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Sample records for nanoscale materials cnm

  1. Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Scientific User Facilities (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) The Molecular Foundry (TMF) Projects Accelerator & Detector Research Science Highlights Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home

  2. Center for Nanoscale Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials About Research Capabilities For Users People...

  3. Materials synthesis at the CNM | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials synthesis at the CNM Titiania Nanoparticles 1 of 5 Titiania Nanoparticles Molecular model of titania nanoparticles covalently bound to biological molecules at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials. Image: Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory Titiania Nanoparticles 1 of 5 Titiania Nanoparticles Molecular model of titania nanoparticles covalently bound to biological molecules at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials. Image: Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory SEM

  4. CNM Scientific Contact List | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CNM Scientific Contact List A list of scientific contacts for the Center for Nanoscale Materials PDF icon CNM Scientific Contact sheet 716

  5. Argonne Site Map Showing CNM Location | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Site Map Showing CNM Location Find your way to the Center for Nanoscale Materials on the Argonne National Laboratory campus. PDF icon CNM-Argonne_map

  6. CNM User Access Program Overview | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Access Program Overview The Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) user program provides access to equipment, facilities, and personnel that support CNM's overall focus on nanoscale materials. The CNM makes access available to the international scientific community through a general user access program. Proposals are submitted through a web-based process. PDF icon CNM User Access Program Overview

  7. Center for Nanoscale Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC. www.anl.gov CENTER FOR NANOSCALE MATERIALS A premier user facility providing expertise, instruments, and infrastructure for interdisciplinary nanoscience and nanotechnology research. The Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) is a premier user facility operating as one of the five centers built across the nation as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nanoscale Science Research Center program under

  8. 2011 CNM Users Meeting | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings 2015 Users Meeting 2014 Users Meeting 2013 Users Meeting 2012 Users Meeting 2011 Users Meeting 2009 Users Meeting 2008 Users Meeting 2007 Users Meeting Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials About Research Capabilities For Users People Publications News & Events News & Events

  9. 2012 CNM Users Meeting | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings 2015 Users Meeting 2014 Users Meeting 2013 Users Meeting 2012 Users Meeting 2011 Users Meeting 2009 Users Meeting 2008 Users Meeting 2007 Users Meeting Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials About Research Capabilities For Users People Publications News & Events News & Events

  10. Electronic & magnetic materials and devices at the CNM | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Electronic & magnetic materials and devices at the CNM Graphene Micrograph 1 of 24 Graphene Micrograph Ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy image of a point defect in graphene that has been epitaxially grown on 6H-SiC(0001) (Nathan Guisinger, EMMD Group) at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials. Image: Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory Graphene Micrograph 1 of 24 Graphene Micrograph Ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy image of a point

  11. Center for Nanoscale Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice More Butterfly Effects: X-rays reveal the photonic crystals in butterfly wings that create color More The Friendly Faces of CNM More A Lithium-Air Battery Based on Lithium Superoxide More Borophene: Atomically Thin Metallic Boron More Video Highlight A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials BROCHURES & NEWSLETTERS CNM Overview Brochure CNM Fact Sheet Key Research Areas Nanofabrication & Devices Nanophotonics & Biofunctional

  12. 2015 APS/CNM/EMC Users Meeting | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Users Meeting 2014 Users Meeting 2013 Users Meeting 2012 Users Meeting 2011 Users Meeting 2009 Users Meeting 2008 Users Meeting 2007 Users Meeting Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials About Research Capabilities For Users People Publications News & Events News & Events RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS COLLOQUIUM SERIES SEMINAR SERIES Argonne Press

  13. CNM Users Executive Committee By-Laws | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Users Executive Committee By-Laws This charter defines the roles and responsibilities of Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials Users Executive Committee. PDF icon CNM_users_organization_bylaws

  14. CNM Strategic Plan | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strategic Plan As a Department of Energy funded research center, the CNM is at the forefront of discovery research that addresses national grand challenges encompassing the topics of energy, materials and the environment. Under the overarching scientific theme of "Manipulating Nanoscale Interactions for Energy Efficient Processes", we seek to discover new materials, visualize events with high resolution as they occur, understand the physics and chemistry of energetic processes at the

  15. CNM End-of-Experiment Survey | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversity Directory Argonne National Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment Security User Facilities Science Work with Argonne CNM End-of-Experiment Survey Please let us know about your experience as a facility user at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials. Project Information What is your proposal number? * Administrative Support The processing of my experiment proposal was * Excellent Satisfactory Marginal Unsatisfactory The

  16. X-ray microscopy at CNM | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jorg Maser, CNM XMG Group Leader; Dean Carbaugh (APS); Robert Winarski (CNM); Rodney Porter (CNM); Brian Stephenson (APS and CNM); Volker Rose (APS); missing - Martin Holt (CNM)....

  17. Nanoscale Materials Safety at the Department's Laboratories

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Audit Services Audit Report Nanoscale Materials Safety at the Department's ... SUBJECT: IhTFORMATION: Audit Report on "Nanoscale Materials Safety at the Department's ...

  18. NSS-8 Workshop Summary International Workshop on Nanoscale Spectroscopy and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotechnology | Argonne National Laboratory NSS-8 Workshop Summary International Workshop on Nanoscale Spectroscopy and Nanotechnology August 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Organized by Center for Nanoscale Materials and Advanced Photon Source The International Workshop on Nanoscale Spectroscopy and Nanotechnology 8 (NSS-8), organized by the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) and Advanced Photon Source (APS), was held under sunny, summer skies from July 28-31, 2014, in the world-class Gleacher

  19. 2009 CNM Users Meeting | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 CNM Users Meeting October 5-7, 2009 Full Information Available Here Meeting Summary Plenary Session Views from DOE and Washington Keynote Presentations Stephen Chou (Princeton University), "Nanostructure Engineering: A Path to Discovery and Innovation" Andreas Heinrich (IBM Almaden Research Center), "The Quantum Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures on Surfaces" User Science Highlights Focus Sessions Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Utilization Materials and

  20. Nanoscale materials for hyperthermal theranostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Bennett E.; Roder, Paden B.; Zhou, Xuezhe; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2015-03-18

    Recently, the use of nanoscale materials has attracted considerable attention with the aim of designing personalized therapeutic approaches that can enhance both spatial and temporal control over drug release, permeability, and uptake. Potential benefits to patients include the reduction of overall drug dosages, enabling the parallel delivery of different pharmaceuticals, and the possibility of enabling additional functionalities such as hyperthermia or deep-tissue imaging (LIF, PET, etc.) that complement and extend the efficacy of traditional chemotherapy and surgery. Our mini review is focused on an emerging class of nanometer-scale materials that can be used both to heat malignant tissue to reducemore » angiogenesis and DNA-repair while simultaneously offering complementary imaging capabilities based on radioemission, optical fluorescence, magnetic resonance, and photoacoustic methods.« less

  1. Nanoscale materials for hyperthermal theranostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Bennett E.; Roder, Paden B.; Zhou, Xuezhe; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2015-03-18

    Recently, the use of nanoscale materials has attracted considerable attention with the aim of designing personalized therapeutic approaches that can enhance both spatial and temporal control over drug release, permeability, and uptake. Potential benefits to patients include the reduction of overall drug dosages, enabling the parallel delivery of different pharmaceuticals, and the possibility of enabling additional functionalities such as hyperthermia or deep-tissue imaging (LIF, PET, etc.) that complement and extend the efficacy of traditional chemotherapy and surgery. Our mini review is focused on an emerging class of nanometer-scale materials that can be used both to heat malignant tissue to reduce angiogenesis and DNA-repair while simultaneously offering complementary imaging capabilities based on radioemission, optical fluorescence, magnetic resonance, and photoacoustic methods.

  2. CNM Participates in 2014 NanoDays Outreach Event | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory CNM Participates in 2014 NanoDays Outreach Event May 1, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint On April 14, 2014, the CNM held a Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network (NISE) NanoDays Event for 62 local fifth-grade science students and their teachers. CNM has a strong committment to activities that increase science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) literacy and enthusiasm among students, their families, and educators. The NanoDays kits were an excellent resource for this audience,

  3. Exploring nanoscale magnetism in advanced materials with polarized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Exploring nanoscale magnetism in advanced materials with polarized X-rays Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploring nanoscale magnetism in advanced materials with ...

  4. Probing nanoscale behavior of magnetic materials with soft x...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Probing nanoscale behavior of magnetic materials with soft x-ray spectromicroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing nanoscale behavior of magnetic materials with soft ...

  5. Center for Nanoscale Materials Brochure | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brochure Changing the World with Nanoscience PDF icon CNM Brochure 2014

  6. Atom Probe Tomography of Nanoscale Electronic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, David J.; Prosa, Ty J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Inoue, Hidekazu; Mangelinck, D.

    2016-01-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is a mass spectrometry based on time-of-flight measurements which also concurrently produces 3D spatial information. The reader is referred to any of the other papers in this volume or to the following references for further information 4–8. The current capabilities of APT, such as detecting a low number of dopant atoms in nanoscale devices or segregation at a nanoparticle interface, make this technique an important component in the nanoscale metrology toolbox. In this manuscript, we review some of the applications of APT to nanoscale electronic materials, including transistors and finFETs, silicide contact microstructures, nanowires, and nanoparticles.

  7. 2008 CNM Users Meeting | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 CNM Users Meeting Tuesday, May 6, 2008 4:45-5:45 CNM Facility Tour 7:00-9:30 Users Week Banquet Wednesday, May 7, 2008 CNM Plenary and Science Session Bldg. 402 Lecture Hall 8:45-8:50 Welcome, Paul Evans, University of Wisconsin-Madison, CNM UEC Chair 8:50-9:00 Welcome from Laboratory Directorate,Al Sattelberger, Associate Laboratory Director for Energy Sciences & Engineering, Argonne National Laboratory 9:00-9:30 Update from Washington: Eric Rohlfing, Associate Director of Science for

  8. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials Share Topic Programs Materials science Nanoscience

  9. Filter casting nanoscale porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayes, Joel Ryan; Nyce, Gregory Walker; Kuntz, Joshua David

    2012-07-24

    A method of producing nanoporous material includes the steps of providing a liquid, providing nanoparticles, producing a slurry of the liquid and the nanoparticles, removing the liquid from the slurry, and producing a monolith.

  10. Filter casting nanoscale porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayes, Joel Ryan; Nyce, Gregory Walker; Kuntz, Jushua David

    2013-12-10

    A method of producing nanoporous material includes the steps of providing a liquid, providing nanoparticles, producing a slurry of the liquid and the nanoparticles, removing the liquid from the slurry, and producing monolith.

  11. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Scientific User Facilities (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) The Molecular Foundry (TMF) Projects Accelerator & Detector Research Science Highlights Principal Investigators'

  12. Working at CNM | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working at CNM For information on visiting Argonne National Laboratory, collaborating with us, or becoming an independent outside user of our facilities, please contact the CNM User Office. Hours of Operation The CNM, which is mandated to offer user access only 40 hours per week, provides users with routine access to facilities and instrumentation, as well as technical assistance when needed, between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m., Monday-Friday, except for Laboratory holidays and

  13. 2014 APS/CNM/EMC Users Meeting | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 APS/CNM/EMC Users Meeting May 12-15, 2014 Meeting web site CNM-Specific Events Andreas Roelofs, Interim CNM Director CNM Facility Status Update CNM Plenary Session Keynote Speaker : Federico Capasso Robert L. Wallace Professor of Applied Physics and Vinton Hayes Senior Research Fellow in Electrical Engineering Harvard University "Flat Optics with Metasurfaces" David Schuster Physics Department and James Franck Institute University of Chicago "Hybrid Quantum Computing with

  14. DOE A9024 Final Report Functional and Nanoscale Materials Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: DOE A9024 Final Report Functional and Nanoscale Materials Systems: Frontier Programs of Science at the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory Citation...

  15. Nanoscale Imaging of Strain using X-Ray Bragg Projection Ptychography |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Nanoscale Imaging of Strain using X-Ray Bragg Projection Ptychography October 1, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Users of the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) from IBM exploited nanofocused X-ray Bragg projection ptychography to determine the lattice strain profile in an epitaxial SiGe stressor layer of a silicon prototype device. The theoretical and experimental framework of this new coherent diffraction strain imaging approach was developed by Argonne's Materials

  16. Proprietary Research at the Center for Nanoscale Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proprietary R esearch a t t he C enter f or N anoscale M aterials ( CNM) This handout provides details on the mechanism for carrying out proprietary user research at the CNM at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). * Access to the CNM User Facility is granted via a peer-reviewed proposal system. * Users provide sufficient information to ensure that each planned experiment can be performed safely. Argonne personnel provide appropriate safety training and oversight. * Users are charged for

  17. Scientists use world's fastest computer to simulate nanoscale material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    failure Nanoscale material failure Scientists use world's fastest computer to simulate nanoscale material failure With this new tool, scientists can better study what nanowires do under stress. October 29, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National

  18. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Divan, Ralu; Rosenthal, Dan; Rose, Volker; Wai Hla, Saw; Liu, Yuzi

    2014-09-15

    At a very small, or "nano" scale, materials behave differently. The study of nanomaterials is much more than miniaturization - scientists are discovering how changes in size change a material's properties. From sunscreen to computer memory, the applications of nanoscale materials research are all around us. Researchers at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials are creating new materials, methods and technologies to address some of the world's greatest challenges in energy security, lightweight but durable materials, high-efficiency lighting, information storage, environmental stewardship and advanced medical devices.

  19. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Divan, Ralu; Rosenthal, Dan; Rose, Volker; Wai Hla, Saw; Liu, Yuzi

    2014-01-29

    At a very small, or "nano" scale, materials behave differently. The study of nanomaterials is much more than miniaturization - scientists are discovering how changes in size change a material's properties. From sunscreen to computer memory, the applications of nanoscale materials research are all around us. Researchers at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials are creating new materials, methods and technologies to address some of the world's greatest challenges in energy security, lightweight but durable materials, high-efficiency lighting, information storage, environmental stewardship and advanced medical devices.

  20. Nanoscale Material Properties | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Symposium and Exhibition Focuses on Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces IMG0475 Innovation 247: We're Always Open a57-v-zero-liquid-discharge Reverse Osmosis (RO)...

  1. Dynamics of Excitons and Phonons in Disordered Nanoscale Materials |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Excitons and Phonons in Disordered Nanoscale Materials December 15, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Sergei Tretiak Los Alamos National Laboratory trekiak.003 abstract: Prediction of the optical response and photoinduced processes of molecular and nanomaterials is fundamental to a myriad of technological applications, ranging from sensing, imaging, solar energy harvesting, to future optoelectronic devices. In this talk I will overview several applications of emerging

  2. Shipping Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shipping Materials General Users are not permitted to transport hazardous material on the Argonne site or to arrange for shipment directly to the CNM. Hazardous materials must be processed through Argonne's hazardous materials receiving area. Inbound Shipments Before you ship anything to the CNM, you must notify the User Office and your CNM contact. Nonhazardous Material To ensure that samples and equipment that you ship to the CNM gets here without unnecessary delays, address your shipments as

  3. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Nanoscale Measurement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Measurements of Glass Transition Temperature and Temperature-Dependent Mechanical Properties in Polymers M.P. Nikiforov, S. Jesse, L.T. Germinario (CNMS user, Eastman...

  4. CNM Scientific Contact sheet 8_16.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Materials Quantum & Energy Materials Major Tools Scientific Contacts § UHV SPM (AFM/STM) (Omicron Nanotechnology) § 4-probe SEM (Omicron UHV Nanoprobe) § VT-AFM (Omicron XA), LT-STM § Scanning probe microscope, AFM (Veeco) § Complex Oxide MBE (DCA R450D Custom) § Kurt Lesker electron beam evaporator and sputtering, deposition § Magnetometry (QD PPMS & MPMS) § Solar simulator, QEMS (Oriel) § TGA/DSC § Luminescence/UV-vis-NIR § X-ray diffractometer (Bruker D2 &

  5. Method for producing electrodes using microscale or nanoscale materials obtained from hydrogendriven metallurgical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, James J.; Adzic, Gordana D.; Johnson, John R.; Vogt, Thomas; McBreen, James

    2003-09-02

    A method is provided for producing electrodes using microscale and nanoscale metal materials formed from hydrogen driven metallurgical processes; such a the HD (hydriding, dehydriding) process, the HDDR (hydriding, dehydriding, disproportionation, and recombination) process, and variants thereof.

  6. Microsoft PowerPoint - CNM_CNMS_NatComm-Jan2014.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A research team led by users from Pennsylvania State University, in collaboration with the X-ray Microscopy Group at the Center for Nanoscale Materials and with the Center for ...

  7. DOE A9024 Final Report Functional and Nanoscale Materials Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as described. The clusters were led by Professors Tai Chiang (Physics), Jeffrey Moore (Chemistry), Paul Goldbart (Physics), and Steven Granick (Materials Science and...

  8. Bioinspired Nanoscale Materials for Biomedical and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-01

    The demand of green, affordable and environmentally sustainable materials has encouraged scientists in different fields to draw inspiration from nature in developing materials with unique properties such as miniaturization, hierarchical organization, and adaptability. Together with the exceptional properties of nanomaterials, over the past century, the field of bioinspired nanomaterials has taken huge leaps. While on one hand, the sophistication of hierarchical structures endow biological systems with multifunctionality, the synthetic control on the creation of nanomaterials enables the design of materials with specific functionalities. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the field of bioinspired nanomaterials, which we have broadly categorized into biotemplates and biomimics. We will discuss the application of bioinspired nanomaterials as biotemplates in catalysis, nanomedicine, immunoassays and in energy, drawing attention to novel materials such as protein cages. Further, the applications of bioinspired materials in tissue engineering and biomineralization will also be discussed.

  9. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.-H.

    2005-07-30

    The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

  10. 2013 APS/CNM/EMC Users Meeting | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Batteries Beyond Lithium" Invited Student Talk ... Technology: Materials Design for Battery Applications: ... Gosztola Modeling and Simulation of Nanofabrication ...

  11. Note: Detector collimators for the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tamalonis, A.; Weber, J. K. R.; Neuefeind, J. C.; Carruth, J.; Skinner, L. B.; Alderman, O. L. G.; Benmore, C. J.

    2015-09-09

    We constructed and tested five neutron collimator designs using the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) instrument. Collimators were made from High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) or 5% borated HDPE. In all cases, collimators improved the signal to background ratio and reduced detection of secondary scattering. Moreover, in the Q-range 10-20 Å-1, signal to background ratio improved by factors of approximately 1.6 and 2.0 for 50 and 100 mm deep collimators, respectively. In the Q-range 40-50 Å-1, the improvement factors were 1.8 and 2.7. Secondary scattering as measured at Q similar to 9.5 Å-1 was significantly decreased when the collimators were installed.

  12. Note: Detector collimators for the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamalonis, A.; Weber, J. K. R. Alderman, O. L. G.; Neuefeind, J. C.; Carruth, J.; Skinner, L. B.; Benmore, C. J.

    2015-09-15

    Five neutron collimator designs were constructed and tested at the nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) instrument. Collimators were made from High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) or 5% borated HDPE. In all cases, collimators improved the signal to background ratio and reduced detection of secondary scattering. In the Q-range 10-20 Å{sup −1}, signal to background ratio improved by factors of approximately 1.6 and 2.0 for 50 and 100 mm deep collimators, respectively. In the Q-range 40-50 Å{sup −1}, the improvement factors were 1.8 and 2.7. Secondary scattering as measured at Q ∼ 9.5 Å{sup −1} was significantly decreased when the collimators were installed.

  13. Modeling investigation of the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of nanoscale precipitates in advanced structural materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirth, Brian

    2015-04-08

    Materials used in extremely hostile environment such as nuclear reactors are subject to a high flux of neutron irradiation, and thus vast concentrations of vacancy and interstitial point defects are produced because of collisions of energetic neutrons with host lattice atoms. The fate of these defects depends on various reaction mechanisms which occur immediately following the displacement cascade evolution and during the longer-time kinetically dominated evolution such as annihilation, recombination, clustering or trapping at sinks of vacancies, interstitials and their clusters. The long-range diffusional transport and evolution of point defects and self-defect clusters drive a microstructural and microchemical evolution that are known to produce degradation of mechanical properties including the creep rate, yield strength, ductility, or fracture toughness, and correspondingly affect material serviceability and lifetimes in nuclear applications. Therefore, a detailed understanding of microstructural evolution in materials at different time and length scales is of significant importance. The primary objective of this work is to utilize a hierarchical computational modeling approach i) to evaluate the potential for nanoscale precipitates to enhance point defect recombination rates and thereby the self-healing ability of advanced structural materials, and ii) to evaluate the stability and irradiation-induced evolution of such nanoscale precipitates resulting from enhanced point defect transport to and annihilation at precipitate interfaces. This project will utilize, and as necessary develop, computational materials modeling techniques within a hierarchical computational modeling approach, principally including molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo and spatially-dependent cluster dynamics modeling, to identify and understand the most important physical processes relevant to promoting the “selfhealing” or radiation resistance in advanced materials containing

  14. Piezoelectrically enhanced ferroelectric polymers via nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control nanoscale material properties and molecular orientation using intensive local stress. Significance and Impact Nanoscale mechanical annealing process can be used to improve...

  15. Workshops | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials About Research Capabilities For Users People Publications News & Events News & Events RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS COLLOQUIUM SERIES SEMINAR SERIES Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Workshops September 17-18, 2015 Argonne National Laboratory and the

  16. Videos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials About Research Capabilities For Users People Publications News & Events News & Events RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS COLLOQUIUM SERIES SEMINAR SERIES Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Videos Browse

  17. 2006 Seminars Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 Seminars Archive 2015 Seminars Archive 2014 Seminars Archive 2013 Seminars Archive 2012 Seminars Archive 2011 Seminars Archive 2010 Seminars Archive 2009 Seminars Archive 2008 Seminars Archive 2007 Seminars Archive 2006 Seminars Archive Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials About

  18. 2011 Seminars Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 Seminars Archive 2015 Seminars Archive 2014 Seminars Archive 2013 Seminars Archive 2012 Seminars Archive 2011 Seminars Archive 2010 Seminars Archive 2009 Seminars Archive 2008 Seminars Archive 2007 Seminars Archive 2006 Seminars Archive Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials About

  19. 2013 Seminars Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 Seminars Archive 2015 Seminars Archive 2014 Seminars Archive 2013 Seminars Archive 2012 Seminars Archive 2011 Seminars Archive 2010 Seminars Archive 2009 Seminars Archive 2008 Seminars Archive 2007 Seminars Archive 2006 Seminars Archive Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials About

  20. Nanoscale Materials in Medicine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Inhaled nanoparticles in the brain Drug delivery from a soft contact lens ... imaging contrast was achieved in mice brain tumors using functionalized iron oxide ...

  1. Nanoscale Materials in Medicine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation for the Sustainable Nanomaterials Workshop by Auburn University Department of Chemical Engineering held on June 26, 2012

  2. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  3. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  4. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  5. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  6. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  7. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave the way to characterizing a whole new class of materials with

  8. Chemistry of Materials

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engineering and Materials Science, Dept. of Chemistry, The Smalley Institute for Nanoscale ... University, R.E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Tech., Ajayan, Pulickel; ...

  9. For Industrial Users | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) has specific interest in growing the industrial user program and encourages researchers in industry to consider the capabilities and expertise we have to offer. As a CNM user, you have easy access to sophisticated scientific instrumentation geared toward nanoscience and nanotechnology. Moreover, our widely recognized staff researchers offer support in designing your experiments, using the equipment, and analyzing your data. Access to the CNM is through

  10. Dielectric spectroscopy at the nanoscale by atomic force microscopy: A simple model linking materials properties and experimental response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miccio, Luis A. Colmenero, Juan; Kummali, Mohammed M.; Alegra, ngel; Schwartz, Gustavo A.

    2014-05-14

    The use of an atomic force microscope for studying molecular dynamics through dielectric spectroscopy with spatial resolution in the nanometer scale is a recently developed approach. However, difficulties in the quantitative connection of the obtained data and the material dielectric properties, namely, frequency dependent dielectric permittivity, have limited its application. In this work, we develop a simple electrical model based on physically meaningful parameters to connect the atomic force microscopy (AFM) based dielectric spectroscopy experimental results with the material dielectric properties. We have tested the accuracy of the model and analyzed the relevance of the forces arising from the electrical interaction with the AFM probe cantilever. In this way, by using this model, it is now possible to obtain quantitative information of the local dielectric material properties in a broad frequency range. Furthermore, it is also possible to determine the experimental setup providing the best sensitivity in the detected signal.

  11. Final LDRD report : nanoscale mechanisms in advanced aging of materials during storage of spent %22high burnup%22 nuclear fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Blythe G.; Rajasekhara, Shreyas; Enos, David George; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Weiner, Ruth F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a three-year LDRD project focused on understanding microstructural evolution and related property changes in Zr-based nuclear cladding materials towards the development of high fidelity predictive simulations for long term dry storage. Experiments and modeling efforts have focused on the effects of hydride formation and accumulation of irradiation defects. Key results include: determination of the influence of composition and defect structures on hydride formation; measurement of the electrochemical property differences between hydride and parent material for understanding and predicting corrosion resistance; in situ environmental transmission electron microscope observation of hydride formation; development of a predictive simulation for mechanical property changes as a function of irradiation dose; novel test method development for microtensile testing of ionirradiated material to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties; and successful demonstration of an Idaho National Labs-based sample preparation and shipping method for subsequent Sandia-based analysis of post-reactor cladding.

  12. The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (Other) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory (ORNL) integrates nanoscale science with neutron science; synthesis ... environment for research to understand nanoscale materials and phenomena. ...

  13. Using Plasmon Peaks in Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy to Determine the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, James M.

    2013-05-09

    In this program, we developed new theoretical and experimental insights into understanding the relationships among fundamental universality and scaling phenomena, the solid-state physical and mechanical properties of materials, and the volume plasmon energy as measured by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Particular achievements in these areas are summarized as follows: (i) Using a previously proposed physical model based on the universal binding-energy relation (UBER), we established close phenomenological connections regarding the influence of the valence electrons in materials on the longitudinal plasma oscillations (plasmons) and various solid-state properties such as the optical constants (including absorption and dispersion), elastic constants, cohesive energy, etc. (ii) We found that carbon materials, e.g., diamond, graphite, diamond-like carbons, hydrogenated and amorphous carbon films, exhibit strong correlations in density vs. Ep (or maximum of the volume plasmon peak) and density vs. hardness, both from available experimental data and ab initio DFT calculations. This allowed us to derive a three-dimensional relationship between hardness and the plasmon energy, that can be used to determine experimentally both hardness and density of carbon materials based on measurements of the plasmon peak position. (iii) As major experimental accomplishments, we demonstrated the possibility of in-situ monitoring of changes in the physical properties of materials with conditions, e.g., temperature, and we also applied a new plasmon ratio-imaging technique to map multiple physical properties of materials, such as the elastic moduli, cohesive energy and bonding electron density, with a sub-nanometer lateral resolution. This presents new capability for understanding material behavior. (iv) Lastly, we demonstrated a new physical phenomenon - electron-beam trapping, or ?¢????electron tweezers?¢??? - of a solid metal nanoparticle inside a liquid metal

  14. Nanoscale relaxation oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Regan, Brian C.; Aloni, Shaul

    2009-04-07

    A nanoscale oscillation device is disclosed, wherein two nanoscale droplets are altered in size by mass transport, then contact each other and merge through surface tension. The device may also comprise a channel having an actuator responsive to mechanical oscillation caused by expansion and contraction of the droplets. It further has a structure for delivering atoms between droplets, wherein the droplets are nanoparticles. Provided are a first particle and a second particle on the channel member, both being made of a chargeable material, the second particle contacting the actuator portion; and electrodes connected to the channel member for delivering a potential gradient across the channel and traversing the first and second particles. The particles are spaced apart a specified distance so that atoms from one particle are delivered to the other particle by mass transport in response to the potential (e.g. voltage potential) and the first and second particles are liquid and touch at a predetermined point of growth, thereby causing merging of the second particle into the first particle by surface tension forces and reverse movement of the actuator. In a preferred embodiment, the channel comprises a carbon nanotube and the droplets comprise metal nanoparticles, e.g. indium, which is readily made liquid.

  15. Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    soft and biological materials; imaging and spectroscopy; and nanoscale integration. ... NSRC resources and capabilities are available to the international academic, industry and ...

  16. CNEEC - TRG3: Nanoscale Control in Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRG3: Nanoscale control in catalysis TRG3 Leader: Thomas F. Jaramillo Participating CNEEC PI’s: Stacey Bent, Bruce Clemens, Arthur Grossman, Thomas F. Jaramillo, Jens Nørskov, Friedrich Prinz, Jennifer Wilcox The grand challenge in TRG3 is the manipulation of catalyst materials at the nanoscale to significantly improve activity and selectivity for energy conversion reactions. A number of promising renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and solar fuel reactors depend upon the

  17. Atomistic Time-Domain Simulations of Light-Harvesting and Charge-Transfer Dynamics in Novel Nanoscale Materials for Solar Hydrogen Production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2012-03-22

    Funded by the DOE grant (i) we continued to study and analyze the atomistic detail of the electron transfer (ET) across the chromophore-TiO2 interface in Gratzel cell systems for solar hydrogen production. (ii) We extensively investigated the nature of photoexcited states and excited state dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots (QD) designed for photovoltaic applications. (iii) We continued a newly initiated research direction focusing on excited state properties and electron-phonon interactions in nanoscale carbon materials. Over the past year, the results of the DOE funded research were summarized in 3 review articles. 12 original manuscripts were written. The research results were reported in 28 invited talks at conferences and university seminars. 20 invitations were accepted for talks in the near future. 2 symposia at national and international meetings have being organized this year on topics closely related to the DOE funded project, and 2 more symposia have been planned for the near future. We summarized the insights into photoinduced dynamics of semiconductor QDs, obtained from our time-domain ab initio studies. QDs exhibit both molecular and bulk properties. Unlike either bulk or molecular materials, QD properties can be modified continuously by changing QD shape and size. However, the chemical and physical properties of molecular and bulk materials often contradict each other, which can lead to differing viewpoints about the behavior of QDs. For example, the molecular view suggests strong electron-hole and charge-phonon interactions, as well as slow energy relaxation due to mismatch between electronic energy gaps and phonon frequencies. In contrast, the bulk view advocates that the kinetic energy of quantum confinement is greater than electron-hole interactions, that charge-phonon coupling is weak, and that the relaxation through quasi-continuous bands is rapid. By synthesizing the bulk and molecular viewpoints, we clarified the controversies and

  18. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Wednesday, 21 December 2005 00:00 Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features

  19. Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by field cooling (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets by field cooling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shaping nanoscale magnetic domain memory in exchange-coupled ferromagnets by field cooling The advance of magnetic nanotechnologies relies on detailed understanding of nanoscale magnetic mechanisms in materials. Magnetic domain memory (MDM), that is, the tendency for magnetic domains to repeat the same

  20. Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Mapping the Nanoscale Landscape Print Wednesday, 27 September 2006 00:00 For the first time, researchers have successfully mapped the chemical structure of conjugated polymer blend films with a spatial resolution of better than 50 nm using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). This is not just another application of STXM. It is a breakthrough experiment on several levels. Correlating local composition to electronic/optical device characteristics will pave

  1. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  2. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  3. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  4. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  5. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers Print Low-dimensional materials have gained much attention not only because of the nonstop march toward miniaturization in the electronics industry but also for the exotic properties that are inherent in their small size. One approach for creating low-dimensional structures is to exploit the nanoscale or atomic-scale features that exist naturally in the three-dimensional (bulk) form of materials. By this means, a group from the

  6. Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) Scientific User Facilities (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) The Molecular Foundry (TMF) Projects Accelerator & Detector Research Science Highlights Principal Investigators' Meetings BES

  7. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    (SC) Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Scientific User Facilities (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) The Molecular Foundry (TMF) Projects Accelerator & Detector Research Science Highlights Principal Investigators'

  8. The Molecular Foundry (TMF) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    The Molecular Foundry (TMF) Scientific User Facilities (SUF) Division SUF Home About User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) The Molecular Foundry (TMF) Projects Accelerator & Detector Research Science Highlights Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home

  9. CNEEC - TRG2: Nanoscale Control over Photons and Electrons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRG2: Nanoscale Control over Photons and Electrons TRG2 Leader: Mark Brongersma This group’s aim is to boost the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices by engineering new materials at the nanoscale that offer excellent light absorption and subsequent charge extraction. The driving mechanism in conventional PV and photocatalytic devices is to convert sunlight into electrons and holes and to collect them in spatially distinct regions. Unfortunately, many of the

  10. Nanoscale, multidimensional artificial magnet created

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale, multidimensional artificial magnet created Nanoscale, multidimensional artificial magnet created Applications might range from general magnetism, such as developing sensors, to information encoding. October 26, 2015 Researchers have created a nanoscale, artificial magnet by arranging an array of magnetic nano-islands along a geometry that is not found in natural magnets. As temperature is reduced, magnetic nanoislands (in blue) reach a one-dimensional static, ordered state, while

  11. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features superhydrophobicsurfaces.p...

  12. Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Inhibition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Inhibition on Li-ion Battery MnO ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Investigation of Solid Electrolyte ...

  13. Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Nano-scale ...

  14. Nanophotonic Architectures for Nanoscale Light Control (invited...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanophotonic Architectures for Nanoscale Light Control (invited). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanophotonic Architectures for Nanoscale Light Control (invited). ...

  15. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles ...

  16. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most ...

  17. Programmed assembly of nanoscale structures using peptoids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Jianhua; Russell, Scott; Morishetti, Kiran; Robinson, David B.; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Buffleben, George M.; Hjelm, Rex P.; Kent, Michael Stuart

    2011-02-01

    Sequence-specific polymers are the basis of the most promising approaches to bottom-up programmed assembly of nanoscale materials. Examples include artificial peptides and nucleic acids. Another class is oligo(N-functional glycine)s, also known as peptoids, which permit greater sidegroup diversity and conformational control, and can be easier to synthesize and purify. We have developed a set of peptoids that can be used to make inorganic nanoparticles more compatible with biological sequence-specific polymers so that they can be incorporated into nucleic acid or other biologically based nanostructures. Peptoids offer degrees of modularity, versatility, and predictability that equal or exceed other sequence-specific polymers, allowing for rational design of oligomers for a specific purpose. This degree of control will be essential to the development of arbitrarily designed nanoscale structures.

  18. UNCLASSIFIED Institute for Materials ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    properties. In this talk, I will discuss our recent research in the area of nanoscale materials modeling, using various atomistic simulation techniques, aimed at uncovering the...

  19. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kutes, Yasemin; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Bosse, James L.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-10-16

    Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy (‘pcAFMs’) is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power, or fill factor. The method is demonstrated with a stack of 21 images acquired during in situ illumination of micropatterned polycrystalline CdTe/CdS, providing more than 42,000 I/V curves spatially separated by ~5 nm. For these CdTe/CdS microcells, the calculated photoconduction ranges from 0 to 700 picoSiemens (pS) upon illumination with ~1.6 suns, depending on location and biasing conditions. Mean short circuit currents of 2 pA, maximummore » powers of 0.5 pW, and fill factors of 30% are determined. The mean voltage at which the detected photocurrent is zero is determined to be 0.7 V. Significantly, enhancements and reductions in these more commonly macroscopic PV performance metrics are observed to correlate with certain grains and grain boundaries, and are confirmed to be independent of topography. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the benefits of nanoscale resolved PV functional measurements, reiterate the importance of microstructural control down to the nanoscale for 'PV devices, and provide a widely applicable new approach for directly investigating PV materials.« less

  20. Mapping photovoltaic performance with nanoscale resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutes, Yasemin; Aguirre, Brandon A.; Bosse, James L.; Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Zubia, David; Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-10-16

    Photo-conductive AFM spectroscopy (‘pcAFMs’) is proposed as a high-resolution approach for investigating nanostructured photovoltaics, uniquely providing nanoscale maps of photovoltaic (PV) performance parameters such as the short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power, or fill factor. The method is demonstrated with a stack of 21 images acquired during in situ illumination of micropatterned polycrystalline CdTe/CdS, providing more than 42,000 I/V curves spatially separated by ~5 nm. For these CdTe/CdS microcells, the calculated photoconduction ranges from 0 to 700 picoSiemens (pS) upon illumination with ~1.6 suns, depending on location and biasing conditions. Mean short circuit currents of 2 pA, maximum powers of 0.5 pW, and fill factors of 30% are determined. The mean voltage at which the detected photocurrent is zero is determined to be 0.7 V. Significantly, enhancements and reductions in these more commonly macroscopic PV performance metrics are observed to correlate with certain grains and grain boundaries, and are confirmed to be independent of topography. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the benefits of nanoscale resolved PV functional measurements, reiterate the importance of microstructural control down to the nanoscale for 'PV devices, and provide a widely applicable new approach for directly investigating PV materials.

  1. Long Range Interactions in Nanoscale Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian; Podgonik, Rudolph; Rajter, Rick; Jagota, Anand; Luo, Jian; Asthagiri, Dilip; Chaudhury, Manoj; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Granick, Steve; Kalinin, Sergei V; Kardar, Mehran; Kjellander, Roland; Langreth, David C.; Lewis, Jennifer; Lustig, Steve; Wesolowski, David J; Wettlaufer, John; Ching, Wai-Yim; Finnis, Mike; Houlihan, Frank; Von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Van Oss, Carel; Zemb, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the long range electrodynamic, electrostatic, and polar interactions that dominate the organization of small objects at separations beyond an interatomic bond length is reviewed. From this basic-forces perspective, a large number of systems are described from which one can learn about these organizing forces and how to modulate them. The many practical systems that harness these nanoscale forces are then surveyed. The survey reveals not only the promise of new devices and materials, but also the possibility of designing them more effectively.

  2. Nanoscale Materials and Architectures for Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grulke, Eric A.; Sunkara, Mahendra K.

    2011-05-25

    The Kentucky EPSCoR Program supported an inter-university, multidisciplinary energy-related research cluster studying nanomaterials for converting solar radiation and residual thermal energy to electrical energy and hydrogen. It created a collaborative center of excellence based on research expertise in nanomaterials, architectures, and their synthesis. The project strengthened and improved the collaboration between the University of Louisville, the University of Kentucky, and NREL. The cluster hired a new faculty member for ultra-fast transient spectroscopy, and enabled the mentoring of one research scientist, two postdoctoral scholars and ten graduate students. Work was accomplished with three focused cluster projects: organic and photoelectrochemical solar cells, solar fuels, and thermionic energy conversion.

  3. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of Zinc Oxide Nanowire Corrosion ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of Zinc Oxide Nanowire Corrosion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of Zinc Oxide Nanowire Corrosion Nanoscale ...

  4. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Wednesday, 29 August 2012 00:00 Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a

  5. Summary report for nanoscale magnetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J.G.; Waddill, G.D.; Jankowski, A.F.; Tamura, E.; Sterne, P.A.; Pappas, D.P.; Tong, S.Y.

    1993-09-23

    We have probed the electronic, geometric, and magnetic nanoscale structure of ultrathin magnetic films, both monolayers and multilayers (Fe/Cu(001), FePt, FeCoPt, UFe{sub 2}, U-S). Techniques used included the MCD (magnetic circular dichroism)-variants of of x-ray absorption, core-level photoemission, and photoelectron diffraction. Progress has been made on nanoscale structure-property relations, in part of coupling of world-class experimentation and theoretical modeling. Feasibility of investigations of 5f magnetism using bulk uranium samples also has been demonstrated.

  6. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J.; Moniz, Gary A.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  7. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J.; Moniz, G.A.; Morse, T.F.

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles. 5 figs.

  8. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J.; Moniz, Gary A.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  9. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J.; Moniz, G.A.; Morse, T.F.

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles. 5 figs.

  10. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  11. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  12. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  13. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  14. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  15. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  16. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  17. CNEEC - TRG1: Nanoscale Control of Thermodynamic Potentials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRG1: Nanoscale Control of Thermodynamic Potentials TRG1 Leaders: Bruce Clemens and David Goldhaber-Gordon Energy storage and conversion involve charge transport, charge storage and conversion of materials from one phase to another. At the nanometer regime, size can have a dramatic effect on these processes and properties. Our program develops fundamental understanding of the effect of size on thermodynamics, kinetic processes, electronic structure and charge transport. Material systems

  18. Nanoscale mass conveyors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Brian C.; Aloni, Shaul; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2008-03-11

    A mass transport method and device for individually delivering chargeable atoms or molecules from source particles is disclosed. It comprises a channel; at least one source particle of chargeable material fixed to the surface of the channel at a position along its length; a means of heating the channel; and a means for applying an controllable electric field along the channel, whereby the device transports the atoms or molecules along the channel in response to applied electric field. In a preferred embodiment, the mass transport device will comprise a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT), although other one dimensional structures may also be used. The MWNT or other structure acts as a channel for individual or small collections of atoms due to the atomic smoothness of the material. Also preferred is a source particle of a metal such as indium. The particles move by dissociation into small units, in some cases, individual atoms. The particles are preferably less than 100 nm in size.

  19. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support,

  20. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M.; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N.; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D.; Anderson, Erik H.; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W.; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Nardi, Damiano

    2015-03-23

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier’s law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. In conclusion, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations.

  1. A new regime of nanoscale thermal transport: Collective diffusion increases dissipation efficiency

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoogeboom-Pot, Kathleen M.; Hernandez-Charpak, Jorge N.; Gu, Xiaokun; Frazer, Travis D.; Anderson, Erik H.; Chao, Weilun; Falcone, Roger W.; Yang, Ronggui; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; et al

    2015-03-23

    Understanding thermal transport from nanoscale heat sources is important for a fundamental description of energy flow in materials, as well as for many technological applications including thermal management in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics, thermoelectric devices, nanoenhanced photovoltaics, and nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies. Thermal transport at the nanoscale is fundamentally different from that at the macroscale and is determined by the distribution of carrier mean free paths and energy dispersion in a material, the length scales of the heat sources, and the distance over which heat is transported. Past work has shown that Fourier’s law for heat conduction dramatically overpredicts the rate ofmore » heat dissipation from heat sources with dimensions smaller than the mean free path of the dominant heat-carrying phonons. In this work, we uncover a new regime of nanoscale thermal transport that dominates when the separation between nanoscale heat sources is small compared with the dominant phonon mean free paths. Surprisingly, the interaction of phonons originating from neighboring heat sources enables more efficient diffusive-like heat dissipation, even from nanoscale heat sources much smaller than the dominant phonon mean free paths. This finding suggests that thermal management in nanoscale systems including integrated circuits might not be as challenging as previously projected. In conclusion, we demonstrate a unique capability to extract differential conductivity as a function of phonon mean free path in materials, allowing the first (to our knowledge) experimental validation of predictions from the recently developed first-principles calculations.« less

  2. Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamza, A V

    2008-04-07

    The Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory's (NSCL) primary mission is to create and advance interdisciplinary research and development opportunities in nanoscience and technology. The NSCL is delivering on its mission providing Laboratory programs with scientific solutions through the use of nanoscale synthesis and characterization. While this annual report summarizes 2007 activities, we have focused on nanoporous materials, advanced high strength, nanostructured metals, novel 3-dimensional lithography and characterization at the nanoscale for the past 3 years. In these three years we have synthesized the first monolithic nanoporous metal foams with less than 10% relative density; we have produced ultrasmooth nanocrystalline diamond inertial confinement fusion capsules; we have synthesized 3-dimensional graded density structures from full density to 5% relative density using nanolithography; and we have established ultrasmall angle x-ray scattering as a non-destructive tool to determine the structure on the sub 300nm scale. The NSCL also has a mission to recruit and to train personnel for Lab programs. The NSCL continues to attract talented scientists to the Laboratory. Andrew Detor from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sutapa Ghosal from the University of California, Irvine, Xiang Ying Wang from Shanghai Institute of Technology, and Arne Wittstock from University of Bremen joined the NSCL this year. The NSCL is pursuing four science and technology themes: nanoporous materials, advanced nanocrystalline materials, novel three-dimensional nanofabrication technologies, and nondestructive characterization at the mesoscale. The NSCL is also pursuing building new facilities for science and technology such as nanorobotics and atomic layer deposition.

  3. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews work in engineered thin-film nanoscale thermoelectric materials and nano-bulk materials with high ZT undertaken by RTI in collaboration with its research partners

  4. Controlling Motion at the Nanoscale: Rise of the Molecular Machines...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Controlling Motion at the Nanoscale: Rise of the Molecular Machines Title: Controlling Motion at the Nanoscale: Rise of the Molecular Machines Authors: ...

  5. Electron Transport at the Nanoscale Spatially Revealed by Four...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electron Transport at the Nanoscale Spatially Revealed by Four-Probe Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electron Transport at the Nanoscale ...

  6. Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field Prev Next Title: Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field ...

  7. Electrochemistry on the nanoscale: the force dimension (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrochemistry on the nanoscale: the force dimension Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemistry on the nanoscale: the force dimension Authors: Black, Jennifer M ...

  8. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale ...

  9. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and ... Title: Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and ...

  10. Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium ...

  11. Electrochemistry at the Nanoscale: The Force Dimension (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrochemistry at the Nanoscale: The Force Dimension Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemistry at the Nanoscale: The Force Dimension Authors: Black, Jennifer M ...

  12. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its Locality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Humidity Effect on Nanoscale ...

  13. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery ...

  14. Probing Nanoscale Objects in Liquids through Membranes with Near...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Probing Nanoscale Objects in Liquids through Membranes with Near-Field Microwave Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing Nanoscale Objects in ...

  15. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters Prev Next Title: Nanoscale ...

  16. Other: Nanoscale Machines: These Squeaky Wheels Will Get No Grease...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Machines: These Squeaky Wheels Will Get No Grease Citation Details Title: Nanoscale Machines: These Squeaky Wheels Will Get No Grease

  17. Whirlpools on the Nanoscale Could Multiply Magnetic Memory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Whirlpools on the Nanoscale Could Multiply Magnetic Memory Whirlpools on the Nanoscale Could Multiply Magnetic Memory Print Tuesday, 21 May 2013 00:00 Research at the Advanced...

  18. Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Title Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication...

  19. Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) User Facilities User Facilities Home User ... X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers ...

  20. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003-2012 (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. ...

  1. Melt Processing of Covetic Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    www.netl.doe.gov U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program ... of integrally-bound nano-scale carbon phase (i.e., "covetic" nano- materials) in order to produce materials ...

  2. Access to CNM | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complete the user work submittal form (UWS, this is coordinated by the User Office). Take the online core training courses for Argonne facility users; you must have an Argonne ...

  3. Nanophotonics at CNM | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Artist's rendition of semiconductor nanocrystals near a gold film representing work by ... Artist's rendition of semiconductor nanocrystals near a gold film representing work by ...

  4. CNM Organization Chart | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural gas is a clean-burning, abundant, and domestically produced energy source. In the fleet world, these attributes have garnered growing interest in compressed natural gas (CNG) for medium- and heavy- duty vehicles 1 . CNG can also reduce operating costs and offer relative price stability compared to conventional petroleum fuels. For fleets considering a transition to CNG, there are many aspects of CNG vehicles and fueling infrastructure that impact the viability and financial soundness of

  5. 2007 CNM Users Meeting | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    List of Tables Main Report | Methodology | FAQ | List of Tables CBECS 2007 - Release date: August 17, 2012 Table H1: Structural and Geographical Information for Large Hospitals Table H2: Fuels and End Uses in Large Hospitals Table H3: End Use Equipment in Large Hospitals Table H4: Lighting and Window Features in Large Hospitals Table H5: Major Fuels Usage for Large Hospitals Table H6: Electricity Usage for Large Hospitals Table H7: Natural Gas Usage for Large Hospitals Table H8: Water

  6. Nanoscale Strontium Titanate Photocatalysts for Overall Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Troy K.; Browning, Nigel D.; Osterloh, Frank

    2012-08-28

    SrTiO3 (STO) is a large band gap (3.2 eV) semiconductor that catalyzes the overall water splitting reaction under UV light irradiation in the presence of a NiO cocatalyst. As we show here, the reactivity persists in nanoscale particles of the material, although the process is less effective at the nanoscale. To reach these conclusions, Bulk STO, 30 5 nm STO, and 6.5 1 nm STO were synthesized by three different methods, their crystal structures verified with XRD and their morphology observed with HRTEM before and after NiO deposition. In connection with NiO, all samples split water into stoichiometric mixtures of H2 and O2, but the activity is decreasing from 28 ?mol H2 g1 h1 (bulk STO), to 19.4 ?mol H2 g1 h1 (30 nm STO), and 3.0 ?mol H2 g1 h1 (6.5 nm STO). The reasons for this decrease are an increase of the water oxidation overpotential for the smaller particles and reduced light absorption due to a quantum size effect. Overall, these findings establish the first nanoscale titanate photocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  7. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajendra Bordia

    2009-07-31

    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and

  8. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Materials Access to Hopper Phase II (Cray XE6) If you are a current NERSC user, you are enabled to use Hopper Phase II. Use your SSH client to connect to Hopper II:...

  9. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P.J. Kooyman, H.W. Zandbergen, C. Morin, B.M. Weckhuysen, and F.M.F. de Groot, "Nanoscale chemical imaging of a working catalyst by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy," Nature...

  10. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Materials Understanding and manipulating the most fundamental properties of materials can lead to major breakthroughs in solar power, reactor fuels, optical computing, telecommunications. News Releases Science Briefs Photos Picture of the Week Publications Social Media Videos Fact Sheets Yu Seung Kim (left) and Kwan-Soo Lee (right) New class of fuel cells offer increased flexibility, lower cost A new class of fuel cells based on a newly discovered polymer-based material could bridge

  11. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  12. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  13. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  14. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  15. Nanoscale Center Dedication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanoscale Center Dedication Nanoscale Center Dedication May 6, 2005 - 12:44pm Addthis Remarks by Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman Thank you, Bob [Rosner] for that introduction. And let me also thank you, along with [University of Chicago] President Randel, for the leadership you are showing here. Argonne has long been a world class institution. It will soar to new heights under your joint direction. I also want to acknowledge Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich. Thank you for being here. More than

  16. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  17. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  18. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  19. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  20. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction

  1. Nanoscale pillar arrays for separations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kirchner, Teresa; Strickhouser, Rachel; Hatab, Nahla; Charlton, Jennifer; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    The work presented herein evaluates silicon nano-pillar arrays for use in planar chromatography. Electron beam lithography and metal thermal dewetting protocols were used to create nano-thin layer chromatography platforms. With these fabrication methods we are able to reduce the size of the characteristic features in a separation medium below that used in ultra-thin layer chromatography; i.e. pillar heights are 1-2μm and pillar diameters are typically in the 200- 400nm range. In addition to the intrinsic nanoscale aspects of the systems, it is shown they can be further functionalized with nanoporous layers and traditional stationary phases for chromatography; hence exhibit broad-rangingmore » lab-on-a-chip and point-of-care potential. Because of an inherent high permeability and very small effective mass transfer distance between pillars, chromatographic efficiency can be very high but is enhanced herein by stacking during development and focusing while drying, yielding plate heights in the nm range separated band volumes. Practical separations of fluorescent dyes, fluorescently derivatized amines, and anti-tumor drugs are illustrated.« less

  2. Development of Nanoscale Ceramics for Advanced Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miriam Leffler; Joseph Helble

    1999-09-30

    Bulk structures of unstabilized ZrO{sub 2-x}, with x in the range of 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.44, at ambient pressure have been found to exist in three different structures. (monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic.). At ambient temperature and elevated pressures above 3.5 GPa, unstabilized zirconia at these same compositions is found as a fourth phase, the orthorhombic phase. Work done in this project has demonstrated that nanoscale zirconia particles containing the orthorhombic phase in addition to amorphous material can be produced through solgel methods. Extensive characterization of this material including recent high temperature x-ray diffraction work has indicated that the structure of the synthesized zirconia appears to be linked to the oxygen vacancy population in the material, and that water appears to be a critical factor in determining the type of material formed during synthesis. These results suggest that surface energy alone is not the controlling factor in determining crystal phase.

  3. 2007 Colloquium Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 Colloquium Archgive 2015 Colloquium Archive 2014 Colloquium Archive 2013 Colloquium Archive 2012 Colloquium Archive 2011 Colloquium Archive 2010 Colloquium Archive 2009 Colloquium Archive 2008 Colloquium Archive 2007 Colloquium Archive SEMINAR SERIES Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale

  4. 2007 Seminars Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SEMINAR SERIES 2016 Seminars Archive 2015 Seminars Archive 2014 Seminars Archive 2013 Seminars Archive 2012 Seminars Archive 2011 Seminars Archive 2010 Seminars Archive 2009 Seminars Archive 2008 Seminars Archive 2007 Seminars Archive 2006 Seminars Archive Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale

  5. 2008 Colloquium Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 Colloquium Archgive 2015 Colloquium Archive 2014 Colloquium Archive 2013 Colloquium Archive 2012 Colloquium Archive 2011 Colloquium Archive 2010 Colloquium Archive 2009 Colloquium Archive 2008 Colloquium Archive 2007 Colloquium Archive SEMINAR SERIES Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale

  6. 2009 Colloquium Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 Colloquium Archgive 2015 Colloquium Archive 2014 Colloquium Archive 2013 Colloquium Archive 2012 Colloquium Archive 2011 Colloquium Archive 2010 Colloquium Archive 2009 Colloquium Archive 2008 Colloquium Archive 2007 Colloquium Archive SEMINAR SERIES Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale

  7. 2009 Seminars Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SEMINAR SERIES 2016 Seminars Archive 2015 Seminars Archive 2014 Seminars Archive 2013 Seminars Archive 2012 Seminars Archive 2011 Seminars Archive 2010 Seminars Archive 2009 Seminars Archive 2008 Seminars Archive 2007 Seminars Archive 2006 Seminars Archive Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale

  8. 2010 Colloquium Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 Colloquium Archgive 2015 Colloquium Archive 2014 Colloquium Archive 2013 Colloquium Archive 2012 Colloquium Archive 2011 Colloquium Archive 2010 Colloquium Archive 2009 Colloquium Archive 2008 Colloquium Archive 2007 Colloquium Archive SEMINAR SERIES Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale

  9. 2010 Seminars Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SEMINAR SERIES 2016 Seminars Archive 2015 Seminars Archive 2014 Seminars Archive 2013 Seminars Archive 2012 Seminars Archive 2011 Seminars Archive 2010 Seminars Archive 2009 Seminars Archive 2008 Seminars Archive 2007 Seminars Archive 2006 Seminars Archive Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale

  10. 2011 Colloquium Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 Colloquium Archgive 2015 Colloquium Archive 2014 Colloquium Archive 2013 Colloquium Archive 2012 Colloquium Archive 2011 Colloquium Archive 2010 Colloquium Archive 2009 Colloquium Archive 2008 Colloquium Archive 2007 Colloquium Archive SEMINAR SERIES Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale

  11. 2012 Colloquium Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 Colloquium Archgive 2015 Colloquium Archive 2014 Colloquium Archive 2013 Colloquium Archive 2012 Colloquium Archive 2011 Colloquium Archive 2010 Colloquium Archive 2009 Colloquium Archive 2008 Colloquium Archive 2007 Colloquium Archive SEMINAR SERIES Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale

  12. 2013 Colloquium Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2016 Colloquium Archgive 2015 Colloquium Archive 2014 Colloquium Archive 2013 Colloquium Archive 2012 Colloquium Archive 2011 Colloquium Archive 2010 Colloquium Archive 2009 Colloquium Archive 2008 Colloquium Archive 2007 Colloquium Archive SEMINAR SERIES Argonne Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Users Meetings Workshops Photos Videos Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Career Opportunities CNM Intranet CNM on Facebook Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale

  13. Nanoscale effects in the characterization of viscoelastic materials with atomic force microscopy: Coupling of a quasi-three-dimensional standard linear solid model with in-plane surface interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2016-04-15

    Significant progress has been accomplished in the development of experimental contact-mode and dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods designed to measure surface material properties. However, current methods are based on one-dimensional (1D) descriptions of the tip-sample interaction forces, thus neglecting the intricacies involved in the material behavior of complex samples (such as soft viscoelastic materials) as well as the differences in material response between the surface and the bulk. In order to begin to address this gap, a computational study is presented where the sample is simulated using an enhanced version of a recently introduced model that treats the surfacemore » as a collection of standard-linear-solid viscoelastic elements. The enhanced model introduces in-plane surface elastic forces that can be approximately related to a two-dimensional (2D) Young's modulus. Relevant cases are discussed for single-and multifrequency intermittent-contact AFM imaging, with focus on the calculated surface indentation profiles and tip-sample interaction force curves, as well as their implications with regards to experimental interpretation. A variety of phenomena are examined in detail, which highlight the need for further development of more physically accurate sample models that are specifically designed for AFM simulation. As a result, a multifrequency AFM simulation tool based on the above sample model is provided as supporting information.« less

  14. Optoacoustic Microscopy for Investigation of MaterialNanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    be used for quantitative imaging of nanoscale material features - including features that may be buried so as to be inaccessible to conventional lightwave or electron microscopies. ...

  15. Downloads | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bioluminescence more accurate, forgiving than typical targeting methods October 6, 2015 CNM Scientific Contact List A list of scientific contacts for the Center for Nanoscale ...

  16. The Properties of Confined Water and Fluid Flow at the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwegler, E; Reed, J; Lau, E; Prendergast, D; Galli, G; Grossman, J C; Cicero, G

    2009-03-09

    This project has been focused on the development of accurate computational tools to study fluids in confined, nanoscale geometries, and the application of these techniques to probe the structural and electronic properties of water confined between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, including the presence of simple ions at the interfaces. In particular, we have used a series of ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations to build an understanding of how hydrogen bonding and solvation are modified at the nanoscale. The properties of confined water affect a wide range of scientific and technological problems - including protein folding, cell-membrane flow, materials properties in confined media and nanofluidic devices.

  17. Discovery Could Dramatically Boost Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells: Nanoscale images by Berkeley Lab researchers yield surprise that could push efficiency to 31 percent

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scientists from the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have discovered a possible secret to dramatically boosting the efficiency of perovskite solar cells hidden in the nanoscale peaks and valleys of the crystalline material.

  18. Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamza, A V; Lesuer, D R

    2006-01-03

    The Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory's (NSCL) primary mission is to create and advance interdisciplinary research and development opportunities in nanoscience and technology. The initial emphasis of the NSCL has been on development of scientific solutions in support of target fabrication for the NIF laser and other stockpile stewardship experimental platforms. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design and development of innovative new materials and structures for use in these targets. Projects range from the development of new high strength nanocrystalline alloys to graded density materials to high Z nanoporous structures. The NSCL also has a mission to recruit and train personnel for Lab programs such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Defense and Nuclear Technologies (DNT), and Nonproliferation, Arms control and International security (NAI). The NSCL continues to attract talented scientists to the Laboratory.

  19. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-10-06

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW-hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas.

  20. Nanoscale Silicon as a Catalyst for Graphene Growth: Mechanistic Insight from in Situ Raman Spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Share, Keith; Carter, Rachel E.; Nikolaev, Pavel; Hooper, Daylong; Oakes, Landon; Cohn, Adam P.; Rao, Rahul; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.; Maruyama, Benji; et al

    2016-06-08

    Nanoscale carbons are typically synthesized by thermal decomposition of a hydrocarbon at the surface of a metal catalyst. Whereas the use of silicon as an alternative to metal catalysts could unlock new techniques to seamlessly couple carbon nanostructures and semiconductor materials, stable carbide formation renders bulk silicon incapable of the precipitation and growth of graphitic structures. In this article, we provide evidence supported by comprehensive in situ Raman experiments that indicates nanoscale grains of silicon in porous silicon (PSi) scaffolds act as catalysts for hydrocarbon decomposition and growth of few-layered graphene at temperatures as low as 700 K. Self-limiting growthmore » kinetics of graphene with activation energies measured between 0.32–0.37 eV elucidates the formation of highly reactive surface-bound Si radicals that aid in the decomposition of hydrocarbons. Nucleation and growth of graphitic layers on PSi exhibits striking similarity to catalytic growth on nickel surfaces, involving temperature dependent surface and subsurface diffusion of carbon. Lastly, this work elucidates how the nanoscale properties of silicon can be exploited to yield catalytic properties distinguished from bulk silicon, opening an important avenue to engineer catalytic interfaces combining the two most technologically important materials for modern applications—silicon and nanoscale carbons.« less

  1. Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Bradley R.; Talley, Chad E.

    2008-06-10

    Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) having polymer features wherein the size, shape and position are predetermined can be fabricated using an xy piezo stage mounted on an inverted microscope and a laser. Using an AMF controller, a solution containing polymer precursors and a photo initiator are positioned on the xy piezo and hit with a laser beam. The thickness of the polymeric features can be varied from a few nanometers to over a micron.

  2. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  3. Methods and devices for fabricating three-dimensional nanoscale structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Jangung

    2010-04-27

    The present invention provides methods and devices for fabricating 3D structures and patterns of 3D structures on substrate surfaces, including symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns of 3D structures. Methods of the present invention provide a means of fabricating 3D structures having accurately selected physical dimensions, including lateral and vertical dimensions ranging from 10s of nanometers to 1000s of nanometers. In one aspect, methods are provided using a mask element comprising a conformable, elastomeric phase mask capable of establishing conformal contact with a radiation sensitive material undergoing photoprocessing. In another aspect, the temporal and/or spatial coherence of electromagnetic radiation using for photoprocessing is selected to fabricate complex structures having nanoscale features that do not extend entirely through the thickness of the structure fabricated.

  4. Method and system for nanoscale plasma processing of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Hua, Xuefeng; Stolz, Christian

    2008-12-30

    A plasma processing system includes a source of plasma, a substrate and a shutter positioned in close proximity to the substrate. The substrate/shutter relative disposition is changed for precise control of substrate/plasma interaction. This way, the substrate interacts only with a fully established, stable plasma for short times required for nanoscale processing of materials. The shutter includes an opening of a predetermined width, and preferably is patterned to form an array of slits with dimensions that are smaller than the Debye screening length. This enables control of the substrate/plasma interaction time while avoiding the ion bombardment of the substrate in an undesirable fashion. The relative disposition between the shutter and the substrate can be made either by moving the shutter or by moving the substrate.

  5. Center for Nanoscale Materials Fact Sheet | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    instruments, and infrastructure for interdisciplinary nanoscience and nanotechnology research. Academic, industrial, and international researchers can access the center...

  6. Growth of and defect reduction in nanoscale materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Kenneth J.; Mickelson, William E.; Zettl, Alex K.

    2011-01-04

    Methods by which the growth of a nanostructure may be precisely controlled by an electrical current are described here. In one embodiment, an interior nanostructure is grown to a predetermined geometry inside another nanostructure, which serves as a reaction chamber. The growth is effected by a catalytic agent loaded with feedstock for the interior nanostructure. Another embodiment allows a preexisting marginal quality nanostructure to be zone refined into a higher-quality nanostructure by driving a catalytic agent down a controlled length of the nanostructure with an electric current. In both embodiments, the speed of nanostructure formation is adjustable, and the growth may be stopped and restarted at will. The catalytic agent may be doped or undoped to produce semiconductor effects, and the bead may be removed via acid etching.

  7. AUDIT REPORT Follow-up Audit of Nanoscale Materials Safety

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    over the handling of nanomaterials, we recommend that the Acting Director, Office of Science and the Associate Administrator for Safety, Infrastructure, and Operations,...

  8. Exploring nanoscale magnetism in advanced materials with polarized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The clock signal of the synchrotron triggers a fast electronic pulsar, which launches pulses with a rise time of about 100ps into a waveguide structure. These pump pulses create ...

  9. Materials Science Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Materials Science Applications VASP VASP is a plane wave ab initio code for quantum mechanical molecular dynamics. It is highly scalable and shows very good parallel performance for a variety of chemical and materials science calculations. VASP is available to NERSC users who already have a VASP license. Read More » Quantum ESPRESSO/PWscf Quantum Espresso is an integrated suite of computer codes for electronic structure calculations and materials modeling at the nanoscale. It builds on

  10. Nondestructive volumetric 3-D chemical mapping of nickel-sulfur compounds at the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris W. M.; Chu Y.; Nelson, G.J.; Kiss, A.M.; Izzo Jr, J.R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, M.; Wang, S.; Chiu W.K.S.

    2012-04-04

    Nano-structures of nickel (Ni) and nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) materials were studied and mapped in 3D with high-resolution x-ray nanotomography combined with full field XANES spectroscopy. This method for characterizing these phases in complex microstructures is an important new analytical imaging technique, applicable to a wide range of nanoscale and mesoscale electrochemical systems.

  11. Andreas Roelofs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Andreas Roelofs is the Interim Division Director and Industrial Liaison of Argonne's Nanoscience and Technology Division (NST) as well as the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), a Department of Energy national user facility. He holds an advanced degree in physics (Dipl.-Phys) from the University of Cologne and received his doctoral degree (Dr.rer.nat.) in physics from the RWTH Aachen in Germany. Dr. Roelofs thesis work focused on the investigation of scaling effects of ferroelectric thin films

  12. Ravi R. Gupta | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ravi R. Gupta Postdoctoral Appointee Dr. Ravi Gupta is a postdoc studying Type Ia supernovae and their host galaxies as part of the Dark Energy Survey (www.darkenergysurvey.org). He also spends part of his time nanofabricating ring resonators at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials (www.anl.gov/cnm/) for future near-infrared astronomy applications. EDUCATION Ph.D. in Physics & Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 2013 B.S. in Physics, Stanford University, 2007 Telephone (630) 252-6218

  13. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution ... energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel ...

  14. Flow Batteries Enabled by Nanoscale Percolating Conductor Networks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 2014, Research Highlights Flow Batteries Enabled by Nanoscale Percolating Conductor Networks Images for Flow Batteries Scientific Achievement Created novel electronically ...

  15. Nanoscale nickel oxide/ nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for active hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale nickel oxide nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen evolution ...

  16. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and the Dual Nature of Its Locality Prev Next Title: Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its Locality ...

  17. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC ... must understand the evolution of chemical composition and morphology of battery ...

  18. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  19. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-07-14

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  20. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  1. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Renu; Crozier, Peter; Adams, James

    2013-09-19

    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  2. Method to determine thermal profiles of nanoscale circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K; Begtrup, Gavi E

    2013-04-30

    A platform that can measure the thermal profiles of devices with nanoscale resolution has been developed. The system measures the local temperature by using an array of nanoscale thermometers. This process can be observed in real time using a high resolution imagining technique such as electron microscopy. The platform can operate at extremely high temperatures.

  3. New Imaging Technique Shows Nanoscale Workings of Rechargeable Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Imaging Technique Shows Nanoscale Workings of Rechargeable Batteries There's a new tool in the push to engineer rechargeable batteries that last longer and charge more quickly. An X-ray microscopy technique recently developed at Advanced Light Source has given scientists the ability to image nanoscale changes inside lithium-ion battery particles as they charge and discharge. ← Previous Next →

  4. Synthesizing High-Quality Calcium Boride at Nanoscale | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory High-Quality Calcium Boride at Nanoscale Technology available for licensing: An innovative method for synthesizing compositionally pure calcium boride at the nanoscale by using two different precursors. Process increases stability, hardness and conductivity of high-melting-point calcium boride Makes calcium boride readily available for manufacturing processes in many industries PDF icon calcium_chloride

  5. PHOTOELECTROCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOCATALYSIS IN NANOSCALE INORGANIC CHEMICAL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas E. Mallouk

    2007-05-27

    The goal of our DOE-supported research has been to explore the use of solid state materials as organizing media for, and as active components of, artificial photosynthetic systems. In this work we strive to understand how photoinduced electron and energy transfer reactions occur in the solid state, and to elucidate design principles for using nanoscale inorganic materials in photochemical energy conversion schemes. A unifying theme in this project has been to move beyond the study of simple transient charge separation to integrated chemical systems that can effect permanent charge separation in the form of energy-rich chemicals. This project explored the use of zeolites as organizing media for electron donor-acceptor systems and artificial photosynthetic assemblies. Layer-by-layer synthetic methods were developed using lamellar semiconductors, and multi-step, visible light driven energy/electron transfer cascades were studied by transient specroscopic techniques. By combining molecular photosensitizers with lamellar semiconductors and intercalated catalyst particles, the first non-sacrificial systems for visible light driven hydrogen evolution were developed and studied. Oxygen evolving catalyst particles and semiconductor nanowires were also studied with the goal of achieving photocatalytic water splitting using visible light.

  6. Control of friction at the nanoscale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barhen, Jacob; Braiman, Yehuda Y.; Protopopescu, Vladimir

    2010-04-06

    Methods and apparatus are described for control of friction at the nanoscale. A method of controlling frictional dynamics of a plurality of particles using non-Lipschitzian control includes determining an attribute of the plurality of particles; calculating an attribute deviation by subtracting the attribute of the plurality of particles from a target attribute; calculating a non-Lipschitzian feedback control term by raising the attribute deviation to a fractionary power .xi.=(2m+1)/(2n+1) where n=1, 2, 3 . . . and m=0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , with m strictly less than n and then multiplying by a control amplitude; and imposing the non-Lipschitzian feedback control term globally on each of the plurality of particles; imposing causes a subsequent magnitude of the attribute deviation to be reduced.

  7. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A.; White, E. R.; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B. C.

    2015-02-05

    We report that modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit’s glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum’s bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with amore » statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz₋1/2, an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Lastly, many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers.« less

  8. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A.; White, E. R.; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B. C.

    2015-02-05

    We report that modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit’s glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum’s bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with a statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz₋1/2, an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Lastly, many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers.

  9. Environmental Assessment for Enhanced Operations of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory-East, Argonne, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-06-27

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with continued and enhanced operation of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), including modifications, upgrades, and new facilities, at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in DuPage County, Illinois. This proposed action is needed to meet DOE's mission of sponsoring cutting-edge science and technology. Continued operation would include existing research activities. In 2002, 23 user teams had beamlines in use in 28 sectors of the experiment hall, and approximately 2,000 individual users visited annually (see Section 3.1.1). Enhanced scientific capabilities would include research on Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) materials in an existing area originally constructed for such work, and would not require new construction or workforce (see Section 3.1.2). A new experimental unit, the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), would be constructed along the west side of the APS facility and would be used for bench-scale research in nanoscience (see Section 3.1.3). Under the No Action Alternative, current APS operations would continue. However, initiation of BSL-3 research would not occur, and the proposed CNM research facility would not be constructed. The environmental consequences of the Proposed Action are minor. Potential effects to the environment are primarily related to ecological effects during construction and operation of the proposed CNM and human health effects during BSL-3 activities. The potential ecological effects of construction and operation of the CNM would be impacts of stormwater runoff into a restored wetland to the north of the CNM. DOE would minimize stormwater impacts during construction of the CNM by ensuring adequate erosion control before and during construction. Stormwater impacts would be minimized during operation of the CNM by

  10. Synthesizing High-Quality Calcium Boride at Nanoscale - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boride at Nanoscale Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology CaB6 particles coated for 20 cycles at 1600 C. CaB6 particles...

  11. Nanoscale selective area growth of thick, dense, uniform, In...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Nanoscale selective area growth of thick, dense, uniform, In-rich, InGaN nanostructure arrays on GaNsapphire template Authors: Sundaram, S. 1 ; Puybaret, R. 2 ; El ...

  12. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Dual Nature of Its Locality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its ...

  13. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Wednesday, 28 May 2014 00:00 Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks

  14. Non-Equilibrium Nanoscale Self-Organization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aziz, Michael J

    2006-03-09

    Self-organized one- and two-dimensional arrays of nanoscale surface features ("ripples" and "dots") sometimes form spontaneously on initially flat surfaces eroded by a directed ion beam in a process called "sputter patterning". Experiments on this sputter patterning process with focused and unfocused ion beams, combined with theoretical advances, have been responsible for a number of scientific advances. Particularly noteworthy are (i) the discovery of propagative, rather than dissipative, behavior under some ion erosion conditions, permitting a pattern to be fabricated at a large length scale and propagated over large distances while maintaining, or even sharpening, the sharpest features; (ii) the first demonstration of guided self-organization of sputter patterns, along with the observation that defect density is minimized when the spacing between boundaries is near an integer times the natural spatial period; and (iii) the discovery of metastability of smooth surfaces, which contradicts the nearly universally accepted linear stability theory that predicts that any surface is linearly unstable to sinusoidal perturbations of some wave vector.

  15. Trimodal Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy. Simultaneous 4D Mapping of Conservative and Dissipative Probe-Sample Interactions of Energy-Relevant Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-09-18

    This project focused on the development of single-pass multifrequency atomic force microscopy methods for the rapid multi-function nanoscale characterization of energy-relevant materials.

  16. Materials Videos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Videos Materials

  17. Ultrashort-pulse laser generated nanoparticles of energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welle, Eric J.; Tappan, Alexander S.; Palmer, Jeremy A.

    2010-08-03

    A process for generating nanoscale particles of energetic materials, such as explosive materials, using ultrashort-pulse laser irradiation. The use of ultrashort laser pulses in embodiments of this invention enables one to generate particles by laser ablation that retain the chemical identity of the starting material while avoiding ignition, deflagration, and detonation of the explosive material.

  18. Modeling nanoscale hydrodynamics by smoothed dissipative particle dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Huan; Mundy, Christopher J.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Voulgarakis, Nikolaos

    2015-05-21

    Thermal fluctuation and hydrophobicity are two hallmarks of fluid hydrodynamics on the nano-scale. It is a challenge to consistently couple the small length and time scale phenomena associated with molecular interaction with larger scale phenomena. The development of this consistency is the essence of mesoscale science. In this study, we develop a nanoscale fluid model based on smoothed dissipative particle dynamics that accounts for the phenomena of associated with density fluctuations and hydrophobicity. We show consistency in the fluctuation spectrum across scales. In doing so, it is necessary to account for finite fluid particle size. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the present model can capture of the void probability and solvation free energy of apolar particles of different sizes. The present fluid model is well suited for a understanding emergent phenomena in nano-scale fluid systems.

  19. Nanoscale imaging of photocurrent and efficiency in CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leite, Marina S.; Abashin, Maxim; Lezec, Henri J.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony; Talin, A. Alec; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.

    2014-10-15

    The local collection characteristics of grain interiors and grain boundaries in thin film CdTe polycrystalline solar cells are investigated using scanning photocurrent microscopy. The carriers are locally generated by light injected through a small aperture (50-300 nm) of a near-field scanning optical microscope in an illumination mode. Possible influence of rough surface topography on light coupling is examined and eliminated by sculpting smooth wedges on the granular CdTe surface. By varying the wavelength of light, nanoscale spatial variations in external quantum efficiency are mapped. We find that the grain boundaries (GBs) are better current collectors than the grain interiors (GIs). The increased collection efficiency is caused by two distinct effects associated with the material composition of GBs. First, GBs are charged, and the corresponding built-in field facilitates the separation and the extraction of the photogenerated carriers. Second, the GB regions generate more photocurrent at long wavelength corresponding to the band edge, which can be caused by a smaller local band gap. As a result, resolving carrier collection with nanoscale resolution in solar cell materials is crucial for optimizing the polycrystalline device performance through appropriate thermal processing and passivation of defect and surfaces.

  20. Nanoscale imaging of photocurrent and efficiency in CdTe solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leite, Marina S.; National Inst. of Standards and Technology; Abashin, Maxim; National Inst. of Standards and Technology; Lezec, Henri J.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony; Talin, A. Alec; Sandia National Lab.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.

    2014-10-15

    The local collection characteristics of grain interiors and grain boundaries in thin film CdTe polycrystalline solar cells are investigated using scanning photocurrent microscopy. The carriers are locally generated by light injected through a small aperture (50-300 nm) of a near-field scanning optical microscope in an illumination mode. Possible influence of rough surface topography on light coupling is examined and eliminated by sculpting smooth wedges on the granular CdTe surface. By varying the wavelength of light, nanoscale spatial variations in external quantum efficiency are mapped. We find that the grain boundaries (GBs) are better current collectors than the grain interiors (GIs).more » The increased collection efficiency is caused by two distinct effects associated with the material composition of GBs. First, GBs are charged, and the corresponding built-in field facilitates the separation and the extraction of the photogenerated carriers. Second, the GB regions generate more photocurrent at long wavelength corresponding to the band edge, which can be caused by a smaller local band gap. As a result, resolving carrier collection with nanoscale resolution in solar cell materials is crucial for optimizing the polycrystalline device performance through appropriate thermal processing and passivation of defect and surfaces.« less

  1. Nanoscale elastic changes in 2D Ti3C2Tx (MXene) pseudocapacitive electrodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Come, Jeremy; Xie, Yu; Naguib, Michael; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Gogotsi, Yury; Kent, Paul R. C.; Balke, Nina

    2016-02-01

    Designing sustainable electrodes for next generation energy storage devices relies on the understanding of their fundamental properties at the nanoscale, including the comprehension of ions insertion into the electrode and their interactions with the active material. One consequence of ion storage is the change in the electrode volume resulting in mechanical strain and stress that can strongly affect the cycle life. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes of dimensions and mechanical properties occurring during electrochemical reactions. While the characterization of mechanical properties via macroscopic measurements is well documented, in-situ characterization of their evolution has never been achieved atmore » the nanoscale. Two dimensional (2D) carbides, known as MXenes, are promising materials for supercapacitors and various kinds of batteries, and understating the coupling between their mechanical and electrochemical properties is therefore necessary. Here we report on in-situ imaging, combined with density functional theory of the elastic changes, of a 2D titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) electrode in direction normal to the basal plane during cation intercalation. The results show a strong correlation between the Li+ ions content and the elastic modulus, whereas little effects of K+ ions are observed. Moreover, this strategy enables identifying the preferential intercalation pathways within a single particle.« less

  2. In Situ Analytical Electron Microscopy for Probing Nanoscale Electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graetz J.; Meng, Y.S.; McGilvray, T.; Yang, M.-C.; Gostovic, D.; Wang, F.; Zeng, D.; Zhu, Y.

    2011-10-31

    Oxides and their tailored structures are at the heart of electrochemical energy storage technologies and advances in understanding and controlling the dynamic behaviors in the complex oxides, particularly at the interfaces, during electrochemical processes will catalyze creative design concepts for new materials with enhanced and better-understood properties. Such knowledge is not accessible without new analytical tools. New innovative experimental techniques are needed for understanding the chemistry and structure of the bulk and interfaces, more importantly how they change with electrochemical processes in situ. Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is used extensively to study electrode materials ex situ and is one of the most powerful tools to obtain structural, morphological, and compositional information at nanometer scale by combining imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy, e.g., EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry) and Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (EELS). Determining the composition/structure evolution upon electrochemical cycling at the bulk and interfaces can be addressed by new electron microscopy technique with which one can observe, at the nanometer scale and in situ, the dynamic phenomena in the electrode materials. In electrochemical systems, for instance in a lithium ion battery (LIB), materials operate under conditions that are far from equilibrium, so that the materials studied ex situ may not capture the processes that occur in situ in a working battery. In situ electrochemical operation in the ultra-high vacuum column of a TEM has been pursued by two major strategies. In one strategy, a 'nano-battery' can be fabricated from an all-solid-state thin film battery using a focused ion beam (FIB). The electrolyte is either polymer based or ceramic based without any liquid component. As shown in Fig. 1a, the interfaces between the active electrode material/electrolyte can be clearly observed with TEM imaging, in contrast to the

  3. Predictive modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-08-05

    Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track formation occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.

  4. Nanoscale dynamics and aging of fibrous peptide-based gels (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale dynamics and aging of fibrous peptide-based gels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale dynamics and aging of fibrous peptide-based gels Authors: Dudukovic, ...

  5. Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films Authors: Kwon, ...

  6. Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0kumta.pdf (1.9 MB) More Documents & Publications Nano-scale Composite Hetero-structures: Novel High Capacity Reversible Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Nanoscale ...

  7. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H. C.; Beasley, M. R.; Geballe, T. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-16

    The phase diagram of BaPb1-xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting “dome” in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare to the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length. Thus, we find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying amore » connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome.« less

  8. Acoustic Detection of Phase Transitions at the Nanoscale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Khassaf, Hamidreza; Cao, Ye; Zhang, Shujun; Tselev, Alexander; Carmichael, Ben D.; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Chen, Long-Qing; Alpay, S. Pamir; et al

    2016-01-25

    On page 478, N. Bassiri-Gharb and co-workers demonstrate acoustic detection in nanoscale volumes by use of an atomic force microscope tip technique. Elastic changes in volume are measured by detecting changes in resonance of the cantilever. Also, the electric field in this case causes a phase transition, which is modeled by Landau theory.

  9. Ultrafast Chemistry under Nonequilibrium Conditions and the Shock to Deflagration Transition at the Nanoscale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wood, Mitchell A.; Cherukara, Mathew J.; Kober, Edward M.; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-06-13

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to describe the chemical reactions following shock-induced collapse of cylindrical pores in the high-energy density material RDX. For shocks with particle velocities of 2 km/s we find that the collapse of a 40 nm diameter pore leads to a deflagration wave. Molecular collisions during the collapse lead to ultrafast, multistep chemical reactions that occur under nonequilibrium conditions. WE found that exothermic products formed during these first few picoseconds prevent the nanoscale hotspot from quenching. Within 30 ps, a local deflagration wave develops. It propagates at 0.25 km/s and consists of an ultrathin reaction zone ofmore » only ~5 nm, thus involving large temperature and composition gradients. Contrary to the assumptions in current models, a static thermal hotspot matching the dynamical one in size and thermodynamic conditions fails to produce a deflagration wave indicating the importance of nonequilibrium loading in the criticality of nanoscale hot spots. These results provide insight into the initiation of reactive decomposition.« less

  10. Visualizing nanoscale excitonic relaxation properties of disordered edges and grain boundaries in monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bao, Wei; Borys, Nicholas J.; Ko, Changhyun; Suh, Joonki; Fan, Wen; Thron, Andrew; Zhang, Yingjie; Buyanin, Alexander; Zhang, Jie; Cabrini, Stefano; et al

    2015-08-13

    The ideal building blocks for atomically thin, flexible optoelectronic and catalytic devices are two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors. Although challenging for two-dimensional systems, sub-diffraction optical microscopy provides a nanoscale material understanding that is vital for optimizing their optoelectronic properties. We use the ‘Campanile’ nano-optical probe to spectroscopically image exciton recombination within monolayer MoS2 with sub-wavelength resolution (60 nm), at the length scale relevant to many critical optoelectronic processes. Moreover, synthetic monolayer MoS2 is found to be composed of two distinct optoelectronic regions: an interior, locally ordered but mesoscopically heterogeneous two-dimensional quantum well and an unexpected ~300-nm wide, energetically disorderedmore » edge region. Further, grain boundaries are imaged with sufficient resolution to quantify local exciton-quenching phenomena, and complimentary nano-Auger microscopy reveals that the optically defective grain boundary and edge regions are sulfur deficient. In conclusion, the nanoscale structure–property relationships established here are critical for the interpretation of edge- and boundary-related phenomena and the development of next-generation two-dimensional optoelectronic devices.« less

  11. Imaging thermal conductivity with nanoscale resolution using a scanning spin probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Aycock-Rizzo, Halley; Gao, Yang; Lu, Xi; Riedo, Elisa; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2015-11-20

    The ability to probe nanoscale heat flow in a material is often limited by lack of spatial resolution. Here, we use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy centre attached to the apex of a silicon thermal tip as a local temperature sensor. We apply an electrical current to heat up the tip and rely on the nitrogen vacancy to monitor the thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. By combining atomic force and confocal microscopy, we image phantom microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps. The small mass and high thermal conductivity of the diamond host make the time response of our technique short, which we demonstrate by monitoring the tip temperature upon application of a heat pulse. Our approach promises multiple applications, from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions and chemical reactions in various solid-state systems.

  12. Ultrafast Chemistry under Nonequilibrium Conditions and the Shock to Deflagration Transition at the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Mitchell A.; Cherukara, Mathew J.; Kober, Edward M.; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-06-13

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to describe the chemical reactions following shock-induced collapse of cylindrical pores in the high-energy density material RDX. For shocks with particle velocities of 2 km/s we find that the collapse of a 40 nm diameter pore leads to a deflagration wave. Molecular collisions during the collapse lead to ultrafast, multistep chemical reactions that occur under nonequilibrium conditions. WE found that exothermic products formed during these first few picoseconds prevent the nanoscale hotspot from quenching. Within 30 ps, a local deflagration wave develops. It propagates at 0.25 km/s and consists of an ultrathin reaction zone of only ~5 nm, thus involving large temperature and composition gradients. Contrary to the assumptions in current models, a static thermal hotspot matching the dynamical one in size and thermodynamic conditions fails to produce a deflagration wave indicating the importance of nonequilibrium loading in the criticality of nanoscale hot spots. These results provide insight into the initiation of reactive decomposition.

  13. Imaging thermal conductivity with nanoscale resolution using a scanning spin probe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Aycock-Rizzo, Halley; Gao, Yang; Lu, Xi; Riedo, Elisa; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2015-11-20

    The ability to probe nanoscale heat flow in a material is often limited by lack of spatial resolution. Here, we use a diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy centre attached to the apex of a silicon thermal tip as a local temperature sensor. We apply an electrical current to heat up the tip and rely on the nitrogen vacancy to monitor the thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. By combining atomic force and confocal microscopy, we image phantom microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps.more » The small mass and high thermal conductivity of the diamond host make the time response of our technique short, which we demonstrate by monitoring the tip temperature upon application of a heat pulse. Our approach promises multiple applications, from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions and chemical reactions in various solid-state systems.« less

  14. Nanoscale Molecules Under Thermodynamic Control:" Digestive Ripening" or " Nanomachining"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J.

    2015-06-04

    Overall Research Goals and Specific Objectives: Nanoscale materials are becoming ubiquitous in science and engineering, and are found widely in nature. However, their formation processes and uniquely high chemical reactivities are not understood well, indeed are often mysterious. Over recent years, a number of research teams have described nanoparticle synthesis, and aging, thermal treatment, or etching times have been mentioned. We have used the terms “digestive ripening” and “nanomachining” and have suggested that thermodynamics plays an important part in the size adjustment to monodisperse arrays being formed. Since there is scant theoretical understanding of digestive ripening, the overall goal in our research is to learn what experimental parameters (ligand used, temperature, solvent, time) are most important, how to control nanoparticle size and shape after initial crude nanoparticles have been synthesized, and gain better understanding of the chemical mechanism details. Specific objectives for the past twentynine months since the grant began have been to (1) Secure and train personnel;as of 2011, a postdoc Deepa Jose, female from the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India; Yijun Sun, a second year graduate student, female from China; and Jessica Changstrom, female from the USA, GK12 fellow (program for enhancing teaching ability) are actively carrying out research. (2) Find out what happens to sulfur bound hydrogen of thiol when it interacts with gold nanoparticles. Our findings are discussed in detail later. (3) Determine the effect of particle size, shape, and temperature on dodecyl thiol assited digestive ripening of gold nanoparticles. See our discussions later. (4) To understand in detail the ligand interaction in molecular clusters and nanoparticles (5) Determine the effect of chain length of amines on Au nanoparticle size under digestive ripening conditions (carbon chain length varied from 4-18). (6) Determine the catalytic activity

  15. Nanoscale Studies of Pyroelectric and Thermoelectric Phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruverman, Alexei; Ducharme, Stephen

    2014-07-31

    This research project is focused on (1) development of novel scanning probe microscopy techniques for investigation of the thermally and electrically induced changes in the physical properties of organic polymer ferroelectrics; (2) fabrication of ferroelectric nanostructures and investigation of their functional behavior; (3) fabrication and testing of the organic photovoltaic devices with enhanced energy conversion efficiency. Research activities throughout this project resulted in novel effects and exciting physics reported in 10 papers published in high-profile journals, including Nature Materials, Nano Letters, Advanced Materials, Energy and Environmental Science and Applied Physics Letters. These findings have been presented at a number of domestic and international conferences such as MRS Spring and Fall meetings, International Symposium on Integrated Functionalities, International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (in total 9 presentations). Below we summarize the most important findings of this project.

  16. Nanoscale Advances in Catalysis and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yimin; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-05-12

    In this perspective, we present an overview of nanoscience applications in catalysis, energy conversion, and energy conservation technologies. We discuss how novel physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials can be applied and engineered to meet the advanced material requirements in the new generation of chemical and energy conversion devices. We highlight some of the latest advances in these nanotechnologies and provide an outlook at the major challenges for further developments.

  17. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; Brown, Warren; Liu, Juan; Wang, Gangli

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–V curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.

  18. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; Brown, Warren; Liu, Juan; Wang, Gangli

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–Vmore » curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.« less

  19. Deterministic, Nanoscale Fabrication of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jr., R M; Shirk, M; Gilmer, G; Rubenchik, A

    2004-09-24

    Neither LLNL nor any other organization has the capability to perform deterministic fabrication of mm-sized objects with arbitrary, {micro}m-sized, 3-dimensional features with 20-nm-scale accuracy and smoothness. This is particularly true for materials such as high explosives and low-density aerogels. For deterministic fabrication of high energy-density physics (HEDP) targets, it will be necessary both to fabricate features in a wide variety of materials as well as to understand and simulate the fabrication process. We continue to investigate, both in experiment and in modeling, the ablation/surface-modification processes that occur with the use of laser pulses that are near the ablation threshold fluence. During the first two years, we studied ablation of metals, and we used sub-ps laser pulses, because pulses shorter than the electron-phonon relaxation time offered the most precise control of the energy that can be deposited into a metal surface. The use of sub-ps laser pulses also allowed a decoupling of the energy-deposition process from the ensuing movement/ablation of the atoms from the solid, which simplified the modeling. We investigated the ablation of material from copper, gold, and nickel substrates. We combined the power of the 1-D hydrocode ''HYADES'' with the state-of-the-art, 3-D molecular dynamics simulations ''MDCASK'' in our studies. For FY04, we have stretched ourselves to investigate laser ablation of carbon, including chemically-assisted processes. We undertook this research, because the energy deposition that is required to perform direct sublimation of carbon is much higher than that to stimulate the reaction 2C + O{sub 2} => 2CO. Thus, extremely fragile carbon aerogels might survive the chemically-assisted process more readily than ablation via direct laser sublimation. We had planned to start by studying vitreous carbon and move onto carbon aerogels. We were able to obtain flat, high-quality vitreous carbon, which was easy to work on

  20. Predictive modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-08-05

    Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track formation occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.

  1. Nanoscale engineering boosts performance of quantum dot light emitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diodes Quantum dot light emitting diodes Nanoscale engineering boosts performance of quantum dot light emitting diodes Quantum dots are nano-sized semiconductor particles whose emission color can be tuned by simply changing their dimensions. October 25, 2013 Postdoctoral researcher Young-Shin Park characterizing emission spectra of LEDs in the Los Alamos National Laboratory optical laboratory. Postdoctoral researcher Young-Shin Park characterizing emission spectra of LEDs in the Los Alamos

  2. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  3. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  4. Electronic Structure and Excited State Dynamics in Biological and Nanoscale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Electronic Structure and Excited State Dynamics in Biological and Nanoscale Systems February 25, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Gregory D. Scholes Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto scholes2 abstract: After photoexcitation, energy absorbed by a molecule can be transferred efficiently over a distance of up to several tens of Ångstrom to another molecule by the process of resonance energy transfer, RET (also commonly known as electronic energy

  5. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 °C and 400 °C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects ofmore » both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 °C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.« less

  6. Los Alamos scientists detect and track single molecules with nanoscale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon cylinders Nanotube "glowsticks" transform surface science tool kit Los Alamos scientists detect and track single molecules with nanoscale carbon cylinders Researchers have now shown that semiconducting carbon nanotubes have the potential to detect and track single molecules in water. January 10, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering

  7. Computation of radiative heat transport across a nanoscale vacuum gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budaev, Bair V. Bogy, David B.

    2014-02-10

    Radiation heat transport across a vacuum gap between two half-spaces is studied. By consistently applying only the fundamental laws of physics, we obtain an algebraic equation that connects the temperatures of the half-spaces and the heat flux between them. The heat transport coefficient generated by this equation for such structures matches available experimental data for nanoscale and larger gaps without appealing to any additional specific mechanisms of energy transfer.

  8. Residual stress within nanoscale metallic multilayer systems during thermal cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Economy, David Ross; Cordill, Megan Jo; Payzant, E. Andrew; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2015-09-21

    Projected applications for nanoscale metallic multilayers will include wide temperature ranges. Since film residual stress has been known to alter system reliability, stress development within new film structures with high interfacial densities should be characterized to identify potential long-term performance barriers. To understand factors contributing to thermal stress evolution within nanoscale metallic multilayers, stress in Cu/Nb systems adhered to Si substrates was calculated from curvature measurements collected during cycling between 25 °C and 400 °C. Additionally, stress within each type of component layers was calculated from shifts in the primary peak position from in-situ heated X-ray diffraction. The effects of both film architecture (layer thickness) and layer order in metallic multilayers were tracked and compared with monolithic Cu and Nb films. Analysis indicated that the thermoelastic slope of nanoscale metallic multilayer films depends on thermal expansion mismatch, elastic modulus of the components, and also interfacial density. The layer thickness (i.e. interfacial density) affected thermoelastic slope magnitude while layer order had minimal impact on stress responses after the initial thermal cycle. When comparing stress responses of monolithic Cu and Nb films to those of the Cu/Nb systems, the nanoscale metallic multilayers show a similar increase in stress above 200 °C to the Nb monolithic films, indicating that Nb components play a larger role in stress development than Cu. Local stress calculations from X-ray diffraction peak shifts collected during heating reveal that the component layers within a multilayer film respond similarly to their monolithic counterparts.

  9. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the future of humankind. One bottleneck is energy storage because the harvest and consumption of energy are typically separated in time and/or location. Hence, efficient, low-cost, safe and durable batteries are

  10. Nanoscale Traffic Rules for Metals on Graphene | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Traffic Rules for Metals on Graphene Researchers have shown how the motion of individual atoms on surfaces of graphene-a one atom thick layer of carbon-can be controlled. The adatom diffusion rate and hopping direction can be tuned by lowering the diffusion barrier using an effective electric field. This was shown using in situ scanning tunneling microscopy at low temperatures and the mechanism was elucidated using first-principles calculations. The electric field is locally tuned by

  11. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  12. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  13. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  14. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  15. Shedding light on Nature's nanoscale control of solar energy | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory light on Nature's nanoscale control of solar energy July 30, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Across billions of years of evolution, nature has retained a common light-absorbing hexameric cofactor core for carrying out the very first chemical reaction of photosynthesis, the light-induced electron transfer across approximately 3 nanometers. This process has direct analogies to light-driven charge separation in photovoltaic devices. A team of users from the Notre Dame Radiation

  16. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  17. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defect interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.

  18. Nanoscale Silicon as Anode for Li-ion Batteries: The Fundamentals, Promise, and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; He, Yang; Zheng, Jianming; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-09-24

    Silicon (Si), associated with its natural abundance, low discharge voltage vs. Li/Li+, and extremely high theoretical discharge capacity (~ 4200 mAh g-1,), has been extensively explored as anode for lithium ion battery. One of the key challenges for using Si as anode is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which causes a fast capacity fading. Over the last few years, dramatic progress has been made for addressing this issue. In this paper, we summarize the progress towards tailoring of Si as anode for lithium ion battery. The paper is organized such that it covers the fundamentals, the promise offered based on nanoscale designing, and the remaining challenges that need to be attacked to allow using of Si based materials as anode for battery.

  19. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  20. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based onHyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, AntoniosG.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-09-09

    In recent years, the search to develop large-area solar cells at low cost has led to research on photovoltaic (PV) systems based on nanocomposites containing conjugated polymers. These composite films can be synthesized and processed at lower costs and with greater versatility than the solid state inorganic semiconductors that comprise today's solar cells. However, the best nanocomposite solar cells are based on a complex architecture, consisting of a fine blend of interpenetrating and percolating donor and acceptor materials. Cell performance is strongly dependent on blend morphology, and solution-based fabrication techniques often result in uncontrolled and irreproducible blends, whose composite morphologies are difficult to characterize accurately. Here we incorporate 3-dimensional hyper-branched colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, yielding reproducible and controlled nanoscale morphology.

  1. Thermal and Non-thermal Physiochemical Processes in Nanoscale Films of Amorphous Solid Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R. Scott; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.

    2012-01-17

    Amorphous solid water (ASW) is a metastable form of water created by vapor deposition onto a cold substrate (typically less than 130 K). Since this unusual form of water only exists on earth in laboratories with highly specialized equipment, it is fair to ask why there is any interest in studying this esoteric material. Much of the scientific interest involves using ASW as a model system to explore the physical and reactive properties of liquid water and aqueous solutions. Other researchers are interested in ASW because it is believed to be the predominate form of water in the extreme cold temperatures found in many astrophysical and planetary environments. In addition, ASW is a convenient model system for studying the stability of metastable systems (glasses) and the properties of highly porous materials. A fundamental understanding of such properties has applications in a diverse range of disciplines including cryobiology, food science, pharmaceuticals, astrophysics and nuclear waste storage among others.There exist several excellent reviews on the properties of ASW and supercooled liquid water and a new comprehensive review is beyond the scope of this Account. Instead, we focus on our research over the past 15 years using molecular beams and surface science techniques to probe the thermal and non thermal properties of nanoscale films of ASW. We use molecular beams to precisely control the deposition conditions (flux, incident, energy, incident angle) to create compositionally-tailored, nanoscale films of ASW at low temperatures. To study the transport properties (viscosity, diffusivity), the amorphous films can be heated above their glass transition temperatures, Tg, at which time they transform into deeply supercooled liquids prior to crystallization. The advantage of this approach is that at temperatures near Tg the viscosity is approximately 15 orders of magnitude larger than a normal liquid, and therefore the crystallization kinetics are dramatically slowed

  2. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-08-14

    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  3. An atomistic methodology of energy release rate for graphene at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lee, James D.; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-03-21

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb architecture, serving as a fundamental building block for electric devices. Understanding the fracture mechanism of graphene under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of graphene-based devices at atomic scale. Although most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable in molecular dynamics simulation, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at nanoscale. This work introduces an atomistic simulation methodology, based on the energy release rate, as a tool to unveil the fracture mechanism of graphene at nanoscale. This methodology can be easily extended to any atomistic material system. We have investigated both opening mode and mixed mode at different temperatures. Simulation results show that the critical energy release rate of graphene is independent of initial crack length at low temperature. Graphene with inclined pre-crack possesses higher fracture strength and fracture deformation but smaller critical energy release rate compared with the graphene with vertical pre-crack. Owing to its anisotropy, graphene with armchair chirality always has greater critical energy release rate than graphene with zigzag chirality. The increase of temperature leads to the reduction of fracture strength, fracture deformation, and the critical energy release rate of graphene. Also, higher temperature brings higher randomness of energy release rate of graphene under a variety of predefined crack lengths. The energy release rate is independent of the strain rate as long as the strain rate is small enough.

  4. UNCLASSIFIED Institute for Materials Science Sponsored Lecture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Garritt Tucker Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Atomistic Methods to Quantify Nanoscale Strain and Deformation Mechanisms in Nanostructured Materials Thursday, August 27, 2015 3:00 - 4:00pm MSL Auditorium (TA-03, Bldg. 1698, Room A103) Abstract: As the theoretical physicist, Sir Frederick Charles Franck, said, 'Crystals are like people: it is the defects in them that make them interesting.' Fundamental research in Materials Science and Engineering focuses on linking structure and

  5. Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for NNSA U N C L A S S I F I E D Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Eric L. Brosha, Anthony Burrell, Neil Henson, Jonathan Phillips, and Tommy Rockward Los Alamos National Laboratory Timothy Ward, Plamen Atanassov University of New Mexico Karren More Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fuel Cell Technologies Program Kick-off Meeting September 30 - October 1, 2009 Washington DC Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for NNSA U

  6. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R., E-mail: jrahn@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R. [Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, S. H. [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. H., E-mail: sunghapark@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-09

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  7. Formation of hollow nanocrystals through the nanoscale kirkendall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Yadong; Rioux, Robert M.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Hughes, Steven; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2004-03-11

    We demonstrate that hollow nanocrystals can be synthesized through a mechanism analogous to the Kirkendall Effect, in which pores form due to the difference in diffusion rates between two components in a diffusion couple. Cobalt nanocrystals are chosen as a primary example to show that their reaction in solution with oxygen, sulfur or selenium leads to the formation of hollow nanocrystals of the resulting oxide and chalcogenides. This process provides a general route to the synthesis of hollow nanostructures of large numbers of compounds. A simple extension of this process yields platinum-cobalt oxide yolk-shell nanostructures which may serve as nanoscale reactors in catalytic applications.

  8. Argonne User Facility Agreements | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials (CNM), The Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF), The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), and The Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscopy...

  9. Oxygen Electroreduction on Nanoscale Pt/[TaOPO4/VC] and Pt/[Ta2O5...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oxygen Electroreduction on Nanoscale PtTaOPO4VC and PtTa2O5VC in Alkaline Electrolyte Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxygen Electroreduction on Nanoscale Pt...

  10. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H. C.; Beasley, M. R.; Geballe, T. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-16

    The phase diagram of BaPb1-xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting “dome” in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare to the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length. Thus, we find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying a connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome.

  11. Concepts for the development of nanoscale stable precipitation-strengthened steels manufactured by conventional methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; Anderoglu, O.; Fine, M. E.; Chung, Y. -W.; Speer, J. G.; Findley, K. O.; Dogan, O. N.; Jablonski, P. D.; Maloy, S. A.; Hackenberg, R. E.; Clarke, A. J.; Clarke, K. D.

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modified alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.

  12. Concepts for the development of nanoscale stable precipitation-strengthened steels manufactured by conventional methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yablinsky, C. A.; Tippey, K. E.; Vaynman, S.; Anderoglu, O.; Fine, M. E.; Chung, Y. -W.; Speer, J. G.; Findley, K. O.; Dogan, O. N.; Jablonski, P. D.; et al

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferrous alloys has shown that microstructures designed for excellent irradiation resistance and thermal stability ideally contain stable nanoscale precipitates and dislocation sinks. Based upon this understanding, the microstructures of conventionally manufactured ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels can be designed to include controlled volume fractions of fine, stable precipitates and dislocation sinks via specific alloying and processing paths. The concepts proposed here are categorized as advanced high-Cr ferritic-martensitic (AHCr-FM) and novel tailored precipitate ferritic (TPF) steels, which have the potential to improve the in-reactor performance of conventionally manufactured alloys. AHCr-FM steels have modifiedmore » alloy content relative to current reactor materials (such as alloy NF616/P92) to maximize desirable precipitates and control phase stability. TPF steels are designed to incorporate nickel aluminides, in addition to microalloy carbides, in a ferritic matrix to produce fine precipitate arrays with good thermal stability. Both alloying concepts may also benefit from thermomechanical processing to establish dislocation sinks and modify phase transformation behaviors. Alloying and processing paths toward designed microstructures are discussed for both AHCr-FM and TPF material classes.« less

  13. Nanoscale mechanical switching of ferroelectric polarization via flexoelectricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Yijia; Hong, Zijian; Britson, Jason; Chen, Long-Qing

    2015-01-12

    Flexoelectric coefficient is a fourth-rank tensor arising from the coupling between strain gradient and electric polarization and thus exists in all crystals. It is generally ignored for macroscopic crystals due to its small magnitude. However, at the nanoscale, flexoelectric contributions may become significant and can potentially be utilized for device applications. Using the phase-field method, we study the mechanical switching of electric polarization in ferroelectric thin films by a strain gradient created via an atomic force microscope tip. Our simulation results show good agreement with existing experimental observations. We examine the competition between the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects and provide an understanding of the role of flexoelectricity in the polarization switching. Also, by changing the pressure and film thickness, we reveal that the flexoelectric field at the film bottom can be used as a criterion to determine whether domain switching may happen under a mechanical force.

  14. Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhigang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-21

    We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

  15. Communication: Nanoscale ion fluctuations in Nafion polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rumberger, Brant; Bennett, Mackenzie; Zhang, Jingyun; Israeloff, N. E.; Dura, J. A.

    2014-08-21

    Ion conduction mechanisms and the nanostructure of ion conduction networks remain poorly understood in polymer electrolytes which are used as proton-exchange-membranes (PEM) in fuel cell applications. Here we study nanoscale surface-potential fluctuations produced by Brownian ion dynamics in thin films of low-hydration Nafion™, the prototype PEM. Images and power spectra of the fluctuations are used to derive the local conductivity-relaxation spectrum, in order to compare with bulk behavior and hopping-conductivity models. Conductivity relaxation-times ranged from hours to milliseconds, depending on hydration and temperature, demonstrating that the observed fluctuations are produced by water-facilitated hydrogen-ion hopping within the ion-channel network. Due to the small number of ions probed, non-Gaussian statistics of the fluctuations can be used to constrain ion conduction parameters and mechanisms.

  16. Nanoscale pressure sensors realized from suspended graphene membrane devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilera-Servin, Juan; Miao, Tengfei; Bockrath, Marc

    2015-02-23

    We study the transport properties of graphene layers placed over ∼200 nm triangular holes via attached electrodes under applied pressure. We find that the injected current division between counter electrodes depends on pressure and can be used to realize a nanoscale pressure sensor. Estimating various potential contributions to the resistivity change of the deflected graphene membrane including piezoresistivity, changing gate capacitance, and the valley Hall effect due to the pressure-induced synthetic magnetic field, we find that the valley Hall effect yields the largest expected contribution to the longitudinal resistivity modulation for accessible device parameters. Such devices in the ballistic transport regime may enable the realization of tunable valley polarized electron sources.

  17. Activity and Stability of Nanoscale Oxygen Reduction Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao-Horn, Yang

    2015-07-28

    Design of highly active and stable nanoscale catalysts for electro-oxidation of small organic molecules is of great importance to the development of efficient fuel cells. The amount and instability of Pt-based catalysts in the cathode limits the cost, efficiency and lifetime of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. We developed a microscopic understanding of the factors governing activity and stability in Pt and PtM alloys. Experimental efforts were focused on probing the size and shape dependence of ORR activity of Pt-based nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes. A microscopic understanding of the activity was achieved by correlating voltammetry and rotating ring disk electrodes to surface atomic and electronic structures, which were elucidated predominantly by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS).

  18. Dimensionality of nanoscale TiO2 determines the mechanism of photoinduced electron injection from a CdSe nanoparticle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tafen, De Nyago; Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2014-03-10

    Assumptions about electron transfer (ET) mechanisms guide design of catalytic, photovoltaic, and electronic systems. We demonstrate that the mechanism of ET from a CdSe quantum dot (QD) into nanoscale TiO2 depends on TiO2 dimensionality. The injection into a TiO2 QD is adiabatic due to strong donor–acceptor coupling, arising from unsaturated chemical bonds on the QD surface, and low density of acceptor states. In contrast, the injection into a TiO2 nanobelt (NB) is nonadiabatic, because the state density is high, the donor–acceptor coupling is weak, and multiple phonons accommodate changes in the electronic energy. The CdSe adsorbant breaks symmetry of delocalizedmore » TiO2 NB states, relaxing coupling selection rules, and generating more ET channels. Both mechanisms can give efficient ultrafast injection. Furthermore, the dependence on system properties is very different for the two mechanisms, demonstrating that the fundamental principles leading to efficient charge separation depend strongly on the type of nanoscale material.« less

  19. Humidity Effect on Nanoscale Electrochemistry in Solid Silver Ion Conductors and the Dual Nature of Its Locality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Sangmo; Strelcov, Evgheni; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Tselev, Alexander; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-01-07

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool to investigate electrochemistry in nanoscale volumes. While most SPM-based studies have focused on reactions at the tip-surface junction, charge and mass conservation requires coupled and intrinsically non-local cathodic and anodic processes that can be significantly affected by ambient humidity. Here, we explore the role of water in both cathodic and anodic processes, associated charge transport, and topographic volume changes depending on the polarity of tip bias. The first-order reversal curve current-voltage technique combined with simultaneous detection of the sample topography, referred to as FORC-IVz, was applied to a silver solid ion conductor.more » We found that the protons generated from water affect silver ionic conduction, silver particle formation and dissolution, and mechanical integrity of the material. This work highlights the dual nature (simultaneously local and non-local) of electrochemical SPM studies, which should be considered for comprehensive understanding of nanoscale electrochemistry.« less

  20. III-Nitride Nanowires: Emerging Materials for Lighting and Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics III-Nitride Nanowires: Emerging Materials for Lighting and Energy Applications March 20, 2012 at 3pm/36-428 George T. Wang Advanced Materials Science, Sandia National Laboratories Wang001_000 Abstract: Nanowires based on the III nitride (AlGaInN) materials system have attracted attention as potential nanoscale building blocks in LEDs, lasers, sensors, photovoltaics, and high power and high speed electronics. Compared to planar films,

  1. Identifying Deformation and Strain Hardening Behaviors of Nanoscale Metallic Multilayers Through Nano-wear Testing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Economy, David Ross; Mara, Nathan A.; Schoeppner, R.; Schultz, Bradley M.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Kennedy, Marian S.

    2016-01-13

    In complex loading conditions (e.g. sliding contact), mechanical properties, such as strain hardening and initial hardness, will dictate the long-term performance of materials systems. With this in mind, the strain hardening behaviors of Cu/Nb nanoscale metallic multilayer systems were examined by performing nanoindentation tests within nanoscratch wear boxes and undeformed, as-deposited regions. Both the architecture and substrate influence were examined by utilizing three different individual layer thicknesses (2, 20, and 100 nm) and two total film thicknesses (1 and 10 μm). After nano-wear deformation, multilayer systems with thinner layers showed less volume loss as measured by laser scanning microscopy. Additionally,more » the hardness of the deformed regions significantly rose with respect to the as-deposited measurements, which further increased with greater wear loads. Strain hardening exponents for multilayers with thinner layers (2 and 20 nm, n ≈ 0.018 and n ≈ 0.022 respectively) were less than was determined for 100 nm systems (n ≈ 0.041). These results suggest that singledislocation based deformation mechanisms observed for the thinner systems limit the extent of achievable strain hardening. This conclusion indicates that impacts of both architecture strengthening and strain hardening must be considered to accurately predict multilayer performance during sliding contact across varying length scales.« less

  2. Nanoscale wear and kinetic friction between atomically smooth surfaces sliding at high speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajauria, Sukumar Canchi, Sripathi V. Schreck, Erhard; Marchon, Bruno

    2015-02-23

    The kinetic friction and wear at high sliding speeds is investigated using the head-disk interface of hard disk drives, wherein the head and the disk are less than 10?nm apart and move at sliding speeds of 510?m/s relative to each other. While the spacing between the sliding surfaces is of the same order of magnitude as various AFM based fundamental studies on friction, the sliding speed is nearly six orders of magnitude larger, allowing a unique set-up for a systematic study of nanoscale wear at high sliding speeds. In a hard disk drive, the physical contact between the head and the disk leads to friction, wear, and degradation of the head overcoat material (typically diamond like carbon). In this work, strain gauge based friction measurements are performed; the friction coefficient as well as the adhering shear strength at the head-disk interface is extracted; and an experimental set-up for studying friction between high speed sliding surfaces is exemplified.

  3. Image segmentation of nanoscale Zernike phase contrast X-ray computed tomography images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Arjun S.; Mandal, Pratiti; Zhang, Yongjie; Litster, Shawn

    2015-05-14

    Zernike phase contrast is a useful technique for nanoscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of materials with a low X-ray absorption coefficient. It enhances the image contrast by phase shifting X-ray waves to create changes in amplitude. However, it creates artifacts that hinder the use of traditional image segmentation techniques. We propose an image restoration method that models the X-ray phase contrast optics and the three-dimensional image reconstruction method. We generate artifact-free images through an optimization problem that inverts this model. Though similar approaches have been used for Zernike phase contrast in visible light microscopy, this optimization employs an effective edge detection method tailored to handle Zernike phase contrast artifacts. We characterize this optics-based restoration method by removing the artifacts in and thresholding multiple Zernike phase contrast X-ray CT images to produce segmented results that are consistent with the physical specimens. We quantitatively evaluate and compare our method to other segmentation techniques to demonstrate its high accuracy.

  4. Nano-Scale Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Two-Dimensional Transport Experiments, and Application for Uranium Remediation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kanel, S. R.; Clement, T. P.; Barnett, M. O.; Goltz, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic nano-scale hydroxyapatite (NHA) was prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The XRD data confirmed that the crystalline structure and chemical composition of NHA correspond to Ca 5 OH(PO 4 ) 3 . The SEM data confirmed the size of NHA to be less than 50 nm. A two-dimensional physical model packed with saturated porous media was used to study the transport characteristics of NHA under constant flow conditions. The data show that the transport patterns of NHA were almost identical to tracer transport patterns. This result indicates that the NHA material canmore » move with water like a tracer, and its movement was neither retarded nor influenced by any physicochemical interactions and/or density effects. We have also tested the reactivity of NHA with 1 mg/L hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) and found that complete removal of U(VI) is possible using 0.5 g/L NHA at pH 5 to 6. Our results demonstrate that NHA has the potential to be injected as a dilute slurry for in situ treatment of U(VI)-contaminated groundwater systems.« less

  5. Solid State Theory of Photovoltaic Materials: Nanoscale Grain Boundaries and Doping CIGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zunger, A

    2005-01-01

    We use modern first-principles electronic structure theory to investigate (1) why are grain boundaries in chalcopyrites passive; (2) can chalcopyrites be doped by transition metals, and; (3) can hot electrons and carrier multiplication be efficient in quantum-dot solar cells.

  6. Voltage tunability of thermal conductivity in ferroelectric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Hopkins, Patrick Edward

    2016-02-09

    A method to control thermal energy transport uses mobile coherent interfaces in nanoscale ferroelectric films to scatter phonons. The thermal conductivity can be actively tuned, simply by applying an electrical potential across the ferroelectric material and thereby altering the density of these coherent boundaries to directly impact thermal transport at room temperature and above. The invention eliminates the necessity of using moving components or poor efficiency methods to control heat transfer, enabling a means of thermal energy control at the micro- and nano-scales.

  7. Soft x-ray ptychography studies of nanoscale magnetic and structural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Soft x-ray ptychography studies of nanoscale magnetic and structural correlations in thin SmCo5 films Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly ...

  8. Giant two-phonon Raman scattering from nanoscale NbC precipitates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Giant two-phonon Raman scattering from nanoscale NbC precipitates in Nb Not Available Temp HTML Storage 2: Cao, C.; Tao, R.; Ford, D. C.; Klie, R. F.; Proslier, T.; Cooley, L. D.; ...

  9. Nanoscale Building Blocks and DNA "Glue" Help Shape 3D Architectures...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Building Blocks and DNA "Glue" Help Shape 3D Architectures Basic Energy Sciences (BES) ... by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy ...

  10. Center for Nanoscale Controls on Geologic CO2 (NCGC) | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Center for Nanoscale Controls on Geologic CO2 (NCGC) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Center for Nanoscale Controls on Geologic CO2 (NCGC) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page NCGC Header Director Donald DePaolo Lead Institution Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Year Established 2009 Mission To enhance the performance and

  11. Spins and Heat in Nanoscale Electronic Systems (SHINES) | U.S. DOE Office

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    of Science (SC) Spins and Heat in Nanoscale Electronic Systems (SHINES) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Spins and Heat in Nanoscale Electronic Systems (SHINES) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page SHINES Header Director Jing Shi Lead Institution University of California, Riverside Year Established 2014 Mission To explore the interplay of spin,

  12. Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SC) Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) User Facilities User Facilities Home User Facilities at a Glance All User Facilities ASCR User Facilities BES User Facilities X-Ray Light Sources Neutron Scattering Facilities Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) BER User Facilities FES User Facilities HEP User Facilities NP User Facilities User Resources User Statistics Policies and Processes Frequently Asked Questions User Facility Science Highlights User Facility News Contact

  13. News | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BROCHURES & NEWSLETTERS CNM Overview Brochure CNM Fact Sheet News Research Highlights A magnetic charge ice with nanoscale magnets arranged in a two-dimensional lattice. Each nanomagnet produces a pair of magnetic charges, one positive (red ball on the north pole) and one negative (blue ball on the south pole). The magnetic flux lines (white) point from positive charges to negative charges. (Image credit: Yonglei Wang and Zhili Xiao) Rewritable Artificial Magnetic Charge Ice Full Story » An

  14. Switchable friction enabled by nanoscale self-assembly on graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gallagher, Patrick; Lee, Menyoung; Amet, Francois; Maksymovych, Petro; Wang, Jun; Wang, Shuopei; Lu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Guangyu; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; et al

    2016-02-23

    Graphene monolayers are known to display domains of anisotropic friction with twofold symmetry and anisotropy exceeding 200%. This anisotropy has been thought to originate from periodic nanoscale ripples in the graphene sheet, which enhance puckering around a sliding asperity to a degree determined by the sliding direction. Here we demonstrate that these frictional domains derive not from structural features in the graphene but from self-assembly of environmental adsorbates into a highly regular superlattice of stripes with period 4–6 nm. The stripes and resulting frictional domains appear on monolayer and multilayer graphene on a variety of substrates, as well as onmore » exfoliated flakes of hexagonal boron nitride. We show that the stripe-superlattices can be reproducibly and reversibly manipulated with submicrometre precision using a scanning probe microscope, allowing us to create arbitrary arrangements of frictional domains within a single flake. In conclusion, our results suggest a revised understanding of the anisotropic friction observed on graphene and bulk graphite in terms of adsorbates.« less

  15. Nano-Scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry - A new analytical tool in biogeochemistry and soil ecology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, A M; Ritz, K; Nunan, N; Clode, P L; Pett-Ridge, J; Kilburn, M R; Murphy, D V; O'Donnell, A G; Stockdale, E A

    2006-10-18

    Soils are structurally heterogeneous across a wide range of spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, external environmental conditions do not have a uniform effect throughout the soil, resulting in a large diversity of micro-habitats. It has been suggested that soil function can be studied without explicit consideration of such fine detail, but recent research has indicated that the micro-scale distribution of organisms may be of importance for a mechanistic understanding of many soil functions. Due to a lack of techniques with adequate sensitivity for data collection at appropriate scales, the question 'How important are various soil processes acting at different scales for ecological function?' is challenging to answer. The nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS) represents the latest generation of ion microprobes which link high-resolution microscopy with isotopic analysis. The main advantage of NanoSIMS over other secondary ion mass spectrometers is the ability to operate at high mass resolution, whilst maintaining both excellent signal transmission and spatial resolution ({approx}50 nm). NanoSIMS has been used previously in studies focusing on presolar materials from meteorites, in material science, biology, geology and mineralogy. Recently, the potential of NanoSIMS as a new tool in the study of biophysical interfaces in soils has been demonstrated. This paper describes the principles of NanoSIMS and discusses the potential of this tool to contribute to the field of biogeochemistry and soil ecology. Practical considerations (sample size and preparation, simultaneous collection of isotopes, mass resolution, isobaric interference and quantification of the isotopes of interest) are discussed. Adequate sample preparation avoiding biases in the interpretation of NanoSIMS data due to artifacts and identification of regions-of interest are of most concerns in using NanoSIMS as a new tool in biogeochemistry and soil ecology. Finally, we review the areas of

  16. weapons material | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    material

  17. Spin Coherence at the Nanoscale: Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Arthur J.

    2013-09-10

    Breakthrough results were achieved during the reporting period in the areas of organic spintronics. (A) For the first time the giant magnetic resistance (GMR) was observed in spin valve with an organic spacer. Thus we demonstrated the ability of organic semiconductors to transport spin in GMR devices using rubrene as a prototype for organic semiconductors. (B) We discovered the electrical bistability and spin valve effect in a ferromagnet /organic semiconductor/ ferromagnet heterojunction. The mechanism of switching between conducting phases and its potential applications were suggested. (C) The ability of V(TCNE)x to inject spin into organic semiconductors such as rubrene was demonstrated for the first time. The mechanisms of spin injection and transport from and into organic magnets as well through organic semiconductors were elucidated. (D) In collaboration with the group of OSU Prof. Johnston-Halperin we reported the successful extraction of spin polarized current from a thin film of the organic-based room temperature ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]x and its subsequent injection into a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode (LED). Thus all basic steps for fabrication of room temperature, light weight, flexible all organic spintronic devices were successfully performed. (E) A new synthesis/processing route for preparation of V(TCNE)x enabling control of interface and film thicknesses at the nanoscale was developed at OSU. Preliminary results show these films are higher quality and what is extremely important they are substantially more air stable than earlier prepared V(TCNE)x. In sum the breakthrough results we achieved in the past two years form the basis of a promising new technology, Multifunctional Flexible Organic-based Spintronics (MFOBS). MFOBS technology enables us fabrication of full function flexible spintronic devices that operate at room temperature.

  18. Fundamental Mechanisms of Transient States in Materials Quantified by DTEM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geoffrey Campbell is the Principal Investigator for Fundamental Mechanisms of Transient States in Materials Quantified by DTEM. Fundamental Mechanisms of Transient States in Materials Quantified by DTEM Research We study the coupled dynamics of phase transformation nucleation and growth, microstructure, and thermodynamics in nanoscale systems evolving on nanosecond to microsecond time scales using time resolved in situ microscopy (and other) techniques. DTEM enables in situ characterization of

  19. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center (LMI-EFRC) - Xiang Zhang Principal Investigator Xiang Zhang Xiang Zhang, Ernest S. Kuh Endowed Chaired Professor of Mechanical Engineering and LBNL Materials Sciences Division Director Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Professor Xiang Zhang is the inaugural Ernest S. Kuh Endowed Chaired Professor at UC Berkeley and Director of NSF Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center. He is the Director of the Materials Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and a member

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Li-ion Anode Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Pittsburgh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about nanoscale...

  1. TRADITIONAL METALLURGY, NANOTECHNOLOGIES AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS: A SORBY AWARD LECTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louthan, M

    2007-07-17

    Traditional metallurgical processes are among the many ''old fashion'' practices that use nanoparticles to control the behavior of materials. Many of these practices were developed long before microscopy could resolve nanoscale features, yet the practitioners learned to manipulate and control microstructural elements that they could neither see nor identify. Furthermore, these early practitioners used that control to modify microstructures and develop desired material properties. Centuries old colored glass, ancient high strength steels and medieval organ pipes derived many of their desirable features through control of nanoparticles in their microstructures. Henry Sorby was among the first to recognize that the properties of rocks, minerals, metals and organic materials were controlled by microstructure. However, Mr. Sorby was accused of the folly of trying to study mountains with a microscope. Although he could not resolve nanoscale microstructural features, Mr. Sorby's observations revolutionized the study of materials. The importance of nanoscale microstructural elements should be emphasized, however, because the present foundation for structural materials was built by manipulating those features. That foundation currently supports several multibillion dollar industries but is not generally considered when the nanomaterials revolution is discussed. This lecture demonstrates that using nanotechnologies to control the behavior of metallic materials is almost as old as the practice of metallurgy and that many of the emergent nanomaterials technologists are walking along pathways previously paved by traditional metallurgists.

  2. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ways to exploit the novel properties that result are frontier areas of today's solid-state physics and materials science. However, before exploring and exploiting comes making....

  3. High-speed Visualization of Polarization Charges using a Nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tip in the absence of surface screening charges. Research Team Seungbum Hong, Woon Ik Park (Argonne Materials Science Division), Sheng Tong, Andreas Roelofs (Argonne...

  4. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, Jennifer N.; Wang, Joseph

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  5. Stories of Discovery & Innovation: A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications History Contact BES Home 06.11.12 Stories of Discovery & Innovation: A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Using sophisticated techniques, EFRC researchers are observing, at the molecular

  6. Self-Assembly by Instruction: Designing Nanoscale Systems Using DNA-Based Approaches (474th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gang, Oleg

    2012-01-18

    In the field of nanoscience, if you can control how nanoparticles self-assemble in particular structures — joining each other, for example, as molecules can form, atom-by-atom — you can design new materials that have unique properties that industry needs. Nature already uses the DNA genetic code to instruct the building of specific proteins and whole organisms in both plants and people. Taking a cue from nature, scientists at BNL devised a way of using strands of synthetic DNA attached to the surface of nanoparticles to instruct them to self-assemble into specific nanoscale structures, clusters, and three-dimensional organizations. Novel materials designed and fabricated this way promise use in photovoltaics, energy storage, catalysis, cell-targeted systems for more effective medical treatments, and biomolecular sensing for environmental monitoring and medical applications. To find out more about the rapid evolution of this nanoassembly method and its applications, join Physicist Oleg Gang of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) as he gives the 474th Brookhaven Lecture, titled “Self-Assembly by Instruction: Designing Nanoscale Systems Using DNA-Based Approaches." Gang, who has led this work at the CFN, will explain the rapid evolution of this nanoassembly method, and discuss its present and future applications in highly specific biosensors, optically active nano-materials, and new ways to fabricate complex architectures in a rational manner via self-assembly. Gang and his colleagues used the CFN and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facilities to perform their groundbreaking research. At the CFN, the scientists used electron microscopes and optical methods to visualize the clusters that they fabricated. At the NSLS, they applied x-rays to study a particles-assembly process in solution, DNA’s natural environment. Gang earned a Ph.D. in soft matter physics from Bar-Ilan University in 2000, and he was a Rothschild Fellow at Harvard

  7. Mesoscale Engineering of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afonso, C.N.; Feldman, L.C.; Gonella, F.; Haglund, R.F.; Luepke, G.; Magruder, R.H.; Mazzoldi, P.; Osborne, D.H.; Solis, J.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1999-11-01

    Complex nonlinear optical materials comprising elemental, compound or alloy quantum dots embedded in appropriate dielectric or semiconducting hosts may be suitable for deployment in photonic devices. Ion implantation, ion exchange followed by ion implantation, and pulsed laser deposition have ail been used to synthesize these materials. However, the correlation between the parameters of energetic-beam synthesis and the nonlinear optical properties is still very rudimentary when one starts to ask what is happening at nanoscale dimensions. Systems integration of complex nonlinear optical materials requires that the mesoscale materials science be well understood within the context of device structures. We discuss the effects of beam energy and energy density on quantum-dot size and spatial distribution, thermal conductivity, quantum-dot composition, crystallinity and defects - and, in turn, on the third-order optical susceptibility of the composite material. Examples from recent work in our laboratories are used to illustrate these effects.

  8. Mechanics and tribology of MEMS materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Somuri V.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Boyce, Brad Lee; Buchheit, Thomas Edward

    2004-04-01

    Micromachines have the potential to significantly impact future weapon component designs as well as other defense, industrial, and consumer product applications. For both electroplated (LIGA) and surface micromachined (SMM) structural elements, the influence of processing on structure, and the resultant effects on material properties are not well understood. The behavior of dynamic interfaces in present as-fabricated microsystem materials is inadequate for most applications and the fundamental relationships between processing conditions and tribological behavior in these systems are not clearly defined. We intend to develop a basic understanding of deformation, fracture, and surface interactions responsible for friction and wear of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) materials. This will enable needed design flexibility for these devices, as well as strengthen our understanding of material behavior at the nanoscale. The goal of this project is to develop new capabilities for sub-microscale mechanical and tribological measurements, and to exercise these capabilities to investigate material behavior at this size scale.

  9. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program | Department of Energy lehigh_fs.pdf (151.33 KB) More Documents & Publications FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 3. Automotive Metals - Cast Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 3. Automotive Metals-Cast Microscale Features | Department of Energy

    superhydrophobic_surfaces.pdf (650.01 KB)

  10. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  11. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  12. Investigating Deformation and Failure Mechanisms in Nanoscale Multilayer Metallic Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zbib, Hussein M; Bahr, David F

    2014-10-22

    Over the history of materials science there are many examples of materials discoveries that have made superlative materials; the strongest, lightest, or toughest material is almost always a goal when we invent new materials. However, often these have been a result of enormous trial and error approaches. A new methodology, one in which researchers design, from the atoms up, new ultra-strong materials for use in energy applications, is taking hold within the science and engineering community. This project focused on one particular new classification of materials; nanolaminate metallic composites. These materials, where two metallic materials are intimately bonded and layered over and over to form sheets or coatings, have been shown over the past decade to reach strengths over 10 times that of their constituents. However, they are not yet widely used in part because while extremely strong (they don’t permanently bend), they are also not particularly tough (they break relatively easily when notched). Our program took a coupled approach to investigating new materials systems within the laminate field. We used computational materials science to explore ways to institute new deformation mechanisms that occurred when a tri-layer, rather than the more common bi-layer system was created. Our predictions suggested that copper-nickel or copper-niobium composites (two very common bi-layer systems) with layer thicknesses on the order of 20 nm and then layered 100’s of times, would be less tough than a copper-nickel-niobium metallic composite of similar thicknesses. In particular, a particular mode of permanent deformation, cross-slip, could be activated only in the tri-layer system; the crystal structure of the other bi-layers would prohibit this particular mode of deformation. We then experimentally validated this predication using a wide range of tools. We utilized a DOE user facility, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnology (CINT), to fabricate, for the first time, these

  13. Harnessing microbial subsurface metal reduction activities to synthesise nanoscale cobalt ferrite with enhanced magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coker, Victoria S.; Telling, Neil D.; van der Laan, Gerrit; Pattrick, Richard A.D.; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Arenholz, Elke; Tuna, Floriana; Winpenny, Richard E.P.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2009-03-24

    Nanoscale ferrimagnetic particles have a diverse range of uses from directed cancer therapy and drug delivery systems to magnetic recording media and transducers. Such applications require the production of monodisperse nanoparticles with well-controlled size, composition, and magnetic properties. To fabricate these materials purely using synthetic methods is costly in both environmental and economical terms. However, metal-reducing microorganisms offer an untapped resource to produce these materials. Here, the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens is used to synthesize magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. A combination of electron microscopy, soft X-ray spectroscopy, and magnetometry techniques was employed to show that this method of biosynthesis results in high yields of crystalline nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution and magnetic properties equal to the best chemically synthesized materials. In particular, it is demonstrated here that cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles with low temperature coercivity approaching 8 kOe and an effective anisotropy constant of {approx} 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -3} can be manufactured through this biotechnological route. The dramatic enhancement in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles by the introduction of high quantities of Co into the spinel structure represents a significant advance over previous biomineralization studies in this area using magnetotactic bacteria. The successful production of nanoparticulate ferrites achieved in this study at high yields could open up the way for the scaled-up industrial manufacture of nanoparticles using environmentally benign methodologies. Production of ferromagnetic nanoparticles for pioneering cancer therapy, drug delivery, chemical sensors, catalytic activity, photoconductive materials, as well as more traditional uses in data storage embodies a large area of inorganic synthesis research. In particular, the addition of transition metals other than

  14. Material Misfits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Issues submit Material Misfits How well nanocomposite materials align at their interfaces determines what properties they have, opening broad new avenues of materials-science...

  15. Materials Science of Actinides (MSA) | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Materials Science of Actinides (MSA) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Materials Science of Actinides (MSA) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page MSA Header Director Peter Burns Lead Institution University of Notre Dame Year Established 2009 Mission To understand and control, at the nanoscale, materials that contain actinides (radioactive heavy elements

  16. Functional Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functional Materials Researchers in NETL's Functional Materials Development competency work to discover and develop advanced functional materials and component processing technologies to meet technology performance requirements and enable scale-up for proof-of-concept studies. Research includes separations materials and electrochemical and magnetic materials, specifically: Separations Materials Synthesis, purification, and basic characterization of organic substances, including polymers and

  17. Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Frank Bridges, University of California-Santa Cruz

    2010-08-05

    The two-and-a-half day symposium on the "Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials" will be the first comprehensive meeting on this topic held under the auspices of a major U.S. professional society. Spring MRS Meetings provide a natural venue for this symposium as they attract a broad audience of researchers that represents a cross-section of the state-of-the-art regarding synthesis, structure-property relations, and applications of nanostructured materials. Close interactions among the experts in local structure measurements and materials researchers will help both to identify measurement needs pertinent to ??real-world? materials problems and to familiarize the materials research community with the state-of-the-art local structure measurement techniques. We have chosen invited speakers that reflect the multidisciplinary and international nature of this topic and the need to continually nurture productive interfaces among university, government and industrial laboratories. The intent of the symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and exchange of ideas on the recent progress in quantitative characterization of structural order in nanomaterials using different experimental techniques and theory. The symposium is expected to facilitate discussions on optimal approaches for determining atomic structure at the nanoscale using combined inputs from multiple measurement techniques.

  18. Subtask 2: Molecules, Materials, and Systems for Solar Electricity | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory 2: Molecules, Materials, and Systems for Solar Electricity Home > Research > Subtask 2 The above figure depicts the structure of active polymer layers in organic solar cells. The above figure depicts the structure of active polymer layers in organic solar cells. ANSER Center research tests theory-driven ideas to understand at a fundamental level how photovoltaic cell performance is affected by nanoscale/mesoscale

  19. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center (LMI-EFRC) - Carrie Hofmann Assistant Director Carrie Hofmann Carrie Hofmann California Institute of Technology Carrie Hofmann is the Assistant Director of the LMI-EFRC at Caltech. She received her Ph.D. in Materials Science from Caltech with a thesis entitled "Optics at the Nanoscale: Light Emission in Plasmonic Nanocavities" in 2010. She also received her M.S. in Materials Science at Caltech in 2006 and her B.S. in Materials Science and Engineering at the University of

  20. Structural Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Materials Structural Materials Development enables advanced technologies through the discovery, development, and demonstration of cost-effective advanced structural materials for use in extreme environments (high-temperature, high-stress, erosive, and corrosive environments, including the performance of materials in contact with molten slags and salts). Research includes materials design and discovery, materials processing and manufacturing, and service-life prediction of materials

  1. Nanoscale origins of the damage tolerance of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, ZiJiao; Mao, M. M.; Wang, Jiangwei; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zhang, Ze; Mao, Scott X.; George, Easo P.; Yu, Qian; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2015-12-09

    Damage tolerance can be an elusive characteristic of structural materials requiring both high strength and ductility, properties that are often mutually exclusive. High-entropy alloys are of interest in this regard. Specifically, the single-phase CrMnFeCoNi alloy displays tensile strength levels of ~1 GPa, excellent ductility (~60–70%) and exceptional fracture toughness (KJIc>200M Pa√m). Here through the use of in situ straining in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, we report on the salient atomistic to micro-scale mechanisms underlying the origin of these properties. We identify a synergy of multiple deformation mechanisms, rarely achieved in metallic alloys, which generates high strength, work hardening and ductility, including the easy motion of Shockley partials, their interactions to form stacking-fault parallelepipeds, and arrest at planar slip bands of undissociated dislocations. In conclusion, we further show that crack propagation is impeded by twinned, nanoscale bridges that form between the near-tip crack faces and delay fracture by shielding the crack tip.

  2. Nanoscale origins of the damage tolerance of the high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, ZiJiao; Mao, M. M.; Wang, Jiangwei; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zhang, Ze; Mao, Scott X.; George, Easo P.; Yu, Qian; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2015-12-09

    Damage tolerance can be an elusive characteristic of structural materials requiring both high strength and ductility, properties that are often mutually exclusive. High-entropy alloys are of interest in this regard. Specifically, the single-phase CrMnFeCoNi alloy displays tensile strength levels of ~1 GPa, excellent ductility (~60–70%) and exceptional fracture toughness (KJIc>200M Pa√m). Here through the use of in situ straining in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, we report on the salient atomistic to micro-scale mechanisms underlying the origin of these properties. We identify a synergy of multiple deformation mechanisms, rarely achieved in metallic alloys, which generates high strength, work hardening andmore » ductility, including the easy motion of Shockley partials, their interactions to form stacking-fault parallelepipeds, and arrest at planar slip bands of undissociated dislocations. In conclusion, we further show that crack propagation is impeded by twinned, nanoscale bridges that form between the near-tip crack faces and delay fracture by shielding the crack tip.« less

  3. Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liati, Anthi; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis

    2010-09-15

    Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 {mu}m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal nanostructures, however, far from being graphite. Ash aggregates largely accumulate at the outlet part of DPF1, while minor amounts are deposited directly on the channel walls all along the filter length. They consist of crystalline phases with individual particles of sizes down to the nanoscale range. Chemically, the ash consists mainly of Mg, S, Ca, Zn and P, elements encountered in lubricating oil additives. In the passenger car DPF2 (with fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 200-500 {mu}m thick, inhomogeneous porous cake consisting of several superposed layers corresponding to different soot generations. The largest part of the soot cake is composed of unburned, oriented soot aggregates left behind despite repeated regenerations, while a small part constitutes a loose layer with randomly oriented aggregates, which was deposited last and has not seen any regeneration. Fe-oxide particles of micro- to nano-scale sizes, originating from the fuel-borne additive, are often dispersed within the part of the soot cake composed of the unburned soot leftovers. The individual soot nanoparticles in DPF2 are approximately 15-40 nm large and generally less mature than in the truck DPF1. The presence of soot leftovers in DPF2 indicates that the addition of fuel-borne material does not fully compensate for the temperatures needed for complete soot removal. Ash in DPF2 is filling up more than half of the filter volume (at the downstream part) and is dominated by Fe-oxide aggregates, due to the Fe-based fuel

  4. Engineered nano-scale ceramic supports for PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, Eric L; Blackmore, Karen J; Burrell, Anthony K; Henson, Neil J; Phillips, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Catalyst support durability is currently a technical barrier for commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, especially for transportation applications. Degradation and corrosion of the conventional carbon supports leads to losses in active catalyst surface area and, consequently, reduced performance. As a result, the major aim of this work is to develop support materials that interact strongly with Pt, yet sustain bulk-like catalytic activities with very highly dispersed particles. This latter aspect is key to attaining the 2015 DOE technical targets for platinum group metal (PGM) loadings (0.20 mg/cm{sup 2}). The benefits of the use of carbon-supported catalysts to drastically reduce Pt loadings from the early, conventional Pt-black technology are well known. The supported platinum catalyzed membrane approach widely used today for fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) was developed shortly thereafter these early reports. Of direct relevance to this present work, are the investigations into Pt particle growth in PEM fuel cells, and subsequent follow-on work showing evidence of Pt particles suspended free of the support within the catalyst layer. Further, durability work has demonstrated the detrimental effects of potential cycling on carbon corrosion and the link between electrochemical surface area and particle growth. To avoid the issues with carbon degradation altogether, it has been proposed by numerous fuel cell research groups to replace carbon supports with conductive materials that are ceramic in nature. Intrinsically, these many conductive oxides, carbides, and nitrides possess the prerequisite electronic conductivity required, and offer corrosion resistance in PEMFC environments; however, most reports indicate that obtaining sufficient surface area remains a significant barrier to obtaining desirable fuel ceU performance. Ceramic materials that exhibit high electrical conductivity and necessary stability under fuel

  5. Propulsion Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propulsion Materials FY 2013 Progress Report ii CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 1 Project 18516 - Materials for H1ybrid and Electric Drive Systems ...................................................... 4 Agreement 19201 - Non-Rare Earth Magnetic Materials ............................................................................ 4 Agreement 23278 - Low-Cost

  6. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Hu, Michael Z.

    2010-06-01

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  7. Mechanical properties of bulk and nanoscale TiO[subscript 2] phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swamy, V.; Holbig, E.; Dubrovinksy, L.S.; Prakapenka, V.; Muddle, B.C.

    2008-09-11

    The mechanical properties of bulk and nanoscale TiO{sub 2} phases are examined with a view to assess the available bulk modulus and hardness data, and to understand the size-dependent behaviors. The bulk modulus values of thermodynamically stable bulk TiO{sub 2} phases show a general correlation with Ti-O coordination number. As with the cotunnite-structured (OII) phase, it is likely that the seven-coordinated OI and eight-coordinated fluorite forms of TiO{sub 2} are ultrahard substances. Of the nanoscale phases investigated thus far, nanocrystalline anatase displays the strongest size dependence of bulk modulus values, with possible stiffening behavior effected by incipient grain boundary amorphization under pressure. Nanocrystalline rutile and baddeleyite phases do not show appreciable size dependence in their compression behaviors.

  8. A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells News News Home Featured Articles 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Science Headlines Science Highlights Presentations & Testimony News Archives Communications and Public Affairs Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 06.11.12 A Nanoscale "Tune-Up" for Fuel Cells Using sophisticated techniques, EFRC researchers are

  9. Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science Materials Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Materials Physics and Applications» Materials Science and Technology» Institute for Materials Science» Materials Science Rob Dickerson uses a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope at the Electron Microscopy Laboratory managed by Los

  10. Nanoscale Magnetic Structure of Ferromagnet/Antiferromagnet Manganite Multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niebieskikwiat, D.; Hueso, L. E.; Borchers, J. A.; Mathur, N. D.; Salamon, M. B.

    2007-12-14

    We use polarized neutron reflectometry and dc magnetometry to obtain a comprehensive picture of the magnetic structure of a series of La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3}/Pr{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO/PCMO) superlattices, with varying thickness of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) PCMO layers (0{<=}t{sub A}{<=}7.6 nm). While LSMO presents a few magnetically frustrated monolayers at the interfaces with PCMO, in the latter a magnetic contribution due to ferromagnetic (FM) inclusions within the AFM matrix is maximized at t{sub A}{approx}3 nm. This enhancement of FM moment occurs at the matching between layer thickness and cluster size, implying the possibility of tuning phase separation by imposing appropriate geometrical constraints which favor the accommodation of FM nanoclusters within the ''non-FM'' material.

  11. Solar Energy Technologies Program Peer Review: Center for Nanoscale Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Boudjouk; Larry Pederson; Doug Schulz

    2010-05-26

    The purpose of this project is to develop plant-derived polymers with high potential for replacing petroleum-derived polymers. Important considerations include reduced swelling, lower price, equal or greater strength, and improved processability. Polymer precursors and other high value chemicals are derived by selective oxidation of renewable resources including oil seeds and cellulosics. High throughput combinatorial methods were applied to optimize oxidative catalysis as well as to formulate polymer families. Long chain dicarboxylic acids have been derived in >80% yields from fatty acids found in oil seeds by selective oxidative cleavage using tungsten-based and other catalysts. Furan dicarboxylic acids have been synthesized in high yields by selective catalytic oxidation of cellulosic materials. This product is a precursor to a new class of polyamide polymers. A series terephthalamide/adipamide copolymers have been prepared from long-chain dicarboxylic acids derived from renewable feedstocks. Compositions have been identified that exhibit significant processing advantages over commercial nylons.

  12. Structural Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Materials Development enables advanced technologies through the discovery, development, and demonstration of cost-effective advanced structural materials for use in ...

  13. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research May 7-8, 2009 Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter...

  14. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences February 9-10, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation...

  15. The Best of Both Worlds: Bulk Diamond Properties Realized at the Nanoscale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource The Best of Both Worlds: Bulk Diamond Properties Realized at the Nanoscale Friday, August 9, 2013 - 10:30am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Abraham Wolcott, Department of Chemistry, Columbia University High-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) nanodiamonds with nitrogen vacancy centers represent a unique class of fluorophores due to their long-lived electron spin properties, all-carbon matrix, and long-term photostability. While this class

  16. Materials Scientist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Materials Research Engineer; Metallurgical/Chemical Engineer; Product Development Manager;

  17. material protection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Office of Weapons Material Protection http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnonproliferationprogramofficesinternationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation-1

  18. material protection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Office of Weapons Material Protection http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnonproliferationprogramofficesinternationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation-1

  19. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences February 9-10, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:05

  20. Materials Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Characterization Researchers in the Materials Characterization Research competency conduct studies of both natural and engineered materials from the micropore (nanometers) to macropore (meters) scale. Research includes, but is not limited to, thermal, chemical, mechanical, and structural (nano to macro) interactions and processes with regard to natural and engineered materials. The primary research investigation tools include SEM, XRD, micro XRD, core logging, medical CT, industrial

  1. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, A.; Horne, C.R.; Chang, O.; Zhang, W.; Kong, W.; Wang, E.; Chern, T.; Doeff, M. M.

    2009-08-04

    The electrochemical performances of nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 materials are described in this communication. The nanomaterials were synthesized by pyrolysis of an aerosol precursor. Both compositions required moderate heat-treatment to become electrochemically active. LiFePO4 nanoparticles were coated with a uniform, 2-4 nm thick carbon-coating using an organic precursor in the heat treatment step and showed high tap density of 1.24 g/cm3, in spite of 50-100 nm particle size and 2.9 wtpercent carbon content. Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles were between 50-200 nm in size and showed tap density of 0.8 g/cm3. The nanomaterials were tested both in half cell configurations against Li-metal and also in LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells. Nano-LiFePO4 showed high discharge rate capability with values of 150 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 charges. Nano-Li4Ti5O12 also showed high charge capability with values of 148 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 discharges; the discharge (lithiation) capability was comparatively slower. LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells deliver charge/discharge capacity values of 150 and 122 mAh/g at C/5 and 5C, respectively.

  2. Nanoscale interplay of strain and doping in a high-temperature superconductor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija; Gu, Genda; Nieminen, Jouko; Huang, Dennis; Chang, Tay-Rong; He, Yang; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Lin, Hsin; et al

    2014-11-07

    The highest temperature superconductors are electronically inhomogeneous at the nanoscale, suggesting the existence of a local variable which could be harnessed to enhance the superconducting pairing. Here we report the relationship between local doping and local strain in the cuprate superconductor Bi₂Sr₂CaCu₂O₈₊x. We use scanning tunneling microscopy to discover that the crucial oxygen dopants are periodically distributed, in correlation with local strain. Our picoscale investigation of the intra-unit-cell positions of all oxygen dopants provides essential structural input for a complete microscopic theory.

  3. Nanoscale structure in AgSbTe2 determined by diffuse elastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Ma, Jie [ORNL; Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL; Budai, John D [ORNL; May, Andrew F [ORNL; Karapetrova, Evguenia A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse elastic neutron scattering measurements confirm that AgSbTe2 has a hierarchical structure, with defects on length scales from nanometers to microns. While scattering from mesoscale structure is consistent with previously-proposed structures in which Ag and Sb order on a NaCl lattice, more diffuse scattering from nanoscale structure suggests a structural rearrangement in which hexagonal layers form a combination of (ABC), (ABA), and (AAB) stacking sequences. The AgCrSe2 structure is the best-fitting model for the local atomic arrangements.

  4. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  5. Utilizing dynamic laser speckle to probe nanoscale morphology evolution in nanoporous gold thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Christopher A. R.; Ly, Sonny; Wang, Ling; Seker, Erkin; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2016-03-02

    Here we show the use of dynamic laser speckle autocorrelation spectroscopy in conjunction with the photothermal treatment of nanoporous gold (np-Au) thin films to probe nanoscale morphology changes during the photothermal treatment. Utilizing this spectroscopy method, backscattered speckle from the incident laser is tracked during photothermal treatment and both the characteristic feature size and annealing time of the film are determined. These results demonstrate that this method can successfully be used to monitor laser-based surface modification processes without the use of ex-situ characterization.

  6. Growth of solid and hollow gold particles through the thermal annealing of nanoscale patterned thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Junhao; He, Weidong; Vilayur Ganapathy, Subramanian; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Wang, Bin; Palepu, Sandeep; Remec, Miroslav; Hess, Wayne P.; Hmelo, Anthony B.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Dickerson, James

    2013-11-27

    Through thermally annealing well-arrayed, circular, nanoscale thin films of gold, deposited onto [111] silicon/silicon dioxide substrates, both solid and hollow gold particles of different morphologies with controllable sizes were obtained. The thin film could form individual particle or clusters of particles by tuning the diameter of it. Hollow gold particles were featured by their large size whose diameter was larger than 500 nm and confirmed by a cross-section view. Hollow gold particles show greater plasmonic field enhancement under photoemission electron microscopy. Potential growth mechanisms for these structures are explored

  7. Nanoscale interplay of strain and doping in a high-temperature superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija; Gu, Genda; Nieminen, Jouko; Huang, Dennis; Chang, Tay-Rong; He, Yang; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Lin, Hsin; Markiewicz, Robert S.; Bansil, Arun; Hoffman, Jennifer E.

    2014-11-07

    The highest temperature superconductors are electronically inhomogeneous at the nanoscale, suggesting the existence of a local variable which could be harnessed to enhance the superconducting pairing. Here we report the relationship between local doping and local strain in the cuprate superconductor Bi₂Sr₂CaCu₂O₈₊x. We use scanning tunneling microscopy to discover that the crucial oxygen dopants are periodically distributed, in correlation with local strain. Our picoscale investigation of the intra-unit-cell positions of all oxygen dopants provides essential structural input for a complete microscopic theory.

  8. Determination of carbon distributions in quenched and partitioned microstructures using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Zhu, Zihua; Sun, Xin; De Moor, Emmanuel; Taylor, Mark D.; Speer, John; Matlock, David K.

    2015-04-20

    A multi-modal characterization technique, which combines nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy (Nano-SIMS) with a spatial resolution of ~100 nm and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) to determine carbon distributions in austenite and martensite in a quenched and partitioned (Q&P) Fe-0.29C-2.95Mn-1.59Si steel is presented. Significant carbon enrichment of austenite was measured with decreased levels of carbon in martensite, supporting the carbon partitioning mechanism. Fresh untempered martensite could be identified, and different degrees of enrichment were observed for blocky and lath austenite.

  9. Nanoscale interplay of strain and doping in a high-temperature superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija; Gu, Genda; Nieminen, Jouko; Huang, Dennis; Chang, Tay-Rong; He, Yang; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Lin, Hsin; Markiewicz, Robert S.; Bansil, Arun; Hoffman, Jennifer E.

    2014-11-07

    The highest temperature superconductors are electronically inhomogeneous at the nanoscale, suggesting the existence of a local variable which could be harnessed to enhance the superconducting pairing. Here we report the relationship between local doping and local strain in the cuprate superconductor Bi?Sr?CaCu?O??x. We use scanning tunneling microscopy to discover that the crucial oxygen dopants are periodically distributed, in correlation with local strain. Our picoscale investigation of the intra-unit-cell positions of all oxygen dopants provides essential structural input for a complete microscopic theory.

  10. Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Spinicelli, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V.; Dal Savio, C.; Karrai, K.; Dantelle, G.; Thiaville, A.; Rohart, S.

    2012-04-09

    We demonstrate quantitative magnetic field mapping with nanoscale resolution, by applying a lock-in technique on the electron spin resonance frequency of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect placed at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip. In addition, we report an all-optical magnetic imaging technique which is sensitive to large off-axis magnetic fields, thus extending the operation range of diamond-based magnetometry. Both techniques are illustrated by using a magnetic hard disk as a test sample. Owing to the non-perturbing and quantitative nature of the magnetic probe, this work should open up numerous perspectives in nanomagnetism and spintronics.

  11. Charge-free low-temperature method of forming thin film-based nanoscale materials and structures on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffbauer, Mark; Mueller, Alex

    2008-07-01

    A method of forming a nanostructure at low temperatures. A substrate that is reactive with one of atomic oxygen and nitrogen is provided. A flux of neutral atoms of at least one of nitrogen and oxygen is generated within a laser-sustained-discharge plasma source and a collimated beam of energetic neutral atoms and molecules is directed from the plasma source onto a surface of the substrate to form the nanostructure. The energetic neutral atoms and molecules in the plasma have an average kinetic energy in a range from about 1 eV to about 5 eV.

  12. Materials Physics | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics A photo of laser light rays going in various directions atop a corrugated metal substrate In materials physics, NREL focuses on realizing materials that transcend the present constraints of photovoltaic (PV) and solid-state lighting technologies. Through materials growth and characterization, coupled with theoretical modeling, we seek to understand and control fundamental electronic and optical processes in semiconductors. Capabilities Optimizing New Materials An illustration showing

  13. Workshop on innovation in materials processing and manufacture: Exploratory concepts for energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the workshop was to bring together industrial, academic, and DOE Laboratory personnel to discuss and identify potential areas for which creative, innovative, and/or multidisciplinary solutions could result in major payoffs for the nation`s energy economy, DOE, and industry. The topics emphasized in these discussions were: surfaces and interfacial processing technologies, biomolecular materials, powder/precursor technologies, magnetic materials, nanoscale materials, novel ceramics and composites, novel intermetallics and alloys, environmentally benign materials, and energy efficiency. The workshop had a 2-day format. One the first day, there was an introductory session that summarized future directions within DOE`s basic and materials technology programs, and the national studies on manufacturing and materials science and engineering. The balance of the workshop was devoted to brainstorming sessions by seven working groups. During the first working group session, the entire group was divided to discuss topics on: challenges for hostile environments, novel materials in transportation technologies, novel nanoscale materials, and opportunities in biomolecular materials. For the second session, the entire group (except for the working group on biomolecular materials) was reconfigured into new working groups on: alternative pathways to energy efficiency, environmentally benign materials and processes, and waste treatment and reduction: a basic sciences approach. This report contains separate reports from each of the seven working groups.

  14. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  15. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  16. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  17. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  18. material recovery

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dispose of dangerous nuclear and radiological material, and detect and control the proliferation of related WMD technology and expertise.

  19. Functional Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing of materials under ideal and realistic process conditions such as those found in coal-fired power plant and integrated gasification combined cycle fuel gas. Performance ...

  20. Evidence for the temperature dependence of phase transformation behavior of silicon at nanoscale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mangalampalli S. R. N., Kiran; Tran, Tuan; Smillie, Lachlan; Haberl, Bianca; Subianto, D.; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses the in-situ high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25 to 200 C) of the phase transformation behavior of crystalline silicon (dc-Si) at the nanoscale. Along with in-situ indentation and electrical data, ex-situ characterizations such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) have been used to reveal the dominant mode of deformation under the indenter. In contrast to the previous studies, the dominant mode of deformation under the nanoindenter at elevated temperatures is not the dc-Si to metallic phase ( -Sn) transformation. Instead, XTEM images from 150 C indents reveal that themore » dominant mode of deformation is twinning along {111} planes. While the in-situ high-temperature electrical measurements show an increase in the current due to metallic phase formation up to 125 C, it is absent 150 C, revealing that the formation of the metallic phase is negligible in this regime. Thus, this work provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale.« less

  1. The Structure and Transport of Water and Hydrated Ions Within Hydrophobic, Nanoscale Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, J K; Herberg, J L; Wu, Y; Schwegler, E; Mehta, A

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this project includes an experimental and modeling investigation into water and hydrated ion structure and transport at nanomaterials interfaces. This is a topic relevant to understanding the function of many biological systems such as aquaporins that efficiently shuttle water and ion channels that permit selective transport of specific ions across cell membranes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are model nanoscale, hydrophobic channels that can be functionalized, making them artificial analogs for these biological channels. This project investigates the microscopic properties of water such as water density distributions and dynamics within CNTs using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and the structure of hydrated ions at CNT interfaces via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Another component of this work is molecular simulation, which can predict experimental measurables such as the proton relaxation times, chemical shifts, and can compute the electronic structure of CNTs. Some of the fundamental questions this work is addressing are: (1) what is the length scale below which nanoscale effects such as molecular ordering become important, (2) is there a relationship between molecular ordering and transport?, and (3) how do ions interact with CNT interfaces? These are questions of interest to the scientific community, but they also impact the future generation of sensors, filters, and other devices that operate on the nanometer length scale. To enable some of the proposed applications of CNTs as ion filtration media and electrolytic supercapacitors, a detailed knowledge of water and ion structure at CNT interfaces is critical.

  2. Evidence for the temperature dependence of phase transformation behavior of silicon at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangalampalli S. R. N., Kiran; Tran, Tuan; Smillie, Lachlan; Haberl, Bianca; Subianto, D.; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses the in-situ high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25 to 200 C) of the phase transformation behavior of crystalline silicon (dc-Si) at the nanoscale. Along with in-situ indentation and electrical data, ex-situ characterizations such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) have been used to reveal the dominant mode of deformation under the indenter. In contrast to the previous studies, the dominant mode of deformation under the nanoindenter at elevated temperatures is not the dc-Si to metallic phase ( -Sn) transformation. Instead, XTEM images from 150 C indents reveal that the dominant mode of deformation is twinning along {111} planes. While the in-situ high-temperature electrical measurements show an increase in the current due to metallic phase formation up to 125 C, it is absent 150 C, revealing that the formation of the metallic phase is negligible in this regime. Thus, this work provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale.

  3. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research January 5-6, 2011 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion Energy Sciences

  4. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research May 7-8, 2009 Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE ASCR Program Manager Yukiko Sekine Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:54

  5. Cermet materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    2008-12-23

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  6. Composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  7. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials discovery serves as a foundation for technological progress in renewable energies. Our experimental activities in inorganic solid-state materials innovation span a broad range of technological readiness levels-from basic science through applied research to device development-relying on a high-throughput combinatorial materials science approach, followed by traditional targeted experiments. In addition, our researchers work

  8. A Bridge for Accelerating Materials by Design

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sumpter, Bobby G.; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Potok, Thomas E.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-11-25

    Recent technical advances in the area of nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and scattering/diffraction have led to unprecedented capabilities for investigating materials structural, dynamical and functional characteristics. In addition, recent advances in computational algorithms and computer capacities that are orders of magnitude larger/faster have enabled large-scale simulations of materials properties starting with nothing but the identity of the atomic species and the basic principles of quantum- and statistical-mechanics and thermodynamics. Along with these advances, an explosion of high-resolution data has emerged. This confluence of capabilities and rise of big data offer grand opportunities for advancing materials sciences but also introduce several challenges.more » In this editorial we identify challenges impeding progress towards advancing materials by design (e.g., the design/discovery of materials with improved properties/performance), possible solutions, and provide examples of scientific issues that can be addressed by using a tightly integrated approach where theory and experiments are linked through big-deep data.« less

  9. Harnessing Molecule-solid Duality of Nanoclusters/nanoparticles for Nanoscale Control of Size Shape and Alloying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Yin; P Hu; B Wanjala; O Malis; C Zhong

    2011-12-31

    This report demonstrates a molecule-solid duality concept for nanoscale control of size, shape and alloying by showing novel evolution of binary copper and gold nanoclusters or nanoparticles towards alloy nanocubes, as evidenced by in situ real time synchrotron X-ray diffraction characterization.

  10. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-05-23

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  11. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Page...

  12. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Pag...

  13. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  14. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences August 3-4, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors [not available] NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Workshop Agenda Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion

  15. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics November 12-13, 2009 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Workshop Agenda Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion Energy Sciences

  16. Engineered Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Engineered Materials Materials design, fabrication, assembly, and characterization for national security needs. Contact Us Group Leader (Acting) Kimberly Obrey Email Deputy Group Leader Dominic Peterson Email Group Office (505)-667-6887 We perform polymer science and engineering, including ultra-precision target design, fabrication, assembly, characterization, and field support. We perform polymer science and engineering, including ultra-precision target design, fabrication, assembly,

  17. Meeting Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HEP Meeting Materials Meeting Materials Here you will find various items to be used before and during the requirements review. The following documents are included: Case study worksheet to be filled in by meeting participants Sample of a completed case study from a Nuclear Physics requirements workshop held in 2011 A graph of NERSC and HEP usage as a function of time A powerpoint template you can use at the requirements review Downloads CaseStudyTemplate.docx | unknown Case Study Worksheet -

  18. Method and apparatus for determination of mechanical properties of functionally-graded materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giannakopoulos, Antonios E.; Suresh, Subra

    1999-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of mechanical properties of homogenous or functionally-graded materials from indentation testing are presented. The technique is applicable to indentation on the nano-scale through the macro-scale including the geological scale. The technique involves creating a predictive load/depth relationship for a sample, providing an experimental load/depth relationship, comparing the experimental data to the predictive data, and determining a physical characteristic from the comparison.

  19. Seeing through walls at the nanoscale: Microwave microscopy of enclosed objects and processes in liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei; Tselev, Alexander; Ievlev, Anton V.

    2016-02-11

    Here, noninvasive in situ nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is a current imperative in the analysis of delicate biomedical objects and electrochemical processes at reactive liquid–solid interfaces. Microwaves of a few gigahertz frequencies offer photons with energies of ≈10 μeV, which can affect neither electronic states nor chemical bonds in condensed matter. Here, we describe an implementation of scanning near-field microwave microscopy for imaging in liquids using ultrathin molecular impermeable membranes separating scanning probes from samples enclosed in environmental cells. We imaged a model electroplating reaction as well as individual live cells. Through a side-by-side comparison of the microwave imagingmore » with scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate the advantage of microwaves for artifact-free imaging.« less

  20. Unraveling the Mechanism of Nanoscale Mechanical Reinforcement in Glassy Polymer Nanocomposites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Shiwang; Bocharova, Vera; Belianinov, Alex; Xiong, Shaomin; Kisliuk, Alexander; Somnath, Suhas; Holt, Adam P.; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Jesse, Stephen; Martin, Halie J.; et al

    2016-05-20

    The mechanical reinforcement of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) above the glass transition temperature, Tg, has been extensively researched. However, not much is known about the origin of this effect below Tg. In this paper, we unravel the mechanism of PNC reinforcement within the glassy state by directly probing nanoscale mechanical properties with atomic force microscopy and macroscopic properties with Brillouin light scattering. Our results unambiguously show that the "glassy" Young's modulus in the interfacial polymer layer of PNCs is two-times higher than in the bulk polymer, which results in significant reinforcement below Tg. We ascribe this phenomenon to a high stretchingmore » of the chains within the interfacial layer. Since the interfacial chain packing is essentially temperature independent, these findings provide a new insight into the mechanical reinforcement of PNCs also above Tg.« less

  1. Nanoscale three-dimensional reconstruction of electric and magnetic stray fields around nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubk, A.; Wolf, D.; Sturm, S.; Simon, P.; Wang, C.; Felser, C.

    2014-10-27

    Static electromagnetic stray fields around nanowires (NWs) are characteristic for a number of important physical effects such as field emission or magnetic force microscopy. Consequently, an accurate characterization of these fields is of high interest and electron holographic tomography (EHT) is unique in providing tomographic 3D reconstructions at nm spatial resolution. However, several limitations of the experimental setup and the specimen itself are influencing EHT. Here, we show how a deliberate restriction of the tomographic reconstruction to the exterior of the NWs can be used to mitigate these limitations facilitating a quantitative 3D tomographic reconstruction of static electromagnetic stray fields at the nanoscale. As an example, we reconstruct the electrostatic stray field around a GaAs-AlGaAs core shell NW and the magnetic stray field around a Co{sub 2}FeGa Heusler compound NW.

  2. Observation and Quantification of Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries by Operando Electrochemical (S)TEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Qian, Jiangfeng; Nasybulin, Eduard; Park, Chiwoo; Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Wang, Chong M.; Evans, James E.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-03-11

    An operando electrochemical stage for the transmission electron microscope has been configured to form a “Li battery” that is used to quantify the electrochemical processes that occur at the anode during charge/discharge cycling. Of particular importance for these observations is the identification of an image contrast reversal that originates from solid Li being less dense than the surrounding liquid electrolyte and electrode surface. This contrast allows Li to be identified from Li containing compounds that make up the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. By correlating images showing the sequence of Li electrodeposition and the evolution of the SEI layer with simultaneously acquired and calibrated cyclic voltammograms (CV), electrodeposition and electrolyte breakdown processes can be quantified directly on the nanoscale. This approach opens up intriguing new possibilities to rapidly visualize and test the electrochemical performance of a wide range of electrode/electrolyte combinations for next generation battery systems.

  3. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; et al

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioningmore » it.« less

  4. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, James R; Averill, Frank; Cooper, Valentino R

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  5. Colloidal processing and sintering of nano-scale TiN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nab, R.; Albayrak, S.; Aslan, M.; Schmidt, H.

    1995-09-01

    Surface modification of nano-scale TiN powder with guanidine propionic acid was used for the preparation of well dispersed slurries. The starting powder could be completely deagglomerated for modifier concentrations exeeding 7.5 wt.-% at pH = 9. Such slurries ({le} 40 wt.-% solid content) behave like an ideal Netwonian liquid. Green compacts with relative densities around 50 % were prepared by pressure filtration. The specimens are characterized by a homogeneous green microstructure with pore sizes in the range of 3 to 10 mn, which could be sintered to high density (> 96 %) below 1400{degrees}C. Up to densities of 96 % grain coarsening can be neglected, but further densification was accompanied by an exaggregated grain growth.

  6. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertoni, Giovanni; Fabbri, Filippo; Villani, Marco; Lazzarini, Laura; Turner, Stuart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Calestani, Davide; Gradečak, Silvija; Zappettini, Andrea; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2016-01-12

    Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO nanotetrapods by means of a photochemical process without the need of binding agents or capping molecules, resulting in clean interfaces. Interestingly, the Au plasmon resonance is localized at the Au/vacuum interface, rather than presentingmore » an isotropic distribution around the nanoparticle. Moreover, on the contrary, a localization of the ZnO signal has been observed inside the Au nanoparticle, as also confirmed by numerical simulations.« less

  7. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate

  8. Hardfacing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2012-01-17

    A method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of boron, carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  9. Training Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Materials Training Materials The following tutorials are produced by NERSC staff and are intended to provide basic instruction on NERSC systems. Sort by: Default | Name | Date (low-high) | Date (high-low) | Source | Category Introduction to Hybrid OpenMP/MPI Programming June 24, 2004 | Author(s): Helen He | Download File: hybridTalk.pdf | pdf | 1005 KB sample managed list Using OpenMP October 20, 2010 | Author(s): Helen He | Introduction to MPI January 11, 2010 | Author(s): Richard

  10. Reference Material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials There are a variety of reference materials the NSSAB utilizes and have been made available on its website. Documents Fact Sheets - links to Department of Energy Nevada Field Office webpage Public Reading Room NTA Public Reading Facility Open Monday through Friday, 7:30 am to 4:30 pm (except holidays) 755C East Flamingo Road Las Vegas, Nevada 89119 Phone (702) 794-5106 http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/testingarchive.aspx DOE Electronic Database Also available to the public is an

  11. Critical Materials:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Critical Materials: 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 2. Technology Assessment and Potential ................................................................................................. 5 5 2.1 Major Trends in Selected Clean Energy Application Areas ........................................................... 5 6 2.1.1 Permanent Magnets for Wind

  12. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Strategic Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... overall theme of understanding and controlling the complexity of electronic, ionic, and molecular behavior at the nanoscale to enable the design of new functional nanomaterials. ...

  13. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ID 412- 11/16/2012 - Page 1 Log No 2012-263 Reference Materials * Transporting Radioactive Waste to the Nevada National Security Site fact sheet (ww.nv.energy.gov/library/factsheets/DOENV_990.pdf) - Generators contract with commercial carriers - U.S. Department of Transportation regulations require carriers to select routes which minimize radiological risk * Drivers Route and Shipment Information Questionnaire completed by drivers to document routes taken to the NNSS upon entry into Nevada -

  14. Fullerene materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, R.; Ruoff, R.S.; Lorents, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    Fullerenes are all-carbon cage molecules. The most celebrated fullerene is the soccer-ball shaped C{sub 60}, which is composed of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons. Because its structure is reminiscent of the geodesic domes of architect R. Buckminster Fuller, C{sub 60} is called buckminsterfullerene, and all the materials in the family are designated fullerenes. Huffman and Kraetschmer`s discovery unleashed activity around the world as scientists explored production methods, properties, and potential uses of fullerenes. Within a short period, methods for their production in electric arcs, plasmas, and flames were discovered, and several companies began selling fullerenes to the research market. What is remarkable is that in all these methods, carbon atoms assemble themselves into cage structures. The capability for self-assembly points to some inherent stability of these structures that allows their formation. The unusual structure naturally leads to unusual properties. Among them are ready solubility in solvents and a relatively high vapor pressure for a pure carbon material. The young fullerene field has already produced a surprising array of structures for the development of carbon-base materials having completely new and different properties from any that were previously possible.

  15. Nanoscale copper in the soil–plant system – toxicity and underlying potential mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anjum, Naser A.; Adam, Vojtech; Iqbal, Muhammad; Lukatkin, Alexander S.; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-04-15

    Nanoscale copper particles (nano-Cu) are used in many antimicrobial formulations and products for their antimicrobial activity. They may enter deliberately and/or accidentally into terrestrial environments including soils. Being the major ‘eco-receptors’ of nanoscale particles in the terrestrial ecosystem, soil–microbiota and plants (the soil–plant system) have been used as a model to dissect the potential impact of these particles on the environmental and human health. In the soil–plant system, the plant can be an indirect non-target organism of the soil-associated nano-Cu that may in turn affect plant-based products and their consumers. By all accounts, information pertaining to nano-Cu toxicity and the underlying potential mechanisms in the soil–plant system remains scanty, deficient and little discussed. Therefore, based on some recent reports from (bio)chemical, molecular and genetic studies of nano-Cu versus soil–plant system, this article: (i) overviews the status, chemistry and toxicity of nano-Cu in soil and plants, (ii) discusses critically the poorly understood potential mechanisms of nano-Cu toxicity and tolerance both in soil–microbiota and plants, and (iii) proposes future research directions. It appears from studies hitherto made that the uncontrolled generation and inefficient metabolism of reactive oxygen species through different reactions are the major factors underpinning the overall nano-Cu consequences in both the systems. However, it is not clear whether the nano-Cu or the ion released from it is the cause of the toxicity. We advocate to intensify the multi-approach studies focused at a complete characterization of the nano-Cu, its toxicity (during life cycles of the least-explored soil–microbiota and plants), and behavior in an environmentally relevant terrestrial exposure setting. Such studies may help to obtain a deeper insight into nano-Cu actions and address adequately the nano-Cu-associated safety concerns in the

  16. Opto-nanomechanical spectroscopic material characterization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tetard, Laurene; Passian, Ali; Farahi, R. H.; Thundat, Thomas; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-08-10

    Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel of considerable potential in the search for sustainable and renewable bioenergy [1,2]. However, while rich in carbohydrates [3], the plant cell walls exhibit a natural resistance to complex phenotype treatments such as enzymatic microbial deconstruction, heat and acid treatments that can remove the lignin polymers from cellulose before hydrolysis [5]. Noninvasive physical and chemical characterization of the cell walls and the effect of such treatments on biomass are challenging but necessary to understand and overcome such resistance [6]. Although lacking chemical recognition in their traditional forms, the various emerging modalities of nano-mechanical [7] and opto-nano-mechanicalmore » [8] force microscopies [9,10] provide a superb window into the needed nanoscale material characterization [6]. Infrared absorption spectroscopy is a powerful, non- destructive and ultra-sensitive technique that can provide the needed molecular fingerprinting but the photothermal channel is delocalized and thus lacks spatial resolution. Utilizing the emerging dynamic concepts of mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy (MSAFM) [11] and virtual resonance [12], we introduce a hybrid photonic and nanomechanical force microscopy (hp-MSAFM) with molecular recognition and characterize the extraction, holopulping and acid treatment of biomass. We present spatially and spectrally resolved cell wall images that reveal both the morphological and the compositional alterations of the cell walls. The measured biomolecular traits are in agreement with chemical maps obtained with infrared and confocal Raman micro-spectroscopies of the same samples. The presented findings should prove highly relevant in fields such as cancer research [13], nanotoxicity [14], energy storage and production [15], where morphological, chemical and subsurface studies of nanocomposites [16], nanoparticle uptake by cells [14], and nanoscale quality control [17] are in demand.« less

  17. Opto-nanomechanical spectroscopic material characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tetard, Laurene; Passian, Ali; Farahi, R. H.; Thundat, Thomas; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-08-10

    Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel of considerable potential in the search for sustainable and renewable bioenergy [1,2]. However, while rich in carbohydrates [3], the plant cell walls exhibit a natural resistance to complex phenotype treatments such as enzymatic microbial deconstruction, heat and acid treatments that can remove the lignin polymers from cellulose before hydrolysis [5]. Noninvasive physical and chemical characterization of the cell walls and the effect of such treatments on biomass are challenging but necessary to understand and overcome such resistance [6]. Although lacking chemical recognition in their traditional forms, the various emerging modalities of nano-mechanical [7] and opto-nano-mechanical [8] force microscopies [9,10] provide a superb window into the needed nanoscale material characterization [6]. Infrared absorption spectroscopy is a powerful, non- destructive and ultra-sensitive technique that can provide the needed molecular fingerprinting but the photothermal channel is delocalized and thus lacks spatial resolution. Utilizing the emerging dynamic concepts of mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy (MSAFM) [11] and virtual resonance [12], we introduce a hybrid photonic and nanomechanical force microscopy (hp-MSAFM) with molecular recognition and characterize the extraction, holopulping and acid treatment of biomass. We present spatially and spectrally resolved cell wall images that reveal both the morphological and the compositional alterations of the cell walls. The measured biomolecular traits are in agreement with chemical maps obtained with infrared and confocal Raman micro-spectroscopies of the same samples. The presented findings should prove highly relevant in fields such as cancer research [13], nanotoxicity [14], energy storage and production [15], where morphological, chemical and subsurface studies of nanocomposites [16], nanoparticle uptake by cells [14], and nanoscale quality control [17] are in demand.

  18. Users Executive Committee | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provides advice to the Director on matters affecting the user community, and ensures good communication between the CNM user community and CNM management. The CNM UEC is also...

  19. Nanoscale mapping and organization analysis of target proteins on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Mi; Xiao, Xiubin; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Dong, Zaili; Zhang, Weijing

    2013-11-01

    CD20, a membrane protein highly expressed on most B-cell lymphomas, is an effective target demonstrated in clinical practice for treating B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody against CD20. In this work, we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to map the nanoscale distribution of CD20 molecules on the surface of cancer cells from clinical B-cell NHL patients under the assistance of ROR1 fluorescence recognition (ROR1 is a specific cell surface marker exclusively expressed on cancer cells). First, the ROR1 fluorescence labeling experiments showed that ROR1 was expressed on cancer cells from B-cell lymphoma patients, but not on normal cells from healthy volunteers. Next, under the guidance of ROR1 fluorescence, the rituximab-conjugated AFM tips were moved to cancer cells to image the cellular morphologies and detect the CD20-rituximab interactions on the cell surfaces. The distribution maps of CD20 on cancer cells were constructed by obtaining arrays of (1616) force curves in local areas (500500 nm{sup 2}) on the cell surfaces. The experimental results provide a new approach to directly investigate the nanoscale distribution of target protein on single clinical cancer cells. - Highlights: Cancer cells were recognized from healthy cells by ROR1 fluorescence labeling. The nanoscale distribution of CD20 on cancer cells was characterized. The distribution of CD20 was non-uniform on the surface of cancer cells.

  20. Construction material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  1. Alloy materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  2. Casting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  3. Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Fan; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2011-06-07

    An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

  4. Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Bocharova, Vera; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-01-27

    Frictional forces arise whenever objects around us are set in motion. Controlling them in a rational manner means gaining leverage over mechanical energy losses and wear. This paper presents a way of manipulating nanoscale friction by means of in situ lubrication and interfacial electrochemistry. Water lubricant is directionally condensed from the vapor phase at a moving metal-ionic crystal interface by a strong confined electric field, thereby allowing friction to be tuned up or down via an applied bias. The electric potential polarity and ionic solid solubility are shown to strongly influence friction between the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip andmore » salt surface. An increase in friction is associated with the AFM tip digging into the surface, whereas reducing friction does not influence its topography. No current flows during friction variation, which excludes Joule heating and associated electrical energy losses. Lastly, the demonstrated novel effect can be of significant technological importance for controlling friction in nano- and micro-electromechanical systems.« less

  5. Method and apparatus for remote sensing of molecular species at nanoscale utilizing a reverse photoacoustic effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Ming [Oviedo, FL; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Hedden, David [Lenoir City, TN

    2010-02-23

    A method and apparatus for identifying a sample, involves illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, transmitting an acoustic signal against the sample from one portion and receiving a resulting acoustic signal on another portion, detecting a change of phase in the acoustic signal corresponding to the light of varying wavelengths, and analyzing the change of phase in the acoustic signal for the varying wavelengths of illumination to identify the sample. The apparatus has a controlled source for illuminating the sample with light of varying wavelengths, a transmitter for transmitting an acoustic wave, a receiver for receiving the acoustic wave and converting the acoustic wave to an electronic signal, and an electronic circuit for detecting a change of phase in the acoustic wave corresponding to respective ones of the varying wavelengths and outputting the change of phase for the varying wavelengths to allow identification of the sample. The method and apparatus can be used to detect chemical composition or visual features. A transmission mode and a reflection mode of operation are disclosed. The method and apparatus can be applied at nanoscale to detect molecules in a biological sample.

  6. Nanoscale transport of phonons: Dimensionality, subdiffusion, molecular damping, and interference effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walczak, Kamil; Yerkes, Kirk L.

    2014-05-07

    We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in the systems composed of nanoscale chains of masses coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. Thermal conductance is obtained by using linearized Landauer-type formula for heat flux with phonon transmission probability calculated within atomistic Green's functions (AGF) method. AGF formalism is extended onto dissipative chains of masses with harmonic coupling beyond nearest-neighbor approximation, while atomistic description of heat reservoirs is also included into computational scheme. In particular, the phonon lifetimes and the phonon frequency shifts are discussed for harmonic lattices of different dimensions. Further, resonant structure of phonon transmission spectrum is analyzed with respect to reservoir-induced effects, molecular damping, and mass-to-mass harmonic coupling. Analysis of transmission zeros (antiresonances) and their accompanied Fano-shape resonances are discussed as a result of interference effects between different vibrational modes. Finally, we also predict subdiffusive transport regime for low-frequency ballistic phonons propagated along a linear chain of harmonically coupled masses.

  7. Nanoscale calibration of n-type ZnO staircase structures by scanning capacitance microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L. Laurent, J.; Brémond, G.; Chauveau, J. M.; Sallet, V.; Jomard, F.

    2015-11-09

    Cross-sectional scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was performed on n-type ZnO multi-layer structures homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy method. Highly contrasted SCM signals were obtained between the ZnO layers with different Ga densities. Through comparison with dopant depth profiles from secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement, it is demonstrated that SCM is able to distinguish carrier concentrations at all levels of the samples (from 2 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 3 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}). The good agreement of the results from the two techniques indicates that SCM can be a useful tool for two dimensional carrier profiling at nanoscale for ZnO nanostructure development. As an example, residual carrier concentration inside the non-intentionally doped buffer layer was estimated to be around 2 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3} through calibration analysis.

  8. Correlation between piezoresponse nonlinearity and hysteresis in ferroelectric crystals at nanoscale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Yang, Yaodong; Li, Linglong; Liu, Zhengchun; Vasudevan, Rama K.

    2016-04-27

    Here, the nonlinear response of a ferroic to external fields has been studied for decades, garnering interest for both understanding fundamental physics, as well as technological applications such as memory devices. Yet, the behavior of ferroelectrics at mesoscopic regimes remains poorly understood, and the scale limits of theories developed for macroscopic regimes are not well tested experimentally. Here, we test the link between piezo-nonlinearity and local piezoelectric strain hysteresis, via AC-field dependent measurements in conjunction with first order reversal curve (FORC) measurements on (K,Na)NbO3 crystals with band-excitation piezoelectric force microscopy. The correlation coefficient between nonlinearity amplitude and the FORC ofmore » the polarization switching shows a clear decrease in correlation with increasing AC bias, suggesting the impact of domain wall clamping on the DC measurement case. Further, correlation of polynomial fitting terms from the nonlinear measurements with the hysteresis loop area reveals that the largest correlations are reserved for the quadratic terms, which is expected for irreversible domain wall motion contributions that impact both piezoelectric behavior as well as minor loop formation. These confirm the link between local piezoelectric nonlinearity, domain wall motion and minor loop formation, and suggest that existing theories (such as Preisach) are applicable at these length scales, with associated implications for future nanoscale devices.« less

  9. Effectively suppressing dissolution of manganese from spinel lithium manganate via a nanoscale surface-doping approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Zhan, Chun; Wu, Tianpin; Wen, Jianguo; Lei, Yu; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Wu, Huiming; Miller, Dean J.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Sun, Yang-Kook; Qiu, Xinping; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-16

    The capacity fade of lithium manganate-based cells is associated with the dissolution of Mn from cathode/electrolyte interface due to the disproportionation reaction of Mn(III), and the subsequent deposition of Mn(II) on the anode. Suppressing the dissolution of Mn from the cathode is critical to reducing capacity fade of LiMn2O4-based cells. Here we report a nanoscale surface-doping approach that minimizes Mn dissolution from lithium manganate. This approach exploits advantages of both bulk doping and surface-coating methods by stabilizing surface crystal structure of lithium manganate through cationic doping while maintaining bulk lithium manganate structure, and protecting bulk lithium manganate from electrolyte corrosion while maintaining ion and charge transport channels on the surface through the electrochemically active doping layer. Consequently, the surface-doped lithium manganate demonstrates enhanced electrochemical performance. This study provides encouraging evidence that surface doping could be a promising alternative to improve the cycling performance of lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Theory of signal and noise in double-gated nanoscale electronic pH sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Go, Jonghyun; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2012-08-01

    The maximum sensitivity of classical nanowire (NW)-based pH sensors is defined by the Nernst limit of 59 mV/pH. For typical noise levels in ultra-small single-gated nanowire sensors, the signal-to-noise ratio is often not sufficient to resolve pH changes necessary for a broad range of applications. Recently, a new class of double-gated devices was demonstrated to offer apparent 'super-Nernstian' response (>59 mV/pH) by amplifying the original pH signal through innovative biasing schemes. However, the pH-sensitivity of these nanoscale devices as a function of biasing configurations, number of electrodes, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) remains poorly understood. Even the basic question such as 'Do double-gated sensors actually resolve smaller changes in pH compared to conventional single-gated sensors in the presence of various sources of noise?' remains unanswered. In this article, we provide a comprehensive numerical and analytical theory of signal and noise of double-gated pH sensors to conclude that, while the theoretical lower limit of pH-resolution does not improve for double-gated sensors, this new class of sensors does improve the (instrument-limited) pH resolution.

  11. Analysis of nanoscale two-phase flow of argon using molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Abhishek Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-12-09

    Two phase flows through micro and nanochannels have attracted a lot of attention because of their immense applicability to many advanced fields such as MEMS/NEMS, electronic cooling, bioengineering etc. In this work, a molecular dynamics simulation method is employed to study the condensation process of superheated argon vapor force driven flow through a nanochannel combining fluid flow and heat transfer. A simple and effective particle insertion method is proposed to model phase change of argon based on non-periodic boundary conditions in the simulation domain. Starting from a crystalline solid wall of channel, the condensation process evolves from a transient unsteady state where we study the influence of different wall temperatures and fluid wall interactions on interfacial and heat transport properties of two phase flows. Subsequently, we analyzed transient temperature, density and velocity fields across the channel and their dependency on varying wall temperature and fluid wall interaction, after a dynamic equilibrium is achieved in phase transition. Quasi-steady nonequilibrium temperature profile, heat flux and interfacial thermal resistance were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the molecular dynamics method, with the proposed particle insertion method, effectively solves unsteady nonequilibrium two phase flows at nanoscale resolutions whose interphase between liquid and vapor phase is typically of the order of a few molecular diameters.

  12. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and

  13. Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen Chemistry in Pristine Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Genc, Arda; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Browning, Nigel D.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.

    2013-05-14

    Li-rich layered material Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 possesses high voltage and high specific capacity, which makes it an attractive candidate for the transportation industry and sustainable energy storage systems. The rechargeable capacity of the Li-ion battery is linked largely to the structural stability of the cathode materials during the charge-discharge cycles. However, the structure and cation distribution in pristine (un-cycled) Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 have not yet been fully characterized. Using a combination of aberration-corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (XEDS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and complementary multislice image simulation, we have probed the crystal structure, cation/anion distribution, and electronic structure of Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 nanoparticle. We discovered that the electronic structure and valence state of transition metal ions show significant variations, which have been identified to be attributed to the oxygen deficiency near the particle surfaces. Characterization of the nanoscale phase separation and cation ordering in the pristine material are critical for understanding the capacity and voltage fading of this material for battery application.

  14. Observation of Materials Processes in Liquids in the Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chong M.; Liao, Honggang; Ross, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Materials synthesis and the functioning of devices often indispensably involve liquid media. But direct visualization of dynamic process in liquids, especially with high spatial and temporal resolution, has been challenging. For solid materials, advances in aberration corrected electron microscopy have made observation of atomic level features a routine practice. Here we discuss the extent to which one can take advantage of the resolution of modern electron microscopes to image phenomenon occuring in liquids. We will describe the fundamentals of two different experimental approaches, closed and open liquid cells. We will illustrate the capabilities of each approach by considering processes in batteries and nucleation and growth of nanoparticles from solution. We conclude that liquid cell electron microscopy appears to be duly fulfilling its role for in situ studies of nanoscale processes in liquids, revealing physical and chemical processes otherwise difficult to observe.

  15. Chemistry and Materials Science progress report, first half FY 1992. Weapons-Supporting Research and Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report contains sections on: Fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals; interfaces, adhesion, and bonding; energetic materials; plutonium research; synchrotron radiation-based materials science; atomistic approach to the interaction of surfaces with the environment: actinide studies; properties of carbon fibers; buried layer formation using ion implantation; active coherent control of chemical reaction dynamics; inorganic and organic aerogels; synthesis and characterization of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels; structural transformation and precursor phenomena in advanced materials; magnetic ultrathin films, surfaces, and overlayers; ductile-phase toughening of refractory-metal intermetallics; particle-solid interactions; electronic structure evolution of metal clusters; and nanoscale lithography induced chemically or physically by modified scanned probe microscopy.

  16. Foam-assisted delivery of nanoscale zero valent iron in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Yuanzhao; Liu, Bo; Shen, Xin; Zhong, Lirong; Li, Xiqing

    2013-09-01

    Foam is potentially a promising vehicle to deliver nanoparticles for vadose zone remediation as foam can overcome the intrinsic problems associated with solution-based delivery, such as preferential flow and contaminant mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of using foam to deliver nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) in unsaturated porous media was investigated. Foams generated using surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) showed excellent ability to carry nZVI. SLES and nZVI concentrations in the foaming solutions did not affect the percentages of nZVI concentrations in foams relative to nZVI concentrations in the solutions. When foams carrying nZVI were injected through the unsaturated columns, the fractions of nZVI exiting the column were much higher than those when nZVI was injected in liquid. The enhanced nZVI transport implies that foam delivery could significantly increase the radius of influence of injected nZVI. The type and concentrations of surfactants and the influent nZVI concentrations did not noticeably affect nZVI transport during foam delivery. In contrast, nZVI retention increased considerably as the grain size of porous media decreased. Oxidation of foam-delivered nZVI due to oxygen diffusion into unsaturated porous media was visually examined using a flow cell. It was demonstrated that if foams are injected to cover a deep vadose zone layer, oxidation would only cause a small fraction of foam-delivered nZVI to be oxidized before it reacts with contaminants.

  17. Critical Materials Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentations during the Critical Materials Workshop held on April 3, 2012 overviewing critical materials strategies

  18. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alex King

    2013-06-05

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  19. Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Martin L.; Talmage, Mellisa J.; McDowell, David L., 1956- (,-Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); West, Neil (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gullett, Philip Michael (Mississippi State University , MS); Miller, David C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Spark, Kevin (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University , MS); Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K

    2006-10-01

    Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project

  20. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  1. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  2. Size-Dependent Pressure-Induced Amorphization in Nanoscale TiO...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Department of Chemistry and Materials Chemistry Centre, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom) Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, ...

  3. Determination of crystal growth rates during rapid solidification of polycrystalline aluminum by nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zweiacker, K.; McKeown, J. T.; Liu, C.; LaGrange, T.; Reed, B. W.; Campbell, G. H.; Wiezorek, J. M. K.

    2016-08-04

    In situ investigations of rapid solidification in polycrystalline Al thin films were conducted using nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Differences in crystal growth rates and asymmetries in melt pool development were observed as the heat extraction geometry was varied by controlling the proximity of the laser-pulse irradiation and the associated induced melt pools to the edge of the transmission electron microscopy support grid, which acts as a large heat sink. Experimental parameters have been established to maximize the reproducibility of the material response to the laser-pulse-related heating and to ensure that observations of the dynamical behavior of themore » metal are free from artifacts, leading to accurate interpretations and quantifiable measurements with improved precision. Interface migration rate measurements revealed solidification velocities that increased consistently from ~1.3 m s–1 to ~2.5 m s–1 during the rapid solidification process of the Al thin films. Under the influence of an additional large heat sink, increased crystal growth rates as high as 3.3 m s–1 have been measured. The in situ experiments also provided evidence for development of a partially melted, two-phase region prior to the onset of rapid solidification facilitated crystal growth. As a result, using the experimental observations and associated measurements as benchmarks, finite-element modeling based calculations of the melt pool evolution after pulsed laser irradiation have been performed to obtain estimates of the temperature evolution in the thin films.« less

  4. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M; Wisinger, Nina; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquid cell.

  5. Long-term superelastic cycling at nano-scale in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Juan, J. Gómez-Cortés, J. F.

    2014-01-06

    Superelastic behavior at nano-scale has been studied along cycling in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars. Arrays of square micropillars were produced by focused ion beam milling, on slides of [001] oriented Cu-Al-Ni single crystals. Superelastic behavior of micropillars, due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation, has been studied by nano-compression tests during thousand cycles, and its evolution has been followed along cycling. Each pillar has undergone more than thousand cycles without any detrimental evolution. Moreover, we demonstrate that after thousand cycles they exhibit a perfectly reproducible and completely recoverable superelastic behavior.

  6. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M.; Wisinger, Nina; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2015-02-23

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquid cell.

  7. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2016-03-29

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer resin, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  8. weapons material protection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    material protection

  9. Materials Project: A Materials Genome Approach

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ceder, Gerbrand [MIT; Persson, Kristin [LBNL

    Technological innovation - faster computers, more efficient solar cells, more compact energy storage - is often enabled by materials advances. Yet, it takes an average of 18 years to move new materials discoveries from lab to market. This is largely because materials designers operate with very little information and must painstakingly tweak new materials in the lab. Computational materials science is now powerful enough that it can predict many properties of materials before those materials are ever synthesized in the lab. By scaling materials computations over supercomputing clusters, this project has computed some properties of over 80,000 materials and screened 25,000 of these for Li-ion batteries. The computations predicted several new battery materials which were made and tested in the lab and are now being patented. By computing properties of all known materials, the Materials Project aims to remove guesswork from materials design in a variety of applications. Experimental research can be targeted to the most promising compounds from computational data sets. Researchers will be able to data-mine scientific trends in materials properties. By providing materials researchers with the information they need to design better, the Materials Project aims to accelerate innovation in materials research.[copied from http://materialsproject.org/about] You will be asked to register to be granted free, full access.

  10. A Google for Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kristin Persson A Google for Materials February 4, 2014 Kirstin Persson, Berkeley Lab Downloads Persson-Materials-NUG2014.pdf | Adobe Acrobat PDF file A Google For Materials? -...

  11. LANSCE | Materials Test Station

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Office Contact Administrative nav background Materials Test Station dotline ... Materials Test Station: the Preferred Alternative When completed, the Materials Test ...

  12. Perspectives on Permanent Magnetic Materials for Energy Conversion and Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, LH; Jimenez-Villacorta, F

    2012-07-18

    Permanent magnet development has historically been driven by the need to supply larger magnetic energy in ever smaller volumes for incorporation in an enormous variety of applications that include consumer products, transportation components, military hardware, and clean energy technologies such as wind turbine generators and hybrid vehicle regenerative motors. Since the 1960s, the so-called rare-earth "supermagnets," composed of iron, cobalt, and rare-earth elements such as Nd, Pr, and Sm, have accounted for the majority of global sales of high-energy-product permanent magnets for advanced applications. In rare-earth magnets, the transition-metal components provide high magnetization, and the rare-earth components contribute a very large magnetocrystalline anisotropy that donates high resistance to demagnetization. However, at the end of 2009, geopolitical influences created a worldwide strategic shortage of rare-earth elements that may be addressed, among other actions, through the development of rare-earth-free magnetic materials harnessing sources of magnetic anisotropy other than that provided by the rare-earth components. Materials engineering at the micron scale, nanoscale, and Angstrom scales, accompanied by improvements in the understanding and characterization of nanoscale magnetic phenomena, is anticipated to result in new types of permanent magnetic materials with superior performance. DOI: 10.1007/s11661-012-1278-2 (C) The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012

  13. Addressing the Recalcitrance of Cellulose Degradation through Cellulase Discovery, Nano-scale Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms, and Kinetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Larry P., Bergstrom, Gary; Corgie, Stephane; Craighead, Harold; Gibson, Donna; Wilson, David

    2011-06-13

    This research project was designed to play a vital role in the development of low cost sugars from cellulosic biomass and contributing to the national effort to displace fossil fuel usage in the USA transportation sector. The goal was to expand the portfolio of cell wall degrading enzymes through innovative research at the nano-scale level, prospecting for novel cellulases and building a kinetic framework for the development of more effective enzymatic conversion processes. More precisely, the goal was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for some cellulases that are very familiar to members of our research team and to investigate what we hope are novel cellulases or new enzyme combinations from the world of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Hydrolytic activities of various cellulases and cellulase cocktails were monitored at the nanoscale of cellulose fibrils and the microscale of pretreated cellulose particles, and we integrated this insight into a heterogeneous reaction framework. The over-riding approach for this research program was the application of innovative and cutting edge optical and high-throughput screening and analysis techniques for observing how cellulases hydrolyze real substrates.

  14. Real time nanoscale structural evaluation of gold structures on Si (100) surface using in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, A. E-mail: ashutosh.phy@gmail.com E-mail: pvsatyam22@gmail.com; Juluri, R. R.; Satyam, P. V. E-mail: ashutosh.phy@gmail.com E-mail: pvsatyam22@gmail.com

    2014-05-14

    Transport behavior of gold nanostructures on Si(100) substrate during annealing under high vacuum has been investigated using in-situ real time transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A comparative study has been done on the morphological changes due to annealing under different vacuum environments. Au thin films of thickness ∼2.0 nm were deposited on native oxide covered silicon substrate by using thermal evaporation system. In-situ real time TEM measurements at 850 °C showed the isotropic growth of rectangular/square shaped gold-silicon alloy structures. During the growth, it is observed that the alloying occurs in liquid phase followed by transformation into the rectangular shapes. For similar system, ex-situ annealing in low vacuum (10{sup −2} millibars) at 850 °C showed the spherical gold nanostructures with no Au-Si alloy formation. Under low vacuum annealing conditions, the rate of formation of the oxide layer dominates the oxide desorption rate, resulting in the creation of a barrier layer between Au and Si, which restricts the inter diffusion of Au in to Si. This work demonstrates the important role of interfacial oxide layer on the growth of nanoscale Au-Si alloy structures during the initial growth. The time dependent TEM images are presented to offer a direct insight into the fundamental dynamics of the sintering process at the nanoscale.

  15. Composite material dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  16. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V.

    2015-03-24

    transitions from magnetic to nonmagnetic phases in a broad pressure-temperature range; using X-ray methods including the newly developed RIXS high-pressure technique to explore pressure-tuned electronic excitations in strongly correlated 3d-materials; and advancing transport and magnetic techniques for measurements on small samples at very high pressures in a wide temperature range, with the application of focused ion beam technology and photolithography tailored to the design of microcircuits down to a nanoscale size, thus expanding the horizon in the search for novel physical phenomena at ultrahigh pressures. Apply new optical magnetic sensing techniques with NV- centers in diamond to detect superconductivity and magnetic transitions with unprecedented spatial resolution.

  17. Method for forming materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  18. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  19. Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-11

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

  20. Computational Materials Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computational Materials Science An image of interconnecting, sphere- and square-shaped particles that appears to be floating in space NREL's computational materials science capabilities span many research fields and interests. Electronic, Optical, and Transport Properties of Photovoltaic Materials Material properties and defect physics of Si, CdTe, III-V, CIGS, CZTS, and hybrid perovskite compounds Reconstruction of, and defect formation on, semiconductor surfaces Electronic and transport

  1. Early Career. Harnessing nanotechnology for fusion plasma-material interface research in an in-situ particle-surface interaction facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allain, Jean Paul

    2014-08-08

    This project consisted of fundamental and applied research of advanced in-situ particle-beam interactions with surfaces/interfaces to discover novel materials able to tolerate intense conditions at the plasma-material interface (PMI) in future fusion burning plasma devices. The project established a novel facility that is capable of not only characterizing new fusion nanomaterials but, more importantly probing and manipulating materials at the nanoscale while performing subsequent single-effect in-situ testing of their performance under simulated environments in fusion PMI.

  2. Materials Science and Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MST Materials Science and Technology Providing world-leading, innovative, and agile materials science and technology solutions for national security missions. MST is metallurgy. The Materials Science and Technology Division provides scientific and technical leadership in materials science and technology for Los Alamos National Laboratory. READ MORE MST is engineered materials. The Materials Science and Technology Division provides scientific and technical leadership in materials science and

  3. In the OSTI Collections: Nanotechnology | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... catalysis; theory, modeling and simulation; electronic materials; nanoscale photonics; soft and biological materials; imaging and spectroscopy; and nanoscale integration. ...

  4. Transporting particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldred, Derek Leslie; Rader, Jeffrey A.; Saunders, Timothy W.

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  5. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  6. DNA and RNA sequencing by nanoscale reading through programmable electrophoresis and nanoelectrode-gated tunneling and dielectric detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James W.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for performing nucleic acid (DNA and/or RNA) sequencing on a single molecule. The genetic sequence information is obtained by probing through a DNA or RNA molecule base by base at nanometer scale as though looking through a strip of movie film. This DNA sequencing nanotechnology has the theoretical capability of performing DNA sequencing at a maximal rate of about 1,000,000 bases per second. This enhanced performance is made possible by a series of innovations including: novel applications of a fine-tuned nanometer gap for passage of a single DNA or RNA molecule; thin layer microfluidics for sample loading and delivery; and programmable electric fields for precise control of DNA or RNA movement. Detection methods include nanoelectrode-gated tunneling current measurements, dielectric molecular characterization, and atomic force microscopy/electrostatic force microscopy (AFM/EFM) probing for nanoscale reading of the nucleic acid sequences.

  7. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M.; Wisinger, Nina; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2015-02-23

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquidmore » cell.« less

  8. Identification of the stimulated-emission threshold in high-{beta} nanoscale lasers through phase-space reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hachair, X.; Elvira, D.; Le Gratiet, L.; Lemaitre, A.; Abram, I.; Sagnes, I.; Robert-Philip, I.; Beveratos, A.; Braive, R.; Lippi, G. L.

    2011-05-15

    Nanoscale lasers sustain a few optical modes so that the fraction of spontaneous emission {beta} funnelled into the useful (lasing) mode is high (of the order of 10{sup -1}) and the threshold, which traditionally corresponds to an abrupt kink in the light-in-light-out curve, becomes ill defined. We propose an alternative definition of the threshold that is based on the dynamical response of the laser and is valid even for {beta}=1 lasers. The laser dynamics is analyzed through a reconstruction of its phase-space trajectory for pulsed excitations. Crossing the threshold, brings about a change in the shape of the trajectory and in the area contained in it. An unambiguous determination of the threshold in terms of this change is shown theoretically and illustrated experimentally in a photonic-crystal laser.

  9. Effect of geometrical constraint condition on the formation of nanoscale twins in the Ni-based metallic glass composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.H.; Kim, B.S.; Kim, D.H.; Ott, R.T.; Sansoz, F.; Eckert, J.

    2014-04-25

    We investigated the effect of geometrically constrained stress-strain conditions on the formation of nanotwins in alpha-brass phase reinforced Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass (MG) matrix deformed under macroscopic uniaxial compression. The specific geometrically constrained conditions in the samples lead to a deviation from a simple uniaxial state to a multi-axial stress state, for which nanocrystallization in the MG matrix together with nanoscale twinning of the brass reinforcement is observed in localized regions during plastic flow. The nanocrystals in the MG matrix and the appearance of the twinned structure in the reinforcements indicate that the strain energy is highly confined and the local stress reaches a very high level upon yielding. Both the effective distribution of reinforcements on the strain enhancement of composite and the effects of the complicated stress states on the development of nanotwins in the second-phase brass particles are discussed.

  10. Thermal stability of sputter-deposited 330 austenitic stainless-steel thin films with nanoscale growth twins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.; Misra, A.; Wang, H.; Swadener, J.G.; Lima, A.L.; Hundley, M.F.; Hoagland, R.G.

    2005-12-05

    We have explored the thermal stability of nanoscale growth twins in sputter-deposited 330 stainless-steel (SS) films by vacuum annealing up to 500 deg. C. In spite of an average twin spacing of only 4 nm in the as-deposited films, no detectable variation in the twin spacing or orientation of twin interfaces was observed after annealing. An increase in the average columnar grain size was observed after annealing. The hardness of 330 SS films increases after annealing, from 7 GPa for as-deposited films to around 8 GPa for annealed films, while the electrical resistivity decreases slightly after annealing. The changes in mechanical and electrical properties after annealing are interpreted in terms of the corresponding changes in the residual stress and microstructure of the films.

  11. Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells. Tech Team Meeting Presentaion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, Eric L.; Elbaz Alon, Lior; Henson, Neil J.; Rockward, Tommy; Roy, Aaron; Serov, Alexey; Ward, Timothy

    2012-08-13

    Catalyst support durability is currently a technical barrier for commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, especially for transportation applications. Degradation and corrosion of the conventional carbon supports leads to losses in active catalyst surface area and, consequently, reduced performance. As a result, the goal of this work is to develop support materials that interact strongly with Pt, yet sustain bulk-like catalytic activities with very highly dispersed particles. Ceramic materials that are prepared using conventional solid-state methods have large grain sizes and low surface areas that can only be minimally ameliorated through grinding and ball milling. Other synthesis routes to produce ceramic materials must be investigated and utilized in order to obtain desired surface areas. In this work, several different synthesis methods are being utilized to prepare electronically conductive ceramic boride, nitride, and oxide materials with high surface areas and have the potential for use as PEMFC catalyst supports. Polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) and aerosol-through plasma (A-T-P) torch are among several methods used to obtain ceramic materials with surface areas that are equal to, or exceed Vulcan XC-72R supports. Cubic Mo-based ceramic phases have been prepared with average XRD-determined crystallite sizes as low as 1.6 nm (from full profile, XRD fitting) and a BET surface area exceeding 200 m{sup 2}/g. Additionally, black, sub-stoichiometric TiO{sub 2-x}, have been prepared with an average crystallite size in the 4 nm range and surface areas exceeding 250 m{sup 2}/gr. Pt disposition using an incipient wetness approach produced materials with activity for hydrogen redox reactions and ORR. Cyclic voltammetry data will be shown for a variety of potential Pt/ceramic catalysts. Initial experiments indicate enhanced Pt metal-support interactions as well. Plane wave periodic density functional calculations (VASP) are being used to

  12. Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Innovating tomorrow's materials today New high-tech materials are the key to breakthroughs in biology, the environment, nuclear energy, transportation and national security. Argonne continues to make revolutionary advances in the science of materials discovery and synthesis, and is designing new materials with advantageous properties - one atom at a time. Examples of these include Argonne's patented technologies for nanoparticle applications, heat transfer and materials for advanced

  13. Nuclear Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Materials Science Our multidisciplinary expertise comprises the core actinide materials science and metallurgical capability within the nuclear weapons production and ...

  14. Timelines | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A listing of timelines about various materials of interest to rare earths and critical materials, organized by those specific to rare earth elements, general chemistry and uses. ...

  15. Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Plenary PDF icon ...

  16. Materials Discovery across Technological Readiness Levels | Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science | NREL Materials Discovery across Technological Readiness Levels Materials discovery is important across technology readiness levels: basic science, applied research, and device development. Over the past several years, NREL has worked at each of these levels, demonstrating our competence in a broad range of materials discovery problems. Basic Science An image of a triangular diagram with tantalum-cobalt-tin at the top vertex, tantalum at the lower left vertex, and cobalt at the

  17. Materials Science Research | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Research For photovoltaics and other energy applications, NREL's primary research in materials science includes the following core competencies. A photo of laser light rays going in various directions atop a corrugated metal substrate Materials Physics Through materials growth and characterization, we seek to understand and control fundamental electronic and optical processes in semiconductors. An image of multiple, interconnecting red and blue particles Electronic Structure Theory We

  18. Probing the failure mechanism of nanoscale LiFePO₄ for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Ji-guang; Wang, Chongmin

    2015-05-18

    LiFePO4 is a high power rate cathode material for lithium ion battery and shows remarkable capacity retention, featuring a 91% capacity retention after 3300 cycles. In this work, we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the gradual capacity fading mechanism of LiFePO4 materials. We found that upon prolonged electrochemical cycling of the battery, the LiFePO4 cathode shows surface amorphization and loss of oxygen species, which directly contribute to the gradual capacity fading of the battery. The finding is of great importance for the design and improvement of new LiFePO4 cathode for high-energy and high-power rechargeable battery for electric transportation.

  19. Interfacial electron and phonon scattering processes in high-powered nanoscale applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2011-10-01

    The overarching goal of this Truman LDRD project was to explore mechanisms of thermal transport at interfaces of nanomaterials, specifically linking the thermal conductivity and thermal boundary conductance to the structures and geometries of interfaces and boundaries. Deposition, fabrication, and post possessing procedures of nanocomposites and devices can give rise to interatomic mixing around interfaces of materials leading to stresses and imperfections that could affect heat transfer. An understanding of the physics of energy carrier scattering processes and their response to interfacial disorder will elucidate the potentials of applying these novel materials to next-generation high powered nanodevices and energy conversion applications. An additional goal of this project was to use the knowledge gained from linking interfacial structure to thermal transport in order to develop avenues to control, or 'tune' the thermal transport in nanosystems.

  20. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Peer Review Technical Track: Nanostructures and Quantum Dots Project Name: Center for Nanoscale Energy Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Schulz; Philip R. Boudjouk

    2009-03-09

    Some major accomplishments of the program are: (1) First crystal structures of Si{sub 6}H{sub 12}-related molecules; (2) PECVD of both a-Si and alloys (i.e., SiN and SiO{sub x}) using Si{sub 6}H{sub 12}; (3) Establishment of a system that couples a printing methodology with laser annealing; and (4) Developed schematics and electrical models for power-point tracking system and filed invention disclosure.

  1. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - CNMS User Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    uses thermal deposition to prepare Co nanodots on polymer thin films via Volmer-Weber growth. These Co nanodots form nanoscale Coorganic heterojunctions and consequently...

  2. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - CNMS User Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Measurements of Glass Transition Temperature and Temperature-Dependent Mechanical Properties in Polymers M.P. Nikiforov, S. Jesse, L.T. Germinario (CNMS user, Eastman...

  3. About Critical Materials | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Ames Laboratory channel on YouTube Timelines related to rare earth elements and materials Other sources of information about rare earths: GE: Understanding rare earth metals, ...

  4. Thermodynamically Tuned Nanophase Materials for reversible Hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping Liu; John J. Vajo

    2010-02-28

    This program was devoted to significantly extending the limits of hydrogen storage technology for practical transportation applications. To meet the hydrogen capacity goals set forth by the DOE, solid-state materials consisting of light elements were developed. Many light element compounds are known that have high capacities. However, most of these materials are thermodynamically too stable, and they release and store hydrogen much too slowly for practical use. In this project we developed new light element chemical systems that have high hydrogen capacities while also having suitable thermodynamic properties. In addition, we developed methods for increasing the rates of hydrogen exchange in these new materials. The program has significantly advanced (1) the application of combined hydride systems for tuning thermodynamic properties and (2) the use of nanoengineering for improving hydrogen exchange. For example, we found that our strategy for thermodynamic tuning allows both entropy and enthalpy to be favorably adjusted. In addition, we demonstrated that using porous supports as scaffolds to confine hydride materials to nanoscale dimensions could improve rates of hydrogen exchange by > 50x. Although a hydrogen storage material meeting the requirements for commercial development was not achieved, this program has provided foundation and direction for future efforts. More broadly, nanoconfinment using scaffolds has application in other energy storage technologies including batteries and supercapacitors. The overall goal of this program was to develop a safe and cost-effective nanostructured light-element hydride material that overcomes the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers to hydrogen reaction and diffusion in current materials and thereby achieve > 6 weight percent hydrogen capacity at temperatures and equilibrium pressures consistent with DOE target values.

  5. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  6. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-04-07

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  7. Energy Materials Network Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Materials Network (EMN) is a national lab-led initiative that aims to dramatically decrease the time-to-market for advanced materials innovations critical to many clean energy technologies. Through targeted consortia offering accessible suites of advanced research and development capabilities, EMN is accelerating materials development to address U.S. manufacturers' most pressing materials challenges.

  8. Tritium breeding materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.

  9. Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation slides from the Energy Department webinar, Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials, held August 13, 2013.

  10. Materials Analysis and Modeling of Underfill Materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyatt, Nicholas B; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-01

    The thermal-mechanical properties of three potential underfill candidate materials for PBGA applications are characterized and reported. Two of the materials are a formulations developed at Sandia for underfill applications while the third is a commercial product that utilizes a snap-cure chemistry to drastically reduce cure time. Viscoelastic models were calibrated and fit using the property data collected for one of the Sandia formulated materials. Along with the thermal-mechanical analyses performed, a series of simple bi-material strip tests were conducted to comparatively analyze the relative effects of cure and thermal shrinkage amongst the materials under consideration. Finally, current knowledge gaps as well as questions arising from the present study are identified and a path forward presented.

  11. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, Robert E.; Ramsey, David R.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Macdonald, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  12. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, R.W.; Nieman, G.W.; Weertman, J.R.

    1994-06-14

    A method is disclosed for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material. 19 figs.

  13. Material Transfer Agreements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material Transfer Agreements Material Transfer Agreements Enables the transfer of tangible consumable research materials between two organizations, when the recipient intends to use the material for research purposes Contact thumbnail of Marcus Lucero Head of Licensing Marcus Lucero Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 665-6569 Email Overview The ability to exchange materials freely and without delay is an important part of a healthy scientific laboratory. Los Alamos National

  14. Materials Physics and Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MPA Materials Physics and Applications We develop new technologies that solve pressing national energy and security challenges by exploring and exploiting materials and their properties; developing practical applications of materials, and providing world-class user facilities. Contact Us Division Leader Tanja Pietrass Email Deputy Division Leader Rick Martineau Email Chief of Staff Jeff Willis Email Division Office (505) 665-1131 Materials Physics Applications Division Materials Physics and

  15. Materials for the Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials for the Future Materials for the Future The Lab's four Science Pillars harness our scientific capabilities for national security solutions. Contacts Pillar Champion Mary Hockaday Email Pillar Contact Toni Taylor Email Pillar Contact David Teter Email Materials for the Future Science Overview At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we anticipate the advent of a new era in materials science, when we will transition from observing and exploiting the properties of materials to a science-based

  16. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  17. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Troy A. Semelsberger Los Alamos National Laboratory Hydrogen Storage Summit Jan 27-29, 2015 Denver, CO Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials 2 Objectives 1. Assess chemical hydrogen storage materials that can exceed 700 bar compressed hydrogen tanks 2. Status (state-of-the-art) of chemical hydrogen storage materials 3. Identify key material characteristics 4. Identify obstacles, challenges and risks for the successful deployment of chemical hydrogen materials in a practical on-board hydrogen

  18. Tuning the Optical Properties of Mesoporous TiO2 Films by Nanoscale Engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Wang, Liang; Swensen, James S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Silverman, Gary; Korotkov, Roman; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2012-07-03

    Introducing mesoscale pores into spincoated titanium dioxide films, prepared by spincoating different sol-gel precursor solutions on silicon substrates and subsequent annealing at 350 C, 400 C or 450 C, respectively, affects several optical properties of the material. The change in refractive index observed for different mesoporous anatase films directly correlates with changes in pore size, but is also in a more complex manner influenced by the film thickness and the density of pores within the films. Additionally, the band gap of the films is blueshifted by the stress the introduction of pores exerts on the inorganic matrix. The differently sized pores were templated by Pluronic{reg_sign} block copolymers in the solgel solutions and tuned by employing different annealing temperatures for the film preparation. This study focused on elucidating the effect different templating materials (F127 and P123) have on the pore size of the final mesoporous titania film, and on understanding the relation of varying polymer concentration (taking P123 as an example) in the sol-gel solution to the pore concentration and size in the resultant titania film. Titania thin film samples or corresponding titanium dioxide powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, ellipsometery, UV/Vis spectrometry and other techniques to understand the interplay between mesoporosity and optical properties.

  19. 2013 R&D 100 Award: Movie-mode electron microscope captures nanoscale

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lagrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan

    2014-07-21

    A new instrument developed by LLNL scientists and engineers, the Movie Mode Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (MM-DTEM), captures billionth-of-a-meter-scale images with frame rates more than 100,000 times faster than those of conventional techniques. The work was done in collaboration with a Pleasanton-based company, Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions (IDES) Inc. Using this revolutionary imaging technique, a range of fundamental and technologically important material and biological processes can be captured in action, in complete billionth-of-a-meter detail, for the first time. The primary application of MM-DTEM is the direct observation of fast processes, including microstructural changes, phase transformations and chemical reactions, that shape real-world performance of nanostructured materials and potentially biological entities. The instrument could prove especially valuable in the direct observation of macromolecular interactions, such as protein-protein binding and host-pathogen interactions. While an earlier version of the technology, Single Shot-DTEM, could capture a single snapshot of a rapid process, MM-DTEM captures a multiframe movie that reveals complex sequences of events in detail. It is the only existing technology that can capture multiple electron microscopy images in the span of a single microsecond.

  20. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material ...

  1. CRAD, Packaging and Transfer of Hazardous Materials and Materials...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Packaging and Transfer of Hazardous Materials and Materials of National Security Interest Assessment Plan CRAD, Packaging and Transfer of Hazardous Materials and Materials of...

  2. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  3. Joining of dissimilar materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

    2012-10-16

    A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

  4. Spin and orbital moments of nanoscale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} epitaxial thin film on MgO/GaAs(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, W. Q.; Xu, Y. B. E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn; Wong, P. K. J.; Maltby, N. J.; Li, S. P.; Wang, X. F.; Zhang, R. E-mail: rzhang@nju.edu.cn; Du, J.; You, B.; Wu, J.; Bencok, P.

    2014-04-07

    Nanoscale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} epitaxial thin film has been synthesized on MgO/GaAs(100) spintronic heterostructure, and studied with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. We have observed a total magnetic moment (m{sub l+s}) of (3.32 ± 0.1)μ{sub B}/f.u., retaining 83% of the bulk value. Unquenched orbital moment (m{sub l}) of (0.47 ± 0.05)μ{sub B}/f.u. has been confirmed by carefully applying the sum rule. The results offer direct experimental evidence of the bulk-like total magnetic moment and a large orbital moment in the nanoscale fully epitaxial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MgO/GaAs(100) heterostructure, which is significant for spintronics applications.

  5. Nondestructive material characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A.; Johnson, John A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive material characterization, such as identification of material flaws or defects, material thickness or uniformity and material properties such as acoustic velocity. The apparatus comprises a pulsed laser used to excite a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer, which sends acoustic waves through an acoustic coupling medium to the test material. The acoustic wave is absorbed and thereafter reflected by the test material, whereupon it impinges on the PZ transducer. The PZ transducer converts the acoustic wave to electrical impulses, which are conveyed to a monitor.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan; Lai Qiongyu; Xu Xiaoyun

    2010-11-15

    NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

  7. Nanoscale Laser-Induced Spallation in SiO2 Films Containing Gold Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudryashov, S.I.; Allen, S.D.; Papernov, S.; Schmid, A.W.

    2006-02-16

    A phenomenological theory of ultraviolet pulsed-laser-induced spallation is proposed to interpret crater formation in SiO2 thin films containing absorbing 18.5-nm gold particles. The theory considers a spherical thermoacoustic stress wave propagating from a thermal source produced by laser-energy absorption inside the particle and surrounding ionized volume. Calculations show that the tensile stress associated with such an acoustic wave may exceed the local strength of the material and cause fracture and spallation of the top film portion. The theory provides an explanation of the experimentally observed complex (two-cone) shape of craters formed in the film with particle-lodging depth exceeding 110 nm. Theoretical estimates for the threshold stress amplitude and peak temperature in the thermal source are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  8. Nano-Scale Fission Product Phases in an Irradiated U-7Mo Alloy Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Keiser, Jr.; Brandon Miller; James Madden; Jan-Fong Jue; Jian Gan

    2014-09-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel is a very difficult material to characterize. Due to the large radiation fields associated with these materials, they are hard to handle and typically have to be contained in large hot cells. Even the equipment used for performing characterization is housed in hot cells or shielded glove boxes. The result is not only a limitation in the techniques that can be employed for characterization, but also a limitation in the size of features that can be resolved The most standard characterization techniques include light optical metallography (WM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). These techniques are applied to samples that are typically prepared using grinding and polishing approaches that will always generate some mechanical damage on the sample surface. As a result, when performing SEM analysis, for example, the analysis is limited by the quality of the sample surface that can be prepared. However, a new approach for characterizing irradiated nuclear fuel has recently been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. It allows for a dramatic improvement in the quality of characterization that can be performed when using an instrument like an SEM. This new approach uses a dual-beam scanning microscope, where one of the beams isa focused ion beam (FIB), which can be used to generate specimens of irradiated fuel (-10m x 10m) for microstructural characterization, and the other beam is the electron beam of an SEM. One significant benefit of this approach is that the specimen surface being characterized has received much less damage (and smearing) than is caused by the more traditional approaches, which enables the imaging of nanometer sized microstructural features in the SEM. The process details are for an irradiated low-enriched uranium (LEU) U-Mo alloy fuel Another type of irradiated fuel that has been characterized using this technique is a mixed oxide fuel.

  9. The Critical Materials Institute | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Critical Materials Institute Director Alex King, Operations Manager Cynthia Feller, Jenni Brockpahler and Melinda Thach. Photo left to right: CMI Director Alex King, Operations Manager Cynthia Feller, Jenni Brockpahler and Melinda Thach. Not pictured: Carol Bergman. CMI staff phone 515-296-4500, e-mail CMIdirector@ameslab.gov 2332 Pammel Drive, 134 Wilhelm Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1025 The Critical Materials Institute focuses on technologies that make better use of

  10. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  11. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  12. Geopolymer Sealing Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Develop and characterize field-applicable geopolymer temporary sealing materials in the laboratory and to transfer this developed material technology to geothermal drilling service companies as collaborators for field validation tests.

  13. Earth-Abundant Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE funds research into Earth-abundant materials for thin-film solar applications in response to the issue of materials scarcity surrounding other photovoltaic (PV) technologies. The sections below...

  14. Cybersecurity Awareness Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The OCIO develops and distributes a variety of materials to enhance cyber awareness campaigns, address emerging cyber threats, and examine hot topics. These materials are available to all DOE organizations, and public and private institutions.

  15. Nuclear Materials Disposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In fulfilling its mission, EM frequently manages and completes disposition of surplus nuclear materials and spent nuclear fuel.  These are not waste. They are nuclear materials no longer needed for...

  16. Materials/Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials/Condensed Matter Materials/Condensed Matter Print Materials research provides the foundation on which the economic well being of our high-tech society rests. The impact of advanced materials ranges dramatically over every aspect of our modern world from the minutiae of daily life to the grand scale of our national economy. Invariably, however, breakthroughs to new technologies trace their origin both to fundamental research in the basic properties of condensed matter and to applied

  17. Instructions and Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following are 2012 Program Peer Review Meeting instructions, materials and resource links for presenters and reviewers.

  18. ARM - Public Information Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govPublicationsPublic Information Materials Publications Journal Articles Conference Documents Program Documents Technical Reports Publications Database Public Information...

  19. Opto-Electronic Characterization CdTe Solar Cells from TCO to Back Contact with Nano-Scale CL Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moseley, John; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Paudel, Naba; Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Kuciauskas, Darius; Guthrey, Harvey L.; Duenow, Joel; Yan, Yanfa; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    2015-06-14

    We used cathodoluminescence (CL) (spectrum-per-pixel) imaging on beveled CdTe solar cell sections to investigate the opto-electronic properties of these devices from the TCO to the back contact. We used a nano-scale CL probe to resolve luminescence from grain boundary (GB) and grain interior (GI) locations near the CdS/CdTe interface where the grains are very small. As-deposited, CdCl2-treated, Cu-treated, and (CdCl2+Cu)-treated cells were analyzed. Color-coded CL spectrum imaging maps on bevels illustrate the distribution of the T=6 K luminescence transitions through the depth of devices with unprecedented spatial resolution. The CL at the GBs and GIs is shown to vary significantly from the front to the back of devices and is a sensitive function of processing. Supporting D-SIMS depth profile, TRPL lifetime, and C-V measurements are used to link the CL data to the J-V performance of devices.

  20. Magnonic band structure, complete bandgap, and collective spin wave excitation in nanoscale two-dimensional magnonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, A.; K?os, J. W.; Krawczyk, M.

    2014-01-28

    We present the observation of a complete bandgap and collective spin wave excitation in two-dimensional magnonic crystals comprised of arrays of nanoscale antidots and nanodots, respectively. Considering that the frequencies dealt with here fall in the microwave band, these findings can be used for the development of suitable magnonic metamaterials and spin wave based signal processing. We also present the application of a numerical procedure, to compute the dispersion relations of spin waves for any high symmetry direction in the first Brillouin zone. The results obtained from this procedure have been reproduced and verified by the well established plane wave method for an antidot lattice, when magnetization dynamics at antidot boundaries are pinned. The micromagnetic simulation based method can also be used to obtain isofrequency contours of spin waves. Isofrequency contours are analogous of the Fermi surfaces and hence, they have the potential to radicalize our understanding of spin wave dynamics. The physical origin of bands, partial and full magnonic bandgaps have been explained by plotting the spatial distribution of spin wave energy spectral density. Although, unfettered by rigid assumptions and approximations, which afflict most analytical methods used in the study of spin wave dynamics, micromagnetic simulations tend to be computationally demanding. Thus, the observation of collective spin wave excitation in the case of nanodot arrays, which can obviate the need to perform simulations, may also prove to be valuable.