them interesting.' Fundamental research in Materials Science and Engineering focuses on linking structure and

  10. Stacked mechanical nanogenerator comprising piezoelectric semiconducting nanostructures and Schottky conductive contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.; Xu, Sheng

    2011-08-23

    An electric power generator includes a first conductive layer, a plurality of semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures, a second conductive layer and a plurality of conductive nanostructures. The first conductive layer has a first surface from which the semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures extend. The second conductive layer has a second surface and is parallel to the first conductive layer so that the second surface faces the first surface of the first conductive layer. The conductive nanostructures depend downwardly therefrom. The second conductive layer is spaced apart from the first conductive layer at a distance so that when a force is applied, the semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures engage the conductive nanostructures so that the piezoelectric nanostructures bend, thereby generating a potential difference across the at semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures and also thereby forming a Schottky barrier between the semiconducting piezoelectric nanostructures and the conductive nanostructures.

  11. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davids, P. S.; Intravia, F; Dalvit, Diego A.

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  12. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak -Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. However we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  13. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shillingford, C; MacCallum, N; Wong, TS; Kim, P; Aizenberg, J

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e. g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. Herein we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  14. Vacancy-controlled ultrastable nanoclusters in nanostructured ferritic alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Z. W.; Yao, L.; Wang, X. -L.; Miller, M. K.

    2015-05-29

    A new class of advanced structural materials, based on the Fe-O-vacancy system, has exceptional resistance to high-temperature creep and excellent tolerance to extremely high-dose radiation. Although these remarkable improvements in properties compared to steels are known to be associated with the Y-Ti-O-enriched nanoclusters, the roles of vacancies in facilitating the nucleation of nanoclusters are a long-standing puzzle, due to the experimental difficulties in characterizing vacancies, particularly in-situ while the nanoclusters are forming. We report an experiment study that provides the compelling evidence for the presence of significant concentrations of vacancies in Y-Ti-O-enriched nanoclusters in a nanostructured ferritic alloy using amore » combination of state-of-the-art atom-probe tomography and in situ small angle neutron scattering. The nucleation of nanoclusters starts from the O-enriched solute clustering with vacancy mediation. The nanoclusters grow with an extremely low growth rate through attraction of vacancies and O:vacancy pairs, leading to the unusual stability of the nanoclusters.« less

  15. Nanostructured Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries (Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meilin Liu, James Gole

    2006-12-14

    The objective of this study was to explore new ways to create nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Of particular interests are unique nanostructures created by electrochemical deposition, etching and combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Three-dimensional nanoporous Cu6Sn5 alloy has been successfully prepared using an electrochemical co-deposition process. The walls of the foam structure are highly-porous and consist of numerous small grains. This represents a novel way of creating porous structures that allow not only fast transport of gas and liquid but also rapid electrochemical reactions due to high surface area. The Cu6Sn5 samples display a reversible capacity of {approx}400 mAhg-1. Furthermore, these materials exhibit superior rate capability. At a current drain of 10 mA/cm2(20C rate), the obtainable capacity was more than 50% of the capacity at 0.5 mA/cm2 (1C rate). Highly open and porous SnO2 thin films with columnar structure were obtained on Si/SiO2/Au substrates by CCVD. The thickness was readily controlled by the deposition time, varying from 1 to 5 microns. The columnar grains were covered by nanoparticles less than 20 nm. These thin film electrodes exhibited substantially high specific capacity. The reversible specific capacity of {approx}3.3 mAH/cm2 was demonstrated for up to 80 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.3 mA/cm2. When discharged at 0.9 mA/cm2, the capacity was about 2.1 mAH/cm2. Tin dioxide box beams or tubes with square or rectangular cross sections were synthesized using CCVD. The cross-sectional width of the SnO2 tubules was tunable from 50 nm to sub-micrometer depending on synthesis temperature. The tubes are readily aligned in the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface to form tube arrays. Silicon wafers were electrochemically etched to produce porous silicon (PS) with honeycomb-type channels and nanoporous walls. The diameters of the channels are about 1 to 3 microns and the depth of the channels can be up to 100 microns. We have successfully used the PS as a matrix for Si-Li-based alloy. Other component(s) can be incorporated into the PS either by an electroless metallization or by kinetically controlled vapor deposition.

  16. Molybdenum-rhenium superconducting suspended nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aziz, Mohsin; Christopher Hudson, David; Russo, Saverio

    2014-06-09

    Suspended superconducting nanostructures of MoRe 50%/50% by weight are fabricated employing commonly used fabrication steps in micro- and nano-meter scale devices followed by wet-etching with Hydro-fluoric acid of a SiO{sub 2} sacrificial layer. Suspended superconducting channels as narrow as 50?nm and length 3??m have a critical temperature of ?6.5?K, which can increase by 0.5?K upon annealing at 400?C. A detailed study of the dependence of the superconducting critical current and critical temperature upon annealing and in devices with different channel widths reveals that desorption of contaminants is responsible for the improved superconducting properties. These findings pave the way for the development of superconducting electromechanical devices using standard fabrication techniques.

  17. Growth of nanostructures with controlled diameter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfefferle, Lisa; Haller, Gary; Ciuparu, Dragos

    2009-02-03

    Transition metal-substituted MCM-41 framework structures with a high degree of structural order and a narrow pore diameter distribution were reproducibly synthesized by a hydrothermal method using a surfactant and an anti-foaming agent. The pore size and the mesoporous volume depend linearly on the surfactant chain length. The transition metals, such as cobalt, are incorporated substitutionally and highly dispersed in the silica framework. Single wall carbon nanotubes with a narrow diameter distribution that correlates with the pore diameter of the catalytic framework structure were prepared by a Boudouard reaction. Nanostructures with a specified diameter or cross-sectional area can therefore be predictably prepared by selecting a suitable pore size of the framework structure.

  18. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  19. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-04-03

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  20. Charge Transport within a Three-Dimensional DNA Nanostructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Transport within a Three-Dimensional DNA Nanostructure Framework Authors: Lu, N., Pei, H., Ge, Z., Simmons, C.R., Yan, H., and Fan, C. Title: Charge Transport within a...

  1. Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructur...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructured CdSe Networks by Altering the Building-Block Shape Home Author: H. Yu, R. Bellair, R. M. Kannan, S. L....

  2. Engineering of high performance supercapacitor electrode based on Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO core/shell hybrid nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ashutosh K. E-mail: aksingh@bose.res.in; Mandal, Kalyan

    2015-03-14

    The present work reports on fabrication and supercapacitor applications of a core/shell Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO hybrid nanostructures (HNs) electrode. The core/shell Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO hybrid nanostructures have been fabricated through a two step method (nanowire fabrication and their controlled oxidation). The 1D hybrid nanostructure consists of highly porous shell layer (redox active materials NiO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and the conductive core (FeNi nanowire). Thus, the highly porous shell layer allows facile electrolyte diffusion as well as faster redox reaction kinetics; whereas the conductive FeNi nanowire core provides the proficient express way for electrons to travel to the current collector, which helps in the superior electrochemical performance. The core/shell Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO hybrid nanostructures electrode based supercapacitor shows very good electrochemical performances in terms of high specific capacitance nearly 1415?F g{sup ?1} at a current density of 2.5?A g{sup ?1}, excellent cycling stability and rate capability. The high quality electrochemical performance of core/shell hybrid nanostructures electrode shows its potential as an alternative electrode for forthcoming supercapacitor devices.

  3. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Joe H; Olson, Tammy Y; Kuntz, Joshua D; Rose, Klint A

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, an aerogel includes a layer of shaped particles having a particle packing density gradient in a thickness direction of the layer, wherein the shaped particles are characterized by being formed in an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using an impurity. In another embodiment, a method for forming a functionally graded porous nanostructure includes adding particles of an impurity and a solution to an EPD chamber, applying a voltage difference across the two electrodes of the EPD chamber to create an electric field in the EPD chamber, and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form shaped particles of the material. Other functionally graded materials and methods are described according to more embodiments.

  4. Periodic nanostructures from self assembled wedge-type block-copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M.; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides a class of wedge-type block copolymers having a plurality of chemically different blocks, at least a portion of which incorporates a wedge group-containing block providing useful properties. For example, use of one or more wedge group-containing blocks in some block copolymers of the invention significantly inhibits chain entanglement and, thus, the present block copolymers materials provide a class of polymer materials capable of efficient molecular self-assembly to generate a range of structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. Materials of the present invention include copolymers having one or more wedge group-containing blocks, and optionally for some applications copolymers also incorporating one or more polymer side group-containing blocks. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using wedge-type block copolymers.

  5. New 'Design Rule' Paves Way for Nature-Inspired Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Design Rule' Paves Way for Nature-Inspired Nanostructures New 'Design Rule' Paves Way for Nature-Inspired Nanostructures Computer sims and microscopy research at Berkeley Lab yield first atomic-resolution structure of a peptoid nanosheet October 7, 2015 Contact: Dan Krotz, dakrotz@lbl.gov, 510-486-4019 peptoidnanosheets Snakes on a plane: This atomic-resolution simulation of a two-dimensional peptoid nanosheet reveals a snake-like structure never seen before. The nanosheet's layers include a

  6. Subtask 3: Nanostructured Architectures for Photovoltaic and Photochemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Subtask 3: Nanostructured Architectures for Photovoltaic and Photochemical Energy Conversion Home > Research > Subtask 3 The above figure depicts an ALD-Modified "Rust" Surface for enhanced electrode activity. The above figure depicts an ALD-Modified "Rust" Surface for enhanced electrode activity. The research of Subtask 3 defines, develops, models, and tests robust new nanostructured

  7. Optical and infrared properties of glancing angle deposited nanostructured

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    tungsten films (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Optical and infrared properties of glancing angle deposited nanostructured tungsten films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical and infrared properties of glancing angle deposited nanostructured tungsten films Authors: Ungaro, Craig [1] ; Shah, Ankit [1] ; Kravchenko, Ivan I [2] ; Hensley, Dale K [2] ; Gray, Stephen K. [3] ; Gupta, Mool C. [1] + Show Author Affiliations University of Virginia, Charlottesville ORNL Argonne

  8. Plasmonic giant quantum dots: Hybrid nanostructures for truly simultaneous

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    optical imaging, photothermal effect and thermometry (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Plasmonic giant quantum dots: Hybrid nanostructures for truly simultaneous optical imaging, photothermal effect and thermometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plasmonic giant quantum dots: Hybrid nanostructures for truly simultaneous optical imaging, photothermal effect and thermometry × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This

  9. Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon Carbide

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon Carbide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon Carbide No abstract prepared. Authors: Muntele, Iulia C. [1] ; Muntele, C. I. [1] ; Ila, Dr. Daryush [1] ; Poker, David B [2] ; Hensley, Dale K [2] + Show Author Affiliations Alabama A&M University, Normal ORNL Publication Date: 2003-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 978142 DOE Contract Number:

  10. Giant Nonhysteretic Responses of Two-Phase Nanostructured Alloys (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Giant Nonhysteretic Responses of Two-Phase Nanostructured Alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Giant Nonhysteretic Responses of Two-Phase Nanostructured Alloys Authors: Rao, Wei-Feng ; Wuttig, Manfred ; Khachaturyan, Armen G. Publication Date: 2011-03-10 OSTI Identifier: 1100025 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 106; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007

  11. Manipulation of Electromagnetic Fields with Plasmonic Nanostructures and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metamaterials (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Manipulation of Electromagnetic Fields with Plasmonic Nanostructures and Metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Manipulation of Electromagnetic Fields with Plasmonic Nanostructures and Metamaterials Authors: Grady, Nathaniel [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-08-04 OSTI Identifier: 1148947 Report Number(s): LA-UR-14-26158 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type:

  12. Manipulation of Electromagnetic Fields with Plasmonic Nanostructures and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metamaterials (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Manipulation of Electromagnetic Fields with Plasmonic Nanostructures and Metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Manipulation of Electromagnetic Fields with Plasmonic Nanostructures and Metamaterials × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to

  13. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korsah, Kofi [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  14. Electric-Field-Enhanced Condensation on Superhydrophobic Nanostructured

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surfaces (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Electric-Field-Enhanced Condensation on Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric-Field-Enhanced Condensation on Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces Authors: Miljkovic, N ; Preston, D J ; Enright, R ; Wang, E Publication Date: 2013-12-23 OSTI Identifier: 1161959 DOE Contract Number: SC0001299; FG02-09ER46577 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: ACS Nano; Journal

  15. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity « Prev Next » Title: Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are

  16. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity « Prev Next » Title: Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science (PAGES). This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information

  17. Covalently functionalized carbon nanostructures and methods for their separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, YuHuang; Brozena, Alexandra H; Deng, Shunliu; Zhang, Yin

    2015-03-17

    The present invention is directed to carbon nanostructures, e.g., carbon nanotubes, methods of covalently functionalizing carbon nanostructures, and methods of separating and isolating covalently functionalized carbon. In some embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with alkylating agents to provide water soluble covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. In other embodiments, carbon nanotubes are reacted with a thermally-responsive agent and exposed to light in order to separate carbon nanotubes of a specific chirality from a mixture of carbon nanotubes.

  18. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace082_caylor_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Nanostructured High

  19. Project Profile: High-Performance Nanostructured Coating | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Performance Nanostructured Coating Project Profile: High-Performance Nanostructured Coating Two illustrations side by side showing how sunlight is absorbed through layers on the left, and on the right, blue dots are above rectangular slab with two layers. The University of California San Diego, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), is developing a new low-cost and scalable process for fabricating spectrally selective

  20. Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 PDF icon pivovar_nrel_kickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting PEMFC R&D at the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program

  1. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es148_cui_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Wiring up Silicon Nanoparticles for High Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wiring

  2. Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    virus for micro-supercapacitors in solid Nafion electrolyte (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus for micro-supercapacitors in solid Nafion electrolyte Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus for micro-supercapacitors in solid Nafion electrolyte Authors: Gnerlich, Markus ; Ben-Yoav, Hadar ; Culver, James ;

  3. Template-free electrochemical synthesis of tin nanostructures. (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Template-free electrochemical synthesis of tin nanostructures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Template-free electrochemical synthesis of tin nanostructures. Abstract not provided. Authors: Mackay, David T. ; Janish, Matthew T. ; Sahaym, Uttara ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh ; Carter, Clive Barry ; Norton, M. Grant Publication Date: 2014-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1185003 Report Number(s): SAND2014-20374J Journal ID: ISSN 0022--2461;

  4. Templated photocatalytic synthesis of well-defined Pt hollow nanostructures

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with enhanced catalytic performance for methanol oxidation. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Templated photocatalytic synthesis of well-defined Pt hollow nanostructures with enhanced catalytic performance for methanol oxidation. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Templated photocatalytic synthesis of well-defined Pt hollow nanostructures with enhanced catalytic performance for methanol oxidation. Abstract not provided. Authors: Fan, Hongyou ; Bai, Feng ; Wu, Huimeng ; Xiao,

  5. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Emission Treatment Catalyst | Department of Energy Emission Treatment Catalyst Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Emission Treatment Catalyst Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-08_narula.pdf More Documents & Publications Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel

  6. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment | Department of Energy Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment The overlap among theory, structure, and fully formed catalysts form the foundation of this study PDF icon deer09_narula.pdf More Documents & Publications Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and

  7. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace030_gao_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

  8. Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings 1 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist prepares slot die coater for solution based deposition of electrochromic layer. Image: Heliotrope Technologies 2 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist investigates the coating quality of a slot die deposition of electrochromic layer. Image: Heliotrope Technologies 3 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist investigates the spray coater for a solution based deposition of electrochromic layer. Image:

  9. Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings Addthis 1 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist prepares slot die coater for solution based deposition of electrochromic layer. Image: Heliotrope Technologies 2 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist investigates the coating quality of a slot die deposition of electrochromic layer. Image: Heliotrope Technologies 3 of 3 A Heliotrope scientist investigates the spray coater for a solution based deposition of electrochromic

  10. Nano-structure multilayer technology fabrication of high energy density capacitors for the power electronic building book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Wagner, A.V.

    1997-10-21

    Commercially available capacitors do not meet the specifications of the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) concept. We have applied our propriety nanostructure multilayer materials technology to the fabrication of high density capacitors designed to remove this impediment to PEBB progress. Our nanostructure multilayer capacitors will also be enabling technology in many industrial and military applications. Examples include transient suppression (snubber capacitors), resonant circuits, and DC filtering in PEBB modules. Additionally, weapon applications require compact energy storage for detonators and pulsed-power systems. Commercial applications run the gamut from computers to lighting to communications. Steady progress over the last five years has brought us to the threshold of commercial manufacturability. We have demonstrated a working dielectric energy density of > 11 J/cm3 in 20 nF devices designed for 1 kV operation.

  11. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanopowders | Department of Energy Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Describes technique of explosively consolidating nanopowders to yield fully dense, consolidated, nanostructured thermoelectric material PDF icon nemir.pdf More Documents & Publications The Bottom-Up Approach forThermoelectric Nanocomposites, plusƒ Enhancing the Figure-of-Merit in Half-Heuslers for Vehicle Waste

  12. Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Department of Physics, University of Shahrood, Shahrood ; Anta, Juan A.; Arzi, Ezatollah

    2014-04-07

    The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO{sub 2} show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10{sup 11}10{sup 13} Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of electron acceptors.

  13. Molybdenum and tungsten nanostructures and methods for making and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotaro, Sasaki; Chen, Wei-Fu; Muckerman, James T; Adzic, Radoslav R

    2015-01-06

    The present invention provides molybdenum and tungsten nanostructures, for example, nanosheets and nanoparticles, and methods of making and using same, including using such nanostructures as catlysts for hydrogen evolution reactions.

  14. Forensics of Soot: C5-Related Nanostructure as a Diagnostic of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forensics of Soot: C5-Related Nanostructure as a Diagnostic of In-Cylinder Chemistry Forensics of Soot: C5-Related Nanostructure as a Diagnostic of In-Cylinder Chemistry Changes ...

  15. GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics. ...

  16. Ferroelectric Self-assembled PbTiO3 Perovskite Nanostructures...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perovskite Nanostructures onto (100)SrTiO3 Substrates from a Novel Microemulsion-aided Sol-Gel Preparation Figure 1. PbTiO3 nanostructures onto (100) SrTiO3 substrates....

  17. Improving the Capacity of Sodium Ion Battery Using a Virus-Templated Nanostructured Composite Cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, M; Li, Z; Qi, JF; Xing, WT; Xiang, K; Chiang, YM; Belcher, AM

    2015-05-01

    In this work we investigated an energy-efficient biotemplated route to synthesize nanostructured FePO4 for sodium-based batteries. Self-assembled M13 viruses and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been used as a template to grow amorphous FePO4 nanoparticles at room temperature (the active composite is denoted as Bio-FePO4-CNT) to enhance the electronic conductivity of the active material. Preliminary tests demonstrate a discharge capacity as high as 166 mAh/g at C/10 rate, corresponding to composition Na0.9FePO4, which along with higher C-rate tests show this material to have the highest capacity and power performance reported for amorphous FePO4 electrodes to date.

  18. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Au, M.

    2009-12-04

    The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

  19. A biotemplated nickel nanostructure: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashtari, Khadijeh; Fasihi, Javad; Mollania, Nasrin; Khajeh, Khosro

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: Nickel nanostructure-encapsulated bacteria were prepared using electroless deposition. Bacterium surface was activated by red-ox reaction of its surface amino acids. Interfacial changes at cell surfaces were investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. TEM and AFM depicted morphological changes. Antibacterial activity of nanostructure was examined against different bacteria strains. - Abstract: Nickel nanostructure-encapsulated bacteria were prepared using the electroless deposition procedure and activation of bacterium cell surface by red-ox reaction of surface amino acids. The electroless deposition step occurred in the presence of Ni(II) and dimethyl amine boran (DMAB). Interfacial changes at bacteria cell surfaces during the coating process were investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence of tryptophan residues was completely quenched after the deposition of nickel onto bacteria surfaces. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) depicted morphological changes on the surface of the bacterium. It was found that the Ni coated nanostructure was mechanically stable after ultrasonication for 20 min. Significant increase in surface roughness of bacteria was also observed after deposition of Ni clusters. The amount of coated Ni on the bacteria surface was calculated as 36% w/w. The antibacterial activity of fabricated nanostructure in culture media was examined against three different bacteria strains; Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Xantomonas campestris. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined as 500 mg/L, 350 mg/L and 200 mg/L against bacteria, respectively.

  20. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  1. Ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As nanostructures for spintronic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wosinski, Tadeusz; Andrearczyk, Tomasz; Figielski, Tadeusz; Makosa, Andrzej; Wrobel, Jerzy; Sadowski, Janusz

    2013-12-04

    Magneto-resistive, cross-like nanostructures have been designed and fabricated by electron-beam lithography patterning and chemical etching from thin epitaxial layers of the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As. The nanostructures, composed of two perpendicular nanostripes crossing in the middle of their length, represent four-terminal devices, in which an electric current can be driven through any of the two nanostripes. In these devices, a novel magneto-resistive memory effect, related to a rearrangement of magnetic domain walls in the central part of the device, has been demonstrated. It consists in that the zero-field resistance of a nanostripe depends on the direction of previously applied magnetic field. The nanostructures can thus work as two-state devices providing basic elements of nonvolatile memory cells.

  2. Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Bogart, Gregory R.; Rogers, John A.

    2011-12-20

    Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

  3. 2011 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai-Sheng Wang

    2011-07-29

    Small particles have been at the heart of nanoscience since the birth of the field and now stand ready to make significant contributions to the big challenges of energy, health and sustainability. Atomic clusters show exquisite size-dependent electronic and magnetic properties and offer a new level of control in catalyses, sensors and biochips; functionalised nanocrystals offer remarkable optical properties and diverse applications in electronic devices, solar energy, and therapy. Both areas are complemented by a raft of recent advances in fabrication, characterization, and performance of a diversity of nanomaterials from the single atom level to nanowires, nanodevices, and biologically-inspired nanosystems. The goal of the 2011 Gordon Conference is thus to continue and enhance the interdisciplinary tradition of this series and discuss the most recent advances, fundamental scientific questions, and emerging applications of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. A single conference covering all aspects of nanoscience from fundamental issues to applications has the potential to create new ideas and stimulate cross fertilization. The meeting will therefore provide a balance among the three sub-components of the conference, true to its title, with a selection of new topics added to reflect rapid advances in the field. The open atmosphere of a Gordon conference, emphasizing the presentation of unpublished results and extensive discussions, is an ideal home for this rapidly developing field and will allow all participants to enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Historically, this Gordon conference has been oversubscribed, so we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral presentations. Given the important role students and postdocs play in the future of this field, we also anticipate several talks of this kind from young investigators.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications of nanosized ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, or multiferroic materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dhak, Debasis; Hong, Seungbum; Das, Soma; Dhak, Prasanta

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been an enormous increase in research activity in the field of ferroelectrics and ferromagnetics especially in multiferroic materials which possess both ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties simultaneously. However, the ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and multiferroic properties should be further improved from the utilitarian and commercial viewpoints. Nanostructural materials are central to the evolution of future electronics and information technologies. Ferroelectrics and ferromagnetics have already been established as a dominant branch in electronics sector because of their diverse applications. The ongoing dimensional downscaling of materials to allow packing of increased numbers of components into integrated circuits provides the momentum for evolutionmoreof nanostructural devices. Nanoscaling of the above materials can result in a modification of their functionality. Furthermore, nanoscaling can be used to form high density arrays of nanodomain nanostructures, which is desirable for miniaturization of devices.less

  5. Toward Nanostructured Thermoelectrics. Synthesis and Characterization of Lead Telluride Gels and Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Brock, Stephanie L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2011-05-12

    The synthesis and characterization of lead telluride (PbTe) gels and aerogels with nanostructured features of potential benefit for enhanced thermoelectrics is reported. In this approach, discrete thiolate-capped PbTe nanoparticles were synthesized by a solution-based approach followed by oxidation-induced nanoparticle assembly with tetranitromethane or hydrogen peroxide to form wet gels. Drying of the wet gels by supercritical CO? extraction yielded aerogels, whereas xerogels were produced by ambient pressure bench top drying. The gels consist of an interconnected network of colloidal nanoparticles and pores with surface areas up to 74 m g-1. The thermal stability of the nanostructures relative to nanoparticles was probed with the help of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The aerogels were observed to sublime at a higher temperature and over a larger range (425500 C) relative to the precursor nanoparticles. TGA-DSC suggests that organic capping groups can be removed in the region 250450 C, and melting of PbTe nanoparticles occurs near the temperature for bulk materials (ca. 920 C). The good thermal stability combined with the presence of nanoscale interfaces suggests PbTe gels may show promise in thermoelectric devices.

  6. Charge-free method of forming nanostructures on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffbauer; Mark (Los Alamos, NM), Akhadov; Elshan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-07-20

    A charge-free method of forming a nanostructure at low temperatures on a substrate. A substrate that is reactive with one of atomic oxygen and nitrogen is provided. A flux of neutral atoms of least one of oxygen and nitrogen is generated within a laser-sustained-discharge plasma source and a collimated beam of energetic neutral atoms and molecules is directed from the plasma source onto a surface of the substrate to form the nanostructure. The energetic neutral atoms and molecules in the beam have an average kinetic energy in a range from about 1 eV to about 5 eV.

  7. Bulk Nanostructured FCC Steels With Enhanced Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xinghang; Hartwig, K. Ted; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2012-10-27

    The objective of this project is to increase radiation tolerance in austenitic steels through optimization of grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics. The focus will be on nanocrystalline austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys with an fcc crystal structure. The long-term goal is to design and develop bulk nanostructured austenitic steels with enhanced void swelling resistance and substantial ductility, and to enhance their creep resistance at elevated temperatures via GB engineering. The combination of grain refinement and grain boundary engineering approaches allows us to tailor the material strength, ductility, and resistance to swelling by 1) changing the sink strength for point defects, 2) by increasing the nucleation barriers for bubble formation at GBs, and 3) by changing the precipitate distributions at boundaries. Compared to ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels (SS) possess good creep and fatigue resistance at elevated temperatures, and better toughness at low temperature. However, a major disadvantage of austenitic SS is that they are vulnerable to significant void swelling in nuclear reactors, especially at the temperatures and doses anticipated in the Advanced Burner Reactor. The lack of resistance to void swelling in austenitic alloys led to the switch to ferritic/martensitic steels as the preferred material for the fast reactor cladding application. Recently a type of austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS, was developed at ORNL, and is expected to show enhanced void swelling resistance through the trapping of point defects at nanometersized carbides. Reducing the grain size and increasing the fraction of low energy grain boundaries should reduce the available radiation-produced point defects (due to the increased sink area of the grain boundaries), should make bubble nucleation at the boundaries less likely (by reducing the fraction of high-energy boundaries), and improve the strength and ductility under radiation by producing a higher density of nanometer sized carbides on the boundaries. This project will focus on void swelling but advances in processing of austenitic steels are likely to also improve the radiation response of the mechanical properties.

  8. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obreja, Vasile V. N.

    2014-06-16

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes and also other materials for cell assembling and packaging are used, the above mentioned values have to be divided by a factor higher than four. As a consequence, the specific energy of a prototype cell, hardly could exceed 10 Wh/kg because of difficulties with the existing manufacturing technology. Graphene based materials and carbon nanotubes and different composites have been used in many experiments reported in the last years. Nevertheless in spite of the outstanding properties of these materials, significant increase of the specific capacitance or of the specific energy in comparison with activated or nanoporous carbon is not achieved. Use of redox materials as metal oxides or conducting polymers in combination with different nanostructured carbon materials (nanocomposite electrodes) has been found to contribute to further increase of the specific capacitance or of the specific energy. Nevertheless, few results are reported for practical cells with such materials. Many results are reported only for a three electrode system and significant difference is possible when the electrode is used in a practical supercapacitor cell. Further improvement in the electrode manufacture and more experiments with supercapacitor cells with the known electrochemical storage materials are required. Device prototypes and commercial products with an energy density towards 15-20 Wh/kg could be realized. These may be a milestone for further supercapacitor device research and development, to narrow the storage energy gap between batteries and supercapacitors.

  9. Ultrathin Li3VO4 Nanoribbon/Graphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures with Ultrahigh Lithium ion Storage Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Pei-Jun; Liu, Jun N.; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Wang, W. J.; Lei, Ming; Tang, Shasha; Yang, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) "graphene-like" inorganic materials, because of the short lithium ion diffusion path and unique 2D carrier pathways, become a new research focus of the lithium storages. Some "graphene-like" binary compounds, such as, MnO2, MoS2 and VO2 ultrathin nanosheets, have been synthesized by a peeling method, which also exhibit enhanced lithium storage performances. However, it still remains a great challenge to synthesize widely-used lithium-containing ternary oxides with "graphene-like" nanostructures, because the lithium-containing ternary oxides, unlike ternary layered double hydroxides (LDH), are very hard to be directly peeled. Herein, we successfully synthesized ultrathin Li3VO4 nanoribbons with a thickness of about 3 nm by transformation from ultrathin V2O5xH2O nanoribbons, moreover, we achieved the preparation of ultrathin Li3VO4 nanoribbon@graphene sandwich-like nanostructures (LVO/G) through a layer-by-layer assembly method. The unique sandwich-like nanostructures shows not only a high specific reversible capacitance (up to 452.5 mA hg-1 after 200 cycles) but also an excellent cycling performance (with more than 299.2 mA hg-1 of the capacity at 10 C after 1000 cycles) as well as very high rate capability. Such template strategy, using "graphene-like" binary inorganic nanosheets as templates to synthesize lithium-containing ternary oxide nanosheets, may be extended to prepare other ternary oxides with "graphene-like" nanostructures

  10. Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Said, A. S. E-mail: a.s.el-said@hzdr.de; Moslem, W. M.; Djebli, M.

    2014-06-09

    Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1?keV and 23.3?keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

  11. Material Misfits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Issues submit Material Misfits How well nanocomposite materials align at their interfaces determines what properties they have, opening broad new avenues of materials-science...

  12. Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

    2013-12-24

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

  13. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  14. Synthesis of thin films and materials utilizing a gaseous catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Daniel E; Schwenzer, Birgit; Gomm, John R; Roth, Kristian M; Heiken, Brandon; Brutchey, Richard

    2013-10-29

    A method for the fabrication of nanostructured semiconducting, photoconductive, photovoltaic, optoelectronic and electrical battery thin films and materials at low temperature, with no molecular template and no organic contaminants. High-quality metal oxide semiconductor, photovoltaic and optoelectronic materials can be fabricated with nanometer-scale dimensions and high dopant densities through the use of low-temperature biologically inspired synthesis routes, without the use of any biological or biochemical templates.

  15. Ferecrystals: Thermoelectric Materials Poised Between the Crystalline and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Amorphous States | Department of Energy Ferecrystals: Thermoelectric Materials Poised Between the Crystalline and Amorphous States Ferecrystals: Thermoelectric Materials Poised Between the Crystalline and Amorphous States It discusses the preparation of nanostructured compounds with turbostratic disorder … called ferecrystals. These new compounds are thermal stable to 650 C, have low thermal and an increased ZT. PDF icon johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Trends in Thermoelectric

  16. Improved Solar Cell Efficiency Through the Use of an Additive Nanostructure-Based Optical Downshifter: Final Subcontract Report, January 28, 2010 -- February 28, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtin, J.

    2011-05-01

    This final report summarizes all SpectraWatt's progress in achieving a boost in solar cell efficiency using an optical downshifter. Spectrawatt's downshifting technology is based on a nanostructured material system which absorbs high energy (short wavelength) light and reemits it at a lower energy (long wavelength) with high efficiency. This system has shown unprecedented performance parameters including near unity quantum yield and high thermal stability.

  17. High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1995-09-01

    Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.

  18. Platinum-alloy nanostructured thin film catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Vliet, D.; Wang, C.; Debe, M.; Atanasoski, R.; Markovic, N. M.; Stamenkovic, V. R.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to study advanced catalytic materials for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), a number of metallic alloy nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts have been characterized by rotating disk electrode (RDE). Optimal loadings for the ORR and activity enhancement compared to conventional carbon supported nanoparticles (Pt/C) were established. The most efficient catalyst was found to be PtNi alloy with 55 wt% of Pt. The enhancement in specific activity is more than one order of magnitude, while the improvement factor in mass activity is 2.5 compared to Pt/C. Further lowering of the platinum to nickel ratio in NSTF catalysts did not lead to increased mass activity values.

  19. Composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures for high electrochromic activity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, Karla Rosa; Stephens, Zachary Dan.; Robinson, David B.

    2013-05-01

    A composite material consisting of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with WO3 electrodeposited homogeneously on its surface has been fabricated, detached from its substrate, and attached to a fluorine-doped tin oxide film on glass for application to electrochromic (EC) reactions. A paste of TiO2 made from commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles creates an interface for the TiO2 NT film to attach to the FTO glass, which is conductive and does not cause solution-phase ions in an electrolyte to bind irreversibly with the material. The effect of NT length on the current density and the EC contrast of the material were studied. The EC redox reaction seen in this material is diffusion- limited, having relatively fast reaction rates at the electrode surface. The composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures showed higher ion storage capacity, better stability, enhanced EC contrast and longer memory time compared with the pure WO3 and TiO2.

  20. Nanostructured carbide catalysts for the hydrogen economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ram Seshadri, Susannah Scott, Juergen Eckert

    2008-07-21

    The above quote, taken from the executive summary of the Report from the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences Workshop held August 6–8, 2007,[1] places in context the research carried out at the University of California, Santa Barbara, which is reported in this document. The enormous impact of heterogeneous catalysis is exemplified by the Haber process for the synthesis of ammonia, which consumes a few % of the world’s energy supply and natural gas, and feeds as many as a third of the world’s population. While there have been numerous advances in understanding the process,[2] culminating in the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Gerhard Ertl in 2007, it is interesting to note that the catalysts themselves have changed very little since they were discovered heuristically in the the early part of the 20th century. The thesis of this report is that modern materials chemistry, with all the empirical knowledge of solid state chemistry, combined with cutting edge structural tools, can help develop and better heterogeneous catalysis. The first part of this report describes research in the area of early transition metal carbides (notably of Mo and W), potentially useful catalysts for water gas shift (WGS) and related reactions of use to the hydrogen economy. Although these carbides have been known to be catalytically useful since the 1970s,[3] further use of these relatively inexpensive materials have been plagued by issues of low surface areas and ill-defined, and often unreactive surfaces, in conjunction with deactivation. We have employed for the first time, a combination of constant-wavelength and time-of-flight neutron scattering, including a total scattering analysis of the latter data, to better understand what happens in these materials, in a manner that for the first time, reveals surface graphitic carbon in these materials in a quantitative manner. Problems of preparation, surface stability, and irreversible reactivity have become manifest in this class of materials that discourage us from pursuing these materials further.

  1. Nanostructured columnar heterostructures of TiO{sub 2} and Cu{sub 2}O enabled by a thin-film self-assembly approach: Potential for photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polat, zgr; Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 ; Aytug, Tolga; Lupini, Andrew R.; Paranthaman, Parans M.; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Bogorin, Daniela F.; Meyer, Harry M.; Wang, Wei; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Christen, David K.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Material self-assembly in phase-separated oxides is exploited. ? Three-dimensionally nanostructured epitaxial films are grown using sputtering. ? Films are composed of well-ordered oriented nanopillars of n-type TiO{sub 2} and p-type Cu{sub 2}O. ? Observed interfaces at adjacent TiO{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O columns are nearly atomically distinct. ? Absorption profile of the composite film captures a wide range of the solar spectrum. -- Abstract: Significant efforts are being devoted to the development of multifunctional thin-film heterostructures and nanostructured material architectures for components with novel applications of superconductivity, multiferroicity, solar photocatalysis and energy conversion. In particular, nanostructured assemblies with well-defined geometrical shapes have emerged as possible high efficiency and economically viable alternatives to planar photovoltaic thin-film architectures. By exploiting phase-separated self-assembly, here we present advances in a vertically oriented two-component system that offers potential for future development of nanostructured thin film solar cells. Through a single-step deposition by magnetron sputtering, we demonstrate growth of an epitaxial, composite film matrix formed as self-assembled, well ordered, phase segregated, and oriented nanopillars of n-type TiO{sub 2} and p-type Cu{sub 2}O. The composite films were structurally characterized to atomic resolution by a variety of analytical tools, and evaluated for preliminary optical properties using absorption measurements. We find nearly atomically distinct TiO{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O interfaces (i.e., needed for possible active pn junctions), and an absorption profile that captures a wide range of the solar spectrum extending from ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. This high-quality materials system could lead to photovoltaic devices that can be optimized for both incident light absorption and carrier collection.

  2. Novel Approach to Plasma Facing Materials in Nuclear Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livramento, V.; Correia, J. B.; Shohoji, N.; Osawa, E.; Nunes, D.

    2008-04-07

    A novel material design in nuclear fusion reactors is proposed based on W-nDiamond nanostructured composites. Generally, a microstructure refined to the nanometer scale improves the mechanical strength due to modification of plasticity mechanisms. Moreover, highly specific grain-boundary area raises the number of sites for annihilation of radiation induced defects. However, the low thermal stability of fine-grained and nanostructured materials demands the presence of particles at the grain boundaries that can delay coarsening by a pinning effect. As a result, the concept of a composite is promising in the field of nanostructured materials. The hardness of diamond renders nanodiamond dispersions excellent reinforcing and stabilization candidates and, in addition, diamond has extremely high thermal conductivity. Consequently, W-nDiamond nanocomposites are promising candidates for thermally stable first-wall materials. The proposed design involves the production of W/W-nDiamond/W-Cu/Cu layered castellations. The W, W-nDiamond and W-Cu layers are produced by mechanical alloying followed by a consolidation route that combines hot rolling with spark plasma sintering (SPS). Layer welding is achieved by spark plasma sintering. The present work describes the mechanical alloying processsing and consolidation route used to produce W-nDiamond composites, as well as microstructural features and mechanical properties of the material produced Long term plasma exposure experiments are planned at ISTTOK and at FTU (Frascati)

  3. Nanocomposite Magnets: Transformational Nanostructured Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GE is using nanomaterials technology to develop advanced magnets that contain fewer rare earth materials than their predecessors. Nanomaterials technology involves manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular scale, which can represent a stumbling block for magnets because it is difficult to create a finely grained magnet at that scale. GE is developing bulk magnets with finely tuned structures using iron-based mixtures that contain 80% less rare earth materials than traditional magnets, which will reduce their overall cost. These magnets will enable further commercialization of HEVs, EVs, and wind turbine generators while enhancing U.S. competitiveness in industries that heavily utilize these alternatives to rare earth minerals.

  4. Method and apparatus for ion sequestration and a nanostructured metal phosphate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Li, Xiaohong; Parker, Kent E.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2010-04-06

    A nanostructured substance, a process for sequestration of ionic waste, and an ion-sequestration apparatus are disclosed in the specification. The nanostructured substance can comprise a Lewis acid transition metal bound to a phosphate, wherein the phosphate comprises a primary structural component of the substance and the Lewis acid transition metal is a reducing agent. The nanostructured substance has a Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area greater than or equal to approximately 100 m.sup.2/g, and a distribution coefficient for an analyte, K.sub.d, greater than or equal to approximately 5000 ml/g. The process can comprise contacting a fluid and a nanostructured metal phosphate. The apparatus can comprise a vessel and a nanostructured metal phosphate. The vessel defines a volume wherein a fluid contacts the nanostructured metal phosphate.

  5. Propulsion Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propulsion Materials FY 2013 Progress Report ii CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 1 Project 18516 - Materials for H1ybrid and Electric Drive Systems ...................................................... 4 Agreement 19201 - Non-Rare Earth Magnetic Materials ............................................................................ 4 Agreement 23278 - Low-Cost

  6. Electrodeposition of Zn based nanostructure thin films for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Bathi, S. A. M.

    2015-03-30

    We present here a systematic study on the synthesis thin films of various ZnO, CdO, Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x} (O) and ZnTe nanostructures by electrodeposition technique with ZnCl{sub 2,} CdCl{sub 2} and ZnSO{sub 4} solution as starting reactant. Several reaction parameters were examined to develop an optimal procedure for controlling the size, shape, and surface morphology of the nanostructure. The results showed that the morphology of the products can be carefully controlled through adjusting the concentration of the electrolyte. The products present well shaped Nanorods arrays at specific concentration and temperature. UV-VIS spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results show that the product presents good crystallinity. A possible formation process has been proposed.

  7. Ternary oxide nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S.; Park, Tae-Jin

    2009-09-08

    A single crystalline ternary nanostructure having the formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.z, wherein x ranges from 0.25 to 24, and y ranges from 1.5 to 40, and wherein A and B are independently selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, In, Ir, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Re, Rh, Ru, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Tc, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, and Zn, wherein the nanostructure is at least 95% free of defects and/or dislocations.

  8. Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg Materials Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Materials Physics and Applications» Materials Science and Technology» Institute for Materials Science» Materials Science Rob Dickerson uses a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope at

  9. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  10. High Performance OLEDs with Air-stable Nanostructured Electrodes - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search High Performance OLEDs with Air-stable Nanostructured Electrodes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryScientists at Berkeley Lab have modified the cathode-organic layer of an OLED device to significantly enhance electron injection efficiency and reduce the sensitivity of the cathode to environmental degradation by water

  11. Photo of the Week: Butterflies, Crystal Nanostructures and Solar Cell

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Research | Department of Energy What do butterflies and solar cell research have in common? Both have been developing tiny crystals that selectively reflect colors. Over millions of years of evolution, butterfly wings have developed the tiny crystal nanostructures that give butterflies their vivid colors. At Argonne National Laboratory, scientists are working to manufacture these crystals, which could one day be used to create "greener" and more efficient paints, fiber optics and

  12. Diamond Plates Create Nanostructures through Pressure, Not Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plates Create Nanostructures through Pressure, Not Chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle

  13. ECIS and Compass Metals: Platinum Nanostructures for Enhanced Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ECIS and Compass Metals: Platinum Nanostructures for Enhanced Catalysis - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel

  14. Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CdSe Networks by Altering the Building-Block Shape | Energy Frontier Research Centers Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructured CdSe Networks by Altering the Building-Block Shape Home Author: H. Yu, R. Bellair, R. M. Kannan, S. L. Brock Year: 2008 Abstract: The effect of primary particle shape on the porosity, mechanical strength, and luminescence intensity of metal chalcogenide aerogels was probed by comparison of CdSe aerogels prepared from spherical and

  15. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Proposed two-stage TEG system with half-heusler as the first stage, and Bi2Te3 as the low temperature stage expected to show a 5% fuel efficiency improvement in vehicle platform under US06 drive cycle PDF icon caylor.pdf More Documents &

  16. Efficient Nanostructured Silicon (Black Silicon) PV Devices - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Efficient Nanostructured Silicon (Black Silicon) PV Devices National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Antireflective (AR) coatings on solar cells increase the efficiency of the cells by suppressing reflection, which allows more photons to enter a silicon (Si) wafer and increases the flow of electricity. Traditional AR coatings however, add significant cost to the solar cell manufacturing process. NREL scientists

  17. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace030_gao_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low Temperature Diesel Oxidation

  18. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research May 7-8, 2009 Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter...

  19. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences February 9-10, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation...

  20. GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: GeSi strained nanostructure self-assembly for nano- and opto-electronics. Strain-induced self-assembly during semiconductor heteroepitaxy offers a promising approach to produce quantum nanostructures for nanologic and optoelectronics applications. Our current research direction aims to move beyond self-assembly of the basic quantum dot

  1. Impact of EGR on Soot Nanostructure and Reactivity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EGR on Soot Nanostructure and Reactivity Impact of EGR on Soot Nanostructure and Reactivity Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_boehman.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Impacts on Soot Nanostructure and Reactivity Effect of Alternative Fuels on Soot Properties

  2. Composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures for high electrochromic activity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reyes-Gil, Karla R.; Stephens, Zachary D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Robinson, David B.

    2015-01-06

    A composite material consisting of TiO2 nanotubes (NT) with WO3 electrodeposited on its surface has been fabricated, detached from its Ti substrate, and attached to a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) film on glass for application to electrochromic (EC) reactions. Several adhesion layers were tested, finding that a paste of TiO2 made from commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles creates an interface for the TiO2 NT film to attach to the FTO glass, which is conductive and does not cause solution-phase ions in an electrolyte to bind irreversibly with the material. The effect of NT length and WO3 concentration on the EC performancemore » were studied. As a result, the composite WO3/TiO2 nanostructures showed higher ion storage capacity, better stability, enhanced EC contrast, and longer memory time compared with the pure WO3 and TiO2 materials« less

  3. Response of nanostructured ferritic alloys to high-dose heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Chad M.; White, Ryan M.; LeBeau, James M.; Miller, Michael K.

    2014-02-01

    A latest-generation aberration-corrected scanning/transmission electron microscope (STEM) is used to study heavy-ion-irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). Results are presented for STEM X-ray mapping of NFA 14YWT irradiated with 10 MeV Pt to 16 or 160 dpa at -100°C and 750°C, as well as pre-irradiation reference material. Irradiation at -100°C results in ballistic destruction of the beneficial microstructural features present in the pre-irradiated reference material, such as Ti-Y-O nanoclusters (NCs) and grain boundary (GB) segregation. Irradiation at 750°C retains these beneficial features, but indicates some coarsening of the NCs, diffusion of Al to the NCs, and a reduction of the Cr-W GB segregation (or solute excess) content. Ion irradiation combined with the latest-generation STEM hardware allows for rapid screening of fusion candidate materials and improved understanding of irradiation-induced microstructural changes in NFAs.

  4. Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO{sub 2} nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocer, Hasan; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray; Banar, Berker; Wang, Kevin; Wu, Junqiao; Tongay, Sefaatttin

    2015-04-20

    Resonant absorbers based on plasmonic materials, metamaterials, and thin films enable spectrally selective absorption filters, where absorption is maximized at the resonance wavelength. By controlling the geometrical parameters of nano/microstructures and materials' refractive indices, resonant absorbers are designed to operate at wide range of wavelengths for applications including absorption filters, thermal emitters, thermophotovoltaic devices, and sensors. However, once resonant absorbers are fabricated, it is rather challenging to control and tune the spectral absorption response. Here, we propose and demonstrate thermally tunable infrared resonant absorbers using hybrid gold-vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanostructure arrays. Absorption intensity is tuned from 90% to 20% and 96% to 32% using hybrid gold-VO{sub 2} nanowire and nanodisc arrays, respectively, by heating up the absorbers above the phase transition temperature of VO{sub 2} (68?C). Phase change materials such as VO{sub 2} deliver useful means of altering optical properties as a function of temperature. Absorbers with tunable spectral response can find applications in sensor and detector applications, in which external stimulus such as heat, electrical signal, or light results in a change in the absorption spectrum and intensity.

  5. Magnetic domain wall manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As nanostructures for spintronic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wosinski, Tadeusz; Andrearczyk, Tomasz; Figielski, Tadeusz; Olender, Karolina; Wrobel, Jerzy

    2014-02-21

    Ring-shaped nanostructures have been designed and fabricated by electron-beam lithography patterning and chemical etching from thin epitaxial layers of the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As. The nanostructures, in a form of planar rings with a slit, were supplied with four electrical terminals and subjected to magneto-transport studies under planar weak magnetic field. Magnetoresistive effects caused by manipulation of magnetic domain walls and magnetization reversal in the nanostructures have been investigated and possible applications of the nanostructures as four-terminal spintronic devices are discussed.

  6. Enhanced anomalous photo-absorption from TiO{sub 2} nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solanki, Vanaraj; Majumder, Subrata; Mishra, Indrani; Varma, Shikha; Dash, P.; Singh, C.; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-03-28

    Two dimensional nanostructures have been created on the rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces via ion irradiation technique. Enhanced anomalous photo- absorption response is displayed, where nanostructures of 15?nm diameter with 0.5?nm height, and not the smaller nanostructures with larger surface area, delineate highest absorbance. Comprehensive investigations of oxygen vacancy states, on ion- irradiated surfaces, display a remarkable result that the number of vacancies saturates for higher fluences. A competition between the number of vacancy sites on the nanostructure in conjunction with its size is responsible for the observed anomalous photo-absorption.

  7. Probing Compositional Variation within Hybrid Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuhas, Benjamin D.; Habas, Susan E.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Mokari, Taleb

    2010-06-22

    We present a detailed analysis of the structural and magnetic properties of solution-grown PtCo-CdS hybrid structures in comparison to similar free-standing PtCo alloy nanoparticles. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is utilized as a sensitive probe for identifying subtle differences in the structure of the hybrid materials. We found that the growth of bimetallic tips on a CdS nanorod substrate leads to a more complex nanoparticle structure composed of a PtCo alloy core and thin CoO shell. The core-shell architecture is an unexpected consequence of the different nanoparticle growth mechanism on the nanorod tip, as compared to free growth in solution. Magnetic measurements indicate that the PtCo-CdS hybrid structures are superparamagnetic despite the presence of a CoO shell. The use of X-ray spectroscopic techniques to detect minute differences in atomic structure and bonding in complex nanosystems makes it possible to better understand and predict catalytic or magnetic properties for nanoscale bimetallic hybrid materials.

  8. New Composite Thermoelectric Materials for Macro-size Applications

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    A review will be given of several important recent advances in both thermoelectrics research and industrial thermoelectric applications, which have attracted much attention, increasing incentives for developing advanced materials appropriate for large-scale applications of thermoelectric devices. One promising strategy is the development of materials with a dense packing of random nanostructures as a route for the sacle-up of thermoelectrics applications. The concepts involved in designing composite materials containing nanostructures for thermoelectric applications will be discussed in general terms. Specific application is made to the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanocomposite system for use in power generation. Also emphasized are the scientific advantages of the nanocomposite approach for the simultaneous increase in the power factor and decrease of the thermal conductivity, along with the practical advantages of having bulk samples for property measurements and device applications. A straightforward path is identified for the scale-up of thermoelectric materials synthesis containing nanostructured constituents for use in thermoelectric applications. We end with some vision of where the field of thermoelectrics is now heading.

  9. material protection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Office of Weapons Material Protection http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnonproliferationprogramofficesinternationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation-1

  10. material protection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Office of Weapons Material Protection http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnonproliferationprogramofficesinternationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation-1

  11. Materials Scientist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Materials Research Engineer; Metallurgical/Chemical Engineer; Product Development Manager;

  12. A review of advantages of high-efficiency X-ray spectrum imaging for analysis of nanostructured ferritic alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Parish, Chad M.; Miller, Michael K.

    2014-12-09

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) exhibit complex microstructures consisting of 100-500 nm ferrite grains, grain boundary solute enrichment, and multiple populations of precipitates and nanoclusters (NCs). Understanding these materials' excellent creep and radiation-tolerance properties requires a combination of multiple atomic-scale experimental techniques. Recent advances in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) hardware and data analysis methods have the potential to revolutionize nanometer to micrometer scale materials analysis. The application of these methods is applied to NFAs as a test case and is compared to both conventional STEM methods as well as complementary methods such as scanning electron microscopy and atom probe tomography.more » In this paper, we review past results and present new results illustrating the effectiveness of latest-generation STEM instrumentation and data analysis.« less

  13. D:\Web\GC\Current_Material\techtrans\GNP-1003.PDF | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    D:\Web\GC\Current_Material\techtrans\GNP-1003.PDF&#0; D:\Web\GC\Current_Material\techtrans\GNP-1003.PDF&#0; PDF icon D:\Web\GC\Current_Material\techtrans\GNP-1003.PDF&#0; More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - Intellectual Property Provisions _NRD-1003_.doc Microsoft Word - FAL2004-03.doc CDSB-1003.PDF&#0;

  14. Institute for Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science Institute for Materials Science x

  15. A method for making dendritic metal nanostructures using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

    2008-05-20

    A method for making dendritic metal nanostructures using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  16. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Archived CNMS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highlights CNMS USER RESEARCH Fluctuations and Correlations in Physical and Biological Nanosystems Michael L. Simpson and Peter T. Cummings Center for Nanophase Materials Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory When components at one level (atoms, molecules, nanostructures, etc) are coupled together to form higher-level - mesoscale - structures, new collective phenomena emerge. Optimizing such systems requires embracing stochastic fluctuations in a manner similar to that found in nature.

  17. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - CNMS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CNMS RESEARCH Synthesis and Directed Growth of Single-Crystal TCNQ-Cu Organic Nanowires K. Xiao, J. Tao, and Z. Liu (CNMS Postdocs); I. N. Ivanov, A.A. Puretzky, Z. Pan, and D.B. Geohegan (CNMS Staff); and S. J. Pennycook (ORNL) Achievement Few synthesis experiments have been reported for nanowires of organic semiconductors, despite the proposed use of organic thin-film materials in energy-related optoelectronic devices such as solid state lighting and photovoltaic cells. Although nanostructures

  18. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  19. Nanostructures of Boron, Carbon and Magnesium Diboride for High Temperature Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfefferle, Lisa; Fang, Fang; Iyyamperumal, Eswarmoorthi; Keskar, Gayatri

    2013-12-23

    Direct fabrication of MgxBy nanostructures is achieved by employing metal (Ni,Mg) incorporated MCM-41 in the Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) reaction. Different reaction conditions are tested to optimize the fabrication process. TEM analysis shows the fabrication of MgxBy nanostructures starting at the reaction temperature of 600oC, with the yield of the nanostructures increasing with increasing reaction temperature. The as-synthesized MgxBy nanostructures have the diameters in the range of 3-5nm, which do not increase with the reaction temperature consistent with templated synthesis. EELS analysis of the template removed nanostructures confirms the existence of B and Mg with possible contamination of Si and O. NEXAFS and Raman spectroscopy analysis suggested a concentric layer-by-layer MgxBy nanowire/nanotube growth model for our as-synthesized nanostructures. Ni k-edge XAS indicates that the formation of MgNi alloy particles is important for the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth of MgxBy nanostructures with fine diameters, and the presence of Mg vapor not just Mg in the catalyst is crucial for the formation of Ni-Mg clusters. Physical templating by the MCM-41 pores was shown to confine the diameter of the nanostructures. DC magnetization measurements indicate possible superconductive behaviors in the as-synthesized samples.

  20. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences February 9-10, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors Last edited: 2016-02-01 08:07:17

  1. Method of making nanostructured glass-ceramic waste forms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Huizhen; Wang, Yifeng; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2012-12-18

    A method of rendering hazardous materials less dangerous comprising trapping the hazardous material in nanopores of a nanoporous composite material, reacting the trapped hazardous material to render it less volatile/soluble, sealing the trapped hazardous material, and vitrifying the nanoporous material containing the less volatile/soluble hazardous material.

  2. Formation of Carbon Nanostructures in Cobalt- and Nickel-Doped Carbon Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, R; Baumann, T F; Cronin, S; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M; Satcher, Jr., J H

    2004-11-09

    We have prepared carbon aerogels (CAs) doped with cobalt or nickel through sol-gel polymerization of formaldehyde with the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, followed by ion-exchange with M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (where M = Co{sup 2+} or Ni{sup 2+}), supercritical drying with liquid CO{sub 2} and carbonization at temperatures between 400 C and 1050 C under an N{sub 2} atmosphere. The nanostructures of these metal-doped carbon aerogels were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Metallic nickel and cobalt nanoparticles are generated during the carbonization process at about 400 C and 450 C, respectively, forming nanoparticles that are {approx}4 nm in diameter. The sizes and size dispersion of the metal particles increase with increasing carbonization temperatures for both materials. The carbon frameworks of the Ni- and Co-doped aerogels carbonized below 600 C mainly consist of interconnected carbon particles with a size of 15 to 30 nm. When the samples are pyrolyzed at 1050 C, the growth of graphitic nanoribbons with different curvatures is observed in the Ni and Co-doped carbon aerogel materials. The distance of graphite layers in the nanoribbons is about 0.38 nm. These metal-doped CAs retain the overall open cell structure of metal-free CAs, exhibiting high surface areas and pore diameters in the micro and mesoporic region.

  3. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  4. Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  5. Low-dimensional hyperthin FeS2 nanostructures for efficient and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jasion, Daniel; Qiao, Qiao; Barforoush, Joseph M.; Zhu, Yimei; Ren, Shenqiang; Leonard, Kevin C.

    2015-10-05

    We report a scalable, solution-processing method for synthesizing low-dimensional hyperthin FeS2 nanostructures, and we show that 2D FeS2 disc nanostructures are an efficient and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst. By changing the Fe:S ratio in the precursor solution, we were able to preferentially synthesize either 1D wire or 2D disc nanostructures. The 2D FeS2 disc structure has the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction, comparable to platinum in neutral pH conditions. Moreover, the ability of the FeS2 nanostructures to generate hydrogen was confirmed by scanning electrochemical microscopy, and the 2D disc nanostructures were able to generate hydrogen for overmore » 125 h.« less

  6. Growing ordered and stable nanostructures on polyhedral nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, L. X.; Bharathi, M. S.; Zhang, Y. W.; Upmanyu, M.

    2014-12-22

    Using both theoretical analysis and phase field simulation, we reveal robust and facile self-assembly routes, which allow the growth of different stable and ordered nanostructures on various polyhedral nanocrystals (NCs) heteroepitaxially. Our studies show that by increasing the NC's size, transitions from formal growth to ordered quantum dots on the facets and further to ordered quantum dots on the corners take place. The predicted morphologies and their transitions are in excellent agreement with existing widely scattered experimental results. Our study presents a facile and potentially practical route for mass-producing hybrid NCs with well-defined size, shape, composition, and architecture.

  7. Sensitive And Selective Chemical Sensor With Nanostructured Surfaces.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew C. R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2003-02-04

    A chemical sensor is provided which includes an optical resonator including a nanostructured surface comprising a plurality of nanoparticles bound to one or more surfaces of the resonator. The nanoparticles provide optical absorption and the sensor further comprises a detector for detecting the optical absorption of the nanoparticles or their environment. In particular, a selective chemical interaction is provided which modifies the optical absorption of the nanoparticles or their environment, and an analyte is detected based on the modified optical absorption. A light pulse is generated which enters the resonator to interrogate the modified optical absorption and the exiting light pulse is detected by the detector.

  8. Engineered Nanostructured MEA Technology for Low Temperature Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yimin

    2009-07-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalyst support technology based on unique engineered nanostructures for low temperature fuel cells which: (1) Achieves high catalyst activity and performance; (2) Improves catalyst durability over current technologies; and (3) Reduces catalyst cost. This project is directed at the development of durable catalysts supported by novel support that improves the catalyst utilization and hence reduce the catalyst loading. This project will develop a solid fundamental knowledge base necessary for the synthetic effort while at the same time demonstrating the catalyst advantages in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs).

  9. Michigan Technological Center for Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials in the Department of Chemical Engineering (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullins, M.; Rogers, T.; King, J.; Holles, J.; Keith, J.; Heiden, P.; Cornilsen, B.; Allen, J.

    2009-12-10

    Summaries of the followings tasks are given in this report: Task 1 - Lightweight, Thermally Conductive Bipolar Plates for Improved Thermal Management in Fuel Cells; Task 2 - Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts; Task 3 - Hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites; Task 4 - Carbonaceous Monolithic Electrodes for Fuel Cells and Rechargeable Batteries; and Task 5 - Movement and Freeze of Water in Fuel Cell Electrodes.

  10. Investigation of some new hydro(solvo)thermal synthesis routes to nanostructured mixed-metal oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnett, David L.; Harunsani, Mohammad H.; Kashtiban, Reza J.; Playford, Helen Y.; Sloan, Jeremy; Hannon, Alex C.; Walton, Richard I.

    2014-06-01

    We present a study of two new solvothermal synthesis approaches to mixed-metal oxide materials and structural characterisation of the products formed. The solvothermal oxidation of metallic gallium by a diethanolamine solution of iron(II) chloride at 240 °C produces a crystalline sample of a spinel-structured material, made up of nano-scale particles typically 20 nm in dimension. XANES spectroscopy at the K-edge shows that the material contains predominantly Fe{sup 2+} in an octahedral environment, but that a small amount of Fe{sup 3+} is also present. Careful analysis using transmission electron microscopy and powder neutron diffraction shows that the sample is actually a mixture of two spinel materials: predominantly (>97%) an Fe{sup 2+} phase Ga{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 1.2}O{sub 3.9}, but with a minor impurity phase that is iron-rich. In contrast, the hydrothermal reaction of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)dihydroxide in water with increasing amounts of Sn(IV) acetate allows nanocrystalline samples of the SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} solid solution to be prepared directly, as proved by powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: New solvothermal synthesis approaches to spinel and rutile mixed-metal oxides are reported. - Highlights: • Solvothermal oxidation of gallium metal in organic iron(II) solution gives a novel iron gallate spinel. • Hydrothermal reaction of titanium(IV) complex and tin(IV) acetate produces the complete SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} solid solution. • Nanostructured mixed-metal oxide phases are produced directly from solution.

  11. Metal assisted chemical etching for high aspect ratio nanostructures: A review of characteristics and applications in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, XL

    2012-04-01

    Metal assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) is a recently developed anisotropic wet etching method that is capable of producing high aspect ratio semiconductor nanostructures from patterned metal film. In this review article, we highlight the characteristics of MacEtch of silicon (Si) including controllability of the produced sidewall roughness, the inherent high aspect ratio, the weak crystal orientation dependence, impurity doping and solution concentration dependent porosity, as well as the applicability of MacEtch to non-Si based semiconductor materials including III-V compound semiconductors. Also reviewed are applications of MacEtch produced high aspect ratio Si nanostructures in photovoltaics, where the p-n junction can be in the planar Si tray, core-shell, or axial geometry, with nanowire, micropillar, or hole arrays serving as light trapping or carrier collection structures. The prospect of using MacEtch to improve the cost and efficiency of photovoltaic cells is discussed. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermoelectric infrared microsensors based on a periodically suspended thermopile integrating nanostructured Ge/SiGe quantum dots superlattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziouche, K. E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Bougrioua, Z. E-mail: Zahia.bougrioua@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Lejeune, P.; Lasri, T.; Leclercq, D.; Savelli, G.; Hauser, D.; Michon, P.-M.

    2014-07-28

    This paper presents an original integration of polycrystalline SiGe-based quantum dots superlattices (QDSL) into Thermoelectric (TE) planar infrared microsensors (?SIR) fabricated using a CMOS technology. The nanostructuration in QDSL results into a considerably reduced thermal conductivity by a factor up to 10 compared to the one of standard polysilicon layers that are usually used for IR sensor applications. A presentation of several TE layers, QDSL and polysilicon, is given before to describe the fabrication of the thermopile-based sensors. The theoretical values of the sensitivity to irradiance of ?SIR can be predicted thanks to an analytical model. These findings are used to interpret the experimental measurements versus the nature of the TE layer exploited in the devices. The use of nanostructured QDSL as the main material in ?SIR thermopile has brought a sensitivity improvement of about 28% consistent with theoretical predictions. The impact of QDSL low thermal conductivity is damped by the contribution of the thermal conductivity of all the other sub-layers that build up the device.

  13. Fabrication and Spark plasma sintering of nanostructured bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleemi, Mohsin; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Li, Shanghua; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2012-06-26

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices can harvest residual low-grade waste heat energy. Bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) and its alloys are mostly used TE materials in the bulk form for making TE modules. We report a simple, fast and very high yield synthetic process for the bulk Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanopowders with hexagonal plate like morphology. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) process has been optimized in order to preserve nanostructure while achieving a high compaction density of the pellets. Electron microscopy analysis was used to determine the effect of SPS parameters during compaction on the grain growth. Optimal conditions for the fabricated nanopowder was determined as 673 K, 70 MPa pressure with no holding time, which resulted in average lateral grain size in the range of 165-190 nm for a compact density of 98%. About 50% reduction of thermal conductivity was observed as compared to its bulk counterparts, revealing the feasibility of suggested route in the preservation of nanostructure and enhanced phonon scattering.

  14. Materials Physics | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics A photo of laser light rays going in various directions atop a corrugated metal substrate In materials physics, NREL focuses on realizing materials that transcend the present constraints of photovoltaic (PV) and solid-state lighting technologies. Through materials growth and characterization, coupled with theoretical modeling, we seek to understand and control fundamental electronic and optical processes in semiconductors. Capabilities Optimizing New Materials An illustration showing

  15. Holdup Measurement System 4 V1.0d

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    HMS4 is a software package for performing and documenting holdup measurements. HMS4 includes two sets of programs; the main program that runs on a host personal computer (PC), and the other ones that run on a handheld mobile computer or portable PC. The main host computer program performs setup and calibration of multichannel analyzer/detector pairs, loads the controllers with operational parameters, receives measurement data from the controllers, maintains measurements and derived results in databases, andmore » prints reports.« less

  16. Covalent functionalization of metal oxide and carbon nanostructures with polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) and their incorporation in polymer composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomathi, A.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2010-12-15

    Polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) has been employed to covalently functionalize nanostructures of TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene to enable their dispersion in polar solvents. Covalent functionalization of these nanostructures with POSS has been established by electron microscopy, EDAX analysis and infrared spectroscopy. On heating the POSS-functionalized nanostructures, silica-coated nanostructures are obtained. POSS-functionalized nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and graphite were utilized to prepare polymer-nanostructure composites based on PVA and nylon-6,6.

  17. Method of making nanostructured glass-ceramic waste forms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Huizhen; Wang, Yifeng; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Bencoe, Denise N.

    2014-07-08

    A waste form for and a method of rendering hazardous materials less dangerous is disclosed that includes fixing the hazardous material in nanopores of a nanoporous material, reacting the trapped hazardous material to render it less volatile/soluble, and vitrifying the nanoporous material containing the less volatile/soluble hazardous material.

  18. High-efficiency photovoltaics based on semiconductor nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Paul K.L.; Yu, Edward T.; Wang, Deli

    2011-10-31

    The objective of this project was to exploit a variety of semiconductor nanostructures, specifically semiconductor quantum wells, quantum dots, and nanowires, to achieve high power conversion efficiency in photovoltaic devices. In a thin-film device geometry, the objectives were to design, fabricate, and characterize quantum-well and quantum-dot solar cells in which scattering from metallic and/or dielectric nanostructures was employed to direct incident photons into lateral, optically confined paths within a thin (~1-3um or less) device structure. Fundamental issues concerning nonequilibrium carrier escape from quantum-confined structures, removal of thin-film devices from an epitaxial growth substrate, and coherent light trapping in thin-film photovoltaic devices were investigated. In a nanowire device geometry, the initial objectives were to engineer vertical nanowire arrays to optimize optical confinement within the nanowires, and to extend this approach to core-shell heterostructures to achieve broadspectrum absorption while maintaining high opencircuit voltages. Subsequent work extended this approach to include fabrication of nanowire photovoltaic structures on low-cost substrates.

  19. Isotopically Enriched Films and Nanostructures by Ultrafast Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pronko

    2004-12-13

    This project involved a systematic study to apply newly discovered isotopic enrichment effects in laser ablation plumes to the fabrication of isotopically engineered thin films, superlattices, and nanostructures. The approach to this program involved using ultrafast lasers as a method for generating ablated plasmas that have preferentially structured isotopic content in the body of the ablation plasma plumes. In examining these results we have attempted to interpret the observations in terms of a plasma centrifuge process that is driven by the internal electro-magnetic fields of the plasma itself. The research plan involved studying the following phenomena in regard to the ablation plume and the isotopic mass distribution within it: (1) Test basic equations of steady state centrifugal motion in the ablation plasma. (2) Investigate angular distribution of ions in the ablation plasmas. (3) Examine interactions of plasma ions with self-generated magnetic fields. (3) Investigate ion to neutral ratios in the ablation plasmas. (5) Test concepts of plasma pumping. (6) Fabricate isotopically enriched nanostructures.

  20. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  1. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  2. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  3. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  4. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials (continued) * Generators are required to avoid Las Vegas metropolitan area and Hoover Dam (Section 6.4 of NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria, available at ...

  5. material recovery

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dispose of dangerous nuclear and radiological material, and detect and control the proliferation of related WMD technology and expertise.

  6. Synthesis of Compositionally Defined Single-Crystalline Eu 3+ -Activated MolybdateTungstate Solid-Solution Composite Nanowires and Observation of Charge Transfer in a Novel Class of 1D CaMoO 4 CaWO 4 :Eu 3+ 0D CdS/CdSe QD Nanoscale Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-10

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu?-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW??xMoxO? (0 ? x ? 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (x). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition with our 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at x = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (x = 0.8) 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu? activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. We propose that the PL quenching can be attributed to a photo-induced electron transfer process from CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) to both CdSe and CdS QDs, an assertion supported by complementary NEXAFS measurements.

  7. Synthesis of compositionally-defined single-crystalline Eu?-activated molybdate-tungstate solid solution composite nanowires and observation of charge transfer in a novel class of 1D CaMoO?-CaWO?: Eu? 0D CdS/CdSe QD nanoscale heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jinkyi; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-10

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu?-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW??xMoxO? (0 ? x ? 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (x). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition withmoreour 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (0 ? x ? 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at x = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (x = 0.8) 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu? activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. We propose that the PL quenching can be attributed to a photo-induced electron transfer process from CaW??xMoxO?: Eu? (x = 0.8) to both CdSe and CdS QDs, an assertion supported by complementary NEXAFS measurements.less

  8. Growth, characterization and electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Hierarchical CuO nanostructures were grown on Cu foil. Monoclinic phase of CuO was grown. XPS analysis revealed the presence of Cu(2p{sub 3/2}) and Cu(2p{sub 1/2}) on the surfaces. Specific capacitance of 94 F/g was achieved for the CuO using cyclic voltammetry. Impedance spectra show their pseudo capacitor applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for pseudo-supercapacitor device applications. Moreover, the CuO nanostructures were formed on Cu substrate by in situ crystallization process. The as-grown CuO nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analysis. The XRD and FT-IR analysis confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO nanostructures. FE-SEM analysis shows the formation of leave like hierarchical structures of CuO with high uniformity and controlled density. The electrochemical analysis such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies confirms the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the CuO nanostructures. Our experimental results suggest that CuO nanostructures will create promising applications of CuO toward pseudo-supercapacitors.

  9. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research January 5-6, 2011 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion Energy Sciences

  10. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research May 7-8, 2009 Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE ASCR Program Manager Yukiko Sekine Last edited: 2016-02-01 08:06:5

  11. Engineered Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Engineered Materials Materials design, fabrication, assembly, and characterization for national security needs. Contact Us Group Leader Ross Muenchausen Email Deputy Group Leader Dominic Peterson Email Group Office (505)-667-6887 We perform polymer science and engineering, including ultra-precision target design, fabrication, assembly, characterization, and field support. We perform polymer science and engineering, including ultra-precision target design, fabrication, assembly,

  12. Composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  13. Cermet materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-12-23

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  14. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials discovery serves as a foundation for technological progress in renewable energies. Our experimental activities in inorganic solid-state materials innovation span a broad range of technological readiness levels-from basic science through applied research to device development-relying on a high-throughput combinatorial materials science approach, followed by traditional targeted experiments. In addition, our researchers work

  15. Nanostructured Cu-Cr alloy with high strength and electrical conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islamgaliev, R. K. Nesterov, K. M.; Bourgon, J.; Champion, Y.; Valiev, R. Z.

    2014-05-21

    The influence of nanostructuring by high pressure torsion (HPT) on strength and electrical conductivity in the Cu-Cr alloy has been investigated. Microstructure of HPT samples was studied by transmission electron microscopy with special attention on precipitation of small chromium particles after various treatments. Effect of dynamic precipitation leading to enhancement of strength and electrical conductivity was observed. It is shown that nanostructuring leads to combination of high ultimate tensile strength of 790840?MPa, enhanced electrical conductivity of 81%85% IACS and thermal stability up to 500?C. The contributions of grain refinement and precipitation to enhanced properties of nanostructured alloy are discussed.

  16. Crystallization of a self-assembled three-dimensional DNA nanostructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystallization of a self-assembled three-dimensional DNA nanostructure Authors: Rendek, K.N., Fromme, R., Grotjohann, I., Fromme, P. Title: Crystallization of a self-assembled three-dimensional DNA nanostructure Source: Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Year: 2013 Volume: F69 Pages: 141-146 ABSTRACT: The powerful and specific molecular-recognition system present in the base-pairing of DNA allows for the design of a plethora of nanostructures. In this work, the crystallization of a self-assembling

  17. Forensics of Soot: C5-Related Nanostructure as a Diagnostic of In-Cylinder

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry | Department of Energy Forensics of Soot: C5-Related Nanostructure as a Diagnostic of In-Cylinder Chemistry Forensics of Soot: C5-Related Nanostructure as a Diagnostic of In-Cylinder Chemistry Changes observed in nanostructure of soot produced by experimental light-duty diesel engine with varying degrees of biodiesel fuel blending PDF icon p-30_vanderwal.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Fuel

  18. Metallic nanospheres embedded in nanowires initiated on nanostructures and methods for synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaidi, Saleem (Albuquerque, NM); Tringe, Joseph W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Vanamu, Ganesh (Sunnyvale, CA); Prinja, Rajiv (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-10

    A nanostructure includes a nanowire having metallic spheres formed therein, the spheres being characterized as having at least one of about a uniform diameter and about a uniform spacing there between. A nanostructure in another embodiment includes a substrate having an area with a nanofeature; and a nanowire extending from the nanofeature, the nanowire having metallic spheres formed therein, the spheres being characterized as having at least one of about a uniform diameter and about a uniform spacing there between. A method for forming a nanostructure is also presented. A method for reading and writing data is also presented. A method for preparing nanoparticles is also presented.

  19. Complex Oxides > Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Oxides In This Section Combinatorial Analysis Nanoparticles Nanostructured Systems Deposition Complex Oxides Combinatorial Analysis Nanoparticles Nanostructured Systems Deposition

  20. Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2005-09-30

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the second 12 month contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  1. Nanostructured Cobalt Oxide Clusters in Mesoporous Silica as Efficient Oxygen-Evolving Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiao, Feng; Frei, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The development of integrated artificial photosynthetic systems for the direct conversion of carbon dioxide and water to fuel depends on the availability of efficient and robust catalysts for the chemical transformations. Catalysts need to exhibit turnover frequency (TOF) and density (hence size) commensurate with the solar flux at ground level (1000Wm2, airmass (AM) 1.5)[1]to avoid wasting of incidentsolar photons. For example, a catalyst with a TOF of 100 s1 requires a density of one catalytic site per square nanometer. Catalysts with lower rates or taking up a larger space will require a high-surface-area, nanostructured support that affords tens to hundreds of catalytic sites per square nanometer. Furthermore, catalysts need to operate close to the thermodynamic potential of the redox reaction so that amaximum fraction of the solar photon energy is converted to chemical energy. Stability considerations favor all-inorganic oxide materials, as does avoidance of harsh reaction conditions of pH value or temperature.

  2. NANOSTRUCTURED HIGH PERFORMANCE ULTRAVIOLET AND BLUE LIGHT EMITTING DIODES FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2004-10-01

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the first 12 month contract period include (1) new means of synthesizing zero- and one-dimensional GaN nanostructures, (2) establishment of the building blocks for making GaN-based microcavity devices, and (3) demonstration of top-down approach to nano-scale photonic devices for enhanced spontaneous emission and light extraction. These include a demonstration of eight-fold enhancement of the external emission efficiency in new InGaN QW photonic crystal structures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  3. Recovery of Rare Earths, Precious Metals and Other Critical Materials from Geothermal Waters with Advanced Sorbent Structures

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Pamela M. Kinsey

    2015-09-30

    The work evaluates, develops and demonstrates flexible, scalable mineral extraction technology for geothermal brines based upon solid phase sorbent materials with a specific focus upon rare earth elements (REEs). The selected organic and inorganic sorbent materials demonstrated high performance for collection of trace REEs, precious and valuable metals. The nanostructured materials typically performed better than commercially available sorbents. Data contains organic and inorganic sorbent removal efficiency, Sharkey Hot Springs (Idaho) water chemsitry analysis, and rare earth removal efficiency from select sorbents.

  4. Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiao [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Bingsen [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Li, Chuang; Shao, Zhengfeng [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Su, Dangsheng [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Williams, Christopher T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States); Liang, Changhai, E-mail: changhai@dlut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been synthesized by reduction and silification of high-surface-area nickel oxide, and exhibited remarkably like-noble metal property, lower electric resistivity, and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have been prepared by reduction and silification of high-surface-area NiO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of nickel silicides changed with increasing reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doping into nickel changed the magnetic properties of metallic nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have remarkably lower electric resistivity and like-noble metal property. -- Abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been prepared by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide (145 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) produced via precipitation. The prepared materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic and electrochemical measurements. The nickel silicide formation involves the following sequence: NiO (cubic) {yields} Ni (cubic) {yields} Ni{sub 2}Si (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi{sub 2} (cubic), with particles growing from 13.7 to 21.3 nm. The nickel silicides are ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization values change drastically with the increase of Si content. Nickel silicides have remarkably low electrical resistivity and noble metal-like properties because of a constriction of the Ni d band and an increase of the electronic density of states. The results suggest that such silicides are promising candidates as inexpensive yet functional materials for applications in electrochemistry as well as catalysis.

  5. ENERGY COMMISSION APPL.lCATION FOR SOURCE MATERIAL LICENSE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    COMMISSION APPL.lCATION FOR SOURCE MATERIAL LICENSE Pursuant to the rcgu!ations in Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, Part 40, application is hereby made for a license to receive, possess, use, transfer, deliver or import into the United Stat-, source material for the activity or activities described. 1. (check ooa) 2. NAME OF APPLICANT W. R. GRACE 6 Co. 0 (a) New Iicense 0 (b) Amendment to License No.- Davison Chemical Division STA-422 3. Q (c) Renewal of Licensr No. 0 (d)

  6. Solvothermal synthesis of copper sulfide semiconductor micro/nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Covellite copper sulfide (CuS) micro/nanometer crystals in the shape of hierarchical doughnut-shaped, superstructured spheric-shaped and flowerlike architectures congregated from those nanoplates with the thickness of 20-100 nm have been prepared by a solvothermal method. The as-obtained CuS products were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). A systematic investigation has been carried out to understand the factors influencing the evolution of CuS particle morphology which found to be predominant by solvent, surfactant, sulfur resource and copper salt. The possible formation mechanism for the nanostructure formation was also discussed. These CuS products show potential applications in solar cell, photothermal conversion and chemical sensor.

  7. Nanoscience and Nanostructures for Photovoltaics and Solar Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nozik, Arthur J.

    2010-07-02

    Quantum confinement of electronic particles (negative electrons and positive holes) in nanocrystals produces unique optical and electronic properties that have the potential to enhance the power conversion efficiency of solar cells for photovoltaic and solar fuels production at lower cost. These approaches and applications are labeled third generation solar photon conversion. Prominent among these unique properties is the efficient formation of more than one electron-hole pair (called excitons in nanocrystals) from a single absorbed photon. In isolated nanocrystals that have three-dimensional confinement of charge carriers (quantum dots) or two-dimensional confinement (quantum wires and rods) this process is termed multiple exciton generation. This Perspective presents a summary of our present understanding of the science of optoelectronic properties of nanocrystals and a prognosis for and review of the technological status of nanocrystals and nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic cells and solar fuels production.

  8. Spectroscopic study of Gd nanostructures quantum confined in Fe corrals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, R. X.; Sun, L.; Miao, B. F.; Li, Q. L.; Zheng, C.; Wu, D.; You, B.; Zhang, W.; Han, P.; Bader, S. D.; et al

    2015-07-10

    Low dimensional nanostructures have attracted attention due to their rich physical properties and potential applications. The essential factor for their functionality is their electronic properties, which can be modified by quantum confinement. Here the electronic states of Gd atom trapped in open Fe corrals on Ag(111) were studied via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. A single spectroscopic peak above the Fermi level is observed after Gd adatoms are trapped inside Fe corrals, while two peaks appear in empty corrals. The single peak position is close to the higher energy peak of the empty corrals. These findings, attributed to quantum confinement of themore » corrals and Gd structures trapped inside, are supported by tight-binding calculations. As a result, this demonstrates and provides insights into atom trapping in open corrals of various diameters, giving an alternative approach to modify the properties of nano-objects.« less

  9. Ablation and nanostructuring of metals by femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashitkov, S I; Komarov, P S; Ovchinnikov, A V; Struleva, E V; Agranat, M B; Zhakhovskii, V V; Inogamov, N A

    2014-06-30

    Using an interferometric continuous monitoring technique, we have investigated the motion of the surface of an aluminium target in the case of femtosecond laser ablation at picosecond time delays relative to the instant of laser exposure. Measurements of the temporal target dispersion dynamics, molecular dynamics simulation results and the morphology of the ablation crater have demonstrated a thermomechanical (spall) nature of the disruption of the condensed phase due to the cavitation-driven formation and growth of vapour phase nuclei upon melt expansion, followed by the formation of surface nanostructures upon melt solidification. The tensile strength of heated aluminium in a condensed state has been determined experimentally at an expansion rate of ?10{sup 9} s{sup -1}. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  10. Understanding Interfaces in Metal-Graphitic Hybrid Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Mengning; Tang, Yifan; Star, Alexander

    2013-01-03

    Metalgraphitic interfaces formed between metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or graphene play an important role in the properties of such hybrid nanostructures. This Perspective summarizes different types of interfaces that exist within the metalcarbon nanoassemblies and discusses current efforts on understanding and modeling the interfacial conditions and interactions. Characterization of the metalgraphitic interfaces is described here, including microscopy, spectroscopy, electrochemical techniques, and electrical measurements. Recent studies on these nanohybrids have shown that the metalgraphitic interfaces play critical roles in both controlled assembly of nanoparticles and practical applications of nanohybrids in chemical sensors and fuel cells. Better understanding, design, and manipulation of metalgraphitic interfaces could therefore become the new frontier in the research of MNP/CNT or MNP/graphene hybrid systems.

  11. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Page...

  12. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-05-23

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  13. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Pag...

  14. Synthesis, electronic and optical properties of Si nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, L.N.

    1996-09-01

    Silicon and silicon oxide nanostructures have been deposited on solid substrates, in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber, by laser ablation or thermal vaporization. Laser ablation followed by substrate post annealing produced Si clusters with average size of a few nanometers, on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces. This technique, which is based on surface diffusion, is limited to the production of less than one layer of clusters on a given surface. The low coverage of Si clusters and the possibility of nonradiative decay of excitation in the Si cores to the HOPG substrates in these samples rendered them unsuitable for many optical measurements. Thermal vaporization of Si in an Ar buffer gas, on the contrary, yielded multilayer coverage of Si nanoclusters with a fairly narrow size distribution of about 2 nm, full width at half maximum (FWHM). As a result, further study was performed only on Si nanoclusters synthesized by thermal vaporization in a buffer gas. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that these nanoclusters were crystalline. However, during synthesis, if oxygen was the buffer gas, a network of amorphous Si oxide nanostructures (an-SiO{sub x}) with occasional embedded Si dots was formed. All samples showed strong infrared and/or visible photoluminescence (PL) with varying decay times from nanoseconds to microseconds depending on synthesis conditions. There were differences in PL spectra for hydrogen and oxygen passivated nc-Si, while many common PL properties between oxygen passivated nc-Si and an SiO{sub x} were observed. The observed experimental results can be best explained by a model involving absorption between quantum confined states in the Si cores and emission for which the decay times are very sensitive to surface and/or interface states.

  15. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  16. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences August 3-4, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors [not available] NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Workshop Agenda Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion

  17. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics November 12-13, 2009 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Workshop Agenda Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion Energy Sciences

  18. Meeting Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BER Meeting Materials Meeting Materials Here you will find various items to be used before and during the requirements review. The following documents are included: Case study worksheet to be filled in by meeting participants Sample of a completed case study from a Nuclear Physics requirements workshop held in 2011 A graph of NERSC and BER usage as a function of time A powerpoint template you can use at the requirements review Downloads RequirementsWorkshopCaseStudyTemplate.doc | Word document

  19. Meeting Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HEP Meeting Materials Meeting Materials Here you will find various items to be used before and during the requirements review. The following documents are included: Case study worksheet to be filled in by meeting participants Sample of a completed case study from a Nuclear Physics requirements workshop held in 2011 A graph of NERSC and HEP usage as a function of time A powerpoint template you can use at the requirements review Downloads CaseStudyTemplate.docx | unknown Case Study Worksheet -

  20. Microwave and Beam Activation of Nanostructured Catalysts for Environmentally Friendly, Energy Efficient Heavy Crude Oil Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose goal is initial evaluation and development of energy efficient processes which take advantage of the benefits offered by nanostructured catalysts which can be activated by microwave, RF, or radiation beams.

  1. Stability of Y Ti O Precipitates in Friction Stir Welded Nanostructure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stability of Y Ti O Precipitates in Friction Stir Welded Nanostructured Ferritic Alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stability of Y Ti O Precipitates in Friction Stir...

  2. Solving the Unsovlable: The Nanostructure of Gold at 1.1 Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solving the Unsovlable: The Nanostructure of Gold at 1.1 Resolution Print For the first time, a team of scientists led by Roger Kornberg has synthesized thiol-covered gold...

  3. Effect of Hydrogen Passivation on the Electronic Structure of Ionic Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, H. X.; Li, S. S.; Li, J. B.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-05-15

    In theoretical studies of thin film and nanostructured semiconductors, pseudohydrogen (PH) is widely used to passivate the surface dangling bonds. Based on these calculations, it is often believed that nanostructured semiconductors, due to quantum confinement, have a larger band gap than their bulk counterparts. Using first-principles band structure theory calculation and comparing systematically the differences between PH-passivated and real-hydrogen-passivated (RH-passivated) semiconductor surfaces and nanocrystals, we show that, unlike PH passivation that always increases the band gap with respect to the bulk value, RH passivation of the nanostructured semiconductors can either increase or decrease the band gap, depending on the ionicity of the nanocompounds. The differences between PH and RH passivations decreases when the covalency of the semiconductor increases and can be explained using a band coupling model. This observation greatly increases the tunability of nanostructured semiconductor properties, especially for wide-gap ionic semiconductors.

  4. A MATERIAL WORLD Tailoring Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WINTER* 2000-2001 A MATERIAL WORLD Tailoring Materials for the Future A QUARTERLY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL VOLUME 2, NO. 4 ALSO: New Materials for Microsystems Predictive Modeling Meets the Challenge S A N D I A T E C H N O L O G Y ON THE COVER: Bonnie Mckenzie operates a dual beam Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB/SEM). The image on the computer screen shows a cross section of a radiation-hardened device. The cross section was rendered with the FIB/SEM and allowed the

  5. Functional Imaging of Hybrid Nanostructures. Visualization of Mechanisms for Solar Energy Utilization. Northwestern FG-02-07ER46401 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauhon, Lincoln J.

    2015-03-20

    The report describes advances in understanding the interaction of light with hybrid nanostructured materials, and the influence of physical and electronic structure on the flow of excess energetic charge carriers to support the design and optimization of new materials for photoelectrical and photoelectrochemical energy conversion. Raman scattering, multi-wavelength optical excitation, and numerical modeling are combined with electrical transport measurements on model hybrid materials structures and devices to resolve, in energy and space, the absorption of light, the generation of excess energetic charge carriers, and the efficiency of their separation to generate electrical and chemical energy. Appropriate combinations of spatially-resolved, time-resolved, and spectrally-resolved measurements are used to isolate and quantify various steps in the energy conversion process, including geometrically and plasmonically enhanced absorption, the generation of carriers with excess energy, and the efficiency with which the carriers can move to and perform useful chemistry at interfaces.

  6. Piezoelectric and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures on Ag films.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Piezoelectric and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures on Ag films. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Piezoelectric and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures on Ag films. No abstract prepared. Authors: Tallant, David Robert ; Missert, Nancy A. ; Scrymgeour, David ; Voigt, James A. ; Liu, J. [1] ; Hsu, Julia, W. P. + Show Author Affiliations (.) Publication Date: 2006-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 898423 Report Number(s):

  7. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen

    2014-05-13

    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline metal sulfide nanostructure. The metal is a transitional metal or a Group IV metal. In the method, a porous membrane is placed between a metal precursor solution and a sulfur precursor solution. The metal cations of the metal precursor solution and sulfur ions of the sulfur precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal sulfide nanostructure.

  8. Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page NEES Header Director Gary Rubloff Lead Institution University of Maryland Year Established 2009 Mission To reveal scientific insights and design principles that

  9. Self-Assembled, Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and Water Treatment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Figure 1. Left: Scheme of the self-assembly of a phloroglucinol/ formaldehyde copolymer in the hydrophilic domains of PEO- PPO-PEO triblock copolymers. Top right: Mesoporous carbons in different forms: rod, film, membrane, fiber, and paper. Bottom right: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of mesoporous carbon nanostructure. Illustrations and photos courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Self-Assembled, Nanostructured Carbon for Energy Storage and Water Treatment The Development of

  10. DNA Nanostructures as Models for Evaluating the Role of Enthalpy and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Entropy in Polyvalent Binding Nanostructures as Models for Evaluating the Role of Enthalpy and Entropy in Polyvalent Binding Authors: Nangreave, J., Yan, H., and Liu, Y. Title: DNA Nanostructures as Models for Evaluating the Role of Enthalpy and Entropy in Polyvalent Binding Source: Journal of the American Chemical Society Year: 2011 Volume: 133 Pages: 4490-4497 ABSTRACT: DNA nanotechnology allows the design and construction of nanoscale objects that have finely tuned dimensions,

  11. Self-Assembled ErSb Nanostructures with Optical Applications in Infrared

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Terahertz (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Self-Assembled ErSb Nanostructures with Optical Applications in Infrared and Terahertz Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-Assembled ErSb Nanostructures with Optical Applications in Infrared and Terahertz Authors: Lu, Hong ; Ouellette, Daniel G. ; Preu, Sascha ; Watts, Justin D. ; Zaks, Benjamin ; Burke, Peter G. ; Sherwin, Mark S. ; Gossard, Arthur C. Publication Date: 2014-03-12 OSTI Identifier: 1160953 DOE Contract Number:

  12. Microstructure and thermal conductivity of surfactant-free NiO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahoo, Pranati; Misra, Dinesh K.; Salvador, Jim; Makongo, Julien P.A.; Chaubey, Girija S.; Takas, Nathan J.; Wiley, John B.; Poudeu, Pierre F.P.

    2012-06-15

    High purity, nanometer sized surfactant-free nickel oxide (NiO) particles were produced in gram scale using a solution combustion method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), gas pycnometry and gas adsorption analysis (BET). The average particle size of the as-synthesized NiO increases significantly with the preheating temperature of the furnace, while the specific surface area decreases. A BET specific surface area of {approx}100 m{sup 2}/g was obtained for NiO nanoparticles with size as small as 3 nm synthesized at 300 Degree-Sign C. The thermal conductivity ({kappa}) of pressed pellets of the synthesized NiO nanoparticles obtained using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and uniaxial hot pressing is drastically decreased ({approx}60%) compared to that of NiO single crystal. This strong reduction in {kappa} with particle size suggests the suitability of the synthesized surfactant-free NiO nanoparticles for use as nanoinclusions when designing high performance materials for waste heat recovery. - Graphical abstract: Highly efficient phonon scattering by surfactant-free NiO nanostructures obtained by solution combustion of a mixture of nickel (II) nitrate hexahydrate (oxidizer) and urea (fuel) at various temperatures. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast synthesis of surfactant-free NiO nanoparticles with controllable size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High specific surface area for NiO nanoparticles with size range from 3 to 7 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong reduction of the thermal conductivity with decreasing particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO as nanoinclusions in high performance materials for energy conversion.

  13. Controlled synthesis of snowflake-like self-assemblies palladium nanostructures under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Ting; Ma, Yue; Yang, Hanmin Li, Jinlin

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: We demonstrated the synthesis of snowflake-like palladium nanostructures for the first time. We discussed the influencing factors on the synthesis of snowflake-like Pd nanostructures. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}Pd{sub 4} to PVP at 5 is the optimal selection. The growth process was discussed. - Abstract: Self-assembly snowflake-like palladium nanostructures were synthesized under microwave irradiation using H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4} as precursor, benzyl alcohol as both solvent and reducing agent, and PVP as stabilizer. The Pd snowflake-like nanostructures were formed and then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction. The TEM images showed that the Pd nano-snowflakes were self-assemblies organized by hundreds of small spherical nanoparticles. Pd snowflake-like nanostructures with well-defined shape and uniform size can be obtained by tuning the concentration of palladium precursor, the molar ratio of H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}/PVP, as well as the heating time by microwave irradiation. The possible growing process of the snowflake-like Pd structures was also proposed on the basis of investigating the properties of as-synthesized Pd nanostructures under different conditions.

  14. Hardfacing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID)

    2012-01-17

    A method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of boron, carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  15. Reference Material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials There are a variety of reference materials the NSSAB utilizes and have been made available on its website. Documents Fact Sheets - links to Department of Energy Nevada Field Office webpage Public Reading Room NTA Public Reading Facility Open Monday through Friday, 7:30 am to 4:30 pm (except holidays) 755C East Flamingo Road Las Vegas, Nevada 89119 Phone (702) 794-5106 http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/testingarchive.aspx DOE Electronic Database Also available to the public is an

  16. Synthesis of Compositionally Defined Single-Crystalline Eu 3+ -Activated Molybdate–Tungstate Solid-Solution Composite Nanowires and Observation of Charge Transfer in a Novel Class of 1D CaMoO 4 –CaWO 4 :Eu 3+ –0D CdS/CdSe QD Nanoscale Heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-10

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu³⁺-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW₁₋xMoxO₄ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (‘x’). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition withmore » our 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at ‘x’ = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu³⁺ activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. We propose that the PL quenching can be attributed to a photo-induced electron transfer process from CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) to both CdSe and CdS QDs, an assertion supported by complementary NEXAFS measurements.« less

  17. Study of the I-V characteristics of nanostructured Pd films on a Si substrate after vacuum annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomilin, S. V., E-mail: tomilin_znu@mail.ru; Yanovsky, A. S.; Tomilina, O. A.; Mikaelyan, G. R. [Zaporozhye National University, Department of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

    2013-06-15

    The I-V characteristics of nanostructured Pd films on a Si substrate are investigated. The nanostructures (nanoislands) are formed by the vacuum annealing of continuous ultrathin Pd films sputtered onto a substrate. The shape of the I-V characteristics of the investigated Si substrate-Pd film system is shown to be heavily dependent on the degree of film nanostructuring. The surface morphology of the films is studied using scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Failure by fracture and fatigue in 'NANO' and 'BIO'materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, R.O.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Nalla, R.K.

    2003-12-19

    The behavior of nanostructured materials/small-volumestructures and biologi-cal/bio-implantable materials, so-called "nano"and "bio" materials, is currently much in vogue in materials science. Oneaspect of this field, which to date has received only limited attention,is their fracture and fatigue properties. In this paper, we examine twotopics in this area, namely the premature fatigue failure ofsilicon-based micron-scale structures for microelectromechanical systems(MEMS), and the fracture properties of mineralized tissue, specificallyhuman bone.

  19. Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials instead of from vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Puretzky, Alex A. (Knoxville, TN); Fan, Xudong (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-10-19

    Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed phase matrix material instead of from vapor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

  20. Critical Materials:

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Critical Materials: 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 2. Technology Assessment and Potential ................................................................................................. 5 5 2.1 Major Trends in Selected Clean Energy Application Areas ........................................................... 5 6 2.1.1 Permanent Magnets for Wind

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by GMZ Energy Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about nanostructured high...

  2. Au-Pt heteroaggregate dendritic nanostructures and Au-Pt alloy nanoparticles and their use as catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eichhorn, Bryan W. (University Park, MD); Zhou, Shenghu (Greenbelt, MD); Jackson, Gregory Scott (University Park, MD)

    2011-10-18

    Au--Pt heteroaggregate dendritic nanostructures and AuPt alloy nanoparticles, and their use as anodic catalysts in fuel cells.

  3. Fast Times and Hot Spots in Plasmonic Nanostructures | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Structures Quantum & Energy Materials Nanofabrication & Devices Related People Gary Wiederrecht Daniel Rosenmann Next article: Spintronics: spin current from a paramagnet

  4. Mechanism of carbon nanostructure synthesis in arc plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keidar, M.; Shashurin, A.; Volotskova, O.; Raitses, Y.; Beilis, I. I.

    2010-05-15

    Plasma enhanced techniques are widely used for synthesis of carbon nanostructures. The primary focus of this paper is to summarize recent experimental and theoretical advances in understanding of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) synthesis mechanism in arcs, and to describe methods of controlling arc plasma parameters. Fundamental issues related to synthesis of SWNTs, which is a relationship between plasma parameters and SWNT characteristics are considered. It is shown that characteristics of synthesized SWNTs can be altered by varying plasma parameters. Effects of electrical and magnetic fields applied during SWNT synthesis in arc plasma are explored. Magnetic field has a profound effect on the diameter, chirality, and length of a SWNT synthesized in the arc plasma. An average length of SWNT increases by a factor of 2 in discharge with magnetic field and an amount of long nanotubes with the length above 5 {mu}m also increases in comparison with that observed in the discharge without a magnetic field. In addition, synthesis of a few-layer graphene in a magnetic field presence is discovered. A coupled model of plasma-electrode phenomena in atmospheric-pressure anodic arc in helium is described. Calculations indicate that substantial fraction of the current at the cathode is conducted by ions (0.7-0.9 of the total current). It is shown that nonmonotonic behavior of the arc current-voltage characteristic can be reproduced taking into account the experimentally observed dependence of the arc radius on arc current.

  5. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ommen, J. Ruud van Kooijman, Dirkjan; Niet, Mark de; Talebi, Mojgan; Goulas, Aristeidis

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ?1?nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO{sub 2}) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an active photocatalyst (0.120.31?wt. % of Pt) at a rate of about 1?g min{sup ?1}. Tuning the precursor injection velocity (1040?m s{sup ?1}) enhances the contact between the precursor and the pneumatically transported support flows. Decreasing the chemisorption temperature (from 250 to 100?C) results in more uniform distribution of the Pt nanoclusters as it decreases the reaction rate as compared to the rate of diffusion into the nanoparticle agglomerates. Utilizing this photocatalyst in the oxidation reaction of Acid Blue 9 showed a factor of five increase of the photocatalytic activity compared to the native P25 nanoparticles. The use of spatial particle ALD can be further expanded to deposition of nanoclusters on porous, micron-sized particles and to the production of coreshell nanoparticles enabling the robust and scalable manufacturing of nanostructured powders for catalysis and other applications.

  6. Nanostructured Lanthanum Halides and CeBr3 for Nuclear Radiation and Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Guss, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Ron Guise, Ding Yuan

    2010-06-09

    Scintillator materials are used to detect, and in some cases identify, gamma rays. Higher performance scintillators are expensive, hard to manufacture, fragile, and sometimes require liquid nitrogen or cooling engines. But whereas lower-quality scintillators are cheap, easy to manufacture, and more rugged, their performance is lower. At issue: can the desirable qualities of high-and low-performance scintillators be combined to achieve better performance at lower cost? Preliminary experiments show that a LaF{sub 3}:Ce oleic acid-based nanocomposite exhibits a photopeak when exposed to {sup 137}Cs source gamma-radiation. The chemical synthesis of the cerium-doped lanthanum halide nanoparticles are scalable and large quantities of material can be produced at a time, unlike typical crystal growth processes such as the Bridgeman process. Using a polymer composite (Figure 1), produced by LANL, initial measurements of the unloaded and 8% LaF{sub 3}:Ce-loaded sample have been made using {sup 137}Cs sources. Figure 2 shows an energy spectrum acquired for CeF{sub 3}. The lighter plot is the measured polymer-only spectrum and the black plot is the spectrum from the nanocomposite scintillator. As the development of this material continues, the energy resolution is expected to improve and the photopeak-to-Compton ratio will become greater at higher loadings. These measurements show the expected Compton edge in the polymer-only sample, and the Compton edge and photo-peak expected in the nanophosphor composites that LANL has produced. Using a porous VYCORR with CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots, Letant has demonstrated that he has obtained signatures of the 241Am photopeak with energy resolution as good at NaI (Figure 3). We begin with the fact that CeBr{sub 3} crystals do not have a self-activity component as strong as the lanthanum halides. The radioactive 0.090% {sup 138}La component of lanthanum leads to significant self-activity, which will be a problem for very large detector volumes. Yet a significant strength of the nanostructure detector concept is the ability to create extremely large detector volumes by mixing nanoparticles into a transparent matrix. This would argue for use of nanoparticles other than lanthanum halides. Nanocomposites are easy to prepare; it is much less costly to use nanocomposites than to grow large whole crystals of these materials. The material can be fabricated at an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This material potentially offers the performance of $300/cc material (e.g., lanthanum bromide) at a cost of $1/cc. Because the material acts as a plastic, it is rugged and flexible, and can be made in large sheets, increasing the sensitivity of a detector using it. It would operate at ambient temperatures. Very large volumes of detector may be produced at greatly reduced cost, enhancing the non-proliferation posture of the nation for the same dollar value.

  7. Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures produced with [DMIm]BF{sub 4} using ultrasonic radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, I. B. Abdul; Ayob, M. T. M.; Ishak, I. S.; Mohd Lawi, R. L.; Isahak, W. N. R. W.; Hamid, M. H. N. Abd; Othman, N. K.; Radiman, S.

    2012-11-27

    Great interests in metallic oxides have emerged because of the promising properties of these materials for various applications such as solar cells and sensors. ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies were successfully synthesized from Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} Bullet 2H{sub 2}O, NaOH and room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] with ultrasound irradiation. Parameters such as the effect of sonication time (30, 60 and 90 minutes) and Zn(Ac){sub 2} precursor to [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] ratios of 3:5, 5:5 and 5:3 were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the ZnO nanocrystals were hexagonal zincite crystalline in structure. The band gap energies (E{sub g}) were estimated to be 3.35-3.55 eV from the UV-Visible spectrum. The solution with the highest ratio of Zn was analysed with photoluminescence spectroscopy, which exhibited peaks at 362, 403, 468 and 539 nm, at room temperature. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesis products were spherical (30-60 nm), spindle ({approx}10 Multiplication-Sign 70 nm for width Multiplication-Sign length) and whisker-like (100-200 nm), with their dimensions decreasing systematically with increased sonication time. Chemical compositions were approximated at 1:1 for Zn and O, estimated by electron dispersive x-ray spectrum.

  8. Structural Study of SiC Nanoparticles Grown by Inductively Coupled Plasma and Laser Pyrolysis for Nano-structured Ceramics Elaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, Yann; Portier, Xavier; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Reynaud, Cecile

    2008-07-01

    Refractory carbide nano-structured ceramics as SiC constitute interesting materials for high temperature applications and particularly for fourth generation nuclear plants. To elaborate such nano-materials, weighable amounts of SiC nano-powders have to be synthesized first with an accurate control of the grain size and stoichiometry. The inductively coupled plasma and the laser pyrolysis techniques, respectively developed at EMPA Thun and CEA Saclay, allow meeting these requirements. Both techniques are able to produce dozens of grams per hour of silicon carbide nano-powders. The particle size can be adjusted down to around 20 nm for the plasma synthesis and even down to 5-10 nm for the laser pyrolysis. The stoichiometry Si/C can be tuned by the addition of methane into the plasma and acetylene for the laser process. (authors)

  9. Platinum-based electrocatalysts synthesized by depositing contiguous adlayers on carbon nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2013-03-26

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means and the nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. Subsequent film growth may be performed via the initial quasi-underpotential deposition of a non-noble metal followed by immersion in a solution comprising a more noble metal. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  10. Platinum-based electrocatalysts synthesized by depositing contiguous adlayers on carbon nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav R.; Harris, Alexander

    2015-10-06

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The manufacturing process may involve initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means and the nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. Subsequent film growth may be performed via the initial quasi-underpotential deposition of a non-noble metal followed by immersion in a solution comprising a more noble metal. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  11. Alloy materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  12. Construction material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Antink, Allison L. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  13. Casting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Bi-doped Mg{sub 2}Si thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiameni, S.; Battiston, S.; Boldrini, S.; Famengo, A.; Agresti, F.; Barison, S.; Fabrizio, M.

    2012-09-15

    The Mg{sub 2}Si-based alloys are promising candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion for the middle high range of temperature. They are very attractive as they could replace lead-based compounds due to their low cost and non toxicity. They could also result in thermoelectric generator weight reduction (a key feature for the automotive application field). The high value of thermal conductivity of the silicide-based materials could be reduced by increasing the phonon scattering in the presence of nanosized crystalline grains without heavily interfering with the electrical conductivity of the thermoelectric material. Nanostructured materials were obtained under inert atmosphere through ball milling, thermal treatment and spark plasma sintering processes. In particular, the role of several bismuth doping amounts in Mg{sub 2}Si were investigated (Mg{sub 2}Si:Bi=1:x for x=0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 M ratio). The morphology, the composition and the structure of the samples were characterized by FE-SEM, EDS and XRD analyses after each process step. Moreover, the Seebeck coefficient analyses at high temperature and the electrical and thermal conductivity of the samples are presented in this work. The nanostructuring processes were affect by the MgO amount increase which influenced the thermoelectric properties of the samples mainly by reducing the electrical conductivity. With the aim of further increasing the scattering phenomena by interface or boundary effect, carbon nanostructures named Single Wall Carbon Nanohorns were added to the Mg{sub 2}Si in order to produce a nanocomposite material. The influence of the nanostructured filler on the thermoelectric material properties is also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Figure of merit (ZT) of Bi-doped samples and undoped Mg{sub 2}Si. A maximum ZT value of 0.39 at 600 Degree-Sign C was obtained for the nanocomposite material obtained adding Single Wall Carbon Nanohorns to the Bi 0.02 at% doped silicide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of Bi doping amounts in Mg{sub 2}Si and thermoelectric characterization up to 600 Degree-Sign C Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite materials synthesized by ball milling and Spark Plasma Sintering Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect on scattering phenomena of Single Wall Carbon Nanohorns added to Mg{sub 2}Si Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Importance of oxidation phenomena in nanostructured materials.

  15. Branching Fraction Measurements of the Color-Suppressed Decays B0bar to D(*)0 pi0, D(*)0 eta, D(*)0 omega, and D(*)0 eta_prime and Measurement of the Polarization in the Decay B0bar to D*0 omega

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; ,

    2012-02-14

    We report updated branching fraction measurements of the color-suppressed decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, D*{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, D{sup 0}{eta}, D*{sup 0}{eta}, D{sup 0}{omega}, D*{sup 0}{omega}, D{sup 0}{eta}', and D*{sup 0}{eta}'. We measure the branching fractions (x10{sup -4}): {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = 2.69 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.13, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = 3.05 {+-} 0.14 {+-} 0.28, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{eta}) = 2.53 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.11, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{eta}) = 2.69 {+-} 0.14 {+-} 0.23, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{omega}) = 2.57 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.14, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{omega}) = 4.55 {+-} 0.24 {+-} 0.39, {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{eta}') = 1.48 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.07, and {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup 0}{eta}') = 1.49 {+-} 0.22 {+-} 0.15. We also present the first measurement of the longitudinal polarization fraction of the decay channel D*{sup 0}{omega}, f{sub L} = (66.5 {+-} 4.7 {+-} 1.5)%. In the above, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The results are based on a sample of (454 {+-} 5) x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings at SLAC. The measurements are the most precise determinations of these quantities from a single experiment. They are compared to theoretical predictions obtained by factorization, Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and perturbative QCD (pQCD). We find that the presence of final state interactions is favored and the measurements are in better agreement with SCET than with pQCD.

  16. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNLs unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporations Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (ECGM) business unit is currently the worlds largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferros ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

  17. Yield stress and plasticity of nanostructured titanium of different purity at 300, 77, and 4.2 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabachnikova, E. D. Bengus, V. Z.; Podol'skii, A. V.; Smirnov, S. N.; Valiev, R. Z.

    2009-11-15

    Specimens of nanostructured titanium with different dopant concentrations were prepared by intense plastic deformation via equal-channel-angular pressing. The low-temperature mechanical characteristics of the specimens subjected to active deformation under uniaxial tension and compression were studied. The yield stress and the limit uniform deformation of nanostructured and coarse-grained polycrystalline titanium were compared.

  18. Controlled Growth of Ordered III-Nitride Core-Shell Nanostructure Arrays for Visible Optoelectronic Devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rishinaramangalam, Ashwin K.; Mishkat Ul Masabih, Saadat; Fairchild, Michael N.; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Shima, Darryl M.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Brener, Igal; Brueck, Steven R.J.; Feezell, Daniel F.

    2014-10-21

    In our paper, we demonstrate the growth of ordered arrays of nonpolar {101 ¯ 0} core–shell nanowalls and semipolar {101 ¯ 1} core–shell pyramidal nanostripes on c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates using selective-area epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure arrays are controllably patterned into LED mesa regions, demonstrating a technique to impart secondary lithography features into the arrays. Moreover, we study the dependence of the nanostructure cores on the epitaxial growth conditions and show that the geometry and morphology are strongly influenced by growth temperature, V/III ratio, and pulse interruption time. We also demonstrate the growth of InGaNmore » quantum well shells on the nanostructures and characterize the structures by using micro-photoluminescence and cross-section scanning tunneling electron microscopy.« less

  19. Controlled Growth of Ordered III-Nitride Core-Shell Nanostructure Arrays for Visible Optoelectronic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rishinaramangalam, Ashwin K.; Mishkat Ul Masabih, Saadat; Fairchild, Michael N.; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Shima, Darryl M.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Brener, Igal; Brueck, Steven R.J.; Feezell, Daniel F.

    2014-10-21

    In our paper, we demonstrate the growth of ordered arrays of nonpolar {101 0} coreshell nanowalls and semipolar {101 1} coreshell pyramidal nanostripes on c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates using selective-area epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure arrays are controllably patterned into LED mesa regions, demonstrating a technique to impart secondary lithography features into the arrays. Moreover, we study the dependence of the nanostructure cores on the epitaxial growth conditions and show that the geometry and morphology are strongly influenced by growth temperature, V/III ratio, and pulse interruption time. We also demonstrate the growth of InGaN quantum well shells on the nanostructures and characterize the structures by using micro-photoluminescence and cross-section scanning tunneling electron microscopy.

  20. Natural nanostructure and superlattice nanodomains in AgSbTe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlton, Christopher E.; De Armas, Ricardo; Shao-Horn, Yang E-mail: shaohorn@mit.edu; Ma, Jie; May, Andrew F.; Delaire, Olivier E-mail: shaohorn@mit.edu

    2014-04-14

    AgSbTe{sub 2} has long been of interest for thermoelectric applications because of its favorable electronic properties and its low lattice thermal conductivity of ?0.7?W/mK. In this work, we report new findings from a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study revealing two nanostructures in single crystal Ag{sub 1?x}Sb{sub 1+x}Sb{sub 2+x} (with x?=?0, 0.1, 0.2); (i) a rippled natural nanostructure with a period of ?2.55?nm and (ii) superlattice ordered nanodomains consistent with cation ordering predicted in previous density functional theory studies. These nanostructures, combined with point-defects, probably serve as sources of scattering for phonons, thereby yielding a low lattice thermal conductivity over a wide temperature range.